Abstract

The dependence of the laser threshold of organic distributed-feedback (DFB) lasers having index and surface gratings on the pump polarization angle is studied and examined. A model is developed to describe the relationship between the fluorophore orientational distribution and the number of photons emitted into the laser mode. Experimental data fitted with this model demonstrate that the fluorophores are isotropically oriented in the plane of the sample. The polarization dependence of the laser threshold is then used in conjunction with the measured pump intensity dependence of the emission intensity to explain the pump polarization selectivity of the laser emission of these structures. The effect of the above phenomena on future applications is discussed.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  2. Y. Oki, S. Miyamoto, M. Maeda, and N. J. Vasa, “Multiwavelength distributed-feedback dye laser array and its application to spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1220–1222 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Operating characteristics of a semiconducting polymer laser pumped by a microchip laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 313–315 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. R. Hebner, C. C. Wu, D. Marcy, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Ink-jet printing of doped polymers for organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 519–521 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. C. Chang, J. Liu, J. Bharathan, Y. Yang, J. Onohara, and J. Kido, “Multicolor organic light-emitting diodes processed by hybrid inkjet printing,” Adv. Mater. 11, 734–737 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. R. Lawrence, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, M. Buck, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Optical properties of a light-emitting polymer directly patterned by soft lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1955–1957 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, A. Timko, and O. Nalamasu, “Organic solid-state lasers with imprinted gratings on plastic substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 410–411 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. I. Hsu, R. Bhattacharya, H. Gleskova, M. Huang, Z. Xi, Z. Suo, S. Wagner, and J. C. Sturm, “Thin-film transistor circuits on large-area spherical surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1723–1725 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, and Z. Bao, “Light amplification in organic thin films using cascade energy transfer,” Nature (London) 389, 466–469 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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  11. V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, and S. R. Forrest, “Temperature independent performance of organic semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2575–2577 (1997).
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  12. S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, S. Berleb, A. G. Mückl, W. Brütting, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “Very compact tunable solid-state laser utilizing a thin-film organic semiconductor,” Opt. Lett. 26, 593–595 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Maeda, Y. Oki, and K. Imamura, “Ultrashort pulse generation from an integrated single-chip dye laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2146–2149 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1069–1072 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Dodabalapur, M. Berggren, R. E. Slusher, Z. Bao, A. Timko, P. Schiortino, E. Laskowski, H. E. Katz, and O. Nalamasu, “Resonators and materials for organic lasers based on energy transfer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 67–74 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Oki, K. Aso, D. Zuo, N. J. Vasa, and M. Maeda, “Wide-wavelength-range operation of a distributed-feedback dye laser with a plastic waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 6370–6374 (2002).
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    [CrossRef]
  20. T. Kavc, G. Langer, P. Polt, K. Reichmann, and W. Kern, “Formation of images and surface relief gratings in photosensitive polymers containing SCN groups,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 203, 1099–1105 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. Langer, T. Kavc, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, and E. Toussaere, “Refractive index changes in polymers induced by deep UV irradiation and subsequent gas phase modification,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 202, 3459–3467 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  22. G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, J. Zyss, T. Kavc, G. Langer, and W. Kern, “Organic surface emitting laser based on a deep-ultraviolet photopolymer containing thiocyanate groups,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2203–2205 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  23. T. Kavc, G. Langer, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and A. Pogantsch, “Index and relief gratings in polymer films for organic distributed feedback lasers,” Chem. Mater. 14, 4178–4185 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  24. G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and W. Kern, “Lasing action in optically written two-dimensional DFB gratings,” Synth. Met. 137, 997–998 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. Donval, E. Toussaere, S. Brasselet, and J. Zyss, “Comparative assessment of electrical, photoassisted and all optical in-plane poling of polymer based electrooptic modulators,” Opt. Mater. 12, 215–219 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  26. D. Wright, E. Brassclet, J. Zyss, G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and W. Kern, “All-optical tunability of holographically multiplexed organic distributed feedback lasers,” Opt. Express 12, 325–330 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.com.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (3)

G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, J. Zyss, T. Kavc, G. Langer, and W. Kern, “Organic surface emitting laser based on a deep-ultraviolet photopolymer containing thiocyanate groups,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2203–2205 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and W. Kern, “Lasing action in optically written two-dimensional DFB gratings,” Synth. Met. 137, 997–998 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Operating characteristics of a semiconducting polymer laser pumped by a microchip laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 313–315 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (6)

Y. Oki, S. Miyamoto, M. Maeda, and N. J. Vasa, “Multiwavelength distributed-feedback dye laser array and its application to spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1220–1222 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Lawrence, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, M. Buck, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Optical properties of a light-emitting polymer directly patterned by soft lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1955–1957 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Hsu, R. Bhattacharya, H. Gleskova, M. Huang, Z. Xi, Z. Suo, S. Wagner, and J. C. Sturm, “Thin-film transistor circuits on large-area spherical surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1723–1725 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Kavc, G. Langer, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and A. Pogantsch, “Index and relief gratings in polymer films for organic distributed feedback lasers,” Chem. Mater. 14, 4178–4185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Oki, K. Aso, D. Zuo, N. J. Vasa, and M. Maeda, “Wide-wavelength-range operation of a distributed-feedback dye laser with a plastic waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 6370–6374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Kavc, G. Langer, P. Polt, K. Reichmann, and W. Kern, “Formation of images and surface relief gratings in photosensitive polymers containing SCN groups,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 203, 1099–1105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

G. Langer, T. Kavc, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, and E. Toussaere, “Refractive index changes in polymers induced by deep UV irradiation and subsequent gas phase modification,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 202, 3459–3467 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Bauer, H. Giessen, B. Schnabel, E. B. Kley, C. Schmitt, U. Scherf, and R. F. Mahrt, “A surface-emitting circular grating polymer laser,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1161–1164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, S. Berleb, A. G. Mückl, W. Brütting, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “Very compact tunable solid-state laser utilizing a thin-film organic semiconductor,” Opt. Lett. 26, 593–595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1069–1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

V. G. Kozlov, G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. B. Khalfin, J. Wang, S. Y. Chou, and S. R. Forrest, “Structures for organic diode lasers and optical properties of organic semiconductors under intense optical and electrical excitations,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 18–26 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Ramos-Ortiz, C. Spiegelberg, N. Peyghambarian, and B. Kippelen, “Temperature dependence of the threshold for laser emission in polymer microlasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2783–2785 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. D. McGehee and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting (conjugated) polymers as materials for solid-state lasers,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1655–1668 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

S. C. Chang, J. Liu, J. Bharathan, Y. Yang, J. Onohara, and J. Kido, “Multicolor organic light-emitting diodes processed by hybrid inkjet printing,” Adv. Mater. 11, 734–737 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Donval, E. Toussaere, S. Brasselet, and J. Zyss, “Comparative assessment of electrical, photoassisted and all optical in-plane poling of polymer based electrooptic modulators,” Opt. Mater. 12, 215–219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

A. Dodabalapur, M. Berggren, R. E. Slusher, Z. Bao, A. Timko, P. Schiortino, E. Laskowski, H. E. Katz, and O. Nalamasu, “Resonators and materials for organic lasers based on energy transfer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 67–74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Hebner, C. C. Wu, D. Marcy, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Ink-jet printing of doped polymers for organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 519–521 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, A. Timko, and O. Nalamasu, “Organic solid-state lasers with imprinted gratings on plastic substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 410–411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, and Z. Bao, “Light amplification in organic thin films using cascade energy transfer,” Nature (London) 389, 466–469 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, and S. R. Forrest, “Temperature independent performance of organic semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2575–2577 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Maeda, Y. Oki, and K. Imamura, “Ultrashort pulse generation from an integrated single-chip dye laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2146–2149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Andrew, P.

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Operating characteristics of a semiconducting polymer laser pumped by a microchip laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 313–315 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Lawrence, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, M. Buck, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Optical properties of a light-emitting polymer directly patterned by soft lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1955–1957 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Aso, K.

Y. Oki, K. Aso, D. Zuo, N. J. Vasa, and M. Maeda, “Wide-wavelength-range operation of a distributed-feedback dye laser with a plastic waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 6370–6374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Z.

A. Dodabalapur, M. Berggren, R. E. Slusher, Z. Bao, A. Timko, P. Schiortino, E. Laskowski, H. E. Katz, and O. Nalamasu, “Resonators and materials for organic lasers based on energy transfer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 67–74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, and Z. Bao, “Light amplification in organic thin films using cascade energy transfer,” Nature (London) 389, 466–469 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Operating characteristics of a semiconducting polymer laser pumped by a microchip laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 313–315 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Lawrence, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, M. Buck, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Optical properties of a light-emitting polymer directly patterned by soft lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1955–1957 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, C.

C. Bauer, H. Giessen, B. Schnabel, E. B. Kley, C. Schmitt, U. Scherf, and R. F. Mahrt, “A surface-emitting circular grating polymer laser,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1161–1164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Berggren, M.

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, A. Timko, and O. Nalamasu, “Organic solid-state lasers with imprinted gratings on plastic substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 410–411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Dodabalapur, M. Berggren, R. E. Slusher, Z. Bao, A. Timko, P. Schiortino, E. Laskowski, H. E. Katz, and O. Nalamasu, “Resonators and materials for organic lasers based on energy transfer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 67–74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, and Z. Bao, “Light amplification in organic thin films using cascade energy transfer,” Nature (London) 389, 466–469 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Berleb, S.

Bharathan, J.

S. C. Chang, J. Liu, J. Bharathan, Y. Yang, J. Onohara, and J. Kido, “Multicolor organic light-emitting diodes processed by hybrid inkjet printing,” Adv. Mater. 11, 734–737 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, R.

P. I. Hsu, R. Bhattacharya, H. Gleskova, M. Huang, Z. Xi, Z. Suo, S. Wagner, and J. C. Sturm, “Thin-film transistor circuits on large-area spherical surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1723–1725 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brassclet, E.

Brasselet, S.

A. Donval, E. Toussaere, S. Brasselet, and J. Zyss, “Comparative assessment of electrical, photoassisted and all optical in-plane poling of polymer based electrooptic modulators,” Opt. Mater. 12, 215–219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brütting, W.

Buck, M.

J. R. Lawrence, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, M. Buck, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Optical properties of a light-emitting polymer directly patterned by soft lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1955–1957 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic, V.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, and S. R. Forrest, “Temperature independent performance of organic semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2575–2577 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, P. E.

V. G. Kozlov, G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. B. Khalfin, J. Wang, S. Y. Chou, and S. R. Forrest, “Structures for organic diode lasers and optical properties of organic semiconductors under intense optical and electrical excitations,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 18–26 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. C.

S. C. Chang, J. Liu, J. Bharathan, Y. Yang, J. Onohara, and J. Kido, “Multicolor organic light-emitting diodes processed by hybrid inkjet printing,” Adv. Mater. 11, 734–737 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chou, S. Y.

V. G. Kozlov, G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. B. Khalfin, J. Wang, S. Y. Chou, and S. R. Forrest, “Structures for organic diode lasers and optical properties of organic semiconductors under intense optical and electrical excitations,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 18–26 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dodabalapur, A.

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, A. Timko, and O. Nalamasu, “Organic solid-state lasers with imprinted gratings on plastic substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 410–411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Dodabalapur, M. Berggren, R. E. Slusher, Z. Bao, A. Timko, P. Schiortino, E. Laskowski, H. E. Katz, and O. Nalamasu, “Resonators and materials for organic lasers based on energy transfer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 67–74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, and Z. Bao, “Light amplification in organic thin films using cascade energy transfer,” Nature (London) 389, 466–469 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Donval, A.

A. Donval, E. Toussaere, S. Brasselet, and J. Zyss, “Comparative assessment of electrical, photoassisted and all optical in-plane poling of polymer based electrooptic modulators,” Opt. Mater. 12, 215–219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, J.

Finkelmann, H.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1069–1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

V. G. Kozlov, G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. B. Khalfin, J. Wang, S. Y. Chou, and S. R. Forrest, “Structures for organic diode lasers and optical properties of organic semiconductors under intense optical and electrical excitations,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 18–26 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, and S. R. Forrest, “Temperature independent performance of organic semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2575–2577 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

C. Bauer, H. Giessen, B. Schnabel, E. B. Kley, C. Schmitt, U. Scherf, and R. F. Mahrt, “A surface-emitting circular grating polymer laser,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1161–1164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gleskova, H.

P. I. Hsu, R. Bhattacharya, H. Gleskova, M. Huang, Z. Xi, Z. Suo, S. Wagner, and J. C. Sturm, “Thin-film transistor circuits on large-area spherical surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1723–1725 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gombert, A.

Hebner, T. R.

T. R. Hebner, C. C. Wu, D. Marcy, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Ink-jet printing of doped polymers for organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 519–521 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Heeger, A. J.

M. D. McGehee and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting (conjugated) polymers as materials for solid-state lasers,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1655–1668 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, P. I.

P. I. Hsu, R. Bhattacharya, H. Gleskova, M. Huang, Z. Xi, Z. Suo, S. Wagner, and J. C. Sturm, “Thin-film transistor circuits on large-area spherical surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1723–1725 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

P. I. Hsu, R. Bhattacharya, H. Gleskova, M. Huang, Z. Xi, Z. Suo, S. Wagner, and J. C. Sturm, “Thin-film transistor circuits on large-area spherical surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1723–1725 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Imamura, K.

M. Maeda, Y. Oki, and K. Imamura, “Ultrashort pulse generation from an integrated single-chip dye laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2146–2149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Iskra, K. F.

D. Wright, E. Brassclet, J. Zyss, G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and W. Kern, “All-optical tunability of holographically multiplexed organic distributed feedback lasers,” Opt. Express 12, 325–330 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.com.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and W. Kern, “Lasing action in optically written two-dimensional DFB gratings,” Synth. Met. 137, 997–998 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Kavc, G. Langer, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and A. Pogantsch, “Index and relief gratings in polymer films for organic distributed feedback lasers,” Chem. Mater. 14, 4178–4185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Katz, H. E.

A. Dodabalapur, M. Berggren, R. E. Slusher, Z. Bao, A. Timko, P. Schiortino, E. Laskowski, H. E. Katz, and O. Nalamasu, “Resonators and materials for organic lasers based on energy transfer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 67–74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kavc, T.

G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, J. Zyss, T. Kavc, G. Langer, and W. Kern, “Organic surface emitting laser based on a deep-ultraviolet photopolymer containing thiocyanate groups,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2203–2205 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Kavc, G. Langer, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and A. Pogantsch, “Index and relief gratings in polymer films for organic distributed feedback lasers,” Chem. Mater. 14, 4178–4185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Kavc, G. Langer, P. Polt, K. Reichmann, and W. Kern, “Formation of images and surface relief gratings in photosensitive polymers containing SCN groups,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 203, 1099–1105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Langer, T. Kavc, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, and E. Toussaere, “Refractive index changes in polymers induced by deep UV irradiation and subsequent gas phase modification,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 202, 3459–3467 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kern, W.

D. Wright, E. Brassclet, J. Zyss, G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and W. Kern, “All-optical tunability of holographically multiplexed organic distributed feedback lasers,” Opt. Express 12, 325–330 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.com.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and W. Kern, “Lasing action in optically written two-dimensional DFB gratings,” Synth. Met. 137, 997–998 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, J. Zyss, T. Kavc, G. Langer, and W. Kern, “Organic surface emitting laser based on a deep-ultraviolet photopolymer containing thiocyanate groups,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2203–2205 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Kavc, G. Langer, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and A. Pogantsch, “Index and relief gratings in polymer films for organic distributed feedback lasers,” Chem. Mater. 14, 4178–4185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Kavc, G. Langer, P. Polt, K. Reichmann, and W. Kern, “Formation of images and surface relief gratings in photosensitive polymers containing SCN groups,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 203, 1099–1105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Langer, T. Kavc, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, and E. Toussaere, “Refractive index changes in polymers induced by deep UV irradiation and subsequent gas phase modification,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 202, 3459–3467 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Khalfin, V. B.

V. G. Kozlov, G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. B. Khalfin, J. Wang, S. Y. Chou, and S. R. Forrest, “Structures for organic diode lasers and optical properties of organic semiconductors under intense optical and electrical excitations,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 18–26 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kido, J.

S. C. Chang, J. Liu, J. Bharathan, Y. Yang, J. Onohara, and J. Kido, “Multicolor organic light-emitting diodes processed by hybrid inkjet printing,” Adv. Mater. 11, 734–737 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. T.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1069–1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kippelen, B.

G. Ramos-Ortiz, C. Spiegelberg, N. Peyghambarian, and B. Kippelen, “Temperature dependence of the threshold for laser emission in polymer microlasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2783–2785 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kley, E. B.

C. Bauer, H. Giessen, B. Schnabel, E. B. Kley, C. Schmitt, U. Scherf, and R. F. Mahrt, “A surface-emitting circular grating polymer laser,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1161–1164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kozlov, V. G.

V. G. Kozlov, G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. B. Khalfin, J. Wang, S. Y. Chou, and S. R. Forrest, “Structures for organic diode lasers and optical properties of organic semiconductors under intense optical and electrical excitations,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 18–26 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, and S. R. Forrest, “Temperature independent performance of organic semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2575–2577 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kranzelbinder, G.

G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, J. Zyss, T. Kavc, G. Langer, and W. Kern, “Organic surface emitting laser based on a deep-ultraviolet photopolymer containing thiocyanate groups,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2203–2205 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Kavc, G. Langer, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and A. Pogantsch, “Index and relief gratings in polymer films for organic distributed feedback lasers,” Chem. Mater. 14, 4178–4185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Langer, T. Kavc, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, and E. Toussaere, “Refractive index changes in polymers induced by deep UV irradiation and subsequent gas phase modification,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 202, 3459–3467 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Langer, G.

D. Wright, E. Brassclet, J. Zyss, G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and W. Kern, “All-optical tunability of holographically multiplexed organic distributed feedback lasers,” Opt. Express 12, 325–330 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.com.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, J. Zyss, T. Kavc, G. Langer, and W. Kern, “Organic surface emitting laser based on a deep-ultraviolet photopolymer containing thiocyanate groups,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2203–2205 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and W. Kern, “Lasing action in optically written two-dimensional DFB gratings,” Synth. Met. 137, 997–998 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Kavc, G. Langer, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and A. Pogantsch, “Index and relief gratings in polymer films for organic distributed feedback lasers,” Chem. Mater. 14, 4178–4185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Kavc, G. Langer, P. Polt, K. Reichmann, and W. Kern, “Formation of images and surface relief gratings in photosensitive polymers containing SCN groups,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 203, 1099–1105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Langer, T. Kavc, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, and E. Toussaere, “Refractive index changes in polymers induced by deep UV irradiation and subsequent gas phase modification,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 202, 3459–3467 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Laskowski, E.

A. Dodabalapur, M. Berggren, R. E. Slusher, Z. Bao, A. Timko, P. Schiortino, E. Laskowski, H. E. Katz, and O. Nalamasu, “Resonators and materials for organic lasers based on energy transfer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 67–74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, J. R.

J. R. Lawrence, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, M. Buck, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Optical properties of a light-emitting polymer directly patterned by soft lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1955–1957 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lemmer, U.

Liu, J.

S. C. Chang, J. Liu, J. Bharathan, Y. Yang, J. Onohara, and J. Kido, “Multicolor organic light-emitting diodes processed by hybrid inkjet printing,” Adv. Mater. 11, 734–737 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lu, M. H.

T. R. Hebner, C. C. Wu, D. Marcy, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Ink-jet printing of doped polymers for organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 519–521 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, M.

Y. Oki, S. Miyamoto, M. Maeda, and N. J. Vasa, “Multiwavelength distributed-feedback dye laser array and its application to spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1220–1222 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Oki, K. Aso, D. Zuo, N. J. Vasa, and M. Maeda, “Wide-wavelength-range operation of a distributed-feedback dye laser with a plastic waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 6370–6374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Maeda, Y. Oki, and K. Imamura, “Ultrashort pulse generation from an integrated single-chip dye laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2146–2149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mahrt, R. F.

C. Bauer, H. Giessen, B. Schnabel, E. B. Kley, C. Schmitt, U. Scherf, and R. F. Mahrt, “A surface-emitting circular grating polymer laser,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1161–1164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marcy, D.

T. R. Hebner, C. C. Wu, D. Marcy, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Ink-jet printing of doped polymers for organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 519–521 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McGehee, M. D.

M. D. McGehee and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting (conjugated) polymers as materials for solid-state lasers,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1655–1668 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, S.

Mückl, A. G.

Munoz, A.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1069–1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nalamasu, O.

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, A. Timko, and O. Nalamasu, “Organic solid-state lasers with imprinted gratings on plastic substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 410–411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Dodabalapur, M. Berggren, R. E. Slusher, Z. Bao, A. Timko, P. Schiortino, E. Laskowski, H. E. Katz, and O. Nalamasu, “Resonators and materials for organic lasers based on energy transfer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 67–74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Neger, T.

D. Wright, E. Brassclet, J. Zyss, G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and W. Kern, “All-optical tunability of holographically multiplexed organic distributed feedback lasers,” Opt. Express 12, 325–330 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.com.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and W. Kern, “Lasing action in optically written two-dimensional DFB gratings,” Synth. Met. 137, 997–998 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Kavc, G. Langer, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and A. Pogantsch, “Index and relief gratings in polymer films for organic distributed feedback lasers,” Chem. Mater. 14, 4178–4185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Oki, Y.

Y. Oki, K. Aso, D. Zuo, N. J. Vasa, and M. Maeda, “Wide-wavelength-range operation of a distributed-feedback dye laser with a plastic waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 6370–6374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Oki, S. Miyamoto, M. Maeda, and N. J. Vasa, “Multiwavelength distributed-feedback dye laser array and its application to spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1220–1222 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Maeda, Y. Oki, and K. Imamura, “Ultrashort pulse generation from an integrated single-chip dye laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2146–2149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Onohara, J.

S. C. Chang, J. Liu, J. Bharathan, Y. Yang, J. Onohara, and J. Kido, “Multicolor organic light-emitting diodes processed by hybrid inkjet printing,” Adv. Mater. 11, 734–737 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Palffy-Muhoray, P.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1069–1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Parthasarathy, G.

V. G. Kozlov, G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. B. Khalfin, J. Wang, S. Y. Chou, and S. R. Forrest, “Structures for organic diode lasers and optical properties of organic semiconductors under intense optical and electrical excitations,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 18–26 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

G. Ramos-Ortiz, C. Spiegelberg, N. Peyghambarian, and B. Kippelen, “Temperature dependence of the threshold for laser emission in polymer microlasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2783–2785 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pogantsch, A.

D. Wright, E. Brassclet, J. Zyss, G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and W. Kern, “All-optical tunability of holographically multiplexed organic distributed feedback lasers,” Opt. Express 12, 325–330 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.com.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and W. Kern, “Lasing action in optically written two-dimensional DFB gratings,” Synth. Met. 137, 997–998 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Kavc, G. Langer, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and A. Pogantsch, “Index and relief gratings in polymer films for organic distributed feedback lasers,” Chem. Mater. 14, 4178–4185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Polt, P.

T. Kavc, G. Langer, P. Polt, K. Reichmann, and W. Kern, “Formation of images and surface relief gratings in photosensitive polymers containing SCN groups,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 203, 1099–1105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ramos-Ortiz, G.

G. Ramos-Ortiz, C. Spiegelberg, N. Peyghambarian, and B. Kippelen, “Temperature dependence of the threshold for laser emission in polymer microlasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2783–2785 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Reichmann, K.

T. Kavc, G. Langer, P. Polt, K. Reichmann, and W. Kern, “Formation of images and surface relief gratings in photosensitive polymers containing SCN groups,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 203, 1099–1105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Riechel, S.

Samuel, I. D. W.

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Operating characteristics of a semiconducting polymer laser pumped by a microchip laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 313–315 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Lawrence, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, M. Buck, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Optical properties of a light-emitting polymer directly patterned by soft lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1955–1957 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Kavc, G. Langer, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and A. Pogantsch, “Index and relief gratings in polymer films for organic distributed feedback lasers,” Chem. Mater. 14, 4178–4185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scherf, U.

C. Bauer, H. Giessen, B. Schnabel, E. B. Kley, C. Schmitt, U. Scherf, and R. F. Mahrt, “A surface-emitting circular grating polymer laser,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1161–1164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schiortino, P.

A. Dodabalapur, M. Berggren, R. E. Slusher, Z. Bao, A. Timko, P. Schiortino, E. Laskowski, H. E. Katz, and O. Nalamasu, “Resonators and materials for organic lasers based on energy transfer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 67–74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, C.

C. Bauer, H. Giessen, B. Schnabel, E. B. Kley, C. Schmitt, U. Scherf, and R. F. Mahrt, “A surface-emitting circular grating polymer laser,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1161–1164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schnabel, B.

C. Bauer, H. Giessen, B. Schnabel, E. B. Kley, C. Schmitt, U. Scherf, and R. F. Mahrt, “A surface-emitting circular grating polymer laser,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1161–1164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, A. Timko, and O. Nalamasu, “Organic solid-state lasers with imprinted gratings on plastic substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 410–411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Dodabalapur, M. Berggren, R. E. Slusher, Z. Bao, A. Timko, P. Schiortino, E. Laskowski, H. E. Katz, and O. Nalamasu, “Resonators and materials for organic lasers based on energy transfer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 67–74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, and Z. Bao, “Light amplification in organic thin films using cascade energy transfer,” Nature (London) 389, 466–469 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Spiegelberg, C.

G. Ramos-Ortiz, C. Spiegelberg, N. Peyghambarian, and B. Kippelen, “Temperature dependence of the threshold for laser emission in polymer microlasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2783–2785 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sturm, J. C.

P. I. Hsu, R. Bhattacharya, H. Gleskova, M. Huang, Z. Xi, Z. Suo, S. Wagner, and J. C. Sturm, “Thin-film transistor circuits on large-area spherical surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1723–1725 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Hebner, C. C. Wu, D. Marcy, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Ink-jet printing of doped polymers for organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 519–521 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Suo, Z.

P. I. Hsu, R. Bhattacharya, H. Gleskova, M. Huang, Z. Xi, Z. Suo, S. Wagner, and J. C. Sturm, “Thin-film transistor circuits on large-area spherical surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1723–1725 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Taheri, B.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1069–1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Timko, A.

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, A. Timko, and O. Nalamasu, “Organic solid-state lasers with imprinted gratings on plastic substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 410–411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Dodabalapur, M. Berggren, R. E. Slusher, Z. Bao, A. Timko, P. Schiortino, E. Laskowski, H. E. Katz, and O. Nalamasu, “Resonators and materials for organic lasers based on energy transfer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 67–74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Toussaere, E.

G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, J. Zyss, T. Kavc, G. Langer, and W. Kern, “Organic surface emitting laser based on a deep-ultraviolet photopolymer containing thiocyanate groups,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2203–2205 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Kavc, G. Langer, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and A. Pogantsch, “Index and relief gratings in polymer films for organic distributed feedback lasers,” Chem. Mater. 14, 4178–4185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Langer, T. Kavc, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, and E. Toussaere, “Refractive index changes in polymers induced by deep UV irradiation and subsequent gas phase modification,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 202, 3459–3467 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Donval, E. Toussaere, S. Brasselet, and J. Zyss, “Comparative assessment of electrical, photoassisted and all optical in-plane poling of polymer based electrooptic modulators,” Opt. Mater. 12, 215–219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Turnbull, G. A.

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Operating characteristics of a semiconducting polymer laser pumped by a microchip laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 313–315 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Lawrence, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, M. Buck, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Optical properties of a light-emitting polymer directly patterned by soft lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1955–1957 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Kavc, G. Langer, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and A. Pogantsch, “Index and relief gratings in polymer films for organic distributed feedback lasers,” Chem. Mater. 14, 4178–4185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vasa, N. J.

Y. Oki, K. Aso, D. Zuo, N. J. Vasa, and M. Maeda, “Wide-wavelength-range operation of a distributed-feedback dye laser with a plastic waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 6370–6374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Oki, S. Miyamoto, M. Maeda, and N. J. Vasa, “Multiwavelength distributed-feedback dye laser array and its application to spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1220–1222 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, S.

P. I. Hsu, R. Bhattacharya, H. Gleskova, M. Huang, Z. Xi, Z. Suo, S. Wagner, and J. C. Sturm, “Thin-film transistor circuits on large-area spherical surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1723–1725 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

V. G. Kozlov, G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. B. Khalfin, J. Wang, S. Y. Chou, and S. R. Forrest, “Structures for organic diode lasers and optical properties of organic semiconductors under intense optical and electrical excitations,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 18–26 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wittwer, V.

Wright, D.

Wu, C. C.

T. R. Hebner, C. C. Wu, D. Marcy, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Ink-jet printing of doped polymers for organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 519–521 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xi, Z.

P. I. Hsu, R. Bhattacharya, H. Gleskova, M. Huang, Z. Xi, Z. Suo, S. Wagner, and J. C. Sturm, “Thin-film transistor circuits on large-area spherical surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1723–1725 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

S. C. Chang, J. Liu, J. Bharathan, Y. Yang, J. Onohara, and J. Kido, “Multicolor organic light-emitting diodes processed by hybrid inkjet printing,” Adv. Mater. 11, 734–737 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zuo, D.

Y. Oki, K. Aso, D. Zuo, N. J. Vasa, and M. Maeda, “Wide-wavelength-range operation of a distributed-feedback dye laser with a plastic waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 6370–6374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zyss, J.

D. Wright, E. Brassclet, J. Zyss, G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and W. Kern, “All-optical tunability of holographically multiplexed organic distributed feedback lasers,” Opt. Express 12, 325–330 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.com.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, J. Zyss, T. Kavc, G. Langer, and W. Kern, “Organic surface emitting laser based on a deep-ultraviolet photopolymer containing thiocyanate groups,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2203–2205 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Donval, E. Toussaere, S. Brasselet, and J. Zyss, “Comparative assessment of electrical, photoassisted and all optical in-plane poling of polymer based electrooptic modulators,” Opt. Mater. 12, 215–219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (4)

M. D. McGehee and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting (conjugated) polymers as materials for solid-state lasers,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1655–1668 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Chang, J. Liu, J. Bharathan, Y. Yang, J. Onohara, and J. Kido, “Multicolor organic light-emitting diodes processed by hybrid inkjet printing,” Adv. Mater. 11, 734–737 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1069–1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Bauer, H. Giessen, B. Schnabel, E. B. Kley, C. Schmitt, U. Scherf, and R. F. Mahrt, “A surface-emitting circular grating polymer laser,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1161–1164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

G. Ramos-Ortiz, C. Spiegelberg, N. Peyghambarian, and B. Kippelen, “Temperature dependence of the threshold for laser emission in polymer microlasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2783–2785 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, and S. R. Forrest, “Temperature independent performance of organic semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2575–2577 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Lawrence, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, M. Buck, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Optical properties of a light-emitting polymer directly patterned by soft lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1955–1957 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, A. Timko, and O. Nalamasu, “Organic solid-state lasers with imprinted gratings on plastic substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 410–411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Hsu, R. Bhattacharya, H. Gleskova, M. Huang, Z. Xi, Z. Suo, S. Wagner, and J. C. Sturm, “Thin-film transistor circuits on large-area spherical surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1723–1725 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Operating characteristics of a semiconducting polymer laser pumped by a microchip laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 313–315 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Hebner, C. C. Wu, D. Marcy, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Ink-jet printing of doped polymers for organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 519–521 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, J. Zyss, T. Kavc, G. Langer, and W. Kern, “Organic surface emitting laser based on a deep-ultraviolet photopolymer containing thiocyanate groups,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2203–2205 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

T. Kavc, G. Langer, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and A. Pogantsch, “Index and relief gratings in polymer films for organic distributed feedback lasers,” Chem. Mater. 14, 4178–4185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. Maeda, Y. Oki, and K. Imamura, “Ultrashort pulse generation from an integrated single-chip dye laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2146–2149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Kozlov, G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. B. Khalfin, J. Wang, S. Y. Chou, and S. R. Forrest, “Structures for organic diode lasers and optical properties of organic semiconductors under intense optical and electrical excitations,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 18–26 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Dodabalapur, M. Berggren, R. E. Slusher, Z. Bao, A. Timko, P. Schiortino, E. Laskowski, H. E. Katz, and O. Nalamasu, “Resonators and materials for organic lasers based on energy transfer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 67–74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Oki, K. Aso, D. Zuo, N. J. Vasa, and M. Maeda, “Wide-wavelength-range operation of a distributed-feedback dye laser with a plastic waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 6370–6374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Macromol. Chem. Phys. (2)

T. Kavc, G. Langer, P. Polt, K. Reichmann, and W. Kern, “Formation of images and surface relief gratings in photosensitive polymers containing SCN groups,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 203, 1099–1105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Langer, T. Kavc, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, and E. Toussaere, “Refractive index changes in polymers induced by deep UV irradiation and subsequent gas phase modification,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 202, 3459–3467 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (1)

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, and Z. Bao, “Light amplification in organic thin films using cascade energy transfer,” Nature (London) 389, 466–469 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. (1)

A. Donval, E. Toussaere, S. Brasselet, and J. Zyss, “Comparative assessment of electrical, photoassisted and all optical in-plane poling of polymer based electrooptic modulators,” Opt. Mater. 12, 215–219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Synth. Met. (1)

G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and W. Kern, “Lasing action in optically written two-dimensional DFB gratings,” Synth. Met. 137, 997–998 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. Carroll, J. Whiteaway, and D. Plumb, Distributed Feedback Semiconductor Lasers (Institution of Electrical Engineers, Stevenage, UK, 1998).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental apparatus. M, mirror; L, lens; PBF, passband filter; Pol, polarizer; BS, beam splitter; λ/2, half-wave plate; HPF, high-pass filter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical plot of the laser emission intensity versus the pump power density for a DFB laser sample. The curves are power-law fits. The input–output behavior is characterized by a fluorescence region (Ipump<Ith), the onset point (Ith), the transition region (Ith<Ipump<Isat), the saturation point (Isat), and the saturation region (Ipump<Isat). Inset: Several emission spectra obtained with increasing pump power. At low intensities a broad fluorescence background is observed; above the laser threshold a narrow peak emerges.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Saturated laser emission spectra for DFB samples of various thicknesses: (a) 163 nm, (b) 247 nm, (c) 419 nm. Inset: Peak emission wavelength versus film thickness. The solid-curve fit is described in the text.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

General DFB sample characteristics. (a) Diagram of the sample structure with h the thickness and K the grating wave vector of the grating. Coordinate systems used for the chromophore orientational distributions, with u the vector representing the fluorophore dipole and e the unit vector representing the polarization direction of the linearly polarized pumping beam.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dependence of the fluorescence emission with respect to the pump polarization angle α for a DFB sample thickness of 419 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Contrast C of Eq. (8) plotted versus angle β.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Dependence of the laser threshold on the angle of polarization α for a DFB sample thickness of 419 nm. The dashed-curve fit assumes a 3-D isotropic chromophore orientational distribution, whereas the solid curve assumes that the chromophores are isotropically distributed in the (x, y) sample plane.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Pump angle dependence of the emitted intensity in the spectral window of the laser peak at two different pump power densities (a) ∼1.4 and (b) ∼2.8 times the laser threshold and their corresponding representation (c) input and (d) output curves. The solid and dashed lines in (c) and (d) represent the corresponding curves for α=0° and 55°, respectively. The fits in (a) and (b) are described in the text.

Equations (16)

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IyΩPabs.(Ω)Πy(Ω)f(Ω)dΩ,
Pabs.(e·u)2=(cos2 α cos2 ϕ+sin2 α sin2 ϕ)sin2 θ,
Πy(y×u)2=cos2 θ+sin2 θ cos2 ϕ.
Iy(α)02πdϕ0πf(θ, ϕ)(cos2 α cos 2ϕ+sin2 ϕ)×(cos2 θ+sin2 θ cos2 ϕ)sin3 θ dθ.
f(θ, ϕ)=f0ifπ/2-βθπ/2+β,0ϕ2π,
f(θ, ϕ)=0otherwise,
Iy(α, β)F(β)+G(β)cos2 α,
F(β)=16+8 cos2 β-9 cos4 β,
G(β)=16+8 cos2 β+6 cos4 β.
Ith(α, β)=F(β)+G(β)F(β)+G(β)cos2 αIth(0).
C(β)=G(β)2F(β)+G(β),
Ith2-D(α)=g(α)Ith2-D(0),
g(α)=31+2 cos2 α.
log IL=a1 log Ipump+b1ifIpumpIth2-D(α),
log IL=a2 log Ipump+b2ifIth2-D(α)IpumpIsat2-D(α),
log IL=a3 log Ipump+b3ifIsat2-D(α)Ipump,

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