Abstract

Kretschmann prism couplers, including magneto-optical media such as Co, Fe, and Ni, allow enhancement of the magneto-optical response, such as conversion of light polarization, thanks to the resonant excitation of surface plasmons. Since these media have high losses, they support overdamped surface plasmons. A way to get high-quality surface-plasmon resonance is to use noble-metal/ferromagnetic-metal multilayer thin films. The question that arises is, which surface-plasmon resonance leads to the largest enhancement: is it the overdamped or the high-quality one? We show that the best optimization not only depends on the orientation of the magnetic field but also on the magneto-optical coefficients. The most effective enhancer of the magneto-optical effects is the high-quality surface plasmons for the transverse orientation and may be the overdamped surface plasmons for the polar and longitudinal ones. This applies when the noble metal is gold and the magneto-optical medium is cobalt.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. P. Hunt, “Magneto-optic scattering from thin solid films,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 1652–1671 (1967).
  2. J. Zak, E. R. Moog, C. Liu, and S. D. Bader, “Universal approach to magneto-optics,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 89, 107–123 (1990).
  3. S. Visnovsky, “Magneto-optical ellipsometry,” Czech. J. Phys. B 36, 625–650 (1986).
  4. J. Zak, E. R. Moog, C. Liu, and S. D. Bader, “Magneto-optics of multilayers with arbitrary magnetization directions,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 6423–6429 (1991).
  5. C.-Y. You and S.-C. Shin, “Derivation of simplified analytic formulae for magneto-optical Kerr effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1315–1317 (1996).
  6. C.-Y. You and S.-C. Shin, “Generalized analytic formulae for magneto-optical Kerr effects,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 541–546 (1998).
  7. Z. Q. Qiu and S. D. Bader, “Surface magneto-optic Kerr effect (SMOKE),” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 200, 664–678 (1999).
  8. R. Reinisch, M. Nevière, G. Tayeb, and E. Popov, “Symmetry relation for reflection and transmission coefficients of magneto-optic systems,” Opt. Commun. 205, 59–70 (2002).
  9. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons, Vol. 11 of Springer Tracts in Modern Physics (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1988).
  10. H. Raether, in Surface Polaritons, V. M. Agranovitch and D. L. Mills, eds. (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1982), Chap. 9.
  11. M. Nevière, E. Popov, R. Reinisch, and G. Vitrant, Electromagnetic Resonances in Nonlinear Optics (Gordon and Breach, London, 2000).
  12. P. E. Fergusson, O. M. Stafsudd, and R. F. Wallis, “Enhancement of the transverse Kerr magneto-optic effect by surface magneto-plasma waves,” Physica B 89, 91–94 (1977).
  13. V. I. Safarov, V. A. Kosobukin, C. Hermann, G. Lampel, J. Peretti, and C. Marlière, “Magneto-optical effects enhanced by surface plasmons in metallic multilayer films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3584–3587 (1994).
  14. C. Hermann, V. A. Kosobukin, G. Lampel, J. Peretti, V. I. Safarov, and P. Bertrand, “Surface-enhanced magneto-optics in metallic multilayer films,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 235422 (2001).
  15. K. W. Chiu and J. J. Quinn, “Magneto-plasma surface waves in solids,” Nuovo Cimento B 10, 1–20 (1972).
  16. R. E. Collin, Field Theory of Guided Waves, 2nd ed. (IEEE, New York, 1991).
  17. L. Li, “Formulation and comparison of two recursive matrix algorithms for modeling layered diffraction gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1024–1035 (1996).
  18. M. Nevière and E. Popov, Light Propagation in Periodic Media; Differential Theory and Design (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2003).
  19. B. H. Billings, ed., American Institute of Physics Handbook, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963).

2002 (1)

R. Reinisch, M. Nevière, G. Tayeb, and E. Popov, “Symmetry relation for reflection and transmission coefficients of magneto-optic systems,” Opt. Commun. 205, 59–70 (2002).

2001 (1)

C. Hermann, V. A. Kosobukin, G. Lampel, J. Peretti, V. I. Safarov, and P. Bertrand, “Surface-enhanced magneto-optics in metallic multilayer films,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 235422 (2001).

1999 (1)

Z. Q. Qiu and S. D. Bader, “Surface magneto-optic Kerr effect (SMOKE),” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 200, 664–678 (1999).

1998 (1)

C.-Y. You and S.-C. Shin, “Generalized analytic formulae for magneto-optical Kerr effects,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 541–546 (1998).

1996 (2)

C.-Y. You and S.-C. Shin, “Derivation of simplified analytic formulae for magneto-optical Kerr effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1315–1317 (1996).

L. Li, “Formulation and comparison of two recursive matrix algorithms for modeling layered diffraction gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1024–1035 (1996).

1994 (1)

V. I. Safarov, V. A. Kosobukin, C. Hermann, G. Lampel, J. Peretti, and C. Marlière, “Magneto-optical effects enhanced by surface plasmons in metallic multilayer films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3584–3587 (1994).

1991 (1)

J. Zak, E. R. Moog, C. Liu, and S. D. Bader, “Magneto-optics of multilayers with arbitrary magnetization directions,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 6423–6429 (1991).

1990 (1)

J. Zak, E. R. Moog, C. Liu, and S. D. Bader, “Universal approach to magneto-optics,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 89, 107–123 (1990).

1986 (1)

S. Visnovsky, “Magneto-optical ellipsometry,” Czech. J. Phys. B 36, 625–650 (1986).

1977 (1)

P. E. Fergusson, O. M. Stafsudd, and R. F. Wallis, “Enhancement of the transverse Kerr magneto-optic effect by surface magneto-plasma waves,” Physica B 89, 91–94 (1977).

1972 (1)

K. W. Chiu and J. J. Quinn, “Magneto-plasma surface waves in solids,” Nuovo Cimento B 10, 1–20 (1972).

1967 (1)

R. P. Hunt, “Magneto-optic scattering from thin solid films,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 1652–1671 (1967).

Bader, S. D.

Z. Q. Qiu and S. D. Bader, “Surface magneto-optic Kerr effect (SMOKE),” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 200, 664–678 (1999).

J. Zak, E. R. Moog, C. Liu, and S. D. Bader, “Magneto-optics of multilayers with arbitrary magnetization directions,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 6423–6429 (1991).

J. Zak, E. R. Moog, C. Liu, and S. D. Bader, “Universal approach to magneto-optics,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 89, 107–123 (1990).

Bertrand, P.

C. Hermann, V. A. Kosobukin, G. Lampel, J. Peretti, V. I. Safarov, and P. Bertrand, “Surface-enhanced magneto-optics in metallic multilayer films,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 235422 (2001).

Chiu, K. W.

K. W. Chiu and J. J. Quinn, “Magneto-plasma surface waves in solids,” Nuovo Cimento B 10, 1–20 (1972).

Fergusson, P. E.

P. E. Fergusson, O. M. Stafsudd, and R. F. Wallis, “Enhancement of the transverse Kerr magneto-optic effect by surface magneto-plasma waves,” Physica B 89, 91–94 (1977).

Hermann, C.

C. Hermann, V. A. Kosobukin, G. Lampel, J. Peretti, V. I. Safarov, and P. Bertrand, “Surface-enhanced magneto-optics in metallic multilayer films,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 235422 (2001).

V. I. Safarov, V. A. Kosobukin, C. Hermann, G. Lampel, J. Peretti, and C. Marlière, “Magneto-optical effects enhanced by surface plasmons in metallic multilayer films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3584–3587 (1994).

Hunt, R. P.

R. P. Hunt, “Magneto-optic scattering from thin solid films,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 1652–1671 (1967).

Kosobukin, V. A.

C. Hermann, V. A. Kosobukin, G. Lampel, J. Peretti, V. I. Safarov, and P. Bertrand, “Surface-enhanced magneto-optics in metallic multilayer films,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 235422 (2001).

V. I. Safarov, V. A. Kosobukin, C. Hermann, G. Lampel, J. Peretti, and C. Marlière, “Magneto-optical effects enhanced by surface plasmons in metallic multilayer films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3584–3587 (1994).

Lampel, G.

C. Hermann, V. A. Kosobukin, G. Lampel, J. Peretti, V. I. Safarov, and P. Bertrand, “Surface-enhanced magneto-optics in metallic multilayer films,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 235422 (2001).

V. I. Safarov, V. A. Kosobukin, C. Hermann, G. Lampel, J. Peretti, and C. Marlière, “Magneto-optical effects enhanced by surface plasmons in metallic multilayer films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3584–3587 (1994).

Li, L.

Liu, C.

J. Zak, E. R. Moog, C. Liu, and S. D. Bader, “Magneto-optics of multilayers with arbitrary magnetization directions,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 6423–6429 (1991).

J. Zak, E. R. Moog, C. Liu, and S. D. Bader, “Universal approach to magneto-optics,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 89, 107–123 (1990).

Marlière, C.

V. I. Safarov, V. A. Kosobukin, C. Hermann, G. Lampel, J. Peretti, and C. Marlière, “Magneto-optical effects enhanced by surface plasmons in metallic multilayer films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3584–3587 (1994).

Moog, E. R.

J. Zak, E. R. Moog, C. Liu, and S. D. Bader, “Magneto-optics of multilayers with arbitrary magnetization directions,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 6423–6429 (1991).

J. Zak, E. R. Moog, C. Liu, and S. D. Bader, “Universal approach to magneto-optics,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 89, 107–123 (1990).

Nevière, M.

R. Reinisch, M. Nevière, G. Tayeb, and E. Popov, “Symmetry relation for reflection and transmission coefficients of magneto-optic systems,” Opt. Commun. 205, 59–70 (2002).

Peretti, J.

C. Hermann, V. A. Kosobukin, G. Lampel, J. Peretti, V. I. Safarov, and P. Bertrand, “Surface-enhanced magneto-optics in metallic multilayer films,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 235422 (2001).

V. I. Safarov, V. A. Kosobukin, C. Hermann, G. Lampel, J. Peretti, and C. Marlière, “Magneto-optical effects enhanced by surface plasmons in metallic multilayer films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3584–3587 (1994).

Popov, E.

R. Reinisch, M. Nevière, G. Tayeb, and E. Popov, “Symmetry relation for reflection and transmission coefficients of magneto-optic systems,” Opt. Commun. 205, 59–70 (2002).

Qiu, Z. Q.

Z. Q. Qiu and S. D. Bader, “Surface magneto-optic Kerr effect (SMOKE),” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 200, 664–678 (1999).

Quinn, J. J.

K. W. Chiu and J. J. Quinn, “Magneto-plasma surface waves in solids,” Nuovo Cimento B 10, 1–20 (1972).

Reinisch, R.

R. Reinisch, M. Nevière, G. Tayeb, and E. Popov, “Symmetry relation for reflection and transmission coefficients of magneto-optic systems,” Opt. Commun. 205, 59–70 (2002).

Safarov, V. I.

C. Hermann, V. A. Kosobukin, G. Lampel, J. Peretti, V. I. Safarov, and P. Bertrand, “Surface-enhanced magneto-optics in metallic multilayer films,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 235422 (2001).

V. I. Safarov, V. A. Kosobukin, C. Hermann, G. Lampel, J. Peretti, and C. Marlière, “Magneto-optical effects enhanced by surface plasmons in metallic multilayer films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3584–3587 (1994).

Shin, S.-C.

C.-Y. You and S.-C. Shin, “Generalized analytic formulae for magneto-optical Kerr effects,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 541–546 (1998).

C.-Y. You and S.-C. Shin, “Derivation of simplified analytic formulae for magneto-optical Kerr effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1315–1317 (1996).

Stafsudd, O. M.

P. E. Fergusson, O. M. Stafsudd, and R. F. Wallis, “Enhancement of the transverse Kerr magneto-optic effect by surface magneto-plasma waves,” Physica B 89, 91–94 (1977).

Tayeb, G.

R. Reinisch, M. Nevière, G. Tayeb, and E. Popov, “Symmetry relation for reflection and transmission coefficients of magneto-optic systems,” Opt. Commun. 205, 59–70 (2002).

Visnovsky, S.

S. Visnovsky, “Magneto-optical ellipsometry,” Czech. J. Phys. B 36, 625–650 (1986).

Wallis, R. F.

P. E. Fergusson, O. M. Stafsudd, and R. F. Wallis, “Enhancement of the transverse Kerr magneto-optic effect by surface magneto-plasma waves,” Physica B 89, 91–94 (1977).

You, C.-Y.

C.-Y. You and S.-C. Shin, “Generalized analytic formulae for magneto-optical Kerr effects,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 541–546 (1998).

C.-Y. You and S.-C. Shin, “Derivation of simplified analytic formulae for magneto-optical Kerr effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1315–1317 (1996).

Zak, J.

J. Zak, E. R. Moog, C. Liu, and S. D. Bader, “Magneto-optics of multilayers with arbitrary magnetization directions,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 6423–6429 (1991).

J. Zak, E. R. Moog, C. Liu, and S. D. Bader, “Universal approach to magneto-optics,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 89, 107–123 (1990).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C.-Y. You and S.-C. Shin, “Derivation of simplified analytic formulae for magneto-optical Kerr effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1315–1317 (1996).

Czech. J. Phys. B (1)

S. Visnovsky, “Magneto-optical ellipsometry,” Czech. J. Phys. B 36, 625–650 (1986).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

R. P. Hunt, “Magneto-optic scattering from thin solid films,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 1652–1671 (1967).

C.-Y. You and S.-C. Shin, “Generalized analytic formulae for magneto-optical Kerr effects,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 541–546 (1998).

J. Magn. Magn. Mater. (2)

Z. Q. Qiu and S. D. Bader, “Surface magneto-optic Kerr effect (SMOKE),” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 200, 664–678 (1999).

J. Zak, E. R. Moog, C. Liu, and S. D. Bader, “Universal approach to magneto-optics,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 89, 107–123 (1990).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nuovo Cimento B (1)

K. W. Chiu and J. J. Quinn, “Magneto-plasma surface waves in solids,” Nuovo Cimento B 10, 1–20 (1972).

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Reinisch, M. Nevière, G. Tayeb, and E. Popov, “Symmetry relation for reflection and transmission coefficients of magneto-optic systems,” Opt. Commun. 205, 59–70 (2002).

Phys. Rev. B (2)

J. Zak, E. R. Moog, C. Liu, and S. D. Bader, “Magneto-optics of multilayers with arbitrary magnetization directions,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 6423–6429 (1991).

C. Hermann, V. A. Kosobukin, G. Lampel, J. Peretti, V. I. Safarov, and P. Bertrand, “Surface-enhanced magneto-optics in metallic multilayer films,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 235422 (2001).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

V. I. Safarov, V. A. Kosobukin, C. Hermann, G. Lampel, J. Peretti, and C. Marlière, “Magneto-optical effects enhanced by surface plasmons in metallic multilayer films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3584–3587 (1994).

Physica B (1)

P. E. Fergusson, O. M. Stafsudd, and R. F. Wallis, “Enhancement of the transverse Kerr magneto-optic effect by surface magneto-plasma waves,” Physica B 89, 91–94 (1977).

Other (6)

R. E. Collin, Field Theory of Guided Waves, 2nd ed. (IEEE, New York, 1991).

M. Nevière and E. Popov, Light Propagation in Periodic Media; Differential Theory and Design (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2003).

B. H. Billings, ed., American Institute of Physics Handbook, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963).

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons, Vol. 11 of Springer Tracts in Modern Physics (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1988).

H. Raether, in Surface Polaritons, V. M. Agranovitch and D. L. Mills, eds. (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1982), Chap. 9.

M. Nevière, E. Popov, R. Reinisch, and G. Vitrant, Electromagnetic Resonances in Nonlinear Optics (Gordon and Breach, London, 2000).

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