Abstract

An indirect optical method for determining size and complex refractive index of laser-damage precursors in optical materials is presented. The method is described in detail, with special attention to all assumptions. Results are given for a series of thin-film SiO2 layers.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  9. J. Y. Natoli, L. Gallais, H. Akhouayri, and C. Amra, “Laser-induced damage of materials in bulk, thin film, and liquid forms,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3156–3166 (2002).
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  46. M. R. Kozlowski, J. F. DeFord, and M. C. Staggs, “Laser-damage susceptibility of nodular defects in dielectric mirror coatings: AFM measurements and electric-field modeling,” AIP Conf. Proc. 288, 44–49 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
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2003 (1)

2002 (8)

S. Papernov and A. W. Schmid, “Correlations between embedded single gold nanoparticles in SiO2 thin film and nanoscale crater formation induced by pulsed-laser radiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5720–5728 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Natoli, L. Gallais, H. Akhouayri, and C. Amra, “Laser-induced damage of materials in bulk, thin film, and liquid forms,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3156–3166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, J. Vierne, H. Ward, M. Pellin, M. Savina, M. Broyer, E. Cottancin, J. Tuaillon, M. Pellarin, L. Gallais, J. Y. Natoli, M. Perra, H. Bercegol, L. Lamaignre, M. Loiseau, and J. T. Donohue, “Study of UV laser interaction with gold nanoparticles embedded in silica,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 803–815 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Menapace, B. Penetrante, D. Golini, A. Slomba, P. E. Miller, T. Parham, M. Nichols, and J. Peterson, “Combined advanced finishing and UV-laser conditioning for producing UV-damage-resistant fused silica optics,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2001, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 4679, 56–68 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Gallais, J. Y. Natoli, and C. Amra, “Statistical study of single and multiple pulse laser-induced damage in glasses,” Opt. Express 10, 1465–1474 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. During, C. Fossati, and M. Commandré, “Multiwavelength imaging of defects in ultraviolet optical materials,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3118–3126 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Deumié, H. Giovannini, and C. Amra, “Angle-resolved ellipsometry of light scattering: discrimination of surface and bulk effects in substrates and optical coatings,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3362–3369 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gatto and M. Commandré, “Multiscale mapping technique for the simultaneous estimation of absorption and partial scattering in optical coatings,” Appl. Opt. 41, 225–234 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (4)

F. Y. Genin, A. Salleo, T. V. Pistor, and L. L. Chase, “Role of light intensification by cracks in optical breakdown on surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2607–2616 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Runkel, J. DeYoreo, W. Sell, and D. Milam, “Laser conditioning of KDP on the optical sciences laser using large area beam,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3244, 51–63 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Staggs, M. Yan, and M. Runkel, “Laser raster conditioning of KDP and DKDP crystals using XeCl and Nd:YAG lasers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 4347, 400–407 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. Vierne, and G. Daval, “Simulations of laser damage of SiO2 induced by a spherical inclusion,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 4347, 308–315 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

H. Bercegol, “Statistical distribution of laser damage and spatial scaling law for a model with multiple defects cooperation in damage,” in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3902, 339–346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Dijon, B. Rafin, C. Pellé, J. Hue, G. Ravel, and B. Andr, “100-J/cm2 1.06 μm mirrors,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3902, 158–168 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Alvisi, M. Di Giulio, S. G. Maronne, M. R. Perrone, M. L. Protopapa, A. Valentini, and L. Vasanelli, “HfO2 films with high laser damage threshold,” Thin Solid Films 358, 250–258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

M. Ranier, P. Volto, G. Albrand, J. Y. Natoli, C. Amra, B. Pinot, and B. Geenen, “Waveguide losses by photothermal techniques in multilayers for laser damage investigation,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3244, 484–490 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Escoubas, A. Gatto, G. Albrand, P. Roche, and M. Commandré, “Solarization of glass substrates during thin-film deposition,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1883–1889 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Sheehan, M. R. Kozlowski, and D. Camp, “Application of total internal reflection microscopy for laser damage studies on fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 2714, 282–295 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. Dijon, T. Poiroux, and C. Desrumaux, “Nanoabsorbing centers: a key point in laser damage of thin films,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 2966, 315–325 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

M. Commandré and P. Roche, “Characterization of optical coatings by photothermal deflection,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5021–5034 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Eva, K. Mann, N. Kaiser, B. Anton, R. Henking, D. Ristau, P. Weissbrodt, D. Mademann, L. Raupach, and E. Hacker, “Laser conditionning of LaF3/MgF2 dielectric coatings at 248 nm,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5613–5619 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hue, P. Garrec, J. Dijon, and P. Lyan, “R-on-1 automatic mapping: a new tool for laser damage testing,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1995, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 2714, 90–101 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

K. F. Ferris, G. J. Exarhos, and S. M. Riser, “Enhancement factors for local electric fields in inhomogeneous media,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1994, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 2428, 435–443 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

P. F. Gu and J. F. Tang, “Laser-induced damage resistance of thin-films polarizers prepared by ion-assisted deposition,” Opt. Lett. 19, 81–83 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Kozlowski and R. Chow, “The role of defects in laser multilayer coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1993, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 2114, 640–649 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. R. Kozlowski, J. F. DeFord, and M. C. Staggs, “Laser-damage susceptibility of nodular defects in dielectric mirror coatings: AFM measurements and electric-field modeling,” AIP Conf. Proc. 288, 44–49 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

M. C. Staggs, M. Balooch, M. R. Kozlowski, and W. J. Siekhaus, “In situ atomic force microscopy of laser-conditioned and laser-damaged HfO2/SiO2 dielectric mirror coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 1624, 1–12 (1992).

R. M. O’Connell, “Onset threshold analysis of defect-driven surface and bulk laser damage,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4143–4153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

M. R. Kozlowski, C. R. Wolfe, M. C. Staggs, and J. H. Campbell, “Large area laser conditioning of dielectric thin film mirrors,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1989, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 1438, 376–390 (1990).

1987 (1)

M. E. Frink and J. W. Arenberg, “Temporary laser damage threshold enhancement by laser conditioning of antireflection-coated glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 415–418 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

M. R. Lange, J. K. McIver, and A. H. Guenther, “Pulsed laser damage in thin film coatings: fluorides and oxides,” Thin Solid Films 125, 143–155 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1982 (3)

P. A. Temple, W. H. Lowdermilk, and D. Milam, “Carbon dioxide laser polishing of fused silica surfaces for increased laser-damage resistance at 1064 nm,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3249–3255 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Allen, J. O. Porteus, and W. N. Faith, “Infrared laser-induced desorption of H2O and hydrocarbons from optical surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 215–218 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Swain, S. Stokowski, D. Milam, and G. Kennedy, “The effect of baking and pulsed laser irradiation on the damage threshold of potassium dihydrogen phosphate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 12–16 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

1977 (1)

1976 (1)

P. Temple and M. J. Soileau, “Resonant defect enhancement of the laser electric field,” in Damage in laser materials: 1976, A. J. Glass and H. E. Bennett, eds., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 462, 371–378 (1976).

1973 (1)

1970 (1)

R. W. Hopper and D. R. Uhlmann, “Mechanism of inclusion damage in laser glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4023–4037 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Akhouayri, H.

Albrand, G.

M. Ranier, P. Volto, G. Albrand, J. Y. Natoli, C. Amra, B. Pinot, and B. Geenen, “Waveguide losses by photothermal techniques in multilayers for laser damage investigation,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3244, 484–490 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Escoubas, A. Gatto, G. Albrand, P. Roche, and M. Commandré, “Solarization of glass substrates during thin-film deposition,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1883–1889 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Allen, S. D.

S. D. Allen, J. O. Porteus, and W. N. Faith, “Infrared laser-induced desorption of H2O and hydrocarbons from optical surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 215–218 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Alvisi, M.

M. Alvisi, M. Di Giulio, S. G. Maronne, M. R. Perrone, M. L. Protopapa, A. Valentini, and L. Vasanelli, “HfO2 films with high laser damage threshold,” Thin Solid Films 358, 250–258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Amra, C.

Andr, B.

J. Dijon, B. Rafin, C. Pellé, J. Hue, G. Ravel, and B. Andr, “100-J/cm2 1.06 μm mirrors,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3902, 158–168 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Anton, B.

Arenberg, J. W.

M. E. Frink and J. W. Arenberg, “Temporary laser damage threshold enhancement by laser conditioning of antireflection-coated glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 415–418 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Balooch, M.

M. C. Staggs, M. Balooch, M. R. Kozlowski, and W. J. Siekhaus, “In situ atomic force microscopy of laser-conditioned and laser-damaged HfO2/SiO2 dielectric mirror coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 1624, 1–12 (1992).

Bercegol, H.

F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, J. Vierne, H. Ward, M. Pellin, M. Savina, M. Broyer, E. Cottancin, J. Tuaillon, M. Pellarin, L. Gallais, J. Y. Natoli, M. Perra, H. Bercegol, L. Lamaignre, M. Loiseau, and J. T. Donohue, “Study of UV laser interaction with gold nanoparticles embedded in silica,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 803–815 (2002).
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F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, J. Vierne, H. Ward, M. Pellin, M. Savina, M. Broyer, E. Cottancin, J. Tuaillon, M. Pellarin, L. Gallais, J. Y. Natoli, M. Perra, H. Bercegol, L. Lamaignre, M. Loiseau, and J. T. Donohue, “Study of UV laser interaction with gold nanoparticles embedded in silica,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 803–815 (2002).
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L. Sheehan, M. R. Kozlowski, and D. Camp, “Application of total internal reflection microscopy for laser damage studies on fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 2714, 282–295 (1998).
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M. R. Kozlowski, C. R. Wolfe, M. C. Staggs, and J. H. Campbell, “Large area laser conditioning of dielectric thin film mirrors,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1989, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 1438, 376–390 (1990).

Chase, L. L.

Chow, R.

M. R. Kozlowski and R. Chow, “The role of defects in laser multilayer coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1993, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 2114, 640–649 (1994).
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F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. Vierne, and G. Daval, “Simulations of laser damage of SiO2 induced by a spherical inclusion,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 4347, 308–315 (2001).
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F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. Vierne, and G. Daval, “Simulations of laser damage of SiO2 induced by a spherical inclusion,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 4347, 308–315 (2001).
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M. Runkel, J. DeYoreo, W. Sell, and D. Milam, “Laser conditioning of KDP on the optical sciences laser using large area beam,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3244, 51–63 (2001).
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M. Alvisi, M. Di Giulio, S. G. Maronne, M. R. Perrone, M. L. Protopapa, A. Valentini, and L. Vasanelli, “HfO2 films with high laser damage threshold,” Thin Solid Films 358, 250–258 (2000).
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J. Dijon, B. Rafin, C. Pellé, J. Hue, G. Ravel, and B. Andr, “100-J/cm2 1.06 μm mirrors,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3902, 158–168 (2000).
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F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, J. Vierne, H. Ward, M. Pellin, M. Savina, M. Broyer, E. Cottancin, J. Tuaillon, M. Pellarin, L. Gallais, J. Y. Natoli, M. Perra, H. Bercegol, L. Lamaignre, M. Loiseau, and J. T. Donohue, “Study of UV laser interaction with gold nanoparticles embedded in silica,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 803–815 (2002).
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M. Ranier, P. Volto, G. Albrand, J. Y. Natoli, C. Amra, B. Pinot, and B. Geenen, “Waveguide losses by photothermal techniques in multilayers for laser damage investigation,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3244, 484–490 (1998).
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L. Sheehan, M. R. Kozlowski, and D. Camp, “Application of total internal reflection microscopy for laser damage studies on fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 2714, 282–295 (1998).
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M. R. Kozlowski and R. Chow, “The role of defects in laser multilayer coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1993, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 2114, 640–649 (1994).
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M. R. Kozlowski, J. F. DeFord, and M. C. Staggs, “Laser-damage susceptibility of nodular defects in dielectric mirror coatings: AFM measurements and electric-field modeling,” AIP Conf. Proc. 288, 44–49 (1993).
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M. C. Staggs, M. Balooch, M. R. Kozlowski, and W. J. Siekhaus, “In situ atomic force microscopy of laser-conditioned and laser-damaged HfO2/SiO2 dielectric mirror coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 1624, 1–12 (1992).

M. R. Kozlowski, C. R. Wolfe, M. C. Staggs, and J. H. Campbell, “Large area laser conditioning of dielectric thin film mirrors,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1989, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 1438, 376–390 (1990).

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F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, J. Vierne, H. Ward, M. Pellin, M. Savina, M. Broyer, E. Cottancin, J. Tuaillon, M. Pellarin, L. Gallais, J. Y. Natoli, M. Perra, H. Bercegol, L. Lamaignre, M. Loiseau, and J. T. Donohue, “Study of UV laser interaction with gold nanoparticles embedded in silica,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 803–815 (2002).
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F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, J. Vierne, H. Ward, M. Pellin, M. Savina, M. Broyer, E. Cottancin, J. Tuaillon, M. Pellarin, L. Gallais, J. Y. Natoli, M. Perra, H. Bercegol, L. Lamaignre, M. Loiseau, and J. T. Donohue, “Study of UV laser interaction with gold nanoparticles embedded in silica,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 803–815 (2002).
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Lyan, P.

J. Hue, P. Garrec, J. Dijon, and P. Lyan, “R-on-1 automatic mapping: a new tool for laser damage testing,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1995, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 2714, 90–101 (1996).
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M. Alvisi, M. Di Giulio, S. G. Maronne, M. R. Perrone, M. L. Protopapa, A. Valentini, and L. Vasanelli, “HfO2 films with high laser damage threshold,” Thin Solid Films 358, 250–258 (2000).
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J. A. Menapace, B. Penetrante, D. Golini, A. Slomba, P. E. Miller, T. Parham, M. Nichols, and J. Peterson, “Combined advanced finishing and UV-laser conditioning for producing UV-damage-resistant fused silica optics,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2001, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 4679, 56–68 (2002).
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M. Runkel, J. DeYoreo, W. Sell, and D. Milam, “Laser conditioning of KDP on the optical sciences laser using large area beam,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3244, 51–63 (2001).
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Nichols, M.

J. A. Menapace, B. Penetrante, D. Golini, A. Slomba, P. E. Miller, T. Parham, M. Nichols, and J. Peterson, “Combined advanced finishing and UV-laser conditioning for producing UV-damage-resistant fused silica optics,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2001, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 4679, 56–68 (2002).
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J. A. Menapace, B. Penetrante, D. Golini, A. Slomba, P. E. Miller, T. Parham, M. Nichols, and J. Peterson, “Combined advanced finishing and UV-laser conditioning for producing UV-damage-resistant fused silica optics,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2001, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 4679, 56–68 (2002).
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F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, J. Vierne, H. Ward, M. Pellin, M. Savina, M. Broyer, E. Cottancin, J. Tuaillon, M. Pellarin, L. Gallais, J. Y. Natoli, M. Perra, H. Bercegol, L. Lamaignre, M. Loiseau, and J. T. Donohue, “Study of UV laser interaction with gold nanoparticles embedded in silica,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 803–815 (2002).
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J. Dijon, B. Rafin, C. Pellé, J. Hue, G. Ravel, and B. Andr, “100-J/cm2 1.06 μm mirrors,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3902, 158–168 (2000).
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J. A. Menapace, B. Penetrante, D. Golini, A. Slomba, P. E. Miller, T. Parham, M. Nichols, and J. Peterson, “Combined advanced finishing and UV-laser conditioning for producing UV-damage-resistant fused silica optics,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2001, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 4679, 56–68 (2002).
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F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, J. Vierne, H. Ward, M. Pellin, M. Savina, M. Broyer, E. Cottancin, J. Tuaillon, M. Pellarin, L. Gallais, J. Y. Natoli, M. Perra, H. Bercegol, L. Lamaignre, M. Loiseau, and J. T. Donohue, “Study of UV laser interaction with gold nanoparticles embedded in silica,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 803–815 (2002).
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M. Alvisi, M. Di Giulio, S. G. Maronne, M. R. Perrone, M. L. Protopapa, A. Valentini, and L. Vasanelli, “HfO2 films with high laser damage threshold,” Thin Solid Films 358, 250–258 (2000).
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J. A. Menapace, B. Penetrante, D. Golini, A. Slomba, P. E. Miller, T. Parham, M. Nichols, and J. Peterson, “Combined advanced finishing and UV-laser conditioning for producing UV-damage-resistant fused silica optics,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2001, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 4679, 56–68 (2002).
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Pinot, B.

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M. Alvisi, M. Di Giulio, S. G. Maronne, M. R. Perrone, M. L. Protopapa, A. Valentini, and L. Vasanelli, “HfO2 films with high laser damage threshold,” Thin Solid Films 358, 250–258 (2000).
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Rafin, B.

J. Dijon, B. Rafin, C. Pellé, J. Hue, G. Ravel, and B. Andr, “100-J/cm2 1.06 μm mirrors,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3902, 158–168 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ranier, M.

M. Ranier, P. Volto, G. Albrand, J. Y. Natoli, C. Amra, B. Pinot, and B. Geenen, “Waveguide losses by photothermal techniques in multilayers for laser damage investigation,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3244, 484–490 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Raupach, L.

Ravel, G.

J. Dijon, B. Rafin, C. Pellé, J. Hue, G. Ravel, and B. Andr, “100-J/cm2 1.06 μm mirrors,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3902, 158–168 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Riser, S. M.

K. F. Ferris, G. J. Exarhos, and S. M. Riser, “Enhancement factors for local electric fields in inhomogeneous media,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1994, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 2428, 435–443 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ristau, D.

Roche, P.

L. Escoubas, A. Gatto, G. Albrand, P. Roche, and M. Commandré, “Solarization of glass substrates during thin-film deposition,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1883–1889 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Commandré and P. Roche, “Characterization of optical coatings by photothermal deflection,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5021–5034 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rullier, J. L.

F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, J. Vierne, H. Ward, M. Pellin, M. Savina, M. Broyer, E. Cottancin, J. Tuaillon, M. Pellarin, L. Gallais, J. Y. Natoli, M. Perra, H. Bercegol, L. Lamaignre, M. Loiseau, and J. T. Donohue, “Study of UV laser interaction with gold nanoparticles embedded in silica,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 803–815 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Runkel, M.

M. Staggs, M. Yan, and M. Runkel, “Laser raster conditioning of KDP and DKDP crystals using XeCl and Nd:YAG lasers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 4347, 400–407 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Runkel, J. DeYoreo, W. Sell, and D. Milam, “Laser conditioning of KDP on the optical sciences laser using large area beam,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3244, 51–63 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Salleo, A.

Savina, M.

F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, J. Vierne, H. Ward, M. Pellin, M. Savina, M. Broyer, E. Cottancin, J. Tuaillon, M. Pellarin, L. Gallais, J. Y. Natoli, M. Perra, H. Bercegol, L. Lamaignre, M. Loiseau, and J. T. Donohue, “Study of UV laser interaction with gold nanoparticles embedded in silica,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 803–815 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, A. W.

S. Papernov and A. W. Schmid, “Correlations between embedded single gold nanoparticles in SiO2 thin film and nanoscale crater formation induced by pulsed-laser radiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5720–5728 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Seitel, S. C.

Sell, W.

M. Runkel, J. DeYoreo, W. Sell, and D. Milam, “Laser conditioning of KDP on the optical sciences laser using large area beam,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3244, 51–63 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sheehan, L.

L. Sheehan, M. R. Kozlowski, and D. Camp, “Application of total internal reflection microscopy for laser damage studies on fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 2714, 282–295 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Siekhaus, W. J.

M. C. Staggs, M. Balooch, M. R. Kozlowski, and W. J. Siekhaus, “In situ atomic force microscopy of laser-conditioned and laser-damaged HfO2/SiO2 dielectric mirror coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 1624, 1–12 (1992).

Slomba, A.

J. A. Menapace, B. Penetrante, D. Golini, A. Slomba, P. E. Miller, T. Parham, M. Nichols, and J. Peterson, “Combined advanced finishing and UV-laser conditioning for producing UV-damage-resistant fused silica optics,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2001, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 4679, 56–68 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Soileau, M. J.

P. Temple and M. J. Soileau, “Resonant defect enhancement of the laser electric field,” in Damage in laser materials: 1976, A. J. Glass and H. E. Bennett, eds., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 462, 371–378 (1976).

Staggs, M.

M. Staggs, M. Yan, and M. Runkel, “Laser raster conditioning of KDP and DKDP crystals using XeCl and Nd:YAG lasers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 4347, 400–407 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Staggs, M. C.

M. R. Kozlowski, J. F. DeFord, and M. C. Staggs, “Laser-damage susceptibility of nodular defects in dielectric mirror coatings: AFM measurements and electric-field modeling,” AIP Conf. Proc. 288, 44–49 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Staggs, M. Balooch, M. R. Kozlowski, and W. J. Siekhaus, “In situ atomic force microscopy of laser-conditioned and laser-damaged HfO2/SiO2 dielectric mirror coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 1624, 1–12 (1992).

M. R. Kozlowski, C. R. Wolfe, M. C. Staggs, and J. H. Campbell, “Large area laser conditioning of dielectric thin film mirrors,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1989, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 1438, 376–390 (1990).

Stokowski, S.

J. E. Swain, S. Stokowski, D. Milam, and G. Kennedy, “The effect of baking and pulsed laser irradiation on the damage threshold of potassium dihydrogen phosphate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 12–16 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Swain, J. E.

J. E. Swain, S. Stokowski, D. Milam, and G. Kennedy, “The effect of baking and pulsed laser irradiation on the damage threshold of potassium dihydrogen phosphate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 12–16 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Tang, J. F.

Temple, P.

P. Temple and M. J. Soileau, “Resonant defect enhancement of the laser electric field,” in Damage in laser materials: 1976, A. J. Glass and H. E. Bennett, eds., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 462, 371–378 (1976).

Temple, P. A.

Tuaillon, J.

F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, J. Vierne, H. Ward, M. Pellin, M. Savina, M. Broyer, E. Cottancin, J. Tuaillon, M. Pellarin, L. Gallais, J. Y. Natoli, M. Perra, H. Bercegol, L. Lamaignre, M. Loiseau, and J. T. Donohue, “Study of UV laser interaction with gold nanoparticles embedded in silica,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 803–815 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Uhlmann, D. R.

R. W. Hopper and D. R. Uhlmann, “Mechanism of inclusion damage in laser glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4023–4037 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Valentini, A.

M. Alvisi, M. Di Giulio, S. G. Maronne, M. R. Perrone, M. L. Protopapa, A. Valentini, and L. Vasanelli, “HfO2 films with high laser damage threshold,” Thin Solid Films 358, 250–258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vasanelli, L.

M. Alvisi, M. Di Giulio, S. G. Maronne, M. R. Perrone, M. L. Protopapa, A. Valentini, and L. Vasanelli, “HfO2 films with high laser damage threshold,” Thin Solid Films 358, 250–258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vierne, J.

F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, J. Vierne, H. Ward, M. Pellin, M. Savina, M. Broyer, E. Cottancin, J. Tuaillon, M. Pellarin, L. Gallais, J. Y. Natoli, M. Perra, H. Bercegol, L. Lamaignre, M. Loiseau, and J. T. Donohue, “Study of UV laser interaction with gold nanoparticles embedded in silica,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 803–815 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. Vierne, and G. Daval, “Simulations of laser damage of SiO2 induced by a spherical inclusion,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 4347, 308–315 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Volto, P.

M. Ranier, P. Volto, G. Albrand, J. Y. Natoli, C. Amra, B. Pinot, and B. Geenen, “Waveguide losses by photothermal techniques in multilayers for laser damage investigation,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3244, 484–490 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ward, H.

F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, J. Vierne, H. Ward, M. Pellin, M. Savina, M. Broyer, E. Cottancin, J. Tuaillon, M. Pellarin, L. Gallais, J. Y. Natoli, M. Perra, H. Bercegol, L. Lamaignre, M. Loiseau, and J. T. Donohue, “Study of UV laser interaction with gold nanoparticles embedded in silica,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 803–815 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weissbrodt, P.

Wiscombe, W. J.

Wolfe, C. R.

M. R. Kozlowski, C. R. Wolfe, M. C. Staggs, and J. H. Campbell, “Large area laser conditioning of dielectric thin film mirrors,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1989, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 1438, 376–390 (1990).

Yan, M.

M. Staggs, M. Yan, and M. Runkel, “Laser raster conditioning of KDP and DKDP crystals using XeCl and Nd:YAG lasers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 4347, 400–407 (2001).
[CrossRef]

AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

M. R. Kozlowski, J. F. DeFord, and M. C. Staggs, “Laser-damage susceptibility of nodular defects in dielectric mirror coatings: AFM measurements and electric-field modeling,” AIP Conf. Proc. 288, 44–49 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (15)

A. Gatto and M. Commandré, “Multiscale mapping technique for the simultaneous estimation of absorption and partial scattering in optical coatings,” Appl. Opt. 41, 225–234 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Escoubas, A. Gatto, G. Albrand, P. Roche, and M. Commandré, “Solarization of glass substrates during thin-film deposition,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1883–1889 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wiscombe, “Improved Mie scattering algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1505–1509 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Bloembergen, “Roles of cracks, pores, and absorbing inclusions on laser induced damage threshold at surfaces of transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Opt. 12, 661–664 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Natoli, L. Gallais, H. Akhouayri, and C. Amra, “Laser-induced damage of materials in bulk, thin film, and liquid forms,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3156–3166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Temple, W. H. Lowdermilk, and D. Milam, “Carbon dioxide laser polishing of fused silica surfaces for increased laser-damage resistance at 1064 nm,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3249–3255 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Eva, K. Mann, N. Kaiser, B. Anton, R. Henking, D. Ristau, P. Weissbrodt, D. Mademann, L. Raupach, and E. Hacker, “Laser conditionning of LaF3/MgF2 dielectric coatings at 248 nm,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5613–5619 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Picard, D. Milam, and R. Bradbury, “Statistical analysis of defect-caused damage in thin films,” Appl. Opt. 16, 1563–1571 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. O. Porteus and S. C. Seitel, “Absolute onset of optical surface damage using distributed defect ensembles,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3796–3805 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. O’Connell, “Onset threshold analysis of defect-driven surface and bulk laser damage,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4143–4153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. During, C. Fossati, and M. Commandré, “Multiwavelength imaging of defects in ultraviolet optical materials,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3118–3126 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Deumié, H. Giovannini, and C. Amra, “Angle-resolved ellipsometry of light scattering: discrimination of surface and bulk effects in substrates and optical coatings,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3362–3369 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Temple, “Total internal reflection microscopy: a surface inspection technique,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2656–2664 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Commandré and P. Roche, “Characterization of optical coatings by photothermal deflection,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5021–5034 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Gallais and J. Y. Natoli, “Optimized metrology for laser damage measurement—application to multiparameter study,” Appl. Opt. 42, 960–971 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, J. Vierne, H. Ward, M. Pellin, M. Savina, M. Broyer, E. Cottancin, J. Tuaillon, M. Pellarin, L. Gallais, J. Y. Natoli, M. Perra, H. Bercegol, L. Lamaignre, M. Loiseau, and J. T. Donohue, “Study of UV laser interaction with gold nanoparticles embedded in silica,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 803–815 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. D. Allen, J. O. Porteus, and W. N. Faith, “Infrared laser-induced desorption of H2O and hydrocarbons from optical surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 215–218 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Swain, S. Stokowski, D. Milam, and G. Kennedy, “The effect of baking and pulsed laser irradiation on the damage threshold of potassium dihydrogen phosphate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 12–16 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Frink and J. W. Arenberg, “Temporary laser damage threshold enhancement by laser conditioning of antireflection-coated glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 415–418 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

R. W. Hopper and D. R. Uhlmann, “Mechanism of inclusion damage in laser glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4023–4037 (1970).
[CrossRef]

S. Papernov and A. W. Schmid, “Correlations between embedded single gold nanoparticles in SiO2 thin film and nanoscale crater formation induced by pulsed-laser radiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5720–5728 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. (1)

P. Temple and M. J. Soileau, “Resonant defect enhancement of the laser electric field,” in Damage in laser materials: 1976, A. J. Glass and H. E. Bennett, eds., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 462, 371–378 (1976).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (14)

J. Dijon, B. Rafin, C. Pellé, J. Hue, G. Ravel, and B. Andr, “100-J/cm2 1.06 μm mirrors,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3902, 158–168 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Menapace, B. Penetrante, D. Golini, A. Slomba, P. E. Miller, T. Parham, M. Nichols, and J. Peterson, “Combined advanced finishing and UV-laser conditioning for producing UV-damage-resistant fused silica optics,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2001, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 4679, 56–68 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Sheehan, M. R. Kozlowski, and D. Camp, “Application of total internal reflection microscopy for laser damage studies on fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 2714, 282–295 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Kozlowski and R. Chow, “The role of defects in laser multilayer coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1993, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 2114, 640–649 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Dijon, T. Poiroux, and C. Desrumaux, “Nanoabsorbing centers: a key point in laser damage of thin films,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 2966, 315–325 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Bercegol, “Statistical distribution of laser damage and spatial scaling law for a model with multiple defects cooperation in damage,” in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3902, 339–346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Kozlowski, C. R. Wolfe, M. C. Staggs, and J. H. Campbell, “Large area laser conditioning of dielectric thin film mirrors,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1989, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 1438, 376–390 (1990).

M. C. Staggs, M. Balooch, M. R. Kozlowski, and W. J. Siekhaus, “In situ atomic force microscopy of laser-conditioned and laser-damaged HfO2/SiO2 dielectric mirror coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 1624, 1–12 (1992).

M. Runkel, J. DeYoreo, W. Sell, and D. Milam, “Laser conditioning of KDP on the optical sciences laser using large area beam,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3244, 51–63 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Staggs, M. Yan, and M. Runkel, “Laser raster conditioning of KDP and DKDP crystals using XeCl and Nd:YAG lasers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 4347, 400–407 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Hue, P. Garrec, J. Dijon, and P. Lyan, “R-on-1 automatic mapping: a new tool for laser damage testing,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1995, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 2714, 90–101 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Ranier, P. Volto, G. Albrand, J. Y. Natoli, C. Amra, B. Pinot, and B. Geenen, “Waveguide losses by photothermal techniques in multilayers for laser damage investigation,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3244, 484–490 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Ferris, G. J. Exarhos, and S. M. Riser, “Enhancement factors for local electric fields in inhomogeneous media,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1994, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 2428, 435–443 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. Vierne, and G. Daval, “Simulations of laser damage of SiO2 induced by a spherical inclusion,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 4347, 308–315 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (2)

M. R. Lange, J. K. McIver, and A. H. Guenther, “Pulsed laser damage in thin film coatings: fluorides and oxides,” Thin Solid Films 125, 143–155 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. Alvisi, M. Di Giulio, S. G. Maronne, M. R. Perrone, M. L. Protopapa, A. Valentini, and L. Vasanelli, “HfO2 films with high laser damage threshold,” Thin Solid Films 358, 250–258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

J. E. Peterson, S. M. Maricle, R. M. Brusasco, and B. M. Penetrante, “Reduction of damage initiation density in fused silica optics via UV laser conditioning,” U.S. patent 2002/0046579 (2002).

L. Gallais, “Laser damage in optical components—metrology, statistical and photo-induced analysis of precursor centers,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université d’ Aix-Marseille III, France, 2002).

International Organization for Standardization, “Determination of laser-damage threshold of optical surfaces. 1. 1-on-1 test,” standard ISO 11254–1 (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, 2000).

International Organization for Standardization, “Determination of laser-damage threshold of optical surfaces. 2. S-on-1 test,” standard ISO 11254–2 (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, 2001).

A. During, “Photothermal microscopy and laser damage,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université d’ Aix-Marseille III, France, 2002).

L. Lamaignère, M. Loiseau, H. Piombini, D. Plessis, and H. Bercegol, “Bulk damage and laser conditioning of KDP and DKDP crystals with Xe-F excimer light and the 3ω of a Nd:YAG laser,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2002, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, C. J. Stolz, A. Giesen, and H. Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE 4932, 391–392 (2004).

C. R. Wolfe, M. R. Kozlowski, J. H. Campbell, M. Staggs, and F. Rainer, “Permanent laser conditioning of thin film optical materials,” U.S. patent 5, 472, 748 (December 5, 1995).

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).

J. A. Stratton, Electromagnetic Theory (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1941).

F. P. Incropera and D. P. DeWitt, Introduction to Heat Transfer (Wiley, New York, 1996).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for laser-damage testing.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Threshold curve of a silica thin film, together with fit of experimental data (λ=1064 nm; beam diameter, 12 µm).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical power absorbed by particles (n=ns and nβ=1) as a function of their radius. Irradiation is done with a 100-mW laser at 1064 nm, focused on a 100-µm2 or a 1-µm2 surface. Dashed line, average detectivity limit of photothermal measurements.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

E-field distribution inside and outside a 100-nm spherical particle of extinction index 1, irradiated at 1064 nm with polarization defined in this figure. The E-field distribution is represented for three polar angles in the incident plane.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Particle size as a function of extinction index, calculated from Eq. (11) for a SiO2 film. Highest and lowest values are estimated from the uncertainty on n (0.5<n<5).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Absorbing spherical particle (1) embedded in a homogenous non-absorbing medium (2) irradiated by a plane wave with a Gaussian temporal profile.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Normalized temperature variations in particles embedded in silica of four diameters irradiated with an energy of 19 J/cm2 at 1064 nm during 5 ns. nβ=1.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Maximum temperature reached by particles embedded in silica and irradiated with an energy of 19 J/cm2 at 1064 nm during 5 ns. Dashed line, temperature of the silica melting point (1883 °C). (nβ=1.)

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Particle size as a function of extinction index, calculated from the modeling of Section 4. Highest and lowest values are estimated from the uncertainty on the different parameters (see text). Silica matrix.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Calculated and measured relationships between size and extinction index of the particle. Darker curves, lowest data; lighter curves, highest data. Striped area, intersection between thermal calculations and optical measurements, i.e., possible values of the radius and the extinction index of a laser-damage precursor embedded in silica.

Equations (33)

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P(F)=1-exp[-dST(F)],
ST=12S lnFT,
dAdv=ω2(E2+μH2),
ΔAω2ΔvE2dv,
Em2=1Δv ΔvE2dv,
ΔA=ω2Em2Δv.
dΦdS=ks2ωμ0|E0|2,
β=|Em|2/|E0|2,
dΦdS=ks2ωμ0 |Em|2β.
ΔA=ω2μ0ksβΔvdΦdS,
ΔA=4πnnnsβΔvλdΦdS.
ΔA(nβΔv)×1014 W(100-µm2 surface),
ΔA(nβΔv)×1018 W(1-µm2 surface).
ΔA=4πnnnsΔvλdΦdS.
ΔA=4π(n)ΔvλdΦdS.
n=g(R),
β=β(n, n, R, λ).
Esca=E0n=1Nmaxin 2n+1n(n+1)[ansca(R)mo1n(0)(r, θ, φ)-ibnsca(R)ne1n(0)(r, θ, φ)],
Qsca=2πks n=1Nmax(2n+1)(|ansca|2+|bnsca|2),
Qext=2πks n=1Nmax(2n+1)Re(ansca+bnsca).
Qabs=Qext-Qsca=ΔA/(dΦ0/dS),
ΔA=(Qext-Qsca)ΔA/(dΦ0/dS).
ΔT(ρ, t)-1a T(ρ, t)t=-S(ρ, t)b,
T(ρ, t)F.T.Tˆ(ρ, Ω).
ΔTˆ1(ρ, Ω)+α12Tˆ1=-S02b1 πτ exp-π24τ2Ω2,
ΔTˆ2(ρ, Ω)+α22Tˆ2=0,
Tˆ1(ρ, Ω)=A1ρ exp(jα1ρ)-A1ρ exp(-jα1ρ)-S02α12b1 πτ exp-π24τ2Ω2,
Tˆ2(ρ, Ω)=A2ρ exp(jα2ρ).
Ti(ρ, t)=F.T.-1[Tˆi(ρ, Ω)].
n=g(R)±Δn(n),
n=h(R)±Δn(n, a1, b1),
10nm<R<120nm
9×10-3<n<5.

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