Abstract

A method for the generation of attosecond electromagnetic pulses is suggested. The key idea of the method consists in using a two-color laser pump for high-order harmonic generation composed of a low-frequency linearly polarized field and a high-frequency elliptically polarized field. Such a two-color pump can provide for the return of photoelectrons (after atom ionization) to the vicinity of the parent ion with high kinetic energy and their recombination for only specific ionization moments t0. The range of these moments, δt0, is defined by the velocity of electron wave-packet spreading and the time that the photoelectron spent in the continuum (before the recombination). Conditions were found that minimize the range δt0. For the specific parameters of a two-color pump, the duration of recombination emission, τg, can be in the range of 1–10 as. With an increase of pump intensity, the duration τg decreases and can be reduced to the subattosecond scale.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London) 414, 509–513 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, “X-ray pulses approaching the attosecond frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. Niikura, F. Legare, R. Hasbani, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Sub-laser-cycle electron pulses for probing molecular dynamics,” Nature (London) 417, 917–922 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London) 421, 611–615 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Ph. Antoine, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Attosecond pulse trains using high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1234–1237 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Subfemtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1870–1872 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Bao and A. F. Starace, “Static-electric-field effect on high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 53, R3723–R3726 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Lohr, W. Becker, and M. Kleber, “High-harmonic generation affected by static electric field,” Laser Phys. 7, 615–622 (1997).
  11. B. Wang, X. Li, and P. Fu, “Polarization effects in high-harmonic generation in the presence of static-electric field,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2894–2902 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. Borca, A. V. Flegel, M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, D. B. Milosevic, and A. F. Starace, “Static-electric-field-induced polarization effects in harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 732–735 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. V. D. Taranukhin, “High-order harmonic generation in a narrow spectral range,” Quantum Electron. 31, 555–556 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. V. Kulyagin and V. D. Taranukhin, “Generation of X-ray radiation by atoms in an ultra-high intensity laser field,” Quantum Electron. 26, 866–870 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. E. Mevel, P. Breger, R. Trainham, G. Petite, P. Agostini, A. Migus, J.-P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Atoms in strong optical fields: evolution from multiphoton to tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 406–409 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. B. Watson, A. Sanpera, and K. Burnett, “Pulse-shape effects and blueshifting in the single-atom harmonic generation from neutral species and ions,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 1458–1463 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. V. D. Taranukhin, “Relativistic high-order harmonic generation,” Laser Phys. 10, 330–336 (2000).
  20. A. Scrinzi, M. Geissler, and T. Brabec, “Ionization above the Coulomb barrier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 706–709 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. M. Perelomov, V. S. Popov, and M. V. Terent’ev, “Ionization of atoms with electric AC fields,” Sov. Phys. JETP 24, 207–217 (1967).
  22. V. D. Taranukhin and N. Yu. Shubin, “High-order harmonic generation by atoms with strong high-frequency and low-frequency pumping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1509–1516 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. V. Walser, C. H. Keitel, A. Scrinzi, and T. Brabec, “High harmonic generation beyond the electric dipole approximation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5082–5085 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, “Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2212–2215 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. D. B. Milosevic, S. Hu, and W. Becker, “Quantum-mechanical model for ultrahigh-order harmonic generation in the moderately relativistic regime,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 011403R (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  26. V. D. Taranukhin and N. Yu. Shubin, “High-order harmonic generation by atoms with traveling and standing wave pump of relativistic intensity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1132–1140 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  27. N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, and T. Brabec, “Numerical characterization of high harmonic attosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093905 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London) 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Niikura, F. Legare, R. Hasbani, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Sub-laser-cycle electron pulses for probing molecular dynamics,” Nature (London) 417, 917–922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, and T. Brabec, “Numerical characterization of high harmonic attosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093905 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. D. Taranukhin and N. Yu. Shubin, “High-order harmonic generation by atoms with traveling and standing wave pump of relativistic intensity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1132–1140 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (5)

D. B. Milosevic, S. Hu, and W. Becker, “Quantum-mechanical model for ultrahigh-order harmonic generation in the moderately relativistic regime,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 011403R (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London) 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, “X-ray pulses approaching the attosecond frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. D. Taranukhin, “High-order harmonic generation in a narrow spectral range,” Quantum Electron. 31, 555–556 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

B. Borca, A. V. Flegel, M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, D. B. Milosevic, and A. F. Starace, “Static-electric-field-induced polarization effects in harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 732–735 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. D. Taranukhin, “Relativistic high-order harmonic generation,” Laser Phys. 10, 330–336 (2000).

M. V. Walser, C. H. Keitel, A. Scrinzi, and T. Brabec, “High harmonic generation beyond the electric dipole approximation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5082–5085 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. D. Taranukhin and N. Yu. Shubin, “High-order harmonic generation by atoms with strong high-frequency and low-frequency pumping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1509–1516 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

B. Wang, X. Li, and P. Fu, “Polarization effects in high-harmonic generation in the presence of static-electric field,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2894–2902 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. Scrinzi, M. Geissler, and T. Brabec, “Ionization above the Coulomb barrier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 706–709 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. Lohr, W. Becker, and M. Kleber, “High-harmonic generation affected by static electric field,” Laser Phys. 7, 615–622 (1997).

1996 (3)

Ph. Antoine, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Attosecond pulse trains using high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1234–1237 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bao and A. F. Starace, “Static-electric-field effect on high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 53, R3723–R3726 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Kulyagin and V. D. Taranukhin, “Generation of X-ray radiation by atoms in an ultra-high intensity laser field,” Quantum Electron. 26, 866–870 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. B. Watson, A. Sanpera, and K. Burnett, “Pulse-shape effects and blueshifting in the single-atom harmonic generation from neutral species and ions,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 1458–1463 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Subfemtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1870–1872 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Mevel, P. Breger, R. Trainham, G. Petite, P. Agostini, A. Migus, J.-P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Atoms in strong optical fields: evolution from multiphoton to tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 406–409 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, “Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2212–2215 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1967 (1)

A. M. Perelomov, V. S. Popov, and M. V. Terent’ev, “Ionization of atoms with electric AC fields,” Sov. Phys. JETP 24, 207–217 (1967).

Agostini, P.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Mevel, P. Breger, R. Trainham, G. Petite, P. Agostini, A. Migus, J.-P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Atoms in strong optical fields: evolution from multiphoton to tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 406–409 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antoine, Ph.

Ph. Antoine, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Attosecond pulse trains using high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1234–1237 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antonetti, A.

E. Mevel, P. Breger, R. Trainham, G. Petite, P. Agostini, A. Migus, J.-P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Atoms in strong optical fields: evolution from multiphoton to tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 406–409 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auge, F.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Augst, S.

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, “Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2212–2215 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balcou, Ph.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuska, A.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London) 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bandrauk, A. D.

H. Niikura, F. Legare, R. Hasbani, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Sub-laser-cycle electron pulses for probing molecular dynamics,” Nature (London) 417, 917–922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bao, M.

M. Bao and A. F. Starace, “Static-electric-field effect on high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 53, R3723–R3726 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Becker, W.

D. B. Milosevic, S. Hu, and W. Becker, “Quantum-mechanical model for ultrahigh-order harmonic generation in the moderately relativistic regime,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 011403R (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Lohr, W. Becker, and M. Kleber, “High-harmonic generation affected by static electric field,” Laser Phys. 7, 615–622 (1997).

Borca, B.

B. Borca, A. V. Flegel, M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, D. B. Milosevic, and A. F. Starace, “Static-electric-field-induced polarization effects in harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 732–735 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brabec, T.

N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, and T. Brabec, “Numerical characterization of high harmonic attosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093905 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London) 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Walser, C. H. Keitel, A. Scrinzi, and T. Brabec, “High harmonic generation beyond the electric dipole approximation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5082–5085 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Scrinzi, M. Geissler, and T. Brabec, “Ionization above the Coulomb barrier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 706–709 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Breger, P.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Mevel, P. Breger, R. Trainham, G. Petite, P. Agostini, A. Migus, J.-P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Atoms in strong optical fields: evolution from multiphoton to tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 406–409 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burnett, K.

J. B. Watson, A. Sanpera, and K. Burnett, “Pulse-shape effects and blueshifting in the single-atom harmonic generation from neutral species and ions,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 1458–1463 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burnett, N. H.

Chambaret, J.-P.

E. Mevel, P. Breger, R. Trainham, G. Petite, P. Agostini, A. Migus, J.-P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Atoms in strong optical fields: evolution from multiphoton to tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 406–409 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, S. L.

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, “Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2212–2215 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London) 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

H. Niikura, F. Legare, R. Hasbani, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Sub-laser-cycle electron pulses for probing molecular dynamics,” Nature (London) 417, 917–922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, “X-ray pulses approaching the attosecond frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Subfemtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1870–1872 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drescher, M.

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, “X-ray pulses approaching the attosecond frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London) 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Eberly, J. H.

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, “Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2212–2215 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flegel, A. V.

B. Borca, A. V. Flegel, M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, D. B. Milosevic, and A. F. Starace, “Static-electric-field-induced polarization effects in harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 732–735 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frolov, M. V.

B. Borca, A. V. Flegel, M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, D. B. Milosevic, and A. F. Starace, “Static-electric-field-induced polarization effects in harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 732–735 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, P.

B. Wang, X. Li, and P. Fu, “Polarization effects in high-harmonic generation in the presence of static-electric field,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2894–2902 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Geissler, M.

A. Scrinzi, M. Geissler, and T. Brabec, “Ionization above the Coulomb barrier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 706–709 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gohle, Ch.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London) 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goulielmakis, E.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London) 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hansch, T. W.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London) 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hasbani, R.

H. Niikura, F. Legare, R. Hasbani, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Sub-laser-cycle electron pulses for probing molecular dynamics,” Nature (London) 417, 917–922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Heinzmann, U.

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London) 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hentschel, M.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London) 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London) 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, “X-ray pulses approaching the attosecond frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London) 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hu, S.

D. B. Milosevic, S. Hu, and W. Becker, “Quantum-mechanical model for ultrahigh-order harmonic generation in the moderately relativistic regime,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 011403R (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, M. Y.

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Subfemtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1870–1872 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivanov, M. Yu.

H. Niikura, F. Legare, R. Hasbani, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Sub-laser-cycle electron pulses for probing molecular dynamics,” Nature (London) 417, 917–922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Keitel, C. H.

M. V. Walser, C. H. Keitel, A. Scrinzi, and T. Brabec, “High harmonic generation beyond the electric dipole approximation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5082–5085 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kienberger, R.

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, “X-ray pulses approaching the attosecond frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London) 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kitzler, M.

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleber, M.

A. Lohr, W. Becker, and M. Kleber, “High-harmonic generation affected by static electric field,” Laser Phys. 7, 615–622 (1997).

Kleineberg, U.

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London) 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, “X-ray pulses approaching the attosecond frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London) 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kulyagin, R. V.

R. V. Kulyagin and V. D. Taranukhin, “Generation of X-ray radiation by atoms in an ultra-high intensity laser field,” Quantum Electron. 26, 866–870 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L’Huillier, A.

Ph. Antoine, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Attosecond pulse trains using high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1234–1237 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Legare, F.

H. Niikura, F. Legare, R. Hasbani, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Sub-laser-cycle electron pulses for probing molecular dynamics,” Nature (London) 417, 917–922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lewenstein, M.

Ph. Antoine, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Attosecond pulse trains using high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1234–1237 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

B. Wang, X. Li, and P. Fu, “Polarization effects in high-harmonic generation in the presence of static-electric field,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2894–2902 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lohr, A.

A. Lohr, W. Becker, and M. Kleber, “High-harmonic generation affected by static electric field,” Laser Phys. 7, 615–622 (1997).

Manakov, N. L.

B. Borca, A. V. Flegel, M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, D. B. Milosevic, and A. F. Starace, “Static-electric-field-induced polarization effects in harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 732–735 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mevel, E.

E. Mevel, P. Breger, R. Trainham, G. Petite, P. Agostini, A. Migus, J.-P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Atoms in strong optical fields: evolution from multiphoton to tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 406–409 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyerhofer, D. D.

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, “Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2212–2215 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Migus, A.

E. Mevel, P. Breger, R. Trainham, G. Petite, P. Agostini, A. Migus, J.-P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Atoms in strong optical fields: evolution from multiphoton to tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 406–409 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milosevic, D. B.

D. B. Milosevic, S. Hu, and W. Becker, “Quantum-mechanical model for ultrahigh-order harmonic generation in the moderately relativistic regime,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 011403R (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Borca, A. V. Flegel, M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, D. B. Milosevic, and A. F. Starace, “Static-electric-field-induced polarization effects in harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 732–735 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milosevic, N.

N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, and T. Brabec, “Numerical characterization of high harmonic attosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093905 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London) 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Muller, H. G.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mullot, G.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niikura, H.

H. Niikura, F. Legare, R. Hasbani, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Sub-laser-cycle electron pulses for probing molecular dynamics,” Nature (London) 417, 917–922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Paul, P. M.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perelomov, A. M.

A. M. Perelomov, V. S. Popov, and M. V. Terent’ev, “Ionization of atoms with electric AC fields,” Sov. Phys. JETP 24, 207–217 (1967).

Petite, G.

E. Mevel, P. Breger, R. Trainham, G. Petite, P. Agostini, A. Migus, J.-P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Atoms in strong optical fields: evolution from multiphoton to tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 406–409 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popov, V. S.

A. M. Perelomov, V. S. Popov, and M. V. Terent’ev, “Ionization of atoms with electric AC fields,” Sov. Phys. JETP 24, 207–217 (1967).

Reider, G. A.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London) 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, “X-ray pulses approaching the attosecond frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanpera, A.

J. B. Watson, A. Sanpera, and K. Burnett, “Pulse-shape effects and blueshifting in the single-atom harmonic generation from neutral species and ions,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 1458–1463 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scrinzi, A.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London) 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, and T. Brabec, “Numerical characterization of high harmonic attosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093905 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Walser, C. H. Keitel, A. Scrinzi, and T. Brabec, “High harmonic generation beyond the electric dipole approximation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5082–5085 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Scrinzi, M. Geissler, and T. Brabec, “Ionization above the Coulomb barrier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 706–709 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shubin, N. Yu.

Spielmann, Ch.

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, “X-ray pulses approaching the attosecond frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London) 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Starace, A. F.

B. Borca, A. V. Flegel, M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, D. B. Milosevic, and A. F. Starace, “Static-electric-field-induced polarization effects in harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 732–735 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bao and A. F. Starace, “Static-electric-field effect on high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 53, R3723–R3726 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Strickland, D.

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, “Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2212–2215 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taranukhin, V. D.

V. D. Taranukhin and N. Yu. Shubin, “High-order harmonic generation by atoms with traveling and standing wave pump of relativistic intensity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1132–1140 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. D. Taranukhin, “High-order harmonic generation in a narrow spectral range,” Quantum Electron. 31, 555–556 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. D. Taranukhin and N. Yu. Shubin, “High-order harmonic generation by atoms with strong high-frequency and low-frequency pumping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1509–1516 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. D. Taranukhin, “Relativistic high-order harmonic generation,” Laser Phys. 10, 330–336 (2000).

R. V. Kulyagin and V. D. Taranukhin, “Generation of X-ray radiation by atoms in an ultra-high intensity laser field,” Quantum Electron. 26, 866–870 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tempea, G.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, “X-ray pulses approaching the attosecond frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terent’ev, M. V.

A. M. Perelomov, V. S. Popov, and M. V. Terent’ev, “Ionization of atoms with electric AC fields,” Sov. Phys. JETP 24, 207–217 (1967).

Toma, E. S.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trainham, R.

E. Mevel, P. Breger, R. Trainham, G. Petite, P. Agostini, A. Migus, J.-P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Atoms in strong optical fields: evolution from multiphoton to tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 406–409 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Udem, Th.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London) 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Uiberacker, M.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London) 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, D. M.

H. Niikura, F. Legare, R. Hasbani, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Sub-laser-cycle electron pulses for probing molecular dynamics,” Nature (London) 417, 917–922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Walser, M. V.

M. V. Walser, C. H. Keitel, A. Scrinzi, and T. Brabec, “High harmonic generation beyond the electric dipole approximation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5082–5085 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

B. Wang, X. Li, and P. Fu, “Polarization effects in high-harmonic generation in the presence of static-electric field,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2894–2902 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Watson, J. B.

J. B. Watson, A. Sanpera, and K. Burnett, “Pulse-shape effects and blueshifting in the single-atom harmonic generation from neutral species and ions,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 1458–1463 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westerwalbesloh, Th.

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wieland, M.

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V. S.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London) 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Laser Phys. (2)

V. D. Taranukhin, “Relativistic high-order harmonic generation,” Laser Phys. 10, 330–336 (2000).

A. Lohr, W. Becker, and M. Kleber, “High-harmonic generation affected by static electric field,” Laser Phys. 7, 615–622 (1997).

Nature (London) (3)

H. Niikura, F. Legare, R. Hasbani, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Sub-laser-cycle electron pulses for probing molecular dynamics,” Nature (London) 417, 917–922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London) 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London) 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (5)

J. B. Watson, A. Sanpera, and K. Burnett, “Pulse-shape effects and blueshifting in the single-atom harmonic generation from neutral species and ions,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 1458–1463 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Milosevic, S. Hu, and W. Becker, “Quantum-mechanical model for ultrahigh-order harmonic generation in the moderately relativistic regime,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 011403R (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Bao and A. F. Starace, “Static-electric-field effect on high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 53, R3723–R3726 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, X. Li, and P. Fu, “Polarization effects in high-harmonic generation in the presence of static-electric field,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2894–2902 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (8)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Mevel, P. Breger, R. Trainham, G. Petite, P. Agostini, A. Migus, J.-P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Atoms in strong optical fields: evolution from multiphoton to tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 406–409 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Borca, A. V. Flegel, M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, D. B. Milosevic, and A. F. Starace, “Static-electric-field-induced polarization effects in harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 732–735 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ph. Antoine, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Attosecond pulse trains using high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1234–1237 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, and T. Brabec, “Numerical characterization of high harmonic attosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093905 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Scrinzi, M. Geissler, and T. Brabec, “Ionization above the Coulomb barrier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 706–709 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Walser, C. H. Keitel, A. Scrinzi, and T. Brabec, “High harmonic generation beyond the electric dipole approximation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5082–5085 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, “Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2212–2215 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quantum Electron. (2)

V. D. Taranukhin, “High-order harmonic generation in a narrow spectral range,” Quantum Electron. 31, 555–556 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Kulyagin and V. D. Taranukhin, “Generation of X-ray radiation by atoms in an ultra-high intensity laser field,” Quantum Electron. 26, 866–870 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Science (3)

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, “X-ray pulses approaching the attosecond frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

A. M. Perelomov, V. S. Popov, and M. V. Terent’ev, “Ionization of atoms with electric AC fields,” Sov. Phys. JETP 24, 207–217 (1967).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Time dependence of photoelectron coordinates after atom ionization [see Eqs. (6) and (7)] for the Y case: α=1/2, β-0.276, γ-0.96, and t0=π/10.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Trajectories for “colliding” (solid curve) and “noncolliding” (dashed curve) electrons for a specific set of parameters α, β, γ, and t0. Colliding trajectories correspond to ionization moments tion inside the range (t0-δt0/2)(t0+δt0/2), which lead back to the parent ion (r0 min<σ). Noncolliding trajectories correspond to ionization moments |tion-t0|δt0/2 for which, after ionization, the minimal distance of the photoelectron to the parent ion is r0 minσ. A colliding trajectory with tion=t0 (which leads exactly back to the parent ion: r0 min=0 at the moment tk) and a noncolliding trajectory with tion=t0+δt0/2 are presented.

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

|Ψ(r, t)=a(t)|1+dp bp(t)|p,
D(t)=a*(t)0tdt0bp(a(t0))1|r|fr(r-r0, t, t0)×exp-it0t(p0)dt+ip0r,
σ(t)=[σ2(t0)+Vsp2(t-t0)2]1/2
F=F0(xˆ1-α2 cos ωt+yˆα sin ωt)+Fdc,
Fdc=-βF0(xˆ1-γ2+yˆγ),
x(t)=-1-α2[cos t-cos t0+(t-t0)×sin t0+β1(t-t0)2],
y(t)=-α[sin t-sin t0-(t-t0)×cos t0+β2(t-t0)2],
Δrσ(tk),
dx(tk)/dt00,dy(tk)/dt0=.
sin tk-sin t0=2β1τ,
dy(tk)/dt00,dx(tk)/dt0=.
cos tk-cos t0=-2β2τ.

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