Abstract

We demonstrate by computer simulations the generation of high-energy electrons by using a femtosecond terawatt laser pulse propagating in a plasma with a sharp downward density transition. In the two-dimensional simulation, a 20-TW laser pulse with a pulse duration of 60 fs and a wavelength of 800 nm propagates through a plasma with a sharp density transition consisting of n0I=5×1018 cm-3 and n0II=0.75n0I. The simulation result demonstrates that a significant amount of electrons can be self-trapped and accelerated to an energy of 117 MeV over a distance of 0.62 mm by the ultrastrong nonlinear laser wake field. In addition, it has been found that the trapping dynamics is much different from the electron-beam-driven dynamics and that the energy spread of the trapped electrons can be reduced significantly by use of the density tapering method.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. D. Perry and G. Mourou, “Terawatt to petawatt subsecond lasers,” Science 264, 917–924 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. Umstadter, “Review of physics and applications of relativistic plasmas driven by ultra-intense lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 1774–1785 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Tajima and J. M. Dawson, “Laser electron accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 267–270 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. M. Gorbunov and V. I. Kirsanov, “Excitation of plasma waves by an electromagnetic wave packet,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 93, 509–518 (1987).
  5. P. Sprangle, E. Esarey, J. Krall, and G. Joyce, “Propagation and guiding of intense laser pulses in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2200–2203 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. Nakajima, D. Fisher, T. Kawakubo, H. Nakanishi, A. Ogata, Y. Kato, Y. Kitagawa, R. Kodama, K. Miwa, H. Shiraga, K. Suzuki, K. Yamakawa, T. Zhang, Y. Sakawa, T. Shoji, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, M. Downer, and T. Tajima, “Observation of ultrahigh gradient electron acceleration by a self-modulated intense short laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4428–4431 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. Umstadter, J. Kim, and E. Dodd, “Laser injection of ultrashort electron pulses into wakefield plasma waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2073–2076 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. E. Esarey, R. F. Hubbard, W. P. Leemans, A. Ting, and P. Sprangle, “Electron injection into plasma wake fields by colliding laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2682–2685 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Bulanov, N. Naumova, F. Pegoraro, and J. Sakai, “Particle injection into the wave acceleration phase due to nonlinear wake wavebreaking,” Phys. Rev. E 58, R5257–R5261 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Suk, N. Barov, J. B. Rosenzweig, and E. Esarey, “Plasma electron trapping and acceleration in a plasma wake field using a density transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1011–1014 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219–221 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. G. Hemker, K. C. Tzeng, W. B. Mori, C. E. Clayton, and T. Katsouleas, “Computer simulations of cathodeless high-brightness electron-beam production by multiple laser beams in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 5920–5928 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Goplen, L. Ludeking, D. Smithe, and G. Warren, “User-configurable MAGIC for electromagnetic PIC calculations,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 87, 54–86 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. B. Rosenzweig, D. B. Cline, B. Cole, H. Figueroa, W. Gai, R. Konecny, J. Norem, P. Schoessow, and J. Simpson, “Experimental observation of plasma wakefield acceleration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 98–101 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. Ogata, “Plasma lens and wake experiments in Japan,” in Proceedings of the AIP Workshop on Advanced Accelerator Concepts, AIP Conf. Proc. 279, 420–449 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. E. Clayton, B. E. Blue, E. S. Dodd, C. Joshi, K. A. Marsh, W. B. Mori, S. Wang, P. Catravas, S. Chattopadhyah, E. Esarey, W. P. Leemans, R. Assmann, F. J. Decker, M. J. Hogan, R. Iverson, P. Raimondi, R. H. Siemann, D. Walz, T. Katsouleas, S. Lee, and P. Muggli, “Transverse envelope dynamics of a 28.5-GeV electron beam in a long plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 154801 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

C. E. Clayton, B. E. Blue, E. S. Dodd, C. Joshi, K. A. Marsh, W. B. Mori, S. Wang, P. Catravas, S. Chattopadhyah, E. Esarey, W. P. Leemans, R. Assmann, F. J. Decker, M. J. Hogan, R. Iverson, P. Raimondi, R. H. Siemann, D. Walz, T. Katsouleas, S. Lee, and P. Muggli, “Transverse envelope dynamics of a 28.5-GeV electron beam in a long plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 154801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

H. Suk, N. Barov, J. B. Rosenzweig, and E. Esarey, “Plasma electron trapping and acceleration in a plasma wake field using a density transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1011–1014 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Umstadter, “Review of physics and applications of relativistic plasmas driven by ultra-intense lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 1774–1785 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

R. G. Hemker, K. C. Tzeng, W. B. Mori, C. E. Clayton, and T. Katsouleas, “Computer simulations of cathodeless high-brightness electron-beam production by multiple laser beams in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 5920–5928 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Bulanov, N. Naumova, F. Pegoraro, and J. Sakai, “Particle injection into the wave acceleration phase due to nonlinear wake wavebreaking,” Phys. Rev. E 58, R5257–R5261 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

E. Esarey, R. F. Hubbard, W. P. Leemans, A. Ting, and P. Sprangle, “Electron injection into plasma wake fields by colliding laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2682–2685 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

D. Umstadter, J. Kim, and E. Dodd, “Laser injection of ultrashort electron pulses into wakefield plasma waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2073–2076 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

K. Nakajima, D. Fisher, T. Kawakubo, H. Nakanishi, A. Ogata, Y. Kato, Y. Kitagawa, R. Kodama, K. Miwa, H. Shiraga, K. Suzuki, K. Yamakawa, T. Zhang, Y. Sakawa, T. Shoji, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, M. Downer, and T. Tajima, “Observation of ultrahigh gradient electron acceleration by a self-modulated intense short laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4428–4431 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Goplen, L. Ludeking, D. Smithe, and G. Warren, “User-configurable MAGIC for electromagnetic PIC calculations,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 87, 54–86 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. D. Perry and G. Mourou, “Terawatt to petawatt subsecond lasers,” Science 264, 917–924 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

A. Ogata, “Plasma lens and wake experiments in Japan,” in Proceedings of the AIP Workshop on Advanced Accelerator Concepts, AIP Conf. Proc. 279, 420–449 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

P. Sprangle, E. Esarey, J. Krall, and G. Joyce, “Propagation and guiding of intense laser pulses in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2200–2203 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

J. B. Rosenzweig, D. B. Cline, B. Cole, H. Figueroa, W. Gai, R. Konecny, J. Norem, P. Schoessow, and J. Simpson, “Experimental observation of plasma wakefield acceleration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 98–101 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

L. M. Gorbunov and V. I. Kirsanov, “Excitation of plasma waves by an electromagnetic wave packet,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 93, 509–518 (1987).

1985 (1)

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219–221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

T. Tajima and J. M. Dawson, “Laser electron accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 267–270 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Assmann, R.

C. E. Clayton, B. E. Blue, E. S. Dodd, C. Joshi, K. A. Marsh, W. B. Mori, S. Wang, P. Catravas, S. Chattopadhyah, E. Esarey, W. P. Leemans, R. Assmann, F. J. Decker, M. J. Hogan, R. Iverson, P. Raimondi, R. H. Siemann, D. Walz, T. Katsouleas, S. Lee, and P. Muggli, “Transverse envelope dynamics of a 28.5-GeV electron beam in a long plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 154801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barov, N.

H. Suk, N. Barov, J. B. Rosenzweig, and E. Esarey, “Plasma electron trapping and acceleration in a plasma wake field using a density transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1011–1014 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blue, B. E.

C. E. Clayton, B. E. Blue, E. S. Dodd, C. Joshi, K. A. Marsh, W. B. Mori, S. Wang, P. Catravas, S. Chattopadhyah, E. Esarey, W. P. Leemans, R. Assmann, F. J. Decker, M. J. Hogan, R. Iverson, P. Raimondi, R. H. Siemann, D. Walz, T. Katsouleas, S. Lee, and P. Muggli, “Transverse envelope dynamics of a 28.5-GeV electron beam in a long plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 154801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bulanov, S.

S. Bulanov, N. Naumova, F. Pegoraro, and J. Sakai, “Particle injection into the wave acceleration phase due to nonlinear wake wavebreaking,” Phys. Rev. E 58, R5257–R5261 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Catravas, P.

C. E. Clayton, B. E. Blue, E. S. Dodd, C. Joshi, K. A. Marsh, W. B. Mori, S. Wang, P. Catravas, S. Chattopadhyah, E. Esarey, W. P. Leemans, R. Assmann, F. J. Decker, M. J. Hogan, R. Iverson, P. Raimondi, R. H. Siemann, D. Walz, T. Katsouleas, S. Lee, and P. Muggli, “Transverse envelope dynamics of a 28.5-GeV electron beam in a long plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 154801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chattopadhyah, S.

C. E. Clayton, B. E. Blue, E. S. Dodd, C. Joshi, K. A. Marsh, W. B. Mori, S. Wang, P. Catravas, S. Chattopadhyah, E. Esarey, W. P. Leemans, R. Assmann, F. J. Decker, M. J. Hogan, R. Iverson, P. Raimondi, R. H. Siemann, D. Walz, T. Katsouleas, S. Lee, and P. Muggli, “Transverse envelope dynamics of a 28.5-GeV electron beam in a long plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 154801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clayton, C. E.

C. E. Clayton, B. E. Blue, E. S. Dodd, C. Joshi, K. A. Marsh, W. B. Mori, S. Wang, P. Catravas, S. Chattopadhyah, E. Esarey, W. P. Leemans, R. Assmann, F. J. Decker, M. J. Hogan, R. Iverson, P. Raimondi, R. H. Siemann, D. Walz, T. Katsouleas, S. Lee, and P. Muggli, “Transverse envelope dynamics of a 28.5-GeV electron beam in a long plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 154801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Hemker, K. C. Tzeng, W. B. Mori, C. E. Clayton, and T. Katsouleas, “Computer simulations of cathodeless high-brightness electron-beam production by multiple laser beams in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 5920–5928 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cline, D. B.

J. B. Rosenzweig, D. B. Cline, B. Cole, H. Figueroa, W. Gai, R. Konecny, J. Norem, P. Schoessow, and J. Simpson, “Experimental observation of plasma wakefield acceleration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 98–101 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cole, B.

J. B. Rosenzweig, D. B. Cline, B. Cole, H. Figueroa, W. Gai, R. Konecny, J. Norem, P. Schoessow, and J. Simpson, “Experimental observation of plasma wakefield acceleration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 98–101 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dawson, J. M.

T. Tajima and J. M. Dawson, “Laser electron accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 267–270 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Decker, F. J.

C. E. Clayton, B. E. Blue, E. S. Dodd, C. Joshi, K. A. Marsh, W. B. Mori, S. Wang, P. Catravas, S. Chattopadhyah, E. Esarey, W. P. Leemans, R. Assmann, F. J. Decker, M. J. Hogan, R. Iverson, P. Raimondi, R. H. Siemann, D. Walz, T. Katsouleas, S. Lee, and P. Muggli, “Transverse envelope dynamics of a 28.5-GeV electron beam in a long plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 154801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dodd, E.

D. Umstadter, J. Kim, and E. Dodd, “Laser injection of ultrashort electron pulses into wakefield plasma waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2073–2076 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dodd, E. S.

C. E. Clayton, B. E. Blue, E. S. Dodd, C. Joshi, K. A. Marsh, W. B. Mori, S. Wang, P. Catravas, S. Chattopadhyah, E. Esarey, W. P. Leemans, R. Assmann, F. J. Decker, M. J. Hogan, R. Iverson, P. Raimondi, R. H. Siemann, D. Walz, T. Katsouleas, S. Lee, and P. Muggli, “Transverse envelope dynamics of a 28.5-GeV electron beam in a long plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 154801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Downer, M.

K. Nakajima, D. Fisher, T. Kawakubo, H. Nakanishi, A. Ogata, Y. Kato, Y. Kitagawa, R. Kodama, K. Miwa, H. Shiraga, K. Suzuki, K. Yamakawa, T. Zhang, Y. Sakawa, T. Shoji, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, M. Downer, and T. Tajima, “Observation of ultrahigh gradient electron acceleration by a self-modulated intense short laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4428–4431 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esarey, E.

C. E. Clayton, B. E. Blue, E. S. Dodd, C. Joshi, K. A. Marsh, W. B. Mori, S. Wang, P. Catravas, S. Chattopadhyah, E. Esarey, W. P. Leemans, R. Assmann, F. J. Decker, M. J. Hogan, R. Iverson, P. Raimondi, R. H. Siemann, D. Walz, T. Katsouleas, S. Lee, and P. Muggli, “Transverse envelope dynamics of a 28.5-GeV electron beam in a long plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 154801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Suk, N. Barov, J. B. Rosenzweig, and E. Esarey, “Plasma electron trapping and acceleration in a plasma wake field using a density transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1011–1014 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Esarey, R. F. Hubbard, W. P. Leemans, A. Ting, and P. Sprangle, “Electron injection into plasma wake fields by colliding laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2682–2685 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Sprangle, E. Esarey, J. Krall, and G. Joyce, “Propagation and guiding of intense laser pulses in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2200–2203 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Figueroa, H.

J. B. Rosenzweig, D. B. Cline, B. Cole, H. Figueroa, W. Gai, R. Konecny, J. Norem, P. Schoessow, and J. Simpson, “Experimental observation of plasma wakefield acceleration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 98–101 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fisher, D.

K. Nakajima, D. Fisher, T. Kawakubo, H. Nakanishi, A. Ogata, Y. Kato, Y. Kitagawa, R. Kodama, K. Miwa, H. Shiraga, K. Suzuki, K. Yamakawa, T. Zhang, Y. Sakawa, T. Shoji, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, M. Downer, and T. Tajima, “Observation of ultrahigh gradient electron acceleration by a self-modulated intense short laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4428–4431 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gai, W.

J. B. Rosenzweig, D. B. Cline, B. Cole, H. Figueroa, W. Gai, R. Konecny, J. Norem, P. Schoessow, and J. Simpson, “Experimental observation of plasma wakefield acceleration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 98–101 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goplen, B.

B. Goplen, L. Ludeking, D. Smithe, and G. Warren, “User-configurable MAGIC for electromagnetic PIC calculations,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 87, 54–86 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gorbunov, L. M.

L. M. Gorbunov and V. I. Kirsanov, “Excitation of plasma waves by an electromagnetic wave packet,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 93, 509–518 (1987).

Hemker, R. G.

R. G. Hemker, K. C. Tzeng, W. B. Mori, C. E. Clayton, and T. Katsouleas, “Computer simulations of cathodeless high-brightness electron-beam production by multiple laser beams in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 5920–5928 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hogan, M. J.

C. E. Clayton, B. E. Blue, E. S. Dodd, C. Joshi, K. A. Marsh, W. B. Mori, S. Wang, P. Catravas, S. Chattopadhyah, E. Esarey, W. P. Leemans, R. Assmann, F. J. Decker, M. J. Hogan, R. Iverson, P. Raimondi, R. H. Siemann, D. Walz, T. Katsouleas, S. Lee, and P. Muggli, “Transverse envelope dynamics of a 28.5-GeV electron beam in a long plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 154801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hubbard, R. F.

E. Esarey, R. F. Hubbard, W. P. Leemans, A. Ting, and P. Sprangle, “Electron injection into plasma wake fields by colliding laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2682–2685 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Iverson, R.

C. E. Clayton, B. E. Blue, E. S. Dodd, C. Joshi, K. A. Marsh, W. B. Mori, S. Wang, P. Catravas, S. Chattopadhyah, E. Esarey, W. P. Leemans, R. Assmann, F. J. Decker, M. J. Hogan, R. Iverson, P. Raimondi, R. H. Siemann, D. Walz, T. Katsouleas, S. Lee, and P. Muggli, “Transverse envelope dynamics of a 28.5-GeV electron beam in a long plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 154801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joshi, C.

C. E. Clayton, B. E. Blue, E. S. Dodd, C. Joshi, K. A. Marsh, W. B. Mori, S. Wang, P. Catravas, S. Chattopadhyah, E. Esarey, W. P. Leemans, R. Assmann, F. J. Decker, M. J. Hogan, R. Iverson, P. Raimondi, R. H. Siemann, D. Walz, T. Katsouleas, S. Lee, and P. Muggli, “Transverse envelope dynamics of a 28.5-GeV electron beam in a long plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 154801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joyce, G.

P. Sprangle, E. Esarey, J. Krall, and G. Joyce, “Propagation and guiding of intense laser pulses in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2200–2203 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kato, Y.

K. Nakajima, D. Fisher, T. Kawakubo, H. Nakanishi, A. Ogata, Y. Kato, Y. Kitagawa, R. Kodama, K. Miwa, H. Shiraga, K. Suzuki, K. Yamakawa, T. Zhang, Y. Sakawa, T. Shoji, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, M. Downer, and T. Tajima, “Observation of ultrahigh gradient electron acceleration by a self-modulated intense short laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4428–4431 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katsouleas, T.

C. E. Clayton, B. E. Blue, E. S. Dodd, C. Joshi, K. A. Marsh, W. B. Mori, S. Wang, P. Catravas, S. Chattopadhyah, E. Esarey, W. P. Leemans, R. Assmann, F. J. Decker, M. J. Hogan, R. Iverson, P. Raimondi, R. H. Siemann, D. Walz, T. Katsouleas, S. Lee, and P. Muggli, “Transverse envelope dynamics of a 28.5-GeV electron beam in a long plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 154801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Hemker, K. C. Tzeng, W. B. Mori, C. E. Clayton, and T. Katsouleas, “Computer simulations of cathodeless high-brightness electron-beam production by multiple laser beams in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 5920–5928 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kawakubo, T.

K. Nakajima, D. Fisher, T. Kawakubo, H. Nakanishi, A. Ogata, Y. Kato, Y. Kitagawa, R. Kodama, K. Miwa, H. Shiraga, K. Suzuki, K. Yamakawa, T. Zhang, Y. Sakawa, T. Shoji, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, M. Downer, and T. Tajima, “Observation of ultrahigh gradient electron acceleration by a self-modulated intense short laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4428–4431 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

D. Umstadter, J. Kim, and E. Dodd, “Laser injection of ultrashort electron pulses into wakefield plasma waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2073–2076 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirsanov, V. I.

L. M. Gorbunov and V. I. Kirsanov, “Excitation of plasma waves by an electromagnetic wave packet,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 93, 509–518 (1987).

Kitagawa, Y.

K. Nakajima, D. Fisher, T. Kawakubo, H. Nakanishi, A. Ogata, Y. Kato, Y. Kitagawa, R. Kodama, K. Miwa, H. Shiraga, K. Suzuki, K. Yamakawa, T. Zhang, Y. Sakawa, T. Shoji, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, M. Downer, and T. Tajima, “Observation of ultrahigh gradient electron acceleration by a self-modulated intense short laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4428–4431 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kodama, R.

K. Nakajima, D. Fisher, T. Kawakubo, H. Nakanishi, A. Ogata, Y. Kato, Y. Kitagawa, R. Kodama, K. Miwa, H. Shiraga, K. Suzuki, K. Yamakawa, T. Zhang, Y. Sakawa, T. Shoji, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, M. Downer, and T. Tajima, “Observation of ultrahigh gradient electron acceleration by a self-modulated intense short laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4428–4431 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Konecny, R.

J. B. Rosenzweig, D. B. Cline, B. Cole, H. Figueroa, W. Gai, R. Konecny, J. Norem, P. Schoessow, and J. Simpson, “Experimental observation of plasma wakefield acceleration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 98–101 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krall, J.

P. Sprangle, E. Esarey, J. Krall, and G. Joyce, “Propagation and guiding of intense laser pulses in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2200–2203 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S.

C. E. Clayton, B. E. Blue, E. S. Dodd, C. Joshi, K. A. Marsh, W. B. Mori, S. Wang, P. Catravas, S. Chattopadhyah, E. Esarey, W. P. Leemans, R. Assmann, F. J. Decker, M. J. Hogan, R. Iverson, P. Raimondi, R. H. Siemann, D. Walz, T. Katsouleas, S. Lee, and P. Muggli, “Transverse envelope dynamics of a 28.5-GeV electron beam in a long plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 154801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leemans, W. P.

C. E. Clayton, B. E. Blue, E. S. Dodd, C. Joshi, K. A. Marsh, W. B. Mori, S. Wang, P. Catravas, S. Chattopadhyah, E. Esarey, W. P. Leemans, R. Assmann, F. J. Decker, M. J. Hogan, R. Iverson, P. Raimondi, R. H. Siemann, D. Walz, T. Katsouleas, S. Lee, and P. Muggli, “Transverse envelope dynamics of a 28.5-GeV electron beam in a long plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 154801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Esarey, R. F. Hubbard, W. P. Leemans, A. Ting, and P. Sprangle, “Electron injection into plasma wake fields by colliding laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2682–2685 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ludeking, L.

B. Goplen, L. Ludeking, D. Smithe, and G. Warren, “User-configurable MAGIC for electromagnetic PIC calculations,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 87, 54–86 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Marsh, K. A.

C. E. Clayton, B. E. Blue, E. S. Dodd, C. Joshi, K. A. Marsh, W. B. Mori, S. Wang, P. Catravas, S. Chattopadhyah, E. Esarey, W. P. Leemans, R. Assmann, F. J. Decker, M. J. Hogan, R. Iverson, P. Raimondi, R. H. Siemann, D. Walz, T. Katsouleas, S. Lee, and P. Muggli, “Transverse envelope dynamics of a 28.5-GeV electron beam in a long plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 154801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miwa, K.

K. Nakajima, D. Fisher, T. Kawakubo, H. Nakanishi, A. Ogata, Y. Kato, Y. Kitagawa, R. Kodama, K. Miwa, H. Shiraga, K. Suzuki, K. Yamakawa, T. Zhang, Y. Sakawa, T. Shoji, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, M. Downer, and T. Tajima, “Observation of ultrahigh gradient electron acceleration by a self-modulated intense short laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4428–4431 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mori, W. B.

C. E. Clayton, B. E. Blue, E. S. Dodd, C. Joshi, K. A. Marsh, W. B. Mori, S. Wang, P. Catravas, S. Chattopadhyah, E. Esarey, W. P. Leemans, R. Assmann, F. J. Decker, M. J. Hogan, R. Iverson, P. Raimondi, R. H. Siemann, D. Walz, T. Katsouleas, S. Lee, and P. Muggli, “Transverse envelope dynamics of a 28.5-GeV electron beam in a long plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 154801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Hemker, K. C. Tzeng, W. B. Mori, C. E. Clayton, and T. Katsouleas, “Computer simulations of cathodeless high-brightness electron-beam production by multiple laser beams in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 5920–5928 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

M. D. Perry and G. Mourou, “Terawatt to petawatt subsecond lasers,” Science 264, 917–924 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219–221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Muggli, P.

C. E. Clayton, B. E. Blue, E. S. Dodd, C. Joshi, K. A. Marsh, W. B. Mori, S. Wang, P. Catravas, S. Chattopadhyah, E. Esarey, W. P. Leemans, R. Assmann, F. J. Decker, M. J. Hogan, R. Iverson, P. Raimondi, R. H. Siemann, D. Walz, T. Katsouleas, S. Lee, and P. Muggli, “Transverse envelope dynamics of a 28.5-GeV electron beam in a long plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 154801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakajima, K.

K. Nakajima, D. Fisher, T. Kawakubo, H. Nakanishi, A. Ogata, Y. Kato, Y. Kitagawa, R. Kodama, K. Miwa, H. Shiraga, K. Suzuki, K. Yamakawa, T. Zhang, Y. Sakawa, T. Shoji, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, M. Downer, and T. Tajima, “Observation of ultrahigh gradient electron acceleration by a self-modulated intense short laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4428–4431 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakanishi, H.

K. Nakajima, D. Fisher, T. Kawakubo, H. Nakanishi, A. Ogata, Y. Kato, Y. Kitagawa, R. Kodama, K. Miwa, H. Shiraga, K. Suzuki, K. Yamakawa, T. Zhang, Y. Sakawa, T. Shoji, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, M. Downer, and T. Tajima, “Observation of ultrahigh gradient electron acceleration by a self-modulated intense short laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4428–4431 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naumova, N.

S. Bulanov, N. Naumova, F. Pegoraro, and J. Sakai, “Particle injection into the wave acceleration phase due to nonlinear wake wavebreaking,” Phys. Rev. E 58, R5257–R5261 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, Y.

K. Nakajima, D. Fisher, T. Kawakubo, H. Nakanishi, A. Ogata, Y. Kato, Y. Kitagawa, R. Kodama, K. Miwa, H. Shiraga, K. Suzuki, K. Yamakawa, T. Zhang, Y. Sakawa, T. Shoji, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, M. Downer, and T. Tajima, “Observation of ultrahigh gradient electron acceleration by a self-modulated intense short laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4428–4431 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norem, J.

J. B. Rosenzweig, D. B. Cline, B. Cole, H. Figueroa, W. Gai, R. Konecny, J. Norem, P. Schoessow, and J. Simpson, “Experimental observation of plasma wakefield acceleration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 98–101 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ogata, A.

K. Nakajima, D. Fisher, T. Kawakubo, H. Nakanishi, A. Ogata, Y. Kato, Y. Kitagawa, R. Kodama, K. Miwa, H. Shiraga, K. Suzuki, K. Yamakawa, T. Zhang, Y. Sakawa, T. Shoji, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, M. Downer, and T. Tajima, “Observation of ultrahigh gradient electron acceleration by a self-modulated intense short laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4428–4431 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ogata, “Plasma lens and wake experiments in Japan,” in Proceedings of the AIP Workshop on Advanced Accelerator Concepts, AIP Conf. Proc. 279, 420–449 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pegoraro, F.

S. Bulanov, N. Naumova, F. Pegoraro, and J. Sakai, “Particle injection into the wave acceleration phase due to nonlinear wake wavebreaking,” Phys. Rev. E 58, R5257–R5261 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. D.

M. D. Perry and G. Mourou, “Terawatt to petawatt subsecond lasers,” Science 264, 917–924 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raimondi, P.

C. E. Clayton, B. E. Blue, E. S. Dodd, C. Joshi, K. A. Marsh, W. B. Mori, S. Wang, P. Catravas, S. Chattopadhyah, E. Esarey, W. P. Leemans, R. Assmann, F. J. Decker, M. J. Hogan, R. Iverson, P. Raimondi, R. H. Siemann, D. Walz, T. Katsouleas, S. Lee, and P. Muggli, “Transverse envelope dynamics of a 28.5-GeV electron beam in a long plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 154801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenzweig, J. B.

H. Suk, N. Barov, J. B. Rosenzweig, and E. Esarey, “Plasma electron trapping and acceleration in a plasma wake field using a density transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1011–1014 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Rosenzweig, D. B. Cline, B. Cole, H. Figueroa, W. Gai, R. Konecny, J. Norem, P. Schoessow, and J. Simpson, “Experimental observation of plasma wakefield acceleration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 98–101 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakai, J.

S. Bulanov, N. Naumova, F. Pegoraro, and J. Sakai, “Particle injection into the wave acceleration phase due to nonlinear wake wavebreaking,” Phys. Rev. E 58, R5257–R5261 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sakawa, Y.

K. Nakajima, D. Fisher, T. Kawakubo, H. Nakanishi, A. Ogata, Y. Kato, Y. Kitagawa, R. Kodama, K. Miwa, H. Shiraga, K. Suzuki, K. Yamakawa, T. Zhang, Y. Sakawa, T. Shoji, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, M. Downer, and T. Tajima, “Observation of ultrahigh gradient electron acceleration by a self-modulated intense short laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4428–4431 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schoessow, P.

J. B. Rosenzweig, D. B. Cline, B. Cole, H. Figueroa, W. Gai, R. Konecny, J. Norem, P. Schoessow, and J. Simpson, “Experimental observation of plasma wakefield acceleration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 98–101 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shiraga, H.

K. Nakajima, D. Fisher, T. Kawakubo, H. Nakanishi, A. Ogata, Y. Kato, Y. Kitagawa, R. Kodama, K. Miwa, H. Shiraga, K. Suzuki, K. Yamakawa, T. Zhang, Y. Sakawa, T. Shoji, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, M. Downer, and T. Tajima, “Observation of ultrahigh gradient electron acceleration by a self-modulated intense short laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4428–4431 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shoji, T.

K. Nakajima, D. Fisher, T. Kawakubo, H. Nakanishi, A. Ogata, Y. Kato, Y. Kitagawa, R. Kodama, K. Miwa, H. Shiraga, K. Suzuki, K. Yamakawa, T. Zhang, Y. Sakawa, T. Shoji, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, M. Downer, and T. Tajima, “Observation of ultrahigh gradient electron acceleration by a self-modulated intense short laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4428–4431 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siemann, R. H.

C. E. Clayton, B. E. Blue, E. S. Dodd, C. Joshi, K. A. Marsh, W. B. Mori, S. Wang, P. Catravas, S. Chattopadhyah, E. Esarey, W. P. Leemans, R. Assmann, F. J. Decker, M. J. Hogan, R. Iverson, P. Raimondi, R. H. Siemann, D. Walz, T. Katsouleas, S. Lee, and P. Muggli, “Transverse envelope dynamics of a 28.5-GeV electron beam in a long plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 154801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simpson, J.

J. B. Rosenzweig, D. B. Cline, B. Cole, H. Figueroa, W. Gai, R. Konecny, J. Norem, P. Schoessow, and J. Simpson, “Experimental observation of plasma wakefield acceleration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 98–101 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smithe, D.

B. Goplen, L. Ludeking, D. Smithe, and G. Warren, “User-configurable MAGIC for electromagnetic PIC calculations,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 87, 54–86 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sprangle, P.

E. Esarey, R. F. Hubbard, W. P. Leemans, A. Ting, and P. Sprangle, “Electron injection into plasma wake fields by colliding laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2682–2685 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Sprangle, E. Esarey, J. Krall, and G. Joyce, “Propagation and guiding of intense laser pulses in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2200–2203 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strickland, D.

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219–221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Suk, H.

H. Suk, N. Barov, J. B. Rosenzweig, and E. Esarey, “Plasma electron trapping and acceleration in a plasma wake field using a density transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1011–1014 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzuki, K.

K. Nakajima, D. Fisher, T. Kawakubo, H. Nakanishi, A. Ogata, Y. Kato, Y. Kitagawa, R. Kodama, K. Miwa, H. Shiraga, K. Suzuki, K. Yamakawa, T. Zhang, Y. Sakawa, T. Shoji, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, M. Downer, and T. Tajima, “Observation of ultrahigh gradient electron acceleration by a self-modulated intense short laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4428–4431 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tajima, T.

K. Nakajima, D. Fisher, T. Kawakubo, H. Nakanishi, A. Ogata, Y. Kato, Y. Kitagawa, R. Kodama, K. Miwa, H. Shiraga, K. Suzuki, K. Yamakawa, T. Zhang, Y. Sakawa, T. Shoji, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, M. Downer, and T. Tajima, “Observation of ultrahigh gradient electron acceleration by a self-modulated intense short laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4428–4431 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Tajima and J. M. Dawson, “Laser electron accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 267–270 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ting, A.

E. Esarey, R. F. Hubbard, W. P. Leemans, A. Ting, and P. Sprangle, “Electron injection into plasma wake fields by colliding laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2682–2685 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tzeng, K. C.

R. G. Hemker, K. C. Tzeng, W. B. Mori, C. E. Clayton, and T. Katsouleas, “Computer simulations of cathodeless high-brightness electron-beam production by multiple laser beams in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 5920–5928 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Umstadter, D.

D. Umstadter, “Review of physics and applications of relativistic plasmas driven by ultra-intense lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 1774–1785 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Umstadter, J. Kim, and E. Dodd, “Laser injection of ultrashort electron pulses into wakefield plasma waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2073–2076 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walz, D.

C. E. Clayton, B. E. Blue, E. S. Dodd, C. Joshi, K. A. Marsh, W. B. Mori, S. Wang, P. Catravas, S. Chattopadhyah, E. Esarey, W. P. Leemans, R. Assmann, F. J. Decker, M. J. Hogan, R. Iverson, P. Raimondi, R. H. Siemann, D. Walz, T. Katsouleas, S. Lee, and P. Muggli, “Transverse envelope dynamics of a 28.5-GeV electron beam in a long plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 154801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

C. E. Clayton, B. E. Blue, E. S. Dodd, C. Joshi, K. A. Marsh, W. B. Mori, S. Wang, P. Catravas, S. Chattopadhyah, E. Esarey, W. P. Leemans, R. Assmann, F. J. Decker, M. J. Hogan, R. Iverson, P. Raimondi, R. H. Siemann, D. Walz, T. Katsouleas, S. Lee, and P. Muggli, “Transverse envelope dynamics of a 28.5-GeV electron beam in a long plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 154801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warren, G.

B. Goplen, L. Ludeking, D. Smithe, and G. Warren, “User-configurable MAGIC for electromagnetic PIC calculations,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 87, 54–86 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yamakawa, K.

K. Nakajima, D. Fisher, T. Kawakubo, H. Nakanishi, A. Ogata, Y. Kato, Y. Kitagawa, R. Kodama, K. Miwa, H. Shiraga, K. Suzuki, K. Yamakawa, T. Zhang, Y. Sakawa, T. Shoji, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, M. Downer, and T. Tajima, “Observation of ultrahigh gradient electron acceleration by a self-modulated intense short laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4428–4431 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yugami, N.

K. Nakajima, D. Fisher, T. Kawakubo, H. Nakanishi, A. Ogata, Y. Kato, Y. Kitagawa, R. Kodama, K. Miwa, H. Shiraga, K. Suzuki, K. Yamakawa, T. Zhang, Y. Sakawa, T. Shoji, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, M. Downer, and T. Tajima, “Observation of ultrahigh gradient electron acceleration by a self-modulated intense short laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4428–4431 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, T.

K. Nakajima, D. Fisher, T. Kawakubo, H. Nakanishi, A. Ogata, Y. Kato, Y. Kitagawa, R. Kodama, K. Miwa, H. Shiraga, K. Suzuki, K. Yamakawa, T. Zhang, Y. Sakawa, T. Shoji, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, M. Downer, and T. Tajima, “Observation of ultrahigh gradient electron acceleration by a self-modulated intense short laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4428–4431 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

A. Ogata, “Plasma lens and wake experiments in Japan,” in Proceedings of the AIP Workshop on Advanced Accelerator Concepts, AIP Conf. Proc. 279, 420–449 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Phys. Commun. (1)

B. Goplen, L. Ludeking, D. Smithe, and G. Warren, “User-configurable MAGIC for electromagnetic PIC calculations,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 87, 54–86 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219–221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Plasmas (1)

D. Umstadter, “Review of physics and applications of relativistic plasmas driven by ultra-intense lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 1774–1785 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

S. Bulanov, N. Naumova, F. Pegoraro, and J. Sakai, “Particle injection into the wave acceleration phase due to nonlinear wake wavebreaking,” Phys. Rev. E 58, R5257–R5261 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Hemker, K. C. Tzeng, W. B. Mori, C. E. Clayton, and T. Katsouleas, “Computer simulations of cathodeless high-brightness electron-beam production by multiple laser beams in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 5920–5928 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (8)

J. B. Rosenzweig, D. B. Cline, B. Cole, H. Figueroa, W. Gai, R. Konecny, J. Norem, P. Schoessow, and J. Simpson, “Experimental observation of plasma wakefield acceleration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 98–101 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Clayton, B. E. Blue, E. S. Dodd, C. Joshi, K. A. Marsh, W. B. Mori, S. Wang, P. Catravas, S. Chattopadhyah, E. Esarey, W. P. Leemans, R. Assmann, F. J. Decker, M. J. Hogan, R. Iverson, P. Raimondi, R. H. Siemann, D. Walz, T. Katsouleas, S. Lee, and P. Muggli, “Transverse envelope dynamics of a 28.5-GeV electron beam in a long plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 154801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Suk, N. Barov, J. B. Rosenzweig, and E. Esarey, “Plasma electron trapping and acceleration in a plasma wake field using a density transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1011–1014 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Tajima and J. M. Dawson, “Laser electron accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 267–270 (1979).
[CrossRef]

P. Sprangle, E. Esarey, J. Krall, and G. Joyce, “Propagation and guiding of intense laser pulses in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2200–2203 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Nakajima, D. Fisher, T. Kawakubo, H. Nakanishi, A. Ogata, Y. Kato, Y. Kitagawa, R. Kodama, K. Miwa, H. Shiraga, K. Suzuki, K. Yamakawa, T. Zhang, Y. Sakawa, T. Shoji, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, M. Downer, and T. Tajima, “Observation of ultrahigh gradient electron acceleration by a self-modulated intense short laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4428–4431 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Umstadter, J. Kim, and E. Dodd, “Laser injection of ultrashort electron pulses into wakefield plasma waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2073–2076 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Esarey, R. F. Hubbard, W. P. Leemans, A. Ting, and P. Sprangle, “Electron injection into plasma wake fields by colliding laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2682–2685 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

M. D. Perry and G. Mourou, “Terawatt to petawatt subsecond lasers,” Science 264, 917–924 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. (1)

L. M. Gorbunov and V. I. Kirsanov, “Excitation of plasma waves by an electromagnetic wave packet,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 93, 509–518 (1987).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the plasma density profile used for the simulations. The laser beam is launched just outside the vacuum–plasma boundary, and then it moves to the right.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Normalized longitudinal electric field Ez/(mecω0/e) versus longitudinal distance z for some laser pulse lengths, obtained after the laser pulse has propagated a distance of 1290k0-1 (λp) in a uniform-density plasma of 5×1018 cm-3. (b) The laser pulse shape and its Fourier-transformed wavelength distribution at that moment.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Position plot (y, z) and longitudinal momentum phase space plot (pz, z) of the plasma electrons at t=5880ω0-1. The laser beam is propagating to the right.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Position plots (y, z) of the plasma electrons at t=4788ω0-1 and t=5880ω0-1, before and after the laser wake wave passes the density transition, respectively. (b) Momentum phase space plots (pz, z) before and after the transition. The location of the density transition is indicated by the arrow in (a).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Longitudinal momentum phase space (pz, z) of the plasma electrons at t=9828ω0-1. Most trapped electrons are well bunched and have gained energies of 94–115 MeV. (b) Normalized electric field of the laser beam at t=0 and t=9828ω0-1. Note that front side of the laser beam is eroded because of energy depletion and that the dispersion effect occurs as the laser beam propagates in the plasma.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Trajectories of the test electron near the density transition for laser-driven trapping. The starting positions of the trajectory particles are marked by filled circles. Only electrons in the rectangular region are trapped; the others are not trapped by the laser wake field.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Trajectories of the test electron near the density transition for electron-beam-driven trapping. For this two-dimensional simulation the following underdense (plasma density<beam density) parameters were used: beam density, nb=1016 cm-3; plasma densities n0I=0.5nb, n0II=0.75n0I; beam pulse length, Lbλp; energy, Eb=16 MeV.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Tapered plasma density profile with n0II>n0III. The scale length of the density tapering is much larger than the laser wake field wavelength.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of energies in untapered and tapered plasma densities.

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