Abstract

Yb3+/Er3+-codoped Na2OAl2O3GeO2PbOPbF2 glasses that are suitable for use in fiber lasers, amplifiers, and waveguide devices have been fabricated and characterized. The density, refractive indices, optical absorptions, Judd–Ofelt parameters, and spontaneous-transition probabilities of the glasses have been measured and calculated. Intense and broad 1.53-µm infrared fluorescence and visible upconversion luminescence were observed under 976-nm diode laser excitation. For the 1.53-µm emission band, the full widths at the half-maximum increase and the peak wavelengths are blueshifted with an increase of PbF2. The stimulated-emission cross sections were calculated from the measured-absorption cross section according to the McCumber theory. The monotonically reduced emission cross section arises from the decreased refractive indices of glasses and the increased linewidth of the infrared fluorescence spectrum. For the upconversion emissions centered at 524, 547, and 660 nm, the emission intensity changes remarkably with PbF2 contents from 0 to 15 mol.%. The quadratic dependence of the green and red emissions on excitation power indicates that a two-photon absorption process occurs under the 976-nm excitation. The relatively long lifetimes of the Er3+ 4S3/2 and  4F9/2 levels for the NAGF3 glass gives rise to a much more intense upconversion emission.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
  2. R. Reisfeld, L. Boehm, Y. Eckstein, and N. Lienlich, “Multiphonon relaxation of rare earth ions in borate, phosphate, germanate and tellurite glasses,” J. Lumin. 10, 193–204 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. F. Joubert, “Photon avalanche upconversion in rare earth laser material,” Opt. Mater. 11, 181–203 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  4. W. Lozano, C. B. de Araújo, and Y. Messaddeq, “Enhanced frequency upconversion in Er3+ doped fluoroindate glass due to energy transfer from Tm3+,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 311, 318–322 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  5. Z. Pan and S. H. Morgan, “Raman spectra and thermal analysis of a new lead-tellurium-germanate glass system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 210, 130–135 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  6. H. Yamada and K. Kojima, “Upconversion fluorescence in Er3+-doped Na2O–GeO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 259, 57–62 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  7. G. S. Henderson and M. E. Fleet, “The structure of glasses along the Na2O–GeO2 join,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 134, 259–269 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. R. Lincoln, C. J. MacKechnie, J. Wang, W. S. Brockleby, R. S. Deol, A. Pearson, D. C. Hanna, and D. N. Payne, “New glass of fiber laser based on lead-germanate glass,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1021–1022 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. Wang, J. R. Lincoln, W. S. Brocklesby, R. S. Deol, C. J. MacKechnie, A. Pearson, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, and D. N. Payne, “Fabrication and optical properties of lead-germanate glasses and a new class of optical fibers doped with Tm3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8066–8075 (1993).
    [Crossref]
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  11. S. Xu, Z. Yang, S. Dai, J. Yang, L. Wen, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Spectral properties of erbium-doped oxyfluoride silicate glasses for broadband optical amplifiers,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 905–908 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. Yang, S. Dai, Y. Zhou, L. Wen, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of erbium-doped bismuth-based glass for optical amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 977–983 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. Hayakawa, A. Osaka, H. Nishioka, S. Matsumoto, and Y. Miura, “Structure of lead oxyfluorosilicate glasses: x-ray photoelectron and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 272, 103–108 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  14. R. Lebullenger, L. A. O. Nunes, and A. C. Hernandes, “Properties of glasses from fluoride to phosphate composition,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 284, 55–60 (2001).
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  19. M. J. Weber, “Spontaneous emission probabilities and quantum efficiencies for excited states of Pr3+ in LaF3,” J. Chem. Phys. 48, 4774–4780 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  20. R. R. Jacobs and M. J. Weber, “Dependence of the 4F3/24I11/2 induced-emission cross section for Nd3+ on glass composition,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 102–111 (1976).
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  21. M. J. Weber, “Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of Er3+ in LaF3,” Phys. Rev. 157, 262–272 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  22. D. K. Sardar, J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, J. A. Hutchinson, and C. W. Trussell, “Judd–Ofelt analysis of the Er3+(4f11) absorption intensities in phosphate glass: Er3+, Yb3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 2041–2046 (2003).
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  23. J. Heo, Y. B. Shin, and J. N. Jang, “Spectroscopic analysis of Tm3+ in PbO–Bi2O3–Ga2O3 glass,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4284–4289 (1995).
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    [Crossref]
  25. M. Wachtler, A. Speghini, K. Gatterer, H. P. Fritzer, D. Ajó, and M. Bettinelli, “Optical properties of rare-earth ions in lead germanate glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 81, 2045–2052 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  26. A. Jha, S. Shen, and M. Naftaly, “Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5-μm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glass,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215–6227 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  27. M. Mortier, Y. D. Huang, and F. Auzel, “Crystal field analysis of Er3+-doped glasses: germanate, silicate and ZBLAN,” J. Alloys Compd. 300–301, 407–413 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  28. D. E. McCumber, “Theory of phonon-terminated optical materials,” Phys. Rev. A 134, A299–A306 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  29. J. A. Capobianco, G. Prevost, P. P. Proulx, P. Kabro, and M. Bettinelli, “Upconversion properties of Er3+ doped lead silicate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 6, 175–184 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  30. A. Biswas, G. S. Maciel, R. Kapoor, C. S. Friend, and P. N. Prasad, “Er3+-doped multicomponent sol-gel-processed silica glass for optical signal amplification at 1.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2389–2391 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  31. H. Lin, E. Y. B. Pun, S. Q. Man, and X. R. Liu, “Optical transitions and frequency upconversion of Er3+ ions in Na2O ⋅ Ca3Al2Ge3O12 glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 602–609 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  32. X. Zhang, K. Pita, S. Buddhudu, E. Daran, Y. L. Lam, and X. R. Liu, “Optical properties and upconversion fluorescence in Er3+-doped ZZA glass,” Opt. Mater. 20, 21–25 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  33. H. Lin, G. Meredith, S. Jiang, X. Peng, T. Luo, N. Peyghambarian, and E. Y. Pun, “Optical transitions and visible upconversion in Er3+ doped niobic tellurite glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 186–191 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  34. S. Tanabe, “Spectroscopic studies on multiphonon processes in erbium doped fluoride and oxide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256&257, 282–287 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  35. D. C. Yeh, W. A. Sibley, M. Suscavage, and M. G. Drexhage, “Multiphonon relaxation and infrared-to-visible conversion of Er3+ and Yb3+ ions in barium-thorium fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 266–275 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  36. D. C. Yeh, W. A. Sibley, I. Schneider, R. S. Afzal, and I. Aggarwal, “Intensity-dependent upconversion efficiencies of Er3+ ions in heavy-metal fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 1648–1653 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  37. F. Goutaland, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, and G. Monnom, “Visible emission processes in heavily doped Er/Yb silica optical fibers,” J. Alloys Compd. 275–277, 276 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  38. E. Maurice, G. Monnom, B. Dussardier, and D. B. Ostrowsky, “Clustering effects on double energy transfer in heavily ytterbium-erbium codoped silica fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 693–701 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  39. M. V. D. Vermelho, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, H. T. Amorim, F. C. Cassanjes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Temperature investigation of infrared-to-visible frequency upconversion in erbium-doped tellurite glasses excited at 1540 nm,” J. Lumin. 102–103, 755–761 (2003).
    [Crossref]

2003 (6)

S. Xu, Z. Yang, S. Dai, J. Yang, L. Wen, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Spectral properties of erbium-doped oxyfluoride silicate glasses for broadband optical amplifiers,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 905–908 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Yang, S. Dai, Y. Zhou, L. Wen, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of erbium-doped bismuth-based glass for optical amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 977–983 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. K. Sardar, J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, J. A. Hutchinson, and C. W. Trussell, “Judd–Ofelt analysis of the Er3+(4f11) absorption intensities in phosphate glass: Er3+, Yb3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 2041–2046 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Biswas, G. S. Maciel, R. Kapoor, C. S. Friend, and P. N. Prasad, “Er3+-doped multicomponent sol-gel-processed silica glass for optical signal amplification at 1.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2389–2391 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. Lin, G. Meredith, S. Jiang, X. Peng, T. Luo, N. Peyghambarian, and E. Y. Pun, “Optical transitions and visible upconversion in Er3+ doped niobic tellurite glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 186–191 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. V. D. Vermelho, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, H. T. Amorim, F. C. Cassanjes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Temperature investigation of infrared-to-visible frequency upconversion in erbium-doped tellurite glasses excited at 1540 nm,” J. Lumin. 102–103, 755–761 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

X. Zhang, K. Pita, S. Buddhudu, E. Daran, Y. L. Lam, and X. R. Liu, “Optical properties and upconversion fluorescence in Er3+-doped ZZA glass,” Opt. Mater. 20, 21–25 (2002).
[Crossref]

W. Lozano, C. B. de Araújo, and Y. Messaddeq, “Enhanced frequency upconversion in Er3+ doped fluoroindate glass due to energy transfer from Tm3+,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 311, 318–322 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

R. Lebullenger, L. A. O. Nunes, and A. C. Hernandes, “Properties of glasses from fluoride to phosphate composition,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 284, 55–60 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. Lin, E. Y. B. Pun, S. Q. Man, and X. R. Liu, “Optical transitions and frequency upconversion of Er3+ ions in Na2O ⋅ Ca3Al2Ge3O12 glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 602–609 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (3)

A. Jha, S. Shen, and M. Naftaly, “Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5-μm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glass,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215–6227 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Mortier, Y. D. Huang, and F. Auzel, “Crystal field analysis of Er3+-doped glasses: germanate, silicate and ZBLAN,” J. Alloys Compd. 300–301, 407–413 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Hayakawa, A. Osaka, H. Nishioka, S. Matsumoto, and Y. Miura, “Structure of lead oxyfluorosilicate glasses: x-ray photoelectron and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 272, 103–108 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (5)

K. Schuster, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, A. Schwuchow, and M. Scheffler, “Heavy metal oxide glasses as potential materials for VIS fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 3849, 116–123 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. Yamada and K. Kojima, “Upconversion fluorescence in Er3+-doped Na2O–GeO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 259, 57–62 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. F. Joubert, “Photon avalanche upconversion in rare earth laser material,” Opt. Mater. 11, 181–203 (1999).
[Crossref]

Y. G. Choi, K. H. Kim, and J. Heo, “Spectroscopic properties and energy transfer in PbO–Bi2O3–Ga2O3 glass doped with Er2O3,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 82, 2762–2768 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. Tanabe, “Spectroscopic studies on multiphonon processes in erbium doped fluoride and oxide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256&257, 282–287 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

M. Wachtler, A. Speghini, K. Gatterer, H. P. Fritzer, D. Ajó, and M. Bettinelli, “Optical properties of rare-earth ions in lead germanate glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 81, 2045–2052 (1998).
[Crossref]

F. Goutaland, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, and G. Monnom, “Visible emission processes in heavily doped Er/Yb silica optical fibers,” J. Alloys Compd. 275–277, 276 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

Z. Pan and S. H. Morgan, “Raman spectra and thermal analysis of a new lead-tellurium-germanate glass system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 210, 130–135 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Wachtler, A. Speghini, S. Pigorini, R. Rolli, and M. Bettinelli, “Phonon sidebands and vibrational properties of Eu3+ doped lead germanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 217, 111–114 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

J. A. Capobianco, G. Prevost, P. P. Proulx, P. Kabro, and M. Bettinelli, “Upconversion properties of Er3+ doped lead silicate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 6, 175–184 (1996).
[Crossref]

E. Maurice, G. Monnom, B. Dussardier, and D. B. Ostrowsky, “Clustering effects on double energy transfer in heavily ytterbium-erbium codoped silica fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 693–701 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, “Tellurite glass: a new glass candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater. 3, 187–203 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

J. Wang, J. R. Lincoln, W. S. Brocklesby, R. S. Deol, C. J. MacKechnie, A. Pearson, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, and D. N. Payne, “Fabrication and optical properties of lead-germanate glasses and a new class of optical fibers doped with Tm3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8066–8075 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (2)

J. R. Lincoln, C. J. MacKechnie, J. Wang, W. S. Brockleby, R. S. Deol, A. Pearson, D. C. Hanna, and D. N. Payne, “New glass of fiber laser based on lead-germanate glass,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1021–1022 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. E. Shelby and E. A. Bolden, “Formation and properties of lead fluorogermanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 142, 269–277 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (2)

D. C. Yeh, W. A. Sibley, I. Schneider, R. S. Afzal, and I. Aggarwal, “Intensity-dependent upconversion efficiencies of Er3+ ions in heavy-metal fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 1648–1653 (1991).
[Crossref]

G. S. Henderson and M. E. Fleet, “The structure of glasses along the Na2O–GeO2 join,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 134, 259–269 (1991).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

D. C. Yeh, W. A. Sibley, M. Suscavage, and M. G. Drexhage, “Multiphonon relaxation and infrared-to-visible conversion of Er3+ and Yb3+ ions in barium-thorium fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 266–275 (1987).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

J. J. Chen, “Formation and structure of some alkali and alkaline-earth fluoroborate glasses,” J. Chin. Silicates 11, 55–63 (1983).

1976 (1)

R. R. Jacobs and M. J. Weber, “Dependence of the 4F3/24I11/2 induced-emission cross section for Nd3+ on glass composition,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 102–111 (1976).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

R. Reisfeld, L. Boehm, Y. Eckstein, and N. Lienlich, “Multiphonon relaxation of rare earth ions in borate, phosphate, germanate and tellurite glasses,” J. Lumin. 10, 193–204 (1975).
[Crossref]

1968 (2)

M. J. Weber, “Radiative and multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in Y2O3,” Phys. Rev. 171, 283–291 (1968).
[Crossref]

M. J. Weber, “Spontaneous emission probabilities and quantum efficiencies for excited states of Pr3+ in LaF3,” J. Chem. Phys. 48, 4774–4780 (1968).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

M. J. Weber, “Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of Er3+ in LaF3,” Phys. Rev. 157, 262–272 (1967).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

D. E. McCumber, “Theory of phonon-terminated optical materials,” Phys. Rev. A 134, A299–A306 (1964).
[Crossref]

Afzal, R. S.

D. C. Yeh, W. A. Sibley, I. Schneider, R. S. Afzal, and I. Aggarwal, “Intensity-dependent upconversion efficiencies of Er3+ ions in heavy-metal fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 1648–1653 (1991).
[Crossref]

Aggarwal, I.

D. C. Yeh, W. A. Sibley, I. Schneider, R. S. Afzal, and I. Aggarwal, “Intensity-dependent upconversion efficiencies of Er3+ ions in heavy-metal fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 1648–1653 (1991).
[Crossref]

Ajó, D.

M. Wachtler, A. Speghini, K. Gatterer, H. P. Fritzer, D. Ajó, and M. Bettinelli, “Optical properties of rare-earth ions in lead germanate glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 81, 2045–2052 (1998).
[Crossref]

Amorim, H. T.

M. V. D. Vermelho, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, H. T. Amorim, F. C. Cassanjes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Temperature investigation of infrared-to-visible frequency upconversion in erbium-doped tellurite glasses excited at 1540 nm,” J. Lumin. 102–103, 755–761 (2003).
[Crossref]

Auzel, F.

M. Mortier, Y. D. Huang, and F. Auzel, “Crystal field analysis of Er3+-doped glasses: germanate, silicate and ZBLAN,” J. Alloys Compd. 300–301, 407–413 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bettinelli, M.

M. Wachtler, A. Speghini, K. Gatterer, H. P. Fritzer, D. Ajó, and M. Bettinelli, “Optical properties of rare-earth ions in lead germanate glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 81, 2045–2052 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Wachtler, A. Speghini, S. Pigorini, R. Rolli, and M. Bettinelli, “Phonon sidebands and vibrational properties of Eu3+ doped lead germanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 217, 111–114 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. A. Capobianco, G. Prevost, P. P. Proulx, P. Kabro, and M. Bettinelli, “Upconversion properties of Er3+ doped lead silicate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 6, 175–184 (1996).
[Crossref]

Biswas, A.

A. Biswas, G. S. Maciel, R. Kapoor, C. S. Friend, and P. N. Prasad, “Er3+-doped multicomponent sol-gel-processed silica glass for optical signal amplification at 1.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2389–2391 (2003).
[Crossref]

Boehm, L.

R. Reisfeld, L. Boehm, Y. Eckstein, and N. Lienlich, “Multiphonon relaxation of rare earth ions in borate, phosphate, germanate and tellurite glasses,” J. Lumin. 10, 193–204 (1975).
[Crossref]

Bolden, E. A.

J. E. Shelby and E. A. Bolden, “Formation and properties of lead fluorogermanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 142, 269–277 (1992).
[Crossref]

Boukenter, A.

F. Goutaland, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, and G. Monnom, “Visible emission processes in heavily doped Er/Yb silica optical fibers,” J. Alloys Compd. 275–277, 276 (1998).
[Crossref]

Brockleby, W. S.

J. R. Lincoln, C. J. MacKechnie, J. Wang, W. S. Brockleby, R. S. Deol, A. Pearson, D. C. Hanna, and D. N. Payne, “New glass of fiber laser based on lead-germanate glass,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1021–1022 (1992).
[Crossref]

Brocklesby, W. S.

J. Wang, J. R. Lincoln, W. S. Brocklesby, R. S. Deol, C. J. MacKechnie, A. Pearson, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, and D. N. Payne, “Fabrication and optical properties of lead-germanate glasses and a new class of optical fibers doped with Tm3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8066–8075 (1993).
[Crossref]

Buddhudu, S.

X. Zhang, K. Pita, S. Buddhudu, E. Daran, Y. L. Lam, and X. R. Liu, “Optical properties and upconversion fluorescence in Er3+-doped ZZA glass,” Opt. Mater. 20, 21–25 (2002).
[Crossref]

Capobianco, J. A.

J. A. Capobianco, G. Prevost, P. P. Proulx, P. Kabro, and M. Bettinelli, “Upconversion properties of Er3+ doped lead silicate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 6, 175–184 (1996).
[Crossref]

Cassanjes, F. C.

M. V. D. Vermelho, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, H. T. Amorim, F. C. Cassanjes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Temperature investigation of infrared-to-visible frequency upconversion in erbium-doped tellurite glasses excited at 1540 nm,” J. Lumin. 102–103, 755–761 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, J. J.

J. J. Chen, “Formation and structure of some alkali and alkaline-earth fluoroborate glasses,” J. Chin. Silicates 11, 55–63 (1983).

Choi, Y. G.

Y. G. Choi, K. H. Kim, and J. Heo, “Spectroscopic properties and energy transfer in PbO–Bi2O3–Ga2O3 glass doped with Er2O3,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 82, 2762–2768 (1999).
[Crossref]

Dai, S.

S. Xu, Z. Yang, S. Dai, J. Yang, L. Wen, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Spectral properties of erbium-doped oxyfluoride silicate glasses for broadband optical amplifiers,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 905–908 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Yang, S. Dai, Y. Zhou, L. Wen, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of erbium-doped bismuth-based glass for optical amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 977–983 (2003).
[Crossref]

Daran, E.

X. Zhang, K. Pita, S. Buddhudu, E. Daran, Y. L. Lam, and X. R. Liu, “Optical properties and upconversion fluorescence in Er3+-doped ZZA glass,” Opt. Mater. 20, 21–25 (2002).
[Crossref]

de Araújo, C. B.

W. Lozano, C. B. de Araújo, and Y. Messaddeq, “Enhanced frequency upconversion in Er3+ doped fluoroindate glass due to energy transfer from Tm3+,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 311, 318–322 (2002).
[Crossref]

Deol, R. S.

J. Wang, J. R. Lincoln, W. S. Brocklesby, R. S. Deol, C. J. MacKechnie, A. Pearson, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, and D. N. Payne, “Fabrication and optical properties of lead-germanate glasses and a new class of optical fibers doped with Tm3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8066–8075 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. R. Lincoln, C. J. MacKechnie, J. Wang, W. S. Brockleby, R. S. Deol, A. Pearson, D. C. Hanna, and D. N. Payne, “New glass of fiber laser based on lead-germanate glass,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1021–1022 (1992).
[Crossref]

Drexhage, M. G.

D. C. Yeh, W. A. Sibley, M. Suscavage, and M. G. Drexhage, “Multiphonon relaxation and infrared-to-visible conversion of Er3+ and Yb3+ ions in barium-thorium fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 266–275 (1987).
[Crossref]

Dussardier, B.

Eckstein, Y.

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A. Biswas, G. S. Maciel, R. Kapoor, C. S. Friend, and P. N. Prasad, “Er3+-doped multicomponent sol-gel-processed silica glass for optical signal amplification at 1.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2389–2391 (2003).
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D. K. Sardar, J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, J. A. Hutchinson, and C. W. Trussell, “Judd–Ofelt analysis of the Er3+(4f11) absorption intensities in phosphate glass: Er3+, Yb3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 2041–2046 (2003).
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J. Wang, J. R. Lincoln, W. S. Brocklesby, R. S. Deol, C. J. MacKechnie, A. Pearson, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, and D. N. Payne, “Fabrication and optical properties of lead-germanate glasses and a new class of optical fibers doped with Tm3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8066–8075 (1993).
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J. R. Lincoln, C. J. MacKechnie, J. Wang, W. S. Brockleby, R. S. Deol, A. Pearson, D. C. Hanna, and D. N. Payne, “New glass of fiber laser based on lead-germanate glass,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1021–1022 (1992).
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G. S. Henderson and M. E. Fleet, “The structure of glasses along the Na2O–GeO2 join,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 134, 259–269 (1991).
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Y. G. Choi, K. H. Kim, and J. Heo, “Spectroscopic properties and energy transfer in PbO–Bi2O3–Ga2O3 glass doped with Er2O3,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 82, 2762–2768 (1999).
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D. K. Sardar, J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, J. A. Hutchinson, and C. W. Trussell, “Judd–Ofelt analysis of the Er3+(4f11) absorption intensities in phosphate glass: Er3+, Yb3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 2041–2046 (2003).
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Jha, A.

A. Jha, S. Shen, and M. Naftaly, “Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5-μm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glass,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215–6227 (2000).
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H. Lin, G. Meredith, S. Jiang, X. Peng, T. Luo, N. Peyghambarian, and E. Y. Pun, “Optical transitions and visible upconversion in Er3+ doped niobic tellurite glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 186–191 (2003).
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Jiang, Z.

S. Xu, Z. Yang, S. Dai, J. Yang, L. Wen, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Spectral properties of erbium-doped oxyfluoride silicate glasses for broadband optical amplifiers,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 905–908 (2003).
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J. Yang, S. Dai, Y. Zhou, L. Wen, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of erbium-doped bismuth-based glass for optical amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 977–983 (2003).
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J. A. Capobianco, G. Prevost, P. P. Proulx, P. Kabro, and M. Bettinelli, “Upconversion properties of Er3+ doped lead silicate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 6, 175–184 (1996).
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Kapoor, R.

A. Biswas, G. S. Maciel, R. Kapoor, C. S. Friend, and P. N. Prasad, “Er3+-doped multicomponent sol-gel-processed silica glass for optical signal amplification at 1.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2389–2391 (2003).
[Crossref]

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Y. G. Choi, K. H. Kim, and J. Heo, “Spectroscopic properties and energy transfer in PbO–Bi2O3–Ga2O3 glass doped with Er2O3,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 82, 2762–2768 (1999).
[Crossref]

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K. Schuster, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, A. Schwuchow, and M. Scheffler, “Heavy metal oxide glasses as potential materials for VIS fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 3849, 116–123 (1999).
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Kobelke, J.

K. Schuster, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, A. Schwuchow, and M. Scheffler, “Heavy metal oxide glasses as potential materials for VIS fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 3849, 116–123 (1999).
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R. Reisfeld, L. Boehm, Y. Eckstein, and N. Lienlich, “Multiphonon relaxation of rare earth ions in borate, phosphate, germanate and tellurite glasses,” J. Lumin. 10, 193–204 (1975).
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H. Lin, G. Meredith, S. Jiang, X. Peng, T. Luo, N. Peyghambarian, and E. Y. Pun, “Optical transitions and visible upconversion in Er3+ doped niobic tellurite glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 186–191 (2003).
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J. Wang, J. R. Lincoln, W. S. Brocklesby, R. S. Deol, C. J. MacKechnie, A. Pearson, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, and D. N. Payne, “Fabrication and optical properties of lead-germanate glasses and a new class of optical fibers doped with Tm3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8066–8075 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. R. Lincoln, C. J. MacKechnie, J. Wang, W. S. Brockleby, R. S. Deol, A. Pearson, D. C. Hanna, and D. N. Payne, “New glass of fiber laser based on lead-germanate glass,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1021–1022 (1992).
[Crossref]

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X. Zhang, K. Pita, S. Buddhudu, E. Daran, Y. L. Lam, and X. R. Liu, “Optical properties and upconversion fluorescence in Er3+-doped ZZA glass,” Opt. Mater. 20, 21–25 (2002).
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H. Lin, E. Y. B. Pun, S. Q. Man, and X. R. Liu, “Optical transitions and frequency upconversion of Er3+ ions in Na2O ⋅ Ca3Al2Ge3O12 glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 602–609 (2001).
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H. Lin, G. Meredith, S. Jiang, X. Peng, T. Luo, N. Peyghambarian, and E. Y. Pun, “Optical transitions and visible upconversion in Er3+ doped niobic tellurite glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 186–191 (2003).
[Crossref]

Maciel, G. S.

A. Biswas, G. S. Maciel, R. Kapoor, C. S. Friend, and P. N. Prasad, “Er3+-doped multicomponent sol-gel-processed silica glass for optical signal amplification at 1.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2389–2391 (2003).
[Crossref]

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J. Wang, J. R. Lincoln, W. S. Brocklesby, R. S. Deol, C. J. MacKechnie, A. Pearson, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, and D. N. Payne, “Fabrication and optical properties of lead-germanate glasses and a new class of optical fibers doped with Tm3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8066–8075 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. R. Lincoln, C. J. MacKechnie, J. Wang, W. S. Brockleby, R. S. Deol, A. Pearson, D. C. Hanna, and D. N. Payne, “New glass of fiber laser based on lead-germanate glass,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1021–1022 (1992).
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Man, S. Q.

Matsumoto, S.

S. Hayakawa, A. Osaka, H. Nishioka, S. Matsumoto, and Y. Miura, “Structure of lead oxyfluorosilicate glasses: x-ray photoelectron and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 272, 103–108 (2000).
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H. Lin, G. Meredith, S. Jiang, X. Peng, T. Luo, N. Peyghambarian, and E. Y. Pun, “Optical transitions and visible upconversion in Er3+ doped niobic tellurite glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 186–191 (2003).
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M. V. D. Vermelho, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, H. T. Amorim, F. C. Cassanjes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Temperature investigation of infrared-to-visible frequency upconversion in erbium-doped tellurite glasses excited at 1540 nm,” J. Lumin. 102–103, 755–761 (2003).
[Crossref]

W. Lozano, C. B. de Araújo, and Y. Messaddeq, “Enhanced frequency upconversion in Er3+ doped fluoroindate glass due to energy transfer from Tm3+,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 311, 318–322 (2002).
[Crossref]

Miura, Y.

S. Hayakawa, A. Osaka, H. Nishioka, S. Matsumoto, and Y. Miura, “Structure of lead oxyfluorosilicate glasses: x-ray photoelectron and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 272, 103–108 (2000).
[Crossref]

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F. Goutaland, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, and G. Monnom, “Visible emission processes in heavily doped Er/Yb silica optical fibers,” J. Alloys Compd. 275–277, 276 (1998).
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E. Maurice, G. Monnom, B. Dussardier, and D. B. Ostrowsky, “Clustering effects on double energy transfer in heavily ytterbium-erbium codoped silica fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 693–701 (1996).
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M. Mortier, Y. D. Huang, and F. Auzel, “Crystal field analysis of Er3+-doped glasses: germanate, silicate and ZBLAN,” J. Alloys Compd. 300–301, 407–413 (2000).
[Crossref]

Naftaly, M.

A. Jha, S. Shen, and M. Naftaly, “Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5-μm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glass,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215–6227 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nishioka, H.

S. Hayakawa, A. Osaka, H. Nishioka, S. Matsumoto, and Y. Miura, “Structure of lead oxyfluorosilicate glasses: x-ray photoelectron and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 272, 103–108 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nunes, L. A. O.

R. Lebullenger, L. A. O. Nunes, and A. C. Hernandes, “Properties of glasses from fluoride to phosphate composition,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 284, 55–60 (2001).
[Crossref]

Osaka, A.

S. Hayakawa, A. Osaka, H. Nishioka, S. Matsumoto, and Y. Miura, “Structure of lead oxyfluorosilicate glasses: x-ray photoelectron and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 272, 103–108 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ostrowsky, D. B.

Ouerdane, Y.

F. Goutaland, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, and G. Monnom, “Visible emission processes in heavily doped Er/Yb silica optical fibers,” J. Alloys Compd. 275–277, 276 (1998).
[Crossref]

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Z. Pan and S. H. Morgan, “Raman spectra and thermal analysis of a new lead-tellurium-germanate glass system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 210, 130–135 (1997).
[Crossref]

Payne, D. N.

J. Wang, J. R. Lincoln, W. S. Brocklesby, R. S. Deol, C. J. MacKechnie, A. Pearson, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, and D. N. Payne, “Fabrication and optical properties of lead-germanate glasses and a new class of optical fibers doped with Tm3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8066–8075 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. R. Lincoln, C. J. MacKechnie, J. Wang, W. S. Brockleby, R. S. Deol, A. Pearson, D. C. Hanna, and D. N. Payne, “New glass of fiber laser based on lead-germanate glass,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1021–1022 (1992).
[Crossref]

Pearson, A.

J. Wang, J. R. Lincoln, W. S. Brocklesby, R. S. Deol, C. J. MacKechnie, A. Pearson, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, and D. N. Payne, “Fabrication and optical properties of lead-germanate glasses and a new class of optical fibers doped with Tm3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8066–8075 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. R. Lincoln, C. J. MacKechnie, J. Wang, W. S. Brockleby, R. S. Deol, A. Pearson, D. C. Hanna, and D. N. Payne, “New glass of fiber laser based on lead-germanate glass,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1021–1022 (1992).
[Crossref]

Peng, X.

H. Lin, G. Meredith, S. Jiang, X. Peng, T. Luo, N. Peyghambarian, and E. Y. Pun, “Optical transitions and visible upconversion in Er3+ doped niobic tellurite glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 186–191 (2003).
[Crossref]

Peyghambarian, N.

H. Lin, G. Meredith, S. Jiang, X. Peng, T. Luo, N. Peyghambarian, and E. Y. Pun, “Optical transitions and visible upconversion in Er3+ doped niobic tellurite glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 186–191 (2003).
[Crossref]

Pigorini, S.

M. Wachtler, A. Speghini, S. Pigorini, R. Rolli, and M. Bettinelli, “Phonon sidebands and vibrational properties of Eu3+ doped lead germanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 217, 111–114 (1997).
[Crossref]

Pita, K.

X. Zhang, K. Pita, S. Buddhudu, E. Daran, Y. L. Lam, and X. R. Liu, “Optical properties and upconversion fluorescence in Er3+-doped ZZA glass,” Opt. Mater. 20, 21–25 (2002).
[Crossref]

Prasad, P. N.

A. Biswas, G. S. Maciel, R. Kapoor, C. S. Friend, and P. N. Prasad, “Er3+-doped multicomponent sol-gel-processed silica glass for optical signal amplification at 1.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2389–2391 (2003).
[Crossref]

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J. A. Capobianco, G. Prevost, P. P. Proulx, P. Kabro, and M. Bettinelli, “Upconversion properties of Er3+ doped lead silicate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 6, 175–184 (1996).
[Crossref]

Proulx, P. P.

J. A. Capobianco, G. Prevost, P. P. Proulx, P. Kabro, and M. Bettinelli, “Upconversion properties of Er3+ doped lead silicate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 6, 175–184 (1996).
[Crossref]

Pun, E. Y.

H. Lin, G. Meredith, S. Jiang, X. Peng, T. Luo, N. Peyghambarian, and E. Y. Pun, “Optical transitions and visible upconversion in Er3+ doped niobic tellurite glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 186–191 (2003).
[Crossref]

Pun, E. Y. B.

Reisfeld, R.

R. Reisfeld, L. Boehm, Y. Eckstein, and N. Lienlich, “Multiphonon relaxation of rare earth ions in borate, phosphate, germanate and tellurite glasses,” J. Lumin. 10, 193–204 (1975).
[Crossref]

Ribeiro, S. J. L.

M. V. D. Vermelho, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, H. T. Amorim, F. C. Cassanjes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Temperature investigation of infrared-to-visible frequency upconversion in erbium-doped tellurite glasses excited at 1540 nm,” J. Lumin. 102–103, 755–761 (2003).
[Crossref]

Rolli, R.

M. Wachtler, A. Speghini, S. Pigorini, R. Rolli, and M. Bettinelli, “Phonon sidebands and vibrational properties of Eu3+ doped lead germanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 217, 111–114 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sardar, D. K.

D. K. Sardar, J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, J. A. Hutchinson, and C. W. Trussell, “Judd–Ofelt analysis of the Er3+(4f11) absorption intensities in phosphate glass: Er3+, Yb3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 2041–2046 (2003).
[Crossref]

Scheffler, M.

K. Schuster, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, A. Schwuchow, and M. Scheffler, “Heavy metal oxide glasses as potential materials for VIS fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 3849, 116–123 (1999).
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K. Schuster, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, A. Schwuchow, and M. Scheffler, “Heavy metal oxide glasses as potential materials for VIS fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 3849, 116–123 (1999).
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Schwuchow, A.

K. Schuster, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, A. Schwuchow, and M. Scheffler, “Heavy metal oxide glasses as potential materials for VIS fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 3849, 116–123 (1999).
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A. Jha, S. Shen, and M. Naftaly, “Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5-μm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glass,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215–6227 (2000).
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Shin, Y. B.

Sibley, W. A.

D. C. Yeh, W. A. Sibley, I. Schneider, R. S. Afzal, and I. Aggarwal, “Intensity-dependent upconversion efficiencies of Er3+ ions in heavy-metal fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 1648–1653 (1991).
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J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, “Tellurite glass: a new glass candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater. 3, 187–203 (1994).
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M. Wachtler, A. Speghini, K. Gatterer, H. P. Fritzer, D. Ajó, and M. Bettinelli, “Optical properties of rare-earth ions in lead germanate glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 81, 2045–2052 (1998).
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M. Wachtler, A. Speghini, S. Pigorini, R. Rolli, and M. Bettinelli, “Phonon sidebands and vibrational properties of Eu3+ doped lead germanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 217, 111–114 (1997).
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D. C. Yeh, W. A. Sibley, M. Suscavage, and M. G. Drexhage, “Multiphonon relaxation and infrared-to-visible conversion of Er3+ and Yb3+ ions in barium-thorium fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 266–275 (1987).
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J. Wang, J. R. Lincoln, W. S. Brocklesby, R. S. Deol, C. J. MacKechnie, A. Pearson, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, and D. N. Payne, “Fabrication and optical properties of lead-germanate glasses and a new class of optical fibers doped with Tm3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8066–8075 (1993).
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Trussell, C. W.

D. K. Sardar, J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, J. A. Hutchinson, and C. W. Trussell, “Judd–Ofelt analysis of the Er3+(4f11) absorption intensities in phosphate glass: Er3+, Yb3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 2041–2046 (2003).
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Vermelho, M. V. D.

M. V. D. Vermelho, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, H. T. Amorim, F. C. Cassanjes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Temperature investigation of infrared-to-visible frequency upconversion in erbium-doped tellurite glasses excited at 1540 nm,” J. Lumin. 102–103, 755–761 (2003).
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J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, “Tellurite glass: a new glass candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater. 3, 187–203 (1994).
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M. Wachtler, A. Speghini, K. Gatterer, H. P. Fritzer, D. Ajó, and M. Bettinelli, “Optical properties of rare-earth ions in lead germanate glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 81, 2045–2052 (1998).
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M. Wachtler, A. Speghini, S. Pigorini, R. Rolli, and M. Bettinelli, “Phonon sidebands and vibrational properties of Eu3+ doped lead germanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 217, 111–114 (1997).
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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

M. J. Weber, “Spontaneous emission probabilities and quantum efficiencies for excited states of Pr3+ in LaF3,” J. Chem. Phys. 48, 4774–4780 (1968).
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[Crossref]

Wen, L.

S. Xu, Z. Yang, S. Dai, J. Yang, L. Wen, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Spectral properties of erbium-doped oxyfluoride silicate glasses for broadband optical amplifiers,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 905–908 (2003).
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J. Yang, S. Dai, Y. Zhou, L. Wen, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of erbium-doped bismuth-based glass for optical amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 977–983 (2003).
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Xu, S.

S. Xu, Z. Yang, S. Dai, J. Yang, L. Wen, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Spectral properties of erbium-doped oxyfluoride silicate glasses for broadband optical amplifiers,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 905–908 (2003).
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H. Yamada and K. Kojima, “Upconversion fluorescence in Er3+-doped Na2O–GeO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 259, 57–62 (1999).
[Crossref]

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S. Xu, Z. Yang, S. Dai, J. Yang, L. Wen, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Spectral properties of erbium-doped oxyfluoride silicate glasses for broadband optical amplifiers,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 905–908 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Yang, S. Dai, Y. Zhou, L. Wen, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of erbium-doped bismuth-based glass for optical amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 977–983 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z.

S. Xu, Z. Yang, S. Dai, J. Yang, L. Wen, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Spectral properties of erbium-doped oxyfluoride silicate glasses for broadband optical amplifiers,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 905–908 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yeh, D. C.

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D. C. Yeh, W. A. Sibley, M. Suscavage, and M. G. Drexhage, “Multiphonon relaxation and infrared-to-visible conversion of Er3+ and Yb3+ ions in barium-thorium fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 266–275 (1987).
[Crossref]

Zandi, B.

D. K. Sardar, J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, J. A. Hutchinson, and C. W. Trussell, “Judd–Ofelt analysis of the Er3+(4f11) absorption intensities in phosphate glass: Er3+, Yb3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 2041–2046 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

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[Crossref]

Zhou, Y.

J. Yang, S. Dai, Y. Zhou, L. Wen, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of erbium-doped bismuth-based glass for optical amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 977–983 (2003).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

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S. Xu, Z. Yang, S. Dai, J. Yang, L. Wen, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Spectral properties of erbium-doped oxyfluoride silicate glasses for broadband optical amplifiers,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 905–908 (2003).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. R. Lincoln, C. J. MacKechnie, J. Wang, W. S. Brockleby, R. S. Deol, A. Pearson, D. C. Hanna, and D. N. Payne, “New glass of fiber laser based on lead-germanate glass,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1021–1022 (1992).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. R. Jacobs and M. J. Weber, “Dependence of the 4F3/24I11/2 induced-emission cross section for Nd3+ on glass composition,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 102–111 (1976).
[Crossref]

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M. Mortier, Y. D. Huang, and F. Auzel, “Crystal field analysis of Er3+-doped glasses: germanate, silicate and ZBLAN,” J. Alloys Compd. 300–301, 407–413 (2000).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

M. Wachtler, A. Speghini, K. Gatterer, H. P. Fritzer, D. Ajó, and M. Bettinelli, “Optical properties of rare-earth ions in lead germanate glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 81, 2045–2052 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (6)

D. K. Sardar, J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, J. A. Hutchinson, and C. W. Trussell, “Judd–Ofelt analysis of the Er3+(4f11) absorption intensities in phosphate glass: Er3+, Yb3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 2041–2046 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. Lin, G. Meredith, S. Jiang, X. Peng, T. Luo, N. Peyghambarian, and E. Y. Pun, “Optical transitions and visible upconversion in Er3+ doped niobic tellurite glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 186–191 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J. R. Lincoln, W. S. Brocklesby, R. S. Deol, C. J. MacKechnie, A. Pearson, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, and D. N. Payne, “Fabrication and optical properties of lead-germanate glasses and a new class of optical fibers doped with Tm3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8066–8075 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Yang, S. Dai, Y. Zhou, L. Wen, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of erbium-doped bismuth-based glass for optical amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 977–983 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. C. Yeh, W. A. Sibley, M. Suscavage, and M. G. Drexhage, “Multiphonon relaxation and infrared-to-visible conversion of Er3+ and Yb3+ ions in barium-thorium fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 266–275 (1987).
[Crossref]

D. C. Yeh, W. A. Sibley, I. Schneider, R. S. Afzal, and I. Aggarwal, “Intensity-dependent upconversion efficiencies of Er3+ ions in heavy-metal fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 1648–1653 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. J. Weber, “Spontaneous emission probabilities and quantum efficiencies for excited states of Pr3+ in LaF3,” J. Chem. Phys. 48, 4774–4780 (1968).
[Crossref]

J. Chin. Silicates (1)

J. J. Chen, “Formation and structure of some alkali and alkaline-earth fluoroborate glasses,” J. Chin. Silicates 11, 55–63 (1983).

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R. Reisfeld, L. Boehm, Y. Eckstein, and N. Lienlich, “Multiphonon relaxation of rare earth ions in borate, phosphate, germanate and tellurite glasses,” J. Lumin. 10, 193–204 (1975).
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W. Lozano, C. B. de Araújo, and Y. Messaddeq, “Enhanced frequency upconversion in Er3+ doped fluoroindate glass due to energy transfer from Tm3+,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 311, 318–322 (2002).
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H. Yamada and K. Kojima, “Upconversion fluorescence in Er3+-doped Na2O–GeO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 259, 57–62 (1999).
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G. S. Henderson and M. E. Fleet, “The structure of glasses along the Na2O–GeO2 join,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 134, 259–269 (1991).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Mater. (4)

X. Zhang, K. Pita, S. Buddhudu, E. Daran, Y. L. Lam, and X. R. Liu, “Optical properties and upconversion fluorescence in Er3+-doped ZZA glass,” Opt. Mater. 20, 21–25 (2002).
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[Crossref]

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, “Tellurite glass: a new glass candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater. 3, 187–203 (1994).
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[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (2)

M. J. Weber, “Radiative and multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in Y2O3,” Phys. Rev. 171, 283–291 (1968).
[Crossref]

M. J. Weber, “Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of Er3+ in LaF3,” Phys. Rev. 157, 262–272 (1967).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectra of Yb3+/Er3+ codoped 0.1Na2O0.05Al2O30.6GeO2(0.25-x)PbOxPbF2 glasses.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fluorescence spectra of Yb3+/Er3+ codoped 0.1Na2O0.05Al2O30.6GeO2(0.25-x)PbOxPbF2 glasses.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

FWHM and peak emission wavelength of Er3+ at 1.53 µm in 0.1Na2O0.05Al2O30.6GeO2(0.25-x)PbOxPbF2 glasses.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Absorption and emission cross sections of Er3+ at 1.53 µm in 0.1Na2O0.05Al2O30.6GeO2(0.25-x)PbOxPbF2 glasses.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Lifetime and quantum yield of the  4I13/2 level of Er3+ in 0.1Na2O0.05Al2O30.6GeO2(0.25-x)PbOxPbF2 glasses excited by a 976-nm diode laser.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Infrared transmission spectra of 0.1Na2O0.05Al2O30.6GeO2(0.25-x)PbOxPbF2 glasses.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Upconversion spectra of Er3+ in 0.1Na2O0.05Al2O30.6GeO2(0.25-x)PbOxPbF2 glasses upon excitation at 976 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Dependence of upconversion-emission intensity on excitation power under 976-nm excitation for the NAGF3 glass.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Tg, Tx, and ΔT of Yb3+/Er3+ Codoped 0.1Na2O0.05Al2O30.6GeO2(0.25-x)PbOxPbF2 (x=0,0.05,0.1,0.15) Glasses

Tables Icon

Table 2 J–O Intensity Parameters of Er3+ in Various Glasses

Tables Icon

Table 3 Hydroxyl Contents, Calculated Electric-Dipole Line Strengths, Radiative Decay Rates of the Er3+: 4I13/2I15/2 Transition in 0.1Na2O0.05Al2O30.6GeO2(0.25-x)PbOxPbF2 (x=0,0.05,0.1,0.15) Glasses

Tables Icon

Table 4 Calculated Radiative Lifetimes of the Excited States of Er3+ in 0.1Na2O0.05Al2O30.6GeO2(0.25-x)PbOxPbF2 (x=0,0.05,0.1,0.15) Glasses

Tables Icon

Table 5 Luminescence Lifetime and Quantum Efficiency of the Er3+: 4S3/2 and  4F9/2 Levels under 976-nm Laser Excitation

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Sed[4I13/2  4I15/2]=0.0188Ω2+0.1176Ω4+1.4617Ω6,
σe=σa(λ)exp[(-hν)/kT],

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