Abstract

A quasi-optic terahertz (THz) imaging system that utilizes optoelectronic methods for pulsed THz generation and reception and optical methods for image formation is demonstrated and theoretically explained. The system can be used to produce coherent, field amplitude, and energy density images with diffraction-limited resolution in two transverse dimensions. Simultaneous bandwidth-limited resolution is achieved in the depth dimension by means of the ranging capabilities of the system. The system is shown to accurately produce images of several objects to verify diffraction-limited imaging. Imaging power is extended by aperture synthesis to result in transverse resolution the order of a wavelength. Several individual, coherent images are recorded, each synthetically appearing to be formed by a different element of an optical phased array. The multiple images are simply superposed to create a higher-resolution image. Theoretical calculations fully describe the broadband imaging and include aberration and diffraction effects to further verify system performance. Calculated images are a good match with experimental results.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2002 (1)

2001 (7)

K. McClatchey, M. T. Reiten, and R. A. Cheville, “Time resolved synthetic aperture terahertz impulse imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4485–4487 (2001).

J. O’Hara and D. Grischkowsky, “Quasi-optic terahertz imaging,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1918–1920 (2001).

A. B. Ruffin, J. Decker, L. Sanchez-Palencia, L. Le Hors, J. F. Whitaker, T. B. Norris, and J. V. Rudd, “Time reversal and object reconstruction with single-cycle pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26, 681–683 (2001).

J. L. Johnson, T. D. Dorney, and D. M. Mittleman, “Interferometric imaging with terahertz pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 592–599 (2001).

S. Krishnamurthy, M. T. Reiten, S. A. Harmon, and R. A. Cheville, “Characterization of thin polymer films using terahertz time-domain interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 875–877 (2001).

A. R. Haijan and J. T. Armstrong, “A sharper view of the stars,” Sci. Am. 284, 56–63 (2001).

T. D. Dorney, J. L. Johnson, J. Van Rudd, R. G. Baraniuk, W. W. Symes, and D. M. Mittleman, “Terahertz reflection imaging using Kirchhoff migration,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1513–1515 (2001).

2000 (1)

R. W. McGowan, R. A. Cheville, and D. R. Grischkowsky, “Experimental study of the surface waves on a dielectric cylinder via terahertz impulse radar ranging,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 417–422 (2000).

1998 (2)

A. Broquetas, J. Palau, L. Jofre, and A. Cardama, “Spherical wave near-field imaging and radar cross-section measurement,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 46, 730–735 (1998).

Z. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, “Single-shot spatiotemporal terahertz field imaging,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1114–1116 (1998).

1997 (2)

1996 (3)

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, “Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026–1028 (1996).

J. T. Kindt and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Far-infrared dielectric properties of polar liquids probed by femtosecond terahertz pulse spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 10373–10379 (1996).

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, “T-ray imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679–692 (1996).

1995 (3)

B. B. Hu and M. C. Nuss, “Imaging with terahertz waves,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1716–1718 (1995).

L. Thrane, R. H. Jacobsen, P. Uhd Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, “THz reflection spectroscopy of liquid water,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 240, 330–333 (1995).

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523–3525 (1995).

1994 (1)

P. J. Napier, D. S. Bagri, B. G. Clark, A. E. E. Rogers, J. D. Romney, A. R. Thompson, and R. C. Walker, “The very long baseline array,” Proc. IEEE 82, 658–672 (1994).

1991 (1)

N. Katzenellenbogen and D. Grischkowsky, “Efficient generation of 380 fs pulses of THz radiation by ultrafast laser pulse excitation of a biased metal-semiconductor interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 222–224 (1991).

1990 (2)

M. van Exter and D. R. Grischkowsky, “Characterization of an optoelectronic terahertz beam system,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684–1691 (1990).

B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and P. R. Smith, “Free-space radiation from electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 506–508 (1990).

1989 (1)

1986 (1)

M. B. Ketchen, D. Grischkowsky, T. C. Chen, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling III, N. J. Halas, J.-M. Halbout, J. A. Kash, and G. P. Li, “Generation of subpicosecond electrical pulses on coplanar transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 751–753 (1986).

1984 (2)

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, “Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284–286 (1984).

Y. Li and E. Wolf, “Three-dimensional intensity distribution near the focus in systems of different Fresnel numbers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 801–808 (1984).

1983 (1)

P. J. Napier, A. R. Thompson, and R. D. Ekers, “The very large array: design and performance of a modern synthesis radio telescope,” Proc. IEEE 71, 1295–1322 (1983).

1975 (1)

A. Labeyrie, “Interference fringes obtained on Vega with two optical telescopes,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 196, L71–L75 (1975).

1960 (1)

M. Ryle and A. Hewish, “The synthesis of large radio telescopes,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 120, 220–230 (1960).

Armstrong, J. T.

A. R. Haijan and J. T. Armstrong, “A sharper view of the stars,” Sci. Am. 284, 56–63 (2001).

Auston, D. H.

B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and P. R. Smith, “Free-space radiation from electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 506–508 (1990).

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, “Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284–286 (1984).

Bagri, D. S.

P. J. Napier, D. S. Bagri, B. G. Clark, A. E. E. Rogers, J. D. Romney, A. R. Thompson, and R. C. Walker, “The very long baseline array,” Proc. IEEE 82, 658–672 (1994).

Baraniuk, R. G.

Boivin, L.

Broquetas, A.

A. Broquetas, J. Palau, L. Jofre, and A. Cardama, “Spherical wave near-field imaging and radar cross-section measurement,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 46, 730–735 (1998).

Cardama, A.

A. Broquetas, J. Palau, L. Jofre, and A. Cardama, “Spherical wave near-field imaging and radar cross-section measurement,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 46, 730–735 (1998).

Chen, T. C.

M. B. Ketchen, D. Grischkowsky, T. C. Chen, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling III, N. J. Halas, J.-M. Halbout, J. A. Kash, and G. P. Li, “Generation of subpicosecond electrical pulses on coplanar transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 751–753 (1986).

Cheung, K. P.

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, “Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284–286 (1984).

Cheville, R. A.

S. Krishnamurthy, M. T. Reiten, S. A. Harmon, and R. A. Cheville, “Characterization of thin polymer films using terahertz time-domain interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 875–877 (2001).

K. McClatchey, M. T. Reiten, and R. A. Cheville, “Time resolved synthetic aperture terahertz impulse imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4485–4487 (2001).

R. W. McGowan, R. A. Cheville, and D. R. Grischkowsky, “Experimental study of the surface waves on a dielectric cylinder via terahertz impulse radar ranging,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 417–422 (2000).

Chi, C.-C.

M. B. Ketchen, D. Grischkowsky, T. C. Chen, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling III, N. J. Halas, J.-M. Halbout, J. A. Kash, and G. P. Li, “Generation of subpicosecond electrical pulses on coplanar transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 751–753 (1986).

Clark, B. G.

P. J. Napier, D. S. Bagri, B. G. Clark, A. E. E. Rogers, J. D. Romney, A. R. Thompson, and R. C. Walker, “The very long baseline array,” Proc. IEEE 82, 658–672 (1994).

Decker, J.

den Dekker, A. J.

Dorney, T. D.

J. L. Johnson, T. D. Dorney, and D. M. Mittleman, “Interferometric imaging with terahertz pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 592–599 (2001).

T. D. Dorney, J. L. Johnson, J. Van Rudd, R. G. Baraniuk, W. W. Symes, and D. M. Mittleman, “Terahertz reflection imaging using Kirchhoff migration,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1513–1515 (2001).

Duling III, I. N.

M. B. Ketchen, D. Grischkowsky, T. C. Chen, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling III, N. J. Halas, J.-M. Halbout, J. A. Kash, and G. P. Li, “Generation of subpicosecond electrical pulses on coplanar transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 751–753 (1986).

Ekers, R. D.

P. J. Napier, A. R. Thompson, and R. D. Ekers, “The very large array: design and performance of a modern synthesis radio telescope,” Proc. IEEE 71, 1295–1322 (1983).

Fattinger, C.

Grischkowsky, D.

J. O’Hara and D. Grischkowsky, “Synthetic phased-array terahertz imaging,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1070–1072 (2002).

J. O’Hara and D. Grischkowsky, “Quasi-optic terahertz imaging,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1918–1920 (2001).

N. Katzenellenbogen and D. Grischkowsky, “Efficient generation of 380 fs pulses of THz radiation by ultrafast laser pulse excitation of a biased metal-semiconductor interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 222–224 (1991).

M. P. van Exter, C. Fattinger, and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of water vapor,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1128–1130 (1989).

M. B. Ketchen, D. Grischkowsky, T. C. Chen, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling III, N. J. Halas, J.-M. Halbout, J. A. Kash, and G. P. Li, “Generation of subpicosecond electrical pulses on coplanar transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 751–753 (1986).

Grischkowsky, D. R.

R. W. McGowan, R. A. Cheville, and D. R. Grischkowsky, “Experimental study of the surface waves on a dielectric cylinder via terahertz impulse radar ranging,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 417–422 (2000).

M. van Exter and D. R. Grischkowsky, “Characterization of an optoelectronic terahertz beam system,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684–1691 (1990).

Haijan, A. R.

A. R. Haijan and J. T. Armstrong, “A sharper view of the stars,” Sci. Am. 284, 56–63 (2001).

Halas, N. J.

M. B. Ketchen, D. Grischkowsky, T. C. Chen, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling III, N. J. Halas, J.-M. Halbout, J. A. Kash, and G. P. Li, “Generation of subpicosecond electrical pulses on coplanar transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 751–753 (1986).

Halbout, J.-M.

M. B. Ketchen, D. Grischkowsky, T. C. Chen, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling III, N. J. Halas, J.-M. Halbout, J. A. Kash, and G. P. Li, “Generation of subpicosecond electrical pulses on coplanar transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 751–753 (1986).

Harmon, S. A.

S. Krishnamurthy, M. T. Reiten, S. A. Harmon, and R. A. Cheville, “Characterization of thin polymer films using terahertz time-domain interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 875–877 (2001).

Hewish, A.

M. Ryle and A. Hewish, “The synthesis of large radio telescopes,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 120, 220–230 (1960).

Hewitt, T. D.

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, “Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026–1028 (1996).

Hu, B. B.

B. B. Hu and M. C. Nuss, “Imaging with terahertz waves,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1716–1718 (1995).

B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and P. R. Smith, “Free-space radiation from electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 506–508 (1990).

Hunsche, S.

Jacobsen, R. H.

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, “T-ray imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679–692 (1996).

L. Thrane, R. H. Jacobsen, P. Uhd Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, “THz reflection spectroscopy of liquid water,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 240, 330–333 (1995).

Jiang, Z.

Jofre, L.

A. Broquetas, J. Palau, L. Jofre, and A. Cardama, “Spherical wave near-field imaging and radar cross-section measurement,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 46, 730–735 (1998).

Johnson, J. L.

J. L. Johnson, T. D. Dorney, and D. M. Mittleman, “Interferometric imaging with terahertz pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 592–599 (2001).

T. D. Dorney, J. L. Johnson, J. Van Rudd, R. G. Baraniuk, W. W. Symes, and D. M. Mittleman, “Terahertz reflection imaging using Kirchhoff migration,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1513–1515 (2001).

Kash, J. A.

M. B. Ketchen, D. Grischkowsky, T. C. Chen, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling III, N. J. Halas, J.-M. Halbout, J. A. Kash, and G. P. Li, “Generation of subpicosecond electrical pulses on coplanar transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 751–753 (1986).

Katzenellenbogen, N.

N. Katzenellenbogen and D. Grischkowsky, “Efficient generation of 380 fs pulses of THz radiation by ultrafast laser pulse excitation of a biased metal-semiconductor interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 222–224 (1991).

Keiding, S. R.

L. Thrane, R. H. Jacobsen, P. Uhd Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, “THz reflection spectroscopy of liquid water,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 240, 330–333 (1995).

Ketchen, M. B.

M. B. Ketchen, D. Grischkowsky, T. C. Chen, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling III, N. J. Halas, J.-M. Halbout, J. A. Kash, and G. P. Li, “Generation of subpicosecond electrical pulses on coplanar transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 751–753 (1986).

Kindt, J. T.

J. T. Kindt and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Far-infrared dielectric properties of polar liquids probed by femtosecond terahertz pulse spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 10373–10379 (1996).

Krishnamurthy, S.

S. Krishnamurthy, M. T. Reiten, S. A. Harmon, and R. A. Cheville, “Characterization of thin polymer films using terahertz time-domain interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 875–877 (2001).

Labeyrie, A.

A. Labeyrie, “Interference fringes obtained on Vega with two optical telescopes,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 196, L71–L75 (1975).

Le Hors, L.

Li, G. P.

M. B. Ketchen, D. Grischkowsky, T. C. Chen, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling III, N. J. Halas, J.-M. Halbout, J. A. Kash, and G. P. Li, “Generation of subpicosecond electrical pulses on coplanar transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 751–753 (1986).

Li, Y.

McClatchey, K.

K. McClatchey, M. T. Reiten, and R. A. Cheville, “Time resolved synthetic aperture terahertz impulse imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4485–4487 (2001).

McGowan, R. W.

R. W. McGowan, R. A. Cheville, and D. R. Grischkowsky, “Experimental study of the surface waves on a dielectric cylinder via terahertz impulse radar ranging,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 417–422 (2000).

Mittleman, D. M.

J. L. Johnson, T. D. Dorney, and D. M. Mittleman, “Interferometric imaging with terahertz pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 592–599 (2001).

T. D. Dorney, J. L. Johnson, J. Van Rudd, R. G. Baraniuk, W. W. Symes, and D. M. Mittleman, “Terahertz reflection imaging using Kirchhoff migration,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1513–1515 (2001).

D. M. Mittleman, S. Hunsche, L. Boivin, and M. C. Nuss, “T-ray tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 904–906 (1997).

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, “T-ray imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679–692 (1996).

Napier, P. J.

P. J. Napier, D. S. Bagri, B. G. Clark, A. E. E. Rogers, J. D. Romney, A. R. Thompson, and R. C. Walker, “The very long baseline array,” Proc. IEEE 82, 658–672 (1994).

P. J. Napier, A. R. Thompson, and R. D. Ekers, “The very large array: design and performance of a modern synthesis radio telescope,” Proc. IEEE 71, 1295–1322 (1983).

Norris, T. B.

Nuss, M. C.

O’Hara, J.

Palau, J.

A. Broquetas, J. Palau, L. Jofre, and A. Cardama, “Spherical wave near-field imaging and radar cross-section measurement,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 46, 730–735 (1998).

Reiten, M. T.

K. McClatchey, M. T. Reiten, and R. A. Cheville, “Time resolved synthetic aperture terahertz impulse imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4485–4487 (2001).

S. Krishnamurthy, M. T. Reiten, S. A. Harmon, and R. A. Cheville, “Characterization of thin polymer films using terahertz time-domain interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 875–877 (2001).

Rogers, A. E. E.

P. J. Napier, D. S. Bagri, B. G. Clark, A. E. E. Rogers, J. D. Romney, A. R. Thompson, and R. C. Walker, “The very long baseline array,” Proc. IEEE 82, 658–672 (1994).

Romney, J. D.

P. J. Napier, D. S. Bagri, B. G. Clark, A. E. E. Rogers, J. D. Romney, A. R. Thompson, and R. C. Walker, “The very long baseline array,” Proc. IEEE 82, 658–672 (1994).

Rudd, J. V.

Ruffin, A. B.

Ryle, M.

M. Ryle and A. Hewish, “The synthesis of large radio telescopes,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 120, 220–230 (1960).

Sanchez-Palencia, L.

Schmuttenmaer, C. A.

J. T. Kindt and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Far-infrared dielectric properties of polar liquids probed by femtosecond terahertz pulse spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 10373–10379 (1996).

Smith, P. R.

B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and P. R. Smith, “Free-space radiation from electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 506–508 (1990).

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, “Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284–286 (1984).

Symes, W. W.

Thompson, A. R.

P. J. Napier, D. S. Bagri, B. G. Clark, A. E. E. Rogers, J. D. Romney, A. R. Thompson, and R. C. Walker, “The very long baseline array,” Proc. IEEE 82, 658–672 (1994).

P. J. Napier, A. R. Thompson, and R. D. Ekers, “The very large array: design and performance of a modern synthesis radio telescope,” Proc. IEEE 71, 1295–1322 (1983).

Thrane, L.

L. Thrane, R. H. Jacobsen, P. Uhd Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, “THz reflection spectroscopy of liquid water,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 240, 330–333 (1995).

Uhd Jepsen, P.

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