Abstract

Using saturated-absorption spectroscopy, we measured the hyperfine-structure splittings of four transitions in the BX system of  127I2 near 718 nm, namely, of P(78)19, R(86)19, R(146)29, and R(113)310. The hyperfine constants ΔeQq and ΔC for these transitions were calculated from the measured splittings. Aided with Doppler line shapes calculated from the hyperfine splittings, and with knowledge of the relative absorption strengths of the nearby transitions from literature, we have measured the dipole moments of P(78)19, R(86)19, and R(113)310 from their integrated absorptions. These measurements, combined with Franck–Condon factors given in the literature, give an electronic transition dipole moment of 3.66(11)×10-30 Cm [1.10(3) D] for the BX system of iodine at an R-centroid internuclear distance of 0.293 nm.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  51. J. Tellinghuisen, “Transition strengths in the visible-infrared absorption spectrum of I2,” J. Chem. Phys. 76, 4736–4744 (1982).
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  52. G. Flory, M. Broyer, J. Vigué, and J. C. Lehmann, “Perturbation de l’iode moléculaire en phase vapeur par la présence de gaz étrangers. Conséquence pour la stabilisation du laser He–Ne,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 12, 901–904 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  56. G. L. Bhale, S. F. Ahmad, and S. Paddi Reddy, “A study of variation of electronic transition moment of the B–X system of I2 from its laser-excited fluorescence spectrum,” J. Phys. B 18, 645–655 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  57. D. Kirillov, “Intensity of overtones in resonant Raman scattering in I2 vapor,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 99, 228–230 (1983).
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  58. J. B. Koffend, R. Bacis, and R. W. Field, “The electronic transition moment of the B0u+−X1Σg+ system of I2 through gain measurements of an I2 optically pumped laser,” J. Chem. Phys. 70, 2366–2372 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  59. A. Chutjian and T. C. James, “Intensity measurements in the B3Π0+u−X1Σ0+g system of I2,” J. Chem. Phys. 51, 1242–1249 (1969).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2001 (3)

F.-L. Hong, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, S. Picard, Ch. J. Bordé, and J. L. Hall, “Rotation dependence of electric quadrupole hyperfine interaction in the ground state of molecular iodine by high-resolution laser spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 379–387 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Holzwarth, A. Yu. Nevsky, M. Zimmermann, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. von Zanthier, H. Walther, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, “Absolute frequency measurement of iodine lines with a femtosecond optical synthesizer,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 269–271 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Porsev and M. G. Kozlov, “Calculation of the nuclear spin-dependent parity-nonconserving amplitude for the (7s, F=4)→(7s, F=5) transition in Fr,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 064101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

M. S. Safronova and W. R. Johnson, “High-precision calculation of the parity-nonconserving amplitude in francium,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 022112 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Xu, R. van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, “A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 595–655 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 256–266 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (4)

J. E. Simsarian, W. Z. Zhao, L. A. Orozco, and G. D. Sprouse, “Two-photon spectroscopy of the francium 8S1/2 level,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 195–199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. M. R. Byrnes, V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, and D. W. Murray, “Enhancement factor for the electron electric dipole moment in francium and gold atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 3082–3083 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Wood, S. C. Bennett, J. L. Roberts, D. Cho, and C. E. Wieman, “Precision measurement of parity nonconservation in cesium,” Can. J. Phys. 77, 7–75 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Absolute frequency atlas of molecular I2 lines at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 46, 544–549 (1999).

1998 (4)

W. Z. Zhao, J. E. Simsarian, L. A. Orozco, and G. D. Sprouse, “A computer-based digital feedback control of frequency drift of multiple lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3737–3740 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Simsarian, L. A. Orozco, G. D. Sprouse, and W. Z. Zhao, “Lifetime measurements of the 7p levels of atomic francium,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 2448–2458 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. Velchev, R. van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, “A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 571–596 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 187, 21–27 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Biémont, P. Quinet, and V. Van Renterghem, “Theoretical investigation of neutral francium,” J. Phys. B 31, 5301–5314 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (5)

J. A. Behr, A. Gorelov, T. Swanson, O. Häusser, K. P. Jackson, M. Trinczek, U. Giesen, J. M. D’Auria, R. Hardy, T. Wilson, P. Choboter, F. Leblond, L. Buchmann, M. Dombsky, C. D. P. Levy, G. Roy, B. A. Brown, and J. Dilling, “Magneto-optic trapping of β-decaying 38Km, 37K from an on-line isotope separator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z.-T. Lu, K. L. Corwin, K. R. Vogel, and C. E. Wieman, “Efficient collection of 221Fr into a vapor cell magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 994–997 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Wood, S. C. Bennett, D. Cho, B. P. Masterson, J. L. Roberts, C. E. Tanner, and C. E. Wieman, “Measurement of parity nonconservation and an anapole moment in cesium,” Science 275, 1759–1763 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tellinghuisen, “The electronic transition moment function for the B0u+(3Π)↔X1Σg+ transition in I2,” J. Chem. Phys. 106, 1305–1308 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Forkey, W. R. Lempert, and R. B. Miles, “Corrected and calibrated I2 absorption model at frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6729–6738 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. E. Simsarian, A. Ghosh, G. Gwinner, L. A. Orozco, G. D. Sprouse, and P. A. Voytas, “Magneto-optic trapping of 210Fr,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3522–3525 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, and O. P. Sushkov, “Calculation of energy levels, E1 transition amplitudes and parity violation in francium,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 3454–3461 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Eickhoff and J. L. Hall, “Optical frequency standard at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 155–158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

M. Lamrini, R. Bacis, D. Cerny, S. Churassy, P. Crozet, and A. J. Ross, “The electronic transition dipole moment of the B0u+→X0g+ transition in iodine,” J. Chem. Phys. 100, 8780–8783 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Z.-T. Lu, C. Bowers, S. J. Freedman, B. K. Fujikawa, J. L. Mortara, S.-Q. Shang, K. P. Coulter, and L. Young, “Laser trapping of short-lived radioactive isotopes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3791–3794 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

L.-S. Ma and J. L. Hall, “Optical heterodyne spectroscopy enhanced by an external optical cavity: toward improved working standards,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2006–2012 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

F. Martin, R. Bacis, S. Churassy, and J. Vergès, “Laser-induced-fluorescence Fourier transform spectrometry of the X0g+ state of I2: extensive analysis of the B0u+→X0g+ fluorescence spectrum of 127I2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 116, 71–100 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (3)

A. Coc, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, J. Pinard, J. Lermé, J. L. Vialle, S. Büttgenbach, A. C. Mueller, A. Pesnelle, and The ISOLDE Collaboration, “Hyperfine structures and isotope shifts of 207–213, 220–228Fr; possible evidence of octupolar deformation,” Phys. Lett. B 163, 66–70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, “Description of the absorption spectrum of iodine recorded by means of Fourier transform spectroscopy: the (B–X) system,” J. Phys. (Paris) 46, 867–881 (1985).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Bhale, S. F. Ahmad, and S. Paddi Reddy, “A study of variation of electronic transition moment of the B–X system of I2 from its laser-excited fluorescence spectrum,” J. Phys. B 18, 645–655 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

D. Kirillov, “Intensity of overtones in resonant Raman scattering in I2 vapor,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 99, 228–230 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

J. Tellinghuisen, “Transition strengths in the visible-infrared absorption spectrum of I2,” J. Chem. Phys. 76, 4736–4744 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Elliott, R. Roy, and S. J. Smith, “Extracavity laser band-shape and bandwidth modification,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 12–18 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

Ch. J. Bordé, G. Camy, B. Decomps, and J.-P. Descoubes, “High precision saturation spectroscopy of 127I2 with argon lasers at 5145 Å and 5017 Å: I—Main resonances,” J. Phys. (Paris) 42, 1393–1411 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (3)

A. Yokozeki and J. S. Muenter, “Laser fluorescence state selected and detected molecular beam magnetic resonance in I2,” J. Chem. Phys. 72, 3796–3804 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Snyder, R. K. Raj, D. Bloch, and M. Ducloy, “High-sensitivity nonlinear spectroscopy using a frequency-offset pump,” Opt. Lett. 5, 163–165 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Yazykova and E. V. Butyrskaya, “Mathematical justification for the r-centroid method in diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. B 13, 3361–3367 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, “Absolute iodine (I2) standards measured by means of Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 14, 791–794 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Koffend, R. Bacis, and R. W. Field, “The electronic transition moment of the B0u+−X1Σg+ system of I2 through gain measurements of an I2 optically pumped laser,” J. Chem. Phys. 70, 2366–2372 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

J. Tellinghuisen, “Intensity factors for the I2 B↔X band system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 19, 149–161 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

G. Flory, M. Broyer, J. Vigué, and J. C. Lehmann, “Perturbation de l’iode moléculaire en phase vapeur par la présence de gaz étrangers. Conséquence pour la stabilisation du laser He–Ne,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 12, 901–904 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

J. Tellinghuisen, “Resolution of the visible-infrared absorption spectrum of I2 into three contributing transitions,” J. Chem. Phys. 58, 2821–2834 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1971 (2)

T. W. Hänsch, M. D. Levenson, and A. L. Schawlow, “Complete hyperfine structure of a molecular iodine line,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 26, 946–949 (1971).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Hanes, J. Lapierre, P. R. Bunker, and K. C. Shotton, “Nuclear hyperfine structure in the electronic spectrum of 127I2 by saturated absorption spectroscopy, and comparison with theory,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 39, 506–515 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

C. Bordé, “Spectroscopie d’absorption saturée de diverses molécules au moyen des lasers à gaz carbonique et à protoxyde d’azote,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. B 271, 371–374 (1970).

1969 (1)

A. Chutjian and T. C. James, “Intensity measurements in the B3Π0+u−X1Σ0+g system of I2,” J. Chem. Phys. 51, 1242–1249 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

D. W. Marquardt, “An algorithm for least-squares estimation of nonlinear parameters,” J. Soc. Ind. Appl. Math. 11, 431–441 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

W. H. Flygare and W. D. Gwinn, “Electron distribution in the C–Cl bonds of CH2Cl2 and derivation of matrix elements off-diagonal in J for two quadrupolar nuclei in an asymmetric rotor,” J. Chem. Phys. 36, 787–794 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1915 (1)

G. P. Baxter and M. R. Grose, “The vapor pressure of iodine between 50° and 95°,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 37, 1061–1072 (1915).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, S. F.

G. L. Bhale, S. F. Ahmad, and S. Paddi Reddy, “A study of variation of electronic transition moment of the B–X system of I2 from its laser-excited fluorescence spectrum,” J. Phys. B 18, 645–655 (1985).
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M. Lamrini, R. Bacis, D. Cerny, S. Churassy, P. Crozet, and A. J. Ross, “The electronic transition dipole moment of the B0u+→X0g+ transition in iodine,” J. Chem. Phys. 100, 8780–8783 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Martin, R. Bacis, S. Churassy, and J. Vergès, “Laser-induced-fluorescence Fourier transform spectrometry of the X0g+ state of I2: extensive analysis of the B0u+→X0g+ fluorescence spectrum of 127I2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 116, 71–100 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Koffend, R. Bacis, and R. W. Field, “The electronic transition moment of the B0u+−X1Σg+ system of I2 through gain measurements of an I2 optically pumped laser,” J. Chem. Phys. 70, 2366–2372 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bagayev, S. N.

R. Holzwarth, A. Yu. Nevsky, M. Zimmermann, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. von Zanthier, H. Walther, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, “Absolute frequency measurement of iodine lines with a femtosecond optical synthesizer,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 269–271 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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G. P. Baxter and M. R. Grose, “The vapor pressure of iodine between 50° and 95°,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 37, 1061–1072 (1915).
[CrossRef]

Behr, J. A.

J. A. Behr, A. Gorelov, T. Swanson, O. Häusser, K. P. Jackson, M. Trinczek, U. Giesen, J. M. D’Auria, R. Hardy, T. Wilson, P. Choboter, F. Leblond, L. Buchmann, M. Dombsky, C. D. P. Levy, G. Roy, B. A. Brown, and J. Dilling, “Magneto-optic trapping of β-decaying 38Km, 37K from an on-line isotope separator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, S. C.

C. S. Wood, S. C. Bennett, J. L. Roberts, D. Cho, and C. E. Wieman, “Precision measurement of parity nonconservation in cesium,” Can. J. Phys. 77, 7–75 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Wood, S. C. Bennett, D. Cho, B. P. Masterson, J. L. Roberts, C. E. Tanner, and C. E. Wieman, “Measurement of parity nonconservation and an anapole moment in cesium,” Science 275, 1759–1763 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhale, G. L.

G. L. Bhale, S. F. Ahmad, and S. Paddi Reddy, “A study of variation of electronic transition moment of the B–X system of I2 from its laser-excited fluorescence spectrum,” J. Phys. B 18, 645–655 (1985).
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E. Biémont, P. Quinet, and V. Van Renterghem, “Theoretical investigation of neutral francium,” J. Phys. B 31, 5301–5314 (1998).
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Bloch, D.

Bodermann, B.

B. Bodermann, H. Knöckel, and E. Tiemann, “Widely usable interpolation formulas for hyperfine splittings in the 127I2 spectrum,” Eur. Phys. J. D 19, 31–44 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bordé, C.

C. Bordé, “Spectroscopie d’absorption saturée de diverses molécules au moyen des lasers à gaz carbonique et à protoxyde d’azote,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. B 271, 371–374 (1970).

Bordé, Ch. J.

F.-L. Hong, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, S. Picard, Ch. J. Bordé, and J. L. Hall, “Rotation dependence of electric quadrupole hyperfine interaction in the ground state of molecular iodine by high-resolution laser spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 379–387 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ch. J. Bordé, G. Camy, B. Decomps, and J.-P. Descoubes, “High precision saturation spectroscopy of 127I2 with argon lasers at 5145 Å and 5017 Å: I—Main resonances,” J. Phys. (Paris) 42, 1393–1411 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, C.

Z.-T. Lu, C. Bowers, S. J. Freedman, B. K. Fujikawa, J. L. Mortara, S.-Q. Shang, K. P. Coulter, and L. Young, “Laser trapping of short-lived radioactive isotopes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3791–3794 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, B. A.

J. A. Behr, A. Gorelov, T. Swanson, O. Häusser, K. P. Jackson, M. Trinczek, U. Giesen, J. M. D’Auria, R. Hardy, T. Wilson, P. Choboter, F. Leblond, L. Buchmann, M. Dombsky, C. D. P. Levy, G. Roy, B. A. Brown, and J. Dilling, “Magneto-optic trapping of β-decaying 38Km, 37K from an on-line isotope separator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Broyer, M.

G. Flory, M. Broyer, J. Vigué, and J. C. Lehmann, “Perturbation de l’iode moléculaire en phase vapeur par la présence de gaz étrangers. Conséquence pour la stabilisation du laser He–Ne,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 12, 901–904 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Buchmann, L.

J. A. Behr, A. Gorelov, T. Swanson, O. Häusser, K. P. Jackson, M. Trinczek, U. Giesen, J. M. D’Auria, R. Hardy, T. Wilson, P. Choboter, F. Leblond, L. Buchmann, M. Dombsky, C. D. P. Levy, G. Roy, B. A. Brown, and J. Dilling, “Magneto-optic trapping of β-decaying 38Km, 37K from an on-line isotope separator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bunker, P. R.

G. R. Hanes, J. Lapierre, P. R. Bunker, and K. C. Shotton, “Nuclear hyperfine structure in the electronic spectrum of 127I2 by saturated absorption spectroscopy, and comparison with theory,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 39, 506–515 (1971).
[CrossRef]

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A. Coc, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, J. Pinard, J. Lermé, J. L. Vialle, S. Büttgenbach, A. C. Mueller, A. Pesnelle, and The ISOLDE Collaboration, “Hyperfine structures and isotope shifts of 207–213, 220–228Fr; possible evidence of octupolar deformation,” Phys. Lett. B 163, 66–70 (1985).
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S. M. Yazykova and E. V. Butyrskaya, “Mathematical justification for the r-centroid method in diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. B 13, 3361–3367 (1980).
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Byrnes, T. M. R.

T. M. R. Byrnes, V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, and D. W. Murray, “Enhancement factor for the electron electric dipole moment in francium and gold atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 3082–3083 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Camy, G.

Ch. J. Bordé, G. Camy, B. Decomps, and J.-P. Descoubes, “High precision saturation spectroscopy of 127I2 with argon lasers at 5145 Å and 5017 Å: I—Main resonances,” J. Phys. (Paris) 42, 1393–1411 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Cerny, D.

M. Lamrini, R. Bacis, D. Cerny, S. Churassy, P. Crozet, and A. J. Ross, “The electronic transition dipole moment of the B0u+→X0g+ transition in iodine,” J. Chem. Phys. 100, 8780–8783 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cho, D.

C. S. Wood, S. C. Bennett, J. L. Roberts, D. Cho, and C. E. Wieman, “Precision measurement of parity nonconservation in cesium,” Can. J. Phys. 77, 7–75 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Wood, S. C. Bennett, D. Cho, B. P. Masterson, J. L. Roberts, C. E. Tanner, and C. E. Wieman, “Measurement of parity nonconservation and an anapole moment in cesium,” Science 275, 1759–1763 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choboter, P.

J. A. Behr, A. Gorelov, T. Swanson, O. Häusser, K. P. Jackson, M. Trinczek, U. Giesen, J. M. D’Auria, R. Hardy, T. Wilson, P. Choboter, F. Leblond, L. Buchmann, M. Dombsky, C. D. P. Levy, G. Roy, B. A. Brown, and J. Dilling, “Magneto-optic trapping of β-decaying 38Km, 37K from an on-line isotope separator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Churassy, S.

M. Lamrini, R. Bacis, D. Cerny, S. Churassy, P. Crozet, and A. J. Ross, “The electronic transition dipole moment of the B0u+→X0g+ transition in iodine,” J. Chem. Phys. 100, 8780–8783 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Martin, R. Bacis, S. Churassy, and J. Vergès, “Laser-induced-fluorescence Fourier transform spectrometry of the X0g+ state of I2: extensive analysis of the B0u+→X0g+ fluorescence spectrum of 127I2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 116, 71–100 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chutjian, A.

A. Chutjian and T. C. James, “Intensity measurements in the B3Π0+u−X1Σ0+g system of I2,” J. Chem. Phys. 51, 1242–1249 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Coc, A.

A. Coc, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, J. Pinard, J. Lermé, J. L. Vialle, S. Büttgenbach, A. C. Mueller, A. Pesnelle, and The ISOLDE Collaboration, “Hyperfine structures and isotope shifts of 207–213, 220–228Fr; possible evidence of octupolar deformation,” Phys. Lett. B 163, 66–70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Corwin, K. L.

Z.-T. Lu, K. L. Corwin, K. R. Vogel, and C. E. Wieman, “Efficient collection of 221Fr into a vapor cell magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 994–997 (1997).
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Coulter, K. P.

Z.-T. Lu, C. Bowers, S. J. Freedman, B. K. Fujikawa, J. L. Mortara, S.-Q. Shang, K. P. Coulter, and L. Young, “Laser trapping of short-lived radioactive isotopes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3791–3794 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crozet, P.

M. Lamrini, R. Bacis, D. Cerny, S. Churassy, P. Crozet, and A. J. Ross, “The electronic transition dipole moment of the B0u+→X0g+ transition in iodine,” J. Chem. Phys. 100, 8780–8783 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D’Auria, J. M.

J. A. Behr, A. Gorelov, T. Swanson, O. Häusser, K. P. Jackson, M. Trinczek, U. Giesen, J. M. D’Auria, R. Hardy, T. Wilson, P. Choboter, F. Leblond, L. Buchmann, M. Dombsky, C. D. P. Levy, G. Roy, B. A. Brown, and J. Dilling, “Magneto-optic trapping of β-decaying 38Km, 37K from an on-line isotope separator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Decomps, B.

Ch. J. Bordé, G. Camy, B. Decomps, and J.-P. Descoubes, “High precision saturation spectroscopy of 127I2 with argon lasers at 5145 Å and 5017 Å: I—Main resonances,” J. Phys. (Paris) 42, 1393–1411 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Descoubes, J.-P.

Ch. J. Bordé, G. Camy, B. Decomps, and J.-P. Descoubes, “High precision saturation spectroscopy of 127I2 with argon lasers at 5145 Å and 5017 Å: I—Main resonances,” J. Phys. (Paris) 42, 1393–1411 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Dilling, J.

J. A. Behr, A. Gorelov, T. Swanson, O. Häusser, K. P. Jackson, M. Trinczek, U. Giesen, J. M. D’Auria, R. Hardy, T. Wilson, P. Choboter, F. Leblond, L. Buchmann, M. Dombsky, C. D. P. Levy, G. Roy, B. A. Brown, and J. Dilling, “Magneto-optic trapping of β-decaying 38Km, 37K from an on-line isotope separator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dombsky, M.

J. A. Behr, A. Gorelov, T. Swanson, O. Häusser, K. P. Jackson, M. Trinczek, U. Giesen, J. M. D’Auria, R. Hardy, T. Wilson, P. Choboter, F. Leblond, L. Buchmann, M. Dombsky, C. D. P. Levy, G. Roy, B. A. Brown, and J. Dilling, “Magneto-optic trapping of β-decaying 38Km, 37K from an on-line isotope separator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
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Ducloy, M.

Duong, H. T.

A. Coc, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, J. Pinard, J. Lermé, J. L. Vialle, S. Büttgenbach, A. C. Mueller, A. Pesnelle, and The ISOLDE Collaboration, “Hyperfine structures and isotope shifts of 207–213, 220–228Fr; possible evidence of octupolar deformation,” Phys. Lett. B 163, 66–70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Dzuba, V. A.

T. M. R. Byrnes, V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, and D. W. Murray, “Enhancement factor for the electron electric dipole moment in francium and gold atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 3082–3083 (1999).
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V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, and O. P. Sushkov, “Calculation of energy levels, E1 transition amplitudes and parity violation in francium,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 3454–3461 (1995).
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Eickhoff, M. L.

M. L. Eickhoff and J. L. Hall, “Optical frequency standard at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 155–158 (1995).
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D. S. Elliott, R. Roy, and S. J. Smith, “Extracavity laser band-shape and bandwidth modification,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 12–18 (1982).
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Field, R. W.

J. B. Koffend, R. Bacis, and R. W. Field, “The electronic transition moment of the B0u+−X1Σg+ system of I2 through gain measurements of an I2 optically pumped laser,” J. Chem. Phys. 70, 2366–2372 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Flambaum, V. V.

T. M. R. Byrnes, V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, and D. W. Murray, “Enhancement factor for the electron electric dipole moment in francium and gold atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 3082–3083 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, and O. P. Sushkov, “Calculation of energy levels, E1 transition amplitudes and parity violation in francium,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 3454–3461 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flory, G.

G. Flory, M. Broyer, J. Vigué, and J. C. Lehmann, “Perturbation de l’iode moléculaire en phase vapeur par la présence de gaz étrangers. Conséquence pour la stabilisation du laser He–Ne,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 12, 901–904 (1977).
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Flygare, W. H.

W. H. Flygare and W. D. Gwinn, “Electron distribution in the C–Cl bonds of CH2Cl2 and derivation of matrix elements off-diagonal in J for two quadrupolar nuclei in an asymmetric rotor,” J. Chem. Phys. 36, 787–794 (1962).
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Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Forkey, J. N.

Freedman, S. J.

Z.-T. Lu, C. Bowers, S. J. Freedman, B. K. Fujikawa, J. L. Mortara, S.-Q. Shang, K. P. Coulter, and L. Young, “Laser trapping of short-lived radioactive isotopes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3791–3794 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujikawa, B. K.

Z.-T. Lu, C. Bowers, S. J. Freedman, B. K. Fujikawa, J. L. Mortara, S.-Q. Shang, K. P. Coulter, and L. Young, “Laser trapping of short-lived radioactive isotopes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3791–3794 (1994).
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S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, “Description of the absorption spectrum of iodine recorded by means of Fourier transform spectroscopy: the (B–X) system,” J. Phys. (Paris) 46, 867–881 (1985).
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S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, “Absolute iodine (I2) standards measured by means of Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 14, 791–794 (1979).
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Ghosh, A.

J. E. Simsarian, A. Ghosh, G. Gwinner, L. A. Orozco, G. D. Sprouse, and P. A. Voytas, “Magneto-optic trapping of 210Fr,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3522–3525 (1996).
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Giesen, U.

J. A. Behr, A. Gorelov, T. Swanson, O. Häusser, K. P. Jackson, M. Trinczek, U. Giesen, J. M. D’Auria, R. Hardy, T. Wilson, P. Choboter, F. Leblond, L. Buchmann, M. Dombsky, C. D. P. Levy, G. Roy, B. A. Brown, and J. Dilling, “Magneto-optic trapping of β-decaying 38Km, 37K from an on-line isotope separator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gorelov, A.

J. A. Behr, A. Gorelov, T. Swanson, O. Häusser, K. P. Jackson, M. Trinczek, U. Giesen, J. M. D’Auria, R. Hardy, T. Wilson, P. Choboter, F. Leblond, L. Buchmann, M. Dombsky, C. D. P. Levy, G. Roy, B. A. Brown, and J. Dilling, “Magneto-optic trapping of β-decaying 38Km, 37K from an on-line isotope separator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grose, M. R.

G. P. Baxter and M. R. Grose, “The vapor pressure of iodine between 50° and 95°,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 37, 1061–1072 (1915).
[CrossRef]

Gwinn, W. D.

W. H. Flygare and W. D. Gwinn, “Electron distribution in the C–Cl bonds of CH2Cl2 and derivation of matrix elements off-diagonal in J for two quadrupolar nuclei in an asymmetric rotor,” J. Chem. Phys. 36, 787–794 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Gwinner, G.

J. E. Simsarian, A. Ghosh, G. Gwinner, L. A. Orozco, G. D. Sprouse, and P. A. Voytas, “Magneto-optic trapping of 210Fr,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3522–3525 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, J. L.

F.-L. Hong, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, S. Picard, Ch. J. Bordé, and J. L. Hall, “Rotation dependence of electric quadrupole hyperfine interaction in the ground state of molecular iodine by high-resolution laser spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 379–387 (2001).
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J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Absolute frequency atlas of molecular I2 lines at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 46, 544–549 (1999).

M. L. Eickhoff and J. L. Hall, “Optical frequency standard at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 155–158 (1995).
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L.-S. Ma and J. L. Hall, “Optical heterodyne spectroscopy enhanced by an external optical cavity: toward improved working standards,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2006–2012 (1990).
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R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hanes, G. R.

G. R. Hanes, J. Lapierre, P. R. Bunker, and K. C. Shotton, “Nuclear hyperfine structure in the electronic spectrum of 127I2 by saturated absorption spectroscopy, and comparison with theory,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 39, 506–515 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

R. Holzwarth, A. Yu. Nevsky, M. Zimmermann, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. von Zanthier, H. Walther, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, “Absolute frequency measurement of iodine lines with a femtosecond optical synthesizer,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 269–271 (2001).
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T. W. Hänsch, M. D. Levenson, and A. L. Schawlow, “Complete hyperfine structure of a molecular iodine line,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 26, 946–949 (1971).
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Hardy, R.

J. A. Behr, A. Gorelov, T. Swanson, O. Häusser, K. P. Jackson, M. Trinczek, U. Giesen, J. M. D’Auria, R. Hardy, T. Wilson, P. Choboter, F. Leblond, L. Buchmann, M. Dombsky, C. D. P. Levy, G. Roy, B. A. Brown, and J. Dilling, “Magneto-optic trapping of β-decaying 38Km, 37K from an on-line isotope separator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Häusser, O.

J. A. Behr, A. Gorelov, T. Swanson, O. Häusser, K. P. Jackson, M. Trinczek, U. Giesen, J. M. D’Auria, R. Hardy, T. Wilson, P. Choboter, F. Leblond, L. Buchmann, M. Dombsky, C. D. P. Levy, G. Roy, B. A. Brown, and J. Dilling, “Magneto-optic trapping of β-decaying 38Km, 37K from an on-line isotope separator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hogervorst, W.

S. C. Xu, R. van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, “A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 595–655 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 256–266 (2000).
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I. Velchev, R. van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, “A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 571–596 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 187, 21–27 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

R. Holzwarth, A. Yu. Nevsky, M. Zimmermann, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. von Zanthier, H. Walther, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, “Absolute frequency measurement of iodine lines with a femtosecond optical synthesizer,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 269–271 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hong, F.-L.

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, J.

Jackson, K. P.

J. A. Behr, A. Gorelov, T. Swanson, O. Häusser, K. P. Jackson, M. Trinczek, U. Giesen, J. M. D’Auria, R. Hardy, T. Wilson, P. Choboter, F. Leblond, L. Buchmann, M. Dombsky, C. D. P. Levy, G. Roy, B. A. Brown, and J. Dilling, “Magneto-optic trapping of β-decaying 38Km, 37K from an on-line isotope separator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

James, T. C.

A. Chutjian and T. C. James, “Intensity measurements in the B3Π0+u−X1Σ0+g system of I2,” J. Chem. Phys. 51, 1242–1249 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, W. R.

M. S. Safronova and W. R. Johnson, “High-precision calculation of the parity-nonconserving amplitude in francium,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 022112 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Juncar, P.

A. Coc, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, J. Pinard, J. Lermé, J. L. Vialle, S. Büttgenbach, A. C. Mueller, A. Pesnelle, and The ISOLDE Collaboration, “Hyperfine structures and isotope shifts of 207–213, 220–228Fr; possible evidence of octupolar deformation,” Phys. Lett. B 163, 66–70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kirillov, D.

D. Kirillov, “Intensity of overtones in resonant Raman scattering in I2 vapor,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 99, 228–230 (1983).
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Knight, J. C.

R. Holzwarth, A. Yu. Nevsky, M. Zimmermann, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. von Zanthier, H. Walther, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, “Absolute frequency measurement of iodine lines with a femtosecond optical synthesizer,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 269–271 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Knöckel, H.

B. Bodermann, H. Knöckel, and E. Tiemann, “Widely usable interpolation formulas for hyperfine splittings in the 127I2 spectrum,” Eur. Phys. J. D 19, 31–44 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koffend, J. B.

J. B. Koffend, R. Bacis, and R. W. Field, “The electronic transition moment of the B0u+−X1Σg+ system of I2 through gain measurements of an I2 optically pumped laser,” J. Chem. Phys. 70, 2366–2372 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
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G. Flory, M. Broyer, J. Vigué, and J. C. Lehmann, “Perturbation de l’iode moléculaire en phase vapeur par la présence de gaz étrangers. Conséquence pour la stabilisation du laser He–Ne,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 12, 901–904 (1977).
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C. S. Wood, S. C. Bennett, D. Cho, B. P. Masterson, J. L. Roberts, C. E. Tanner, and C. E. Wieman, “Measurement of parity nonconservation and an anapole moment in cesium,” Science 275, 1759–1763 (1997).
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J. E. Simsarian, W. Z. Zhao, L. A. Orozco, and G. D. Sprouse, “Two-photon spectroscopy of the francium 8S1/2 level,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 195–199 (1999).
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J. E. Simsarian, A. Ghosh, G. Gwinner, L. A. Orozco, G. D. Sprouse, and P. A. Voytas, “Magneto-optic trapping of 210Fr,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3522–3525 (1996).
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Pinard, J.

A. Coc, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, J. Pinard, J. Lermé, J. L. Vialle, S. Büttgenbach, A. C. Mueller, A. Pesnelle, and The ISOLDE Collaboration, “Hyperfine structures and isotope shifts of 207–213, 220–228Fr; possible evidence of octupolar deformation,” Phys. Lett. B 163, 66–70 (1985).
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S. G. Porsev and M. G. Kozlov, “Calculation of the nuclear spin-dependent parity-nonconserving amplitude for the (7s, F=4)→(7s, F=5) transition in Fr,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 064101 (2001).
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E. Biémont, P. Quinet, and V. Van Renterghem, “Theoretical investigation of neutral francium,” J. Phys. B 31, 5301–5314 (1998).
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Roberts, J. L.

C. S. Wood, S. C. Bennett, J. L. Roberts, D. Cho, and C. E. Wieman, “Precision measurement of parity nonconservation in cesium,” Can. J. Phys. 77, 7–75 (1999).
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C. S. Wood, S. C. Bennett, D. Cho, B. P. Masterson, J. L. Roberts, C. E. Tanner, and C. E. Wieman, “Measurement of parity nonconservation and an anapole moment in cesium,” Science 275, 1759–1763 (1997).
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J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Absolute frequency atlas of molecular I2 lines at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 46, 544–549 (1999).

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M. Lamrini, R. Bacis, D. Cerny, S. Churassy, P. Crozet, and A. J. Ross, “The electronic transition dipole moment of the B0u+→X0g+ transition in iodine,” J. Chem. Phys. 100, 8780–8783 (1994).
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J. A. Behr, A. Gorelov, T. Swanson, O. Häusser, K. P. Jackson, M. Trinczek, U. Giesen, J. M. D’Auria, R. Hardy, T. Wilson, P. Choboter, F. Leblond, L. Buchmann, M. Dombsky, C. D. P. Levy, G. Roy, B. A. Brown, and J. Dilling, “Magneto-optic trapping of β-decaying 38Km, 37K from an on-line isotope separator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 375–378 (1997).
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D. S. Elliott, R. Roy, and S. J. Smith, “Extracavity laser band-shape and bandwidth modification,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 12–18 (1982).
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R. Holzwarth, A. Yu. Nevsky, M. Zimmermann, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. von Zanthier, H. Walther, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, “Absolute frequency measurement of iodine lines with a femtosecond optical synthesizer,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 269–271 (2001).
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T. W. Hänsch, M. D. Levenson, and A. L. Schawlow, “Complete hyperfine structure of a molecular iodine line,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 26, 946–949 (1971).
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Z.-T. Lu, C. Bowers, S. J. Freedman, B. K. Fujikawa, J. L. Mortara, S.-Q. Shang, K. P. Coulter, and L. Young, “Laser trapping of short-lived radioactive isotopes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3791–3794 (1994).
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G. R. Hanes, J. Lapierre, P. R. Bunker, and K. C. Shotton, “Nuclear hyperfine structure in the electronic spectrum of 127I2 by saturated absorption spectroscopy, and comparison with theory,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 39, 506–515 (1971).
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Simsarian, J. E.

J. E. Simsarian, W. Z. Zhao, L. A. Orozco, and G. D. Sprouse, “Two-photon spectroscopy of the francium 8S1/2 level,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 195–199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Z. Zhao, J. E. Simsarian, L. A. Orozco, and G. D. Sprouse, “A computer-based digital feedback control of frequency drift of multiple lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3737–3740 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Simsarian, L. A. Orozco, G. D. Sprouse, and W. Z. Zhao, “Lifetime measurements of the 7p levels of atomic francium,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 2448–2458 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Simsarian, A. Ghosh, G. Gwinner, L. A. Orozco, G. D. Sprouse, and P. A. Voytas, “Magneto-optic trapping of 210Fr,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3522–3525 (1996).
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Skvortsov, M. N.

R. Holzwarth, A. Yu. Nevsky, M. Zimmermann, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. von Zanthier, H. Walther, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, “Absolute frequency measurement of iodine lines with a femtosecond optical synthesizer,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 269–271 (2001).
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Smith, S. J.

D. S. Elliott, R. Roy, and S. J. Smith, “Extracavity laser band-shape and bandwidth modification,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 12–18 (1982).
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Snyder, J. J.

Sprouse, G. D.

J. E. Simsarian, W. Z. Zhao, L. A. Orozco, and G. D. Sprouse, “Two-photon spectroscopy of the francium 8S1/2 level,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 195–199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Z. Zhao, J. E. Simsarian, L. A. Orozco, and G. D. Sprouse, “A computer-based digital feedback control of frequency drift of multiple lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3737–3740 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Simsarian, L. A. Orozco, G. D. Sprouse, and W. Z. Zhao, “Lifetime measurements of the 7p levels of atomic francium,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 2448–2458 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Simsarian, A. Ghosh, G. Gwinner, L. A. Orozco, G. D. Sprouse, and P. A. Voytas, “Magneto-optic trapping of 210Fr,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3522–3525 (1996).
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V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, and O. P. Sushkov, “Calculation of energy levels, E1 transition amplitudes and parity violation in francium,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 3454–3461 (1995).
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C. S. Wood, S. C. Bennett, D. Cho, B. P. Masterson, J. L. Roberts, C. E. Tanner, and C. E. Wieman, “Measurement of parity nonconservation and an anapole moment in cesium,” Science 275, 1759–1763 (1997).
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Trinczek, M.

J. A. Behr, A. Gorelov, T. Swanson, O. Häusser, K. P. Jackson, M. Trinczek, U. Giesen, J. M. D’Auria, R. Hardy, T. Wilson, P. Choboter, F. Leblond, L. Buchmann, M. Dombsky, C. D. P. Levy, G. Roy, B. A. Brown, and J. Dilling, “Magneto-optic trapping of β-decaying 38Km, 37K from an on-line isotope separator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 375–378 (1997).
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S. C. Xu, R. van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, “A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 595–655 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 256–266 (2000).
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I. Velchev, R. van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, “A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 571–596 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 187, 21–27 (1998).
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R. Holzwarth, A. Yu. Nevsky, M. Zimmermann, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. von Zanthier, H. Walther, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, “Absolute frequency measurement of iodine lines with a femtosecond optical synthesizer,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 269–271 (2001).
[CrossRef]

van Dierendonck, R.

S. C. Xu, R. van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, “A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 595–655 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 256–266 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Velchev, R. van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, “A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 571–596 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 187, 21–27 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Renterghem, V.

E. Biémont, P. Quinet, and V. Van Renterghem, “Theoretical investigation of neutral francium,” J. Phys. B 31, 5301–5314 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Velchev, I.

I. Velchev, R. van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, “A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 571–596 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 187, 21–27 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vergès, J.

F. Martin, R. Bacis, S. Churassy, and J. Vergès, “Laser-induced-fluorescence Fourier transform spectrometry of the X0g+ state of I2: extensive analysis of the B0u+→X0g+ fluorescence spectrum of 127I2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 116, 71–100 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Vialle, J. L.

A. Coc, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, J. Pinard, J. Lermé, J. L. Vialle, S. Büttgenbach, A. C. Mueller, A. Pesnelle, and The ISOLDE Collaboration, “Hyperfine structures and isotope shifts of 207–213, 220–228Fr; possible evidence of octupolar deformation,” Phys. Lett. B 163, 66–70 (1985).
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Vigué, J.

G. Flory, M. Broyer, J. Vigué, and J. C. Lehmann, “Perturbation de l’iode moléculaire en phase vapeur par la présence de gaz étrangers. Conséquence pour la stabilisation du laser He–Ne,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 12, 901–904 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, K. R.

Z.-T. Lu, K. L. Corwin, K. R. Vogel, and C. E. Wieman, “Efficient collection of 221Fr into a vapor cell magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 994–997 (1997).
[CrossRef]

von Zanthier, J.

R. Holzwarth, A. Yu. Nevsky, M. Zimmermann, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. von Zanthier, H. Walther, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, “Absolute frequency measurement of iodine lines with a femtosecond optical synthesizer,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 269–271 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Voytas, P. A.

J. E. Simsarian, A. Ghosh, G. Gwinner, L. A. Orozco, G. D. Sprouse, and P. A. Voytas, “Magneto-optic trapping of 210Fr,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3522–3525 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wadsworth, W. J.

R. Holzwarth, A. Yu. Nevsky, M. Zimmermann, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. von Zanthier, H. Walther, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, “Absolute frequency measurement of iodine lines with a femtosecond optical synthesizer,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 269–271 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Walther, H.

R. Holzwarth, A. Yu. Nevsky, M. Zimmermann, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. von Zanthier, H. Walther, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, “Absolute frequency measurement of iodine lines with a femtosecond optical synthesizer,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 269–271 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Wieman, C. E.

C. S. Wood, S. C. Bennett, J. L. Roberts, D. Cho, and C. E. Wieman, “Precision measurement of parity nonconservation in cesium,” Can. J. Phys. 77, 7–75 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Wood, S. C. Bennett, D. Cho, B. P. Masterson, J. L. Roberts, C. E. Tanner, and C. E. Wieman, “Measurement of parity nonconservation and an anapole moment in cesium,” Science 275, 1759–1763 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z.-T. Lu, K. L. Corwin, K. R. Vogel, and C. E. Wieman, “Efficient collection of 221Fr into a vapor cell magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 994–997 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, T.

J. A. Behr, A. Gorelov, T. Swanson, O. Häusser, K. P. Jackson, M. Trinczek, U. Giesen, J. M. D’Auria, R. Hardy, T. Wilson, P. Choboter, F. Leblond, L. Buchmann, M. Dombsky, C. D. P. Levy, G. Roy, B. A. Brown, and J. Dilling, “Magneto-optic trapping of β-decaying 38Km, 37K from an on-line isotope separator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wood, C. S.

C. S. Wood, S. C. Bennett, J. L. Roberts, D. Cho, and C. E. Wieman, “Precision measurement of parity nonconservation in cesium,” Can. J. Phys. 77, 7–75 (1999).
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Other (9)

H. Kato, M. Baba, S. Kasahara, K. Ishikawa, M. Misono, Y. Kimura, J. O’Reilly, H. Kuwano, T. Shimamoto, T. Shinano, C. Fujiwara, M. Ikeuchi, N. Fujita, M. H. Kabir, M. Ushino, R. Takahashi, and Y. Matsunobu, Doppler-Free High Resolution Spectral Atlas of Iodine Molecule 15 000 to 19 000 cm−1 (Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, 2000).

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B. Bodermann, “Realization of a tunable high precision frequency standard in the NIR and investigations of the extension of the spectral range using the 127I2-molecule,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Hannover, Hannover, Germany, 1998).

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, Identification des transitions du système (B–X) de la molécule d’iode et facteurs de Franck–Condon, 14 000–15 600 cm−1 (Laboratoire Aimé-Cotton, C.N.R.S. II, 91405 Orsay, France, 1986).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the apparatus used to record the hyperfine spectra of  127I2 near 718 nm. AOM stands for acousto-optic modulator, 50/50 for a beam splitter that reflects and transmits 50% of the incident power, PBS is for polarizing beam splitter, and λ/4 is for quarter-wave plate. D1, D2, and D3 are silicon photodiodes. The pump beam intensity was chopped at 7.1 kHz with the double-pass AOM (AOM 2), and the signal was recovered by phase-sensitive detection of the induced amplitude modulation on the probe beam.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Hyperfine spectra near 718 nm. Identification of the spectra is given above each curve: the iodine atlas line numbers are on the right-hand side, and the line designations with their measured Doppler line centers are on the left-hand side.15 The iodine gas pressure was 284 mTorr, the cell temperature was 680 K, the pump intensity was 1.24 W/cm2, and the probe intensity was 0.107 W/cm2. The measurement bandwidth was 90 Hz.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Saturated-absorption spectra of R(86)19 of the BX system of  127I2. (a) Spectrum recorded with the pump made of the combination of the zeroth- and first-order overlapped beams from the double-pass AOM (AOM 2). The hyperfine spectrum produced by the first-order beam is shifted by -86.7456(14) MHz from the spectrum produced by the zeroth-order beam. Such two-tone spectra were used for frequency calibration. (b) Spectrum obtained by allowing through only the first-order frequency-shifted beam. The experimental conditions were the same as those of Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Saturated-absorption spectra showing the last five components of R(86)19. (a) Spectrum recorded by dithering the pump frequency at a rate of 7.1 kHz with a modulation amplitude of 3 MHz. (b) Spectrum recorded by chopping the pump power with a 7.1-kHz square wave. The measurement bandwidth was 180 Hz; the other experimental conditions were the same as those of Fig. 2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic diagram of the apparatus used to record the Doppler-broadened linear absorption profiles in  127I2 near 718 nm. See Fig. 1 for the meaning of the abbreviations.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Measured  127I2 absorption spectrum near 13 923 cm-1, for a cell temperature of 538 K and a gas pressure of 253 mTorr. Note that continuum absorption, amounting to 3%/m, was subtracted from this spectrum. The filled circles (●) give the calculated positions and peak absorptions of the lines contributing more than 0.02%/m. The asterisk (*) indicates the line used for normalization of the calculated absorptions. (b) Spectrum after subtraction of the computed iodine lines shown in (a) as filled circles, except those labeled R(86)19, R(113)310, and P(78)19.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Analysis of the integrated absorption strength. (a) Example using line R(113)310 of Fig. 6(b). The data were fitted with a calculated Doppler-broadened line shape based on the measured hyperfine structure. (b) Residuals showing the differences between data and fit.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of our measurement of μe2(Rc) at Rc=0.2927 nm with several previous measurements. The different symbols correspond to the following works: (filled squares) this work, (filled triangles) Tellinghuisen,29 (filled circles) Lamrini et al.,54 (open squares) Bhale et al.,56 (open triangles) Kirillov,57 and (open circles) Koffend et al.58 The unit used for the dipole moment is the debye; it is defined as 1 D=(10-21/c) Cm=3.33564095×10-30 Cm, where c is the speed of light in m/s.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured Hyperfine-Splitting Frequencies (MHz)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Measured Hyperfine Constants and Comparison with Empirical Formulas

Tables Icon

Table 3 Measured Electronic Transition Dipole Moments in the BX System of  127I2

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

H=HR+eQq×HeQq+C×HSR+d×HTSS+δ×HSSS,
-α(ν)dν=14π0 8π3ν3hcN(v, J)×SJJ2J+1|μe(Rc)|2|v|v|2,
N(v, J)=gJgI exp(-E/kT)QTN,
S=1N(v, J) -α(ν)dν,
α(ν)=SN(v, J)G(ν),
G(ν)=Ai×gD(ν-νi)Ai,
α(ν)=-1L ln[I(ν)/I0],
μe2(Rc)=2J+1SJJ 1FCFμhf2.

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