Abstract

Nonepitaxially grown, rf sputtered semiconductor-doped silica film saturable absorbers have recently been developed as a versatile, easy to fabricate, cost-effective alternative to epitaxially grown semiconductor saturable absorbers. Characterization of their linear and nonlinear optical properties reveals trends that permit the development of guidelines for optimizing these devices for a particular laser system. Operation near the onset of absorption, the use of films with large nanocrystallites, and high rapid thermal annealing temperatures result in saturation fluences as low as 640 µJ/cm2 at 1.54 µm. These materials can be used to start Kerr-lens mode locking in a wide range of solid-state lasers.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

1999 (6)

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, Z. Shi, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, T. Tschudi, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors supporting sub-10 fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 137–150 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Guerreiro, S. Ten, N. F. Borrelli, J. Butty, G. E. Jabbour, and N. Peyghambarian, “PbS quantum-dot doped glasses as saturable absorbers for mode locking of a Cr:forsterite laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1595–1597 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

R. Fluck, I. D. Jung, G. Zhang, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, “Broadband saturable absorber for 10-fs pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 21, 743–745 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Mode-locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg reflectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 454–464 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

D. M. Mittleman, R. W. Schoenlein, J. J. Shiang, V. L. Colvin, A. P. Alivisatos, and C. V. Shank, “Quantum size dependence of femtosecond electronic dephasing and vibrational dynamics in CdSe nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 14, 435–14, 447 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

1991 (3)

1990 (2)

I. Tanahashi, A. Tsujimura, T. Mitsuyu, and A. Nishino, “Optical properties of CdS microcrystallite-doped SiO2 glass thin films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 2111–2115 (1990).
[CrossRef]

N. Sarukura, Y. Ishida, T. Yanagawa, and H. Nakano, “All solid-state cw passively mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser us- ing a colored glass filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 229–230 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

K. Tsunetomo, H. Nasu, H. Kitayama, A. Kawabuchi, Y. Osaka, and K. Takiyama, “Quantum size effect of semiconductor microcrystallites doped in SiO2-glass thin films prepared by RF-sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1928–1933 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

Alivisatos, A. P.

D. M. Mittleman, R. W. Schoenlein, J. J. Shiang, V. L. Colvin, A. P. Alivisatos, and C. V. Shank, “Quantum size dependence of femtosecond electronic dephasing and vibrational dynamics in CdSe nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 14, 435–14, 447 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Angelow, G.

Asom, M. T.

Aus der Au, J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bawendi, M. G.

V. I. Klimov, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, “Electron and hole relaxation pathways in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 13, 740–13, 749 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bilinsky, I. P.

Borrelli, N. F.

P. T. Guerreiro, S. Ten, N. F. Borrelli, J. Butty, G. E. Jabbour, and N. Peyghambarian, “PbS quantum-dot doped glasses as saturable absorbers for mode locking of a Cr:forsterite laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1595–1597 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. D.

Braun, B.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Butty, J.

P. T. Guerreiro, S. Ten, N. F. Borrelli, J. Butty, G. E. Jabbour, and N. Peyghambarian, “PbS quantum-dot doped glasses as saturable absorbers for mode locking of a Cr:forsterite laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1595–1597 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

Chen, Y.

Chiu, T. H.

Cho, S. H.

Chudoba, C.

Colvin, V. L.

D. M. Mittleman, R. W. Schoenlein, J. J. Shiang, V. L. Colvin, A. P. Alivisatos, and C. V. Shank, “Quantum size dependence of femtosecond electronic dephasing and vibrational dynamics in CdSe nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 14, 435–14, 447 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cundiff, S. T.

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Mode-locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg reflectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 454–464 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Mode-locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg reflectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 454–464 (1996).
[CrossRef]

De Silvestri, S.

Ferguson, J. F.

Fluck, R.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Fluck, I. D. Jung, G. Zhang, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, “Broadband saturable absorber for 10-fs pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 21, 743–745 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fork, R. L.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gallmann, L.

Gordon, J. P.

Guerreiro, P. T.

P. T. Guerreiro, S. Ten, N. F. Borrelli, J. Butty, G. E. Jabbour, and N. Peyghambarian, “PbS quantum-dot doped glasses as saturable absorbers for mode locking of a Cr:forsterite laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1595–1597 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Haiml, M.

S. Schön, M. Haiml, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “GaAs absorber layer growth for broadband AlGaAs/flouride SESAMs,” J. Cryst. Growth 227, 172–176 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

Hönninger, C.

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 46, 46–56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Huang, G. L.

Ikegami, T.

S. Kaneko, H. Nasu, T. Ikegami, J. Matsuoka, and K. Kamiya, “Effect of preparation conditions on the properties of CdSe microcrystal-doped SiO2 glass thin films prepared by RF-sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 2206–2211 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

Ishida, Y.

N. Sarukura, Y. Ishida, T. Yanagawa, and H. Nakano, “All solid-state cw passively mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser us- ing a colored glass filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 229–230 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jabbour, G. E.

P. T. Guerreiro, S. Ten, N. F. Borrelli, J. Butty, G. E. Jabbour, and N. Peyghambarian, “PbS quantum-dot doped glasses as saturable absorbers for mode locking of a Cr:forsterite laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1595–1597 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jan, W. Y.

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Mode-locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg reflectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 454–464 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jung, I. D.

I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, Z. Shi, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, T. Tschudi, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors supporting sub-10 fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 137–150 (1997).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Fluck, I. D. Jung, G. Zhang, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, “Broadband saturable absorber for 10-fs pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 21, 743–745 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kamiya, K.

S. Kaneko, H. Nasu, T. Ikegami, J. Matsuoka, and K. Kamiya, “Effect of preparation conditions on the properties of CdSe microcrystal-doped SiO2 glass thin films prepared by RF-sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 2206–2211 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, S.

S. Kaneko, H. Nasu, T. Ikegami, J. Matsuoka, and K. Kamiya, “Effect of preparation conditions on the properties of CdSe microcrystal-doped SiO2 glass thin films prepared by RF-sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 2206–2211 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

C. Chudoba, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, H. A. Haus, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, “All-solid-state Cr:forsterite laser generating 14-fs pulses at 1.3 μm,” Opt. Lett. 26, 292–294 (2001).
[CrossRef]

U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, S. H. Cho, Y. Chen, H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, “Sub-two cycle pulses from a Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 24, 411–413 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, Z. Shi, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, T. Tschudi, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors supporting sub-10 fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 137–150 (1997).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Fluck, I. D. Jung, G. Zhang, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, “Broadband saturable absorber for 10-fs pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 21, 743–745 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawabuchi, A.

K. Tsunetomo, H. Nasu, H. Kitayama, A. Kawabuchi, Y. Osaka, and K. Takiyama, “Quantum size effect of semiconductor microcrystallites doped in SiO2-glass thin films prepared by RF-sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1928–1933 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kean, P. N.

Keller, U.

S. Schön, M. Haiml, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “GaAs absorber layer growth for broadband AlGaAs/flouride SESAMs,” J. Cryst. Growth 227, 172–176 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Sutter, G. Steinmeyer, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, “Semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror assisted Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser producing pulses in the two-cycle regime,” Opt. Lett. 24, 631–633 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 46, 46–56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, Z. Shi, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, T. Tschudi, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors supporting sub-10 fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 137–150 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Fluck, I. D. Jung, G. Zhang, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, “Broadband saturable absorber for 10-fs pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 21, 743–745 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, D. A. B. Miller, G. D. Boyd, T. H. Chiu, J. F. Ferguson, and M. T. Asom, “Solid-state low-loss intracavity saturable absorber for Nd:YLF lasers: an antiresonant semiconductor Fabry–Perot saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 17, 505–507 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitayama, H.

K. Tsunetomo, H. Nasu, H. Kitayama, A. Kawabuchi, Y. Osaka, and K. Takiyama, “Quantum size effect of semiconductor microcrystallites doped in SiO2-glass thin films prepared by RF-sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1928–1933 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Klimov, V. I.

V. I. Klimov, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, “Electron and hole relaxation pathways in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 13, 740–13, 749 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Knox, W. H.

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Mode-locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg reflectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 454–464 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kopf, D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, H. S.

Leatherdale, C. A.

V. I. Klimov, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, “Electron and hole relaxation pathways in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 13, 740–13, 749 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Magni, V.

Mak, P.

Martinez, O. E.

Matsuoka, J.

S. Kaneko, H. Nasu, T. Ikegami, J. Matsuoka, and K. Kamiya, “Effect of preparation conditions on the properties of CdSe microcrystal-doped SiO2 glass thin films prepared by RF-sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 2206–2211 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Matuschek, N.

D. H. Sutter, G. Steinmeyer, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, “Semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror assisted Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser producing pulses in the two-cycle regime,” Opt. Lett. 24, 631–633 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, Z. Shi, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, T. Tschudi, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors supporting sub-10 fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 137–150 (1997).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McBranch, D. W.

V. I. Klimov, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, “Electron and hole relaxation pathways in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 13, 740–13, 749 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

Misaggia, L. J.

I. P. Bilinsky, J. G. Fujimoto, J. N. Walpole, and L. J. Misaggia, “InAs-doped silica films for saturable absorber applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2411–2413 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Bilinsky, J. G. Fujimoto, J. N. Walpole, and L. J. Misaggia, “Semiconductor-doped silica saturable absorber films for solid-state laser mode locking,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1766–1768 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mitsuyu, T.

I. Tanahashi, A. Tsujimura, T. Mitsuyu, and A. Nishino, “Optical properties of CdS microcrystallite-doped SiO2 glass thin films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 2111–2115 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D. M.

D. M. Mittleman, R. W. Schoenlein, J. J. Shiang, V. L. Colvin, A. P. Alivisatos, and C. V. Shank, “Quantum size dependence of femtosecond electronic dephasing and vibrational dynamics in CdSe nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 14, 435–14, 447 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Monguzzi, A.

Morgner, U.

Morier-Genoud, F.

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 46, 46–56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Sutter, G. Steinmeyer, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, “Semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror assisted Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser producing pulses in the two-cycle regime,” Opt. Lett. 24, 631–633 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, Z. Shi, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, T. Tschudi, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors supporting sub-10 fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 137–150 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moser, M.

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 46, 46–56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, H.

N. Sarukura, Y. Ishida, T. Yanagawa, and H. Nakano, “All solid-state cw passively mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser us- ing a colored glass filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 229–230 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nasu, H.

S. Kaneko, H. Nasu, T. Ikegami, J. Matsuoka, and K. Kamiya, “Effect of preparation conditions on the properties of CdSe microcrystal-doped SiO2 glass thin films prepared by RF-sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 2206–2211 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Tsunetomo, H. Nasu, H. Kitayama, A. Kawabuchi, Y. Osaka, and K. Takiyama, “Quantum size effect of semiconductor microcrystallites doped in SiO2-glass thin films prepared by RF-sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1928–1933 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nishino, A.

I. Tanahashi, A. Tsujimura, T. Mitsuyu, and A. Nishino, “Optical properties of CdS microcrystallite-doped SiO2 glass thin films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 2111–2115 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Osaka, Y.

K. Tsunetomo, M. Yamamoto, and Y. Osaka, “Preparation and properties of InxGa1−xAs microcrystallites embedded in SiO2 glass films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L521–L524 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Tsunetomo, H. Nasu, H. Kitayama, A. Kawabuchi, Y. Osaka, and K. Takiyama, “Quantum size effect of semiconductor microcrystallites doped in SiO2-glass thin films prepared by RF-sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1928–1933 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Paschotta, R.

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 46, 46–56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

P. T. Guerreiro, S. Ten, N. F. Borrelli, J. Butty, G. E. Jabbour, and N. Peyghambarian, “PbS quantum-dot doped glasses as saturable absorbers for mode locking of a Cr:forsterite laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1595–1597 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Prasankumar, R. P.

Ruane, M. F.

Sarukura, N.

N. Sarukura, Y. Ishida, T. Yanagawa, and H. Nakano, “All solid-state cw passively mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser us- ing a colored glass filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 229–230 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Scheuer, V.

Schoenlein, R. W.

D. M. Mittleman, R. W. Schoenlein, J. J. Shiang, V. L. Colvin, A. P. Alivisatos, and C. V. Shank, “Quantum size dependence of femtosecond electronic dephasing and vibrational dynamics in CdSe nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 14, 435–14, 447 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schön, S.

S. Schön, M. Haiml, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “GaAs absorber layer growth for broadband AlGaAs/flouride SESAMs,” J. Cryst. Growth 227, 172–176 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shank, C. V.

D. M. Mittleman, R. W. Schoenlein, J. J. Shiang, V. L. Colvin, A. P. Alivisatos, and C. V. Shank, “Quantum size dependence of femtosecond electronic dephasing and vibrational dynamics in CdSe nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 14, 435–14, 447 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Z.

I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, Z. Shi, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, T. Tschudi, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors supporting sub-10 fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 137–150 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shiang, J. J.

D. M. Mittleman, R. W. Schoenlein, J. J. Shiang, V. L. Colvin, A. P. Alivisatos, and C. V. Shank, “Quantum size dependence of femtosecond electronic dephasing and vibrational dynamics in CdSe nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 14, 435–14, 447 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

Spence, D. E.

Steinmeyer, G.

Sutter, D. H.

D. H. Sutter, G. Steinmeyer, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, “Semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror assisted Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser producing pulses in the two-cycle regime,” Opt. Lett. 24, 631–633 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, Z. Shi, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, T. Tschudi, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors supporting sub-10 fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 137–150 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Takiyama, K.

K. Tsunetomo, H. Nasu, H. Kitayama, A. Kawabuchi, Y. Osaka, and K. Takiyama, “Quantum size effect of semiconductor microcrystallites doped in SiO2-glass thin films prepared by RF-sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1928–1933 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tanahashi, I.

I. Tanahashi, A. Tsujimura, T. Mitsuyu, and A. Nishino, “Optical properties of CdS microcrystallite-doped SiO2 glass thin films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 2111–2115 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ten, S.

P. T. Guerreiro, S. Ten, N. F. Borrelli, J. Butty, G. E. Jabbour, and N. Peyghambarian, “PbS quantum-dot doped glasses as saturable absorbers for mode locking of a Cr:forsterite laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1595–1597 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tilsch, M.

I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, Z. Shi, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, T. Tschudi, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors supporting sub-10 fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 137–150 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tschudi, T.

Tsuda, S.

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Mode-locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg reflectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 454–464 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tsujimura, A.

I. Tanahashi, A. Tsujimura, T. Mitsuyu, and A. Nishino, “Optical properties of CdS microcrystallite-doped SiO2 glass thin films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 2111–2115 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tsunetomo, K.

K. Tsunetomo, M. Yamamoto, and Y. Osaka, “Preparation and properties of InxGa1−xAs microcrystallites embedded in SiO2 glass films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L521–L524 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Tsunetomo, H. Nasu, H. Kitayama, A. Kawabuchi, Y. Osaka, and K. Takiyama, “Quantum size effect of semiconductor microcrystallites doped in SiO2-glass thin films prepared by RF-sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1928–1933 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Walpole, J. N.

I. P. Bilinsky, J. G. Fujimoto, J. N. Walpole, and L. J. Misaggia, “InAs-doped silica films for saturable absorber applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2411–2413 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Bilinsky, J. G. Fujimoto, J. N. Walpole, and L. J. Misaggia, “Semiconductor-doped silica saturable absorber films for solid-state laser mode locking,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1766–1768 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weingarten, K. J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, M.

K. Tsunetomo, M. Yamamoto, and Y. Osaka, “Preparation and properties of InxGa1−xAs microcrystallites embedded in SiO2 glass films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L521–L524 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yanagawa, T.

N. Sarukura, Y. Ishida, T. Yanagawa, and H. Nakano, “All solid-state cw passively mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser us- ing a colored glass filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 229–230 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, Z. Shi, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, T. Tschudi, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors supporting sub-10 fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 137–150 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

N. Sarukura, Y. Ishida, T. Yanagawa, and H. Nakano, “All solid-state cw passively mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser us- ing a colored glass filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 229–230 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Guerreiro, S. Ten, N. F. Borrelli, J. Butty, G. E. Jabbour, and N. Peyghambarian, “PbS quantum-dot doped glasses as saturable absorbers for mode locking of a Cr:forsterite laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1595–1597 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Bilinsky, J. G. Fujimoto, J. N. Walpole, and L. J. Misaggia, “InAs-doped silica films for saturable absorber applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2411–2413 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Mode-locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg reflectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 454–464 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

S. Schön, M. Haiml, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “GaAs absorber layer growth for broadband AlGaAs/flouride SESAMs,” J. Cryst. Growth 227, 172–176 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (4)

K. Tsunetomo, H. Nasu, H. Kitayama, A. Kawabuchi, Y. Osaka, and K. Takiyama, “Quantum size effect of semiconductor microcrystallites doped in SiO2-glass thin films prepared by RF-sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1928–1933 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Tsunetomo, M. Yamamoto, and Y. Osaka, “Preparation and properties of InxGa1−xAs microcrystallites embedded in SiO2 glass films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L521–L524 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Kaneko, H. Nasu, T. Ikegami, J. Matsuoka, and K. Kamiya, “Effect of preparation conditions on the properties of CdSe microcrystal-doped SiO2 glass thin films prepared by RF-sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 2206–2211 (1992).
[CrossRef]

I. Tanahashi, A. Tsujimura, T. Mitsuyu, and A. Nishino, “Optical properties of CdS microcrystallite-doped SiO2 glass thin films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 2111–2115 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (10)

R. L. Fork, O. E. Martinez, and J. P. Gordon, “Negative dispersion using pairs of prisms,” Opt. Lett. 9, 150–152 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Spence, P. N. Kean, and W. Sibbett, “60-fs pulse generation from a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 42–44 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Haus and E. P. Ippen, “Self-starting of passively mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1331–1333 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Keller, D. A. B. Miller, G. D. Boyd, T. H. Chiu, J. F. Ferguson, and M. T. Asom, “Solid-state low-loss intracavity saturable absorber for Nd:YLF lasers: an antiresonant semiconductor Fabry–Perot saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 17, 505–507 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. P. Bilinsky, J. G. Fujimoto, J. N. Walpole, and L. J. Misaggia, “Semiconductor-doped silica saturable absorber films for solid-state laser mode locking,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1766–1768 (1998).
[CrossRef]

U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, S. H. Cho, Y. Chen, H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, “Sub-two cycle pulses from a Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 24, 411–413 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Sutter, G. Steinmeyer, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, “Semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror assisted Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser producing pulses in the two-cycle regime,” Opt. Lett. 24, 631–633 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Fluck, I. D. Jung, G. Zhang, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, “Broadband saturable absorber for 10-fs pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 21, 743–745 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Chudoba, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, H. A. Haus, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, “All-solid-state Cr:forsterite laser generating 14-fs pulses at 1.3 μm,” Opt. Lett. 26, 292–294 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Prasankumar, C. Chudoba, J. G. Fujimoto, P. Mak, and M. F. Ruane, “Self-starting mode locking in a Cr:forsterite laser by use of non-epitaxially-grown semiconductor-doped silica films,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1564–66 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

D. M. Mittleman, R. W. Schoenlein, J. J. Shiang, V. L. Colvin, A. P. Alivisatos, and C. V. Shank, “Quantum size dependence of femtosecond electronic dephasing and vibrational dynamics in CdSe nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 14, 435–14, 447 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Klimov, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, “Electron and hole relaxation pathways in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 13, 740–13, 749 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

W. D. Callister, Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction (Wiley, New York, 2003).

L. H. Van Vlack, Elements of Materials Science (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1964).

I. P. Bilinsky, “Novel saturable absorber materials and devices for laser modelocking,” Ph.D. dissertation (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., 1999).

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Linear transmission measurements for films with different InAs/SiO2 ratios, revealing a shift of the absorption edge toward longer wavelengths with higher ratios of semiconductor to glass.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the experimental setup of the noncollinear Ti:sapphire-based pump–probe system with independently tunable pump and probe wavelengths from 700 to 1000 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Degenerate pump–probe measurements of a 10% InAs/90% SiO2 film as a function of wavelength. The pump–probe measurements show a decrease in saturation fluence with excitation wavelengths closer to the onset of absorption. The measured saturation fluences were 9.3 mJ/cm2 at 925 nm, 17.5 mJ/cm2 at 800 nm, and 42.5 mJ/cm2 at 750 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Tunable degenerate pump–probe measurements on a 40% InAs/60% SiO2 film at three wavelengths. A saturation fluence of 640 µJ/cm2 at 1.54 µm was measured.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Degenerate pump–probe measurement at 800 nm of a 10% InAs/90% SiO2 film. The saturation fluence is 17.5 mJ/cm2, as described in the text. (b) Degenerate pump–probe measurement at 1260 nm on a 40% InAs/60% SiO2 film. The saturation fluence was 4.05 mJ/cm2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Degenerate pump–probe measurement of a 10% InAs/90% SiO2 film at 800 nm. Measurements were made of films prepared with several rapid thermal annealing temperatures. Discrete changes in the absorption saturation dynamics as a function of film annealing temperature are shown.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Degenerate pump–probe measurement of a 10% InAs/90% borosilicate glass film at 800 nm. Measurements were made of films prepared with several rapid thermal annealing temperatures. The absorption saturation dynamics change continuously as a function of film annealing temperature.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Logarithmic plot of saturation fluence versus wavelength for 3% InAs/97% SiO2, 10% InAs/90% SiO2, and 40% InAs/60% SiO2 films.

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