Abstract

We demonstrate use of a lock-in detection method that is capable of highly sensitive detection of carrier-envelope-phase-sensitive phenomena. This method can measure static offsets to the carrier-envelope phase. To demonstrate the ability to measure static offsets in the phase, the change in carrier-envelope phase caused by extracavity dispersion is measured. Unavoidable offsets in measurement of the carrier-envelope phase by the standard ν-to-2ν self-referencing scheme is analyzed.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped Hg-199(+) ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Molecular iodine clock,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 270801 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London) 421, 611–615 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. T. Cundiff, “Phase stabilization of ultrashort optical pulses,” J. Phys. D 35, R43–R59 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. This is often shortened to the absolute phase, which is a misnomer as there is nothing absolute about the envelope.
  8. T. M. Fortier, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, and R. S. Windeler, “Long-term carrier-envelope phase coherence,” Opt. Spectra 27, 1436–1438 (2002).
  9. A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740–743 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. F. W. Helbing, G. Steinmayer, J. Stenger, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope-offset dynamics and stabilization of femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 74, S35–S42 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, K. Torizuka, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, C. Lemell, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal,” submitted for publication (2003).
  12. T. M. Fortier, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, and S. T. Cundiff, “Highly phase stable mode-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1002–1010 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in C (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1988).
  14. H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency control and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327–332 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, and F. X. Kärtner, “Determining the carrier-envelope offset frequency of 5-fs pulses with extreme nonlinear optics in ZnO,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2127–2129 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Lemell, X. M. Tong, F. Krausz, and J. Burgdorfer, “Electron emission from metal surfaces by ultrashort pulses: determination of the carrier-envelope phase,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 076403 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. Hachè, Y. Kostoulas, R. Atanasov, J. L. P. Hughes, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Observation of coherently controlled photocurrent in unbiased, bulk GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 306–309 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. A. Roos, Q. Quraishi, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, “Characterization of quantum interference control of injected currents in LT-GaAs for carrier-envelope phase measurements,” Opt. Express 11, 2081–2090 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, “Carrier-envelope phase-controlled quantum interference of injected photocurrents in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. (to be published).

2003 (4)

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London) 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Fortier, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, and S. T. Cundiff, “Highly phase stable mode-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1002–1010 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Lemell, X. M. Tong, F. Krausz, and J. Burgdorfer, “Electron emission from metal surfaces by ultrashort pulses: determination of the carrier-envelope phase,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 076403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Roos, Q. Quraishi, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, “Characterization of quantum interference control of injected currents in LT-GaAs for carrier-envelope phase measurements,” Opt. Express 11, 2081–2090 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (4)

F. W. Helbing, G. Steinmayer, J. Stenger, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope-offset dynamics and stabilization of femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 74, S35–S42 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, and F. X. Kärtner, “Determining the carrier-envelope offset frequency of 5-fs pulses with extreme nonlinear optics in ZnO,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2127–2129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Cundiff, “Phase stabilization of ultrashort optical pulses,” J. Phys. D 35, R43–R59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Fortier, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, and R. S. Windeler, “Long-term carrier-envelope phase coherence,” Opt. Spectra 27, 1436–1438 (2002).

2001 (2)

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped Hg-199(+) ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Molecular iodine clock,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 270801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency control and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. Hachè, Y. Kostoulas, R. Atanasov, J. L. P. Hughes, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Observation of coherently controlled photocurrent in unbiased, bulk GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 306–309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Apolonski, A.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atanasov, R.

A. Hachè, Y. Kostoulas, R. Atanasov, J. L. P. Hughes, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Observation of coherently controlled photocurrent in unbiased, bulk GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 306–309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baltuška, A.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London) 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bergquist, J. C.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped Hg-199(+) ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhat, R. D. R.

Burgdorfer, J.

C. Lemell, X. M. Tong, F. Krausz, and J. Burgdorfer, “Electron emission from metal surfaces by ultrashort pulses: determination of the carrier-envelope phase,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 076403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cundiff, S. T.

T. M. Fortier, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, and S. T. Cundiff, “Highly phase stable mode-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1002–1010 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Roos, Q. Quraishi, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, “Characterization of quantum interference control of injected currents in LT-GaAs for carrier-envelope phase measurements,” Opt. Express 11, 2081–2090 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Cundiff, “Phase stabilization of ultrashort optical pulses,” J. Phys. D 35, R43–R59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Fortier, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, and R. S. Windeler, “Long-term carrier-envelope phase coherence,” Opt. Spectra 27, 1436–1438 (2002).

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cundiff, T.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curtis, E. A.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped Hg-199(+) ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diddams, S. A.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped Hg-199(+) ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drullinger, R. E.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped Hg-199(+) ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunlop, A. E.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency control and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fortier, T. M.

T. M. Fortier, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, and S. T. Cundiff, “Highly phase stable mode-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1002–1010 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Fortier, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, and R. S. Windeler, “Long-term carrier-envelope phase coherence,” Opt. Spectra 27, 1436–1438 (2002).

Gohle, C.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London) 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goulielmakis, E.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London) 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hachè, A.

A. Hachè, Y. Kostoulas, R. Atanasov, J. L. P. Hughes, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Observation of coherently controlled photocurrent in unbiased, bulk GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 306–309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Molecular iodine clock,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 270801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London) 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helbing, F. W.

F. W. Helbing, G. Steinmayer, J. Stenger, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope-offset dynamics and stabilization of femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 74, S35–S42 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hentschel, M.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London) 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped Hg-199(+) ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London) 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hughes, J. L. P.

A. Hachè, Y. Kostoulas, R. Atanasov, J. L. P. Hughes, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Observation of coherently controlled photocurrent in unbiased, bulk GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 306–309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Itano, W. M.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped Hg-199(+) ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, D. J.

T. M. Fortier, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, and S. T. Cundiff, “Highly phase stable mode-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1002–1010 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Fortier, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, and R. S. Windeler, “Long-term carrier-envelope phase coherence,” Opt. Spectra 27, 1436–1438 (2002).

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kärtner, F. X.

Keller, U.

F. W. Helbing, G. Steinmayer, J. Stenger, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope-offset dynamics and stabilization of femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 74, S35–S42 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency control and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kostoulas, Y.

A. Hachè, Y. Kostoulas, R. Atanasov, J. L. P. Hughes, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Observation of coherently controlled photocurrent in unbiased, bulk GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 306–309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

C. Lemell, X. M. Tong, F. Krausz, and J. Burgdorfer, “Electron emission from metal surfaces by ultrashort pulses: determination of the carrier-envelope phase,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 076403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London) 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, W. D.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped Hg-199(+) ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lemell, C.

C. Lemell, X. M. Tong, F. Krausz, and J. Burgdorfer, “Electron emission from metal surfaces by ultrashort pulses: determination of the carrier-envelope phase,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 076403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, L.-S.

J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Molecular iodine clock,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 270801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Morgner, U.

Mücke, O. D.

Oates, C. W.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped Hg-199(+) ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poppe, A.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quraishi, Q.

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roos, P. A.

Scrinzi, A.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London) 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

P. A. Roos, Q. Quraishi, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, “Characterization of quantum interference control of injected currents in LT-GaAs for carrier-envelope phase measurements,” Opt. Express 11, 2081–2090 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hachè, Y. Kostoulas, R. Atanasov, J. L. P. Hughes, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Observation of coherently controlled photocurrent in unbiased, bulk GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 306–309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, C.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinmayer, G.

F. W. Helbing, G. Steinmayer, J. Stenger, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope-offset dynamics and stabilization of femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 74, S35–S42 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency control and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stenger, J.

F. W. Helbing, G. Steinmayer, J. Stenger, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope-offset dynamics and stabilization of femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 74, S35–S42 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency control and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sutter, D. H.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency control and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Telle, H. R.

F. W. Helbing, G. Steinmayer, J. Stenger, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope-offset dynamics and stabilization of femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 74, S35–S42 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency control and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tempea, G.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tong, X. M.

C. Lemell, X. M. Tong, F. Krausz, and J. Burgdorfer, “Electron emission from metal surfaces by ultrashort pulses: determination of the carrier-envelope phase,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 076403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tritschler, T.

Udem, T.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London) 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped Hg-199(+) ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uiberacker, M.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London) 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

van Driel, H. M.

A. Hachè, Y. Kostoulas, R. Atanasov, J. L. P. Hughes, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Observation of coherently controlled photocurrent in unbiased, bulk GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 306–309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, K. R.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped Hg-199(+) ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

Windeler, R. S.

T. M. Fortier, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, and R. S. Windeler, “Long-term carrier-envelope phase coherence,” Opt. Spectra 27, 1436–1438 (2002).

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wineland, D. J.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped Hg-199(+) ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakoviev, V. S.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London) 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

T. M. Fortier, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, and S. T. Cundiff, “Highly phase stable mode-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1002–1010 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Fortier, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, and R. S. Windeler, “Long-term carrier-envelope phase coherence,” Opt. Spectra 27, 1436–1438 (2002).

J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Molecular iodine clock,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 270801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

F. W. Helbing, G. Steinmayer, J. Stenger, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope-offset dynamics and stabilization of femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 74, S35–S42 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency control and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. M. Fortier, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, and S. T. Cundiff, “Highly phase stable mode-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1002–1010 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

S. T. Cundiff, “Phase stabilization of ultrashort optical pulses,” J. Phys. D 35, R43–R59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (1)

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London) 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Spectra (1)

T. M. Fortier, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, and R. S. Windeler, “Long-term carrier-envelope phase coherence,” Opt. Spectra 27, 1436–1438 (2002).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Molecular iodine clock,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 270801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Lemell, X. M. Tong, F. Krausz, and J. Burgdorfer, “Electron emission from metal surfaces by ultrashort pulses: determination of the carrier-envelope phase,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 076403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hachè, Y. Kostoulas, R. Atanasov, J. L. P. Hughes, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Observation of coherently controlled photocurrent in unbiased, bulk GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 306–309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped Hg-199(+) ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

This is often shortened to the absolute phase, which is a misnomer as there is nothing absolute about the envelope.

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, “Carrier-envelope phase-controlled quantum interference of injected photocurrents in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. (to be published).

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in C (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1988).

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, K. Torizuka, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, C. Lemell, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal,” submitted for publication (2003).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup showing a phase-stabilized femtosecond laser and use of phase-sensitive lock-in detection to explore CEP-sensitive processes. AOM, acousto-optic modulator; MS, microstructure; LBO, lithium triborate crystal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time record of the lock-in phase (lower trace, left axis) and amplitude (upper trace, right axis). The inset shows an enlargement of the amplitude and phase fluctuations that are uncorrelated. As discussed in the text, this lock-in phase represents (within an unknown constant) ϕCE. A rms fluctuation of 3.8 deg with a maximum excursion of 20.8 deg clearly confirms the extended coherence time reported in Ref. 8.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Three difference examples of ν-to-2ν interferometers used to detect the offset frequency f0 by the heterodyne beat Sb. (a) Mach–Zehnder-type interferometer that enables use of an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) to lock f0 to 0. The glass wedges are used to compensate for the AOM and adjust the relative path lengths of the two arms. (b) Prism-based interferometer. The time delay between ν and 2ν light is adjusted by a split mirror after the prisms. (c) Collinear layout by use of a dispersion-compensated (compressed) pulse. LBO, lithium triborate.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic showing the relationship between pulse train and interferometer output. (a) Pulse train showing pulse-to-pulse CEP change in ϕCE=π/4. (b) Output of ν-to-2ν interferometer. The solid curve is the output of an ideal interferometer where zero signal is coincident with the pulse that has ϕCE=0. However, as discussed in the text, the actual signal from an interferometer has an arbitrary phase shift relative to the ideal signal.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Phase-matching calculations for KDP phase matched at 560 nm, KDP phase matched at 516.75 nm (also group-velocity matched), and BBO phase matched at 540 nm. Both the phase mismatch (phase error) and the second-harmonic amplitude due to phase matching are shown as a function of wavelength. In each case three crystal lengths are shown of 5 mm (solid curve), 1 mm (dashed curve), and 0.5 mm (dotted curve).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Weighted phase error determined from Fig. 5.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectrally integrated phase error after we applied a 7-nm bandwidth Gaussian optical filter as a function of filter center wavelength for the same cases as in Fig. 5. Insets show enlargement of the region close to the phase-matching wavelength.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured shift in ϕCE as a function of plate angle (circles). The curve shows the change in ϕCE as calculated from the Sellmeier coefficients for fused silica.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E(t)=A(t)cos[ωct+ϕCE(t)],
ϕCE(t)=ϕ0+ΔϕCE tτ=ϕ0+2πf0frep tτ,
ΔϕCE=1vg-1vplcωc mod 2π,
ϕn=2π(nfrep+f0)t+ϕ0.
ϕ2n=2π(2nfrep+f0)t+ϕ0+ϕs,
Sbcos(2πf0t+ϕ0+ϕs+ϕmeas).

Metrics