Abstract

We propose and demonstrate potassium bismuth gallate (KBG) glasses as suitable hosts for the rare-earth ion Tm3+ (thulium) operating at the 1.47-µm wavelength. The optical properties of Tm3+-doped KBG glasses were investigated. The bandwidth of the  3H4 3F4 transition is ∼120 nm and is higher than that of Tm3+-doped, tellurite-based glasses. The measured fluorescence lifetime is 0.15 ms at room temperature, and the quantum efficiency is 88%. Multiphonon relaxation rates for various transitions were evaluated and compared with other glass hosts. The energy transfer in Tm3+Ho3+-codoped KBG glasses was also investigated, and these results indicate that Tm3+-doped KBG glasses are promising candidates for efficient broadband optical amplifiers operating in the 1.47-µm wavelength range.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, “Tunable cw lasing around 0.82, 1.48, 1.88 and 2.35 μm in thulium-doped fluorozirconate fibre,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1660–1662 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. J. Miniscalco, “Optical and electronic properties of rare-earth ions in glasses,” in Rare-Earth-Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers, M. J. F. Digonnet, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1993), pp. 19–134.
  3. R. M. Percival, D. Szebesta, and S. T. Davey, “Highly efficient cw cascade operation of 1.47 and 1.82 μm transitions in Tm-doped fluoride fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1866–1868 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, “Efficient upconversion pumping at 1.064 μm in a Tm3+-doped fluoride fibre laser operating around 1.47 μm,” Electron. Lett. 28, 830–832 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. S. Wang, E. Snitzer, E. M. Vogel, and G. H. Sigel, Jr., “1.47, 1.88 and 2.8 μm emissions of Tm3+- and Tm3–Ho3+-codoped tellurite glasses,” J. Lumin. 60–61, 145–149 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. B. Shin, W. Y. Cho, and J. Heo, “Multiphonon and cross-relaxation phenomena in Ge–As (or Ga)–S glasses doped with Tm3+,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208, 29–35 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Heo, Y. B. Shin, and J. N. Jang, “Spectroscopic analysis of Tm3+ in PbO–Bi2O3–Ga2O3 glass,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4284–4289 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Sakamoto, M. Shimizu, T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, Y. Ohishi, M. Yamada, and S. Sudo, “1.4-μm-band gain characteristics of a Tm–Ho-doped ZBLYAN fiber amplifier pumped in the 0.8-μm band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 983–985 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. C. Lapp, “Alkali bismuth gallate glasses,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 71, 1543–1549 (1992).
  10. M. Saad and M. Poulain, “Glass-forming ability criterion,” Mater. Sci. Forum 19–20, 11–18 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Q. Man, E. Y. B. Pun, and P. S. Chung, “Praseodymium-doped alkali bismuth gallate glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 23–27 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Q. Man, R. S. F. Wong, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Erbium-doped potassium bismuth gallate glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1839–1843 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Q. Man, E. Y. B. Pun, and P. S. Chung, “Upconversion luminescence of Er3+ in alkali bismuth gallate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 483–485 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. L. Adam, “Lanthanides in nonoxide glasses,” Chem. Rev. 102, 2461–2476 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. Toratani, T. Izumitani, and H. Kuroda, “Compositional dependence of nonradiative decay rate in Nd laser glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 52, 303–313 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. J. Weber, “Multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in yttrium orthoaluminate,” Phys. Rev. B 8, 54–64 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. J. Weber, “Multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in oxide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 16, 10–20 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. Reisfeld and C. K. Jørgensen, “Excited state phenomena in vitreous materials,” in Handbook of Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, K. A. Gschneider, Jr., and L. Eyring, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1987), Vol. 9, pp. 1–90.
  19. M. Shojiya, M. Takahashi, R. Kanno, Y. Kawamoto, and K. Kadono, “Optical absorption and multiphonon relaxation of Nd3+ ions in ZnCl2-based glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 882–884 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2002

2000

S. Q. Man, E. Y. B. Pun, and P. S. Chung, “Upconversion luminescence of Er3+ in alkali bismuth gallate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 483–485 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Q. Man, E. Y. B. Pun, and P. S. Chung, “Praseodymium-doped alkali bismuth gallate glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 23–27 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. Shojiya, M. Takahashi, R. Kanno, Y. Kawamoto, and K. Kadono, “Optical absorption and multiphonon relaxation of Nd3+ ions in ZnCl2-based glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 882–884 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

Y. B. Shin, W. Y. Cho, and J. Heo, “Multiphonon and cross-relaxation phenomena in Ge–As (or Ga)–S glasses doped with Tm3+,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208, 29–35 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. Heo, Y. B. Shin, and J. N. Jang, “Spectroscopic analysis of Tm3+ in PbO–Bi2O3–Ga2O3 glass,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4284–4289 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sakamoto, M. Shimizu, T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, Y. Ohishi, M. Yamada, and S. Sudo, “1.4-μm-band gain characteristics of a Tm–Ho-doped ZBLYAN fiber amplifier pumped in the 0.8-μm band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 983–985 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. S. Wang, E. Snitzer, E. M. Vogel, and G. H. Sigel, Jr., “1.47, 1.88 and 2.8 μm emissions of Tm3+- and Tm3–Ho3+-codoped tellurite glasses,” J. Lumin. 60–61, 145–149 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

R. M. Percival, D. Szebesta, and S. T. Davey, “Highly efficient cw cascade operation of 1.47 and 1.82 μm transitions in Tm-doped fluoride fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1866–1868 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, “Efficient upconversion pumping at 1.064 μm in a Tm3+-doped fluoride fibre laser operating around 1.47 μm,” Electron. Lett. 28, 830–832 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Lapp, “Alkali bismuth gallate glasses,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 71, 1543–1549 (1992).

1989

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, “Tunable cw lasing around 0.82, 1.48, 1.88 and 2.35 μm in thulium-doped fluorozirconate fibre,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1660–1662 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987

M. Saad and M. Poulain, “Glass-forming ability criterion,” Mater. Sci. Forum 19–20, 11–18 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1982

H. Toratani, T. Izumitani, and H. Kuroda, “Compositional dependence of nonradiative decay rate in Nd laser glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 52, 303–313 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1977

C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. J. Weber, “Multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in oxide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 16, 10–20 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1973

M. J. Weber, “Multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in yttrium orthoaluminate,” Phys. Rev. B 8, 54–64 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Adam, J. L.

J. L. Adam, “Lanthanides in nonoxide glasses,” Chem. Rev. 102, 2461–2476 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allain, J. Y.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, “Tunable cw lasing around 0.82, 1.48, 1.88 and 2.35 μm in thulium-doped fluorozirconate fibre,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1660–1662 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cho, W. Y.

Y. B. Shin, W. Y. Cho, and J. Heo, “Multiphonon and cross-relaxation phenomena in Ge–As (or Ga)–S glasses doped with Tm3+,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208, 29–35 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chung, P. S.

S. Q. Man, E. Y. B. Pun, and P. S. Chung, “Praseodymium-doped alkali bismuth gallate glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 23–27 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Q. Man, E. Y. B. Pun, and P. S. Chung, “Upconversion luminescence of Er3+ in alkali bismuth gallate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 483–485 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Davey, S. T.

R. M. Percival, D. Szebesta, and S. T. Davey, “Highly efficient cw cascade operation of 1.47 and 1.82 μm transitions in Tm-doped fluoride fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1866–1868 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Heo, J.

Y. B. Shin, W. Y. Cho, and J. Heo, “Multiphonon and cross-relaxation phenomena in Ge–As (or Ga)–S glasses doped with Tm3+,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208, 29–35 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Heo, Y. B. Shin, and J. N. Jang, “Spectroscopic analysis of Tm3+ in PbO–Bi2O3–Ga2O3 glass,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4284–4289 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izumitani, T.

H. Toratani, T. Izumitani, and H. Kuroda, “Compositional dependence of nonradiative decay rate in Nd laser glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 52, 303–313 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J. N.

Kadono, K.

M. Shojiya, M. Takahashi, R. Kanno, Y. Kawamoto, and K. Kadono, “Optical absorption and multiphonon relaxation of Nd3+ ions in ZnCl2-based glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 882–884 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kanamori, T.

T. Sakamoto, M. Shimizu, T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, Y. Ohishi, M. Yamada, and S. Sudo, “1.4-μm-band gain characteristics of a Tm–Ho-doped ZBLYAN fiber amplifier pumped in the 0.8-μm band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 983–985 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kanno, R.

M. Shojiya, M. Takahashi, R. Kanno, Y. Kawamoto, and K. Kadono, “Optical absorption and multiphonon relaxation of Nd3+ ions in ZnCl2-based glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 882–884 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kawamoto, Y.

M. Shojiya, M. Takahashi, R. Kanno, Y. Kawamoto, and K. Kadono, “Optical absorption and multiphonon relaxation of Nd3+ ions in ZnCl2-based glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 882–884 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Komukai, T.

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, “Efficient upconversion pumping at 1.064 μm in a Tm3+-doped fluoride fibre laser operating around 1.47 μm,” Electron. Lett. 28, 830–832 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, H.

H. Toratani, T. Izumitani, and H. Kuroda, “Compositional dependence of nonradiative decay rate in Nd laser glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 52, 303–313 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lapp, J. C.

J. C. Lapp, “Alkali bismuth gallate glasses,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 71, 1543–1549 (1992).

Layne, C. B.

C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. J. Weber, “Multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in oxide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 16, 10–20 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Lowdermilk, W. H.

C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. J. Weber, “Multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in oxide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 16, 10–20 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Man, S. Q.

Miyajima, Y.

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, “Efficient upconversion pumping at 1.064 μm in a Tm3+-doped fluoride fibre laser operating around 1.47 μm,” Electron. Lett. 28, 830–832 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Monerie, M.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, “Tunable cw lasing around 0.82, 1.48, 1.88 and 2.35 μm in thulium-doped fluorozirconate fibre,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1660–1662 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ohishi, Y.

T. Sakamoto, M. Shimizu, T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, Y. Ohishi, M. Yamada, and S. Sudo, “1.4-μm-band gain characteristics of a Tm–Ho-doped ZBLYAN fiber amplifier pumped in the 0.8-μm band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 983–985 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Percival, R. M.

R. M. Percival, D. Szebesta, and S. T. Davey, “Highly efficient cw cascade operation of 1.47 and 1.82 μm transitions in Tm-doped fluoride fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1866–1868 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Poignant, H.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, “Tunable cw lasing around 0.82, 1.48, 1.88 and 2.35 μm in thulium-doped fluorozirconate fibre,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1660–1662 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Poulain, M.

M. Saad and M. Poulain, “Glass-forming ability criterion,” Mater. Sci. Forum 19–20, 11–18 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pun, E. Y. B.

Saad, M.

M. Saad and M. Poulain, “Glass-forming ability criterion,” Mater. Sci. Forum 19–20, 11–18 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sakamoto, T.

T. Sakamoto, M. Shimizu, T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, Y. Ohishi, M. Yamada, and S. Sudo, “1.4-μm-band gain characteristics of a Tm–Ho-doped ZBLYAN fiber amplifier pumped in the 0.8-μm band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 983–985 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, M.

T. Sakamoto, M. Shimizu, T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, Y. Ohishi, M. Yamada, and S. Sudo, “1.4-μm-band gain characteristics of a Tm–Ho-doped ZBLYAN fiber amplifier pumped in the 0.8-μm band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 983–985 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shin, Y. B.

Y. B. Shin, W. Y. Cho, and J. Heo, “Multiphonon and cross-relaxation phenomena in Ge–As (or Ga)–S glasses doped with Tm3+,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208, 29–35 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Heo, Y. B. Shin, and J. N. Jang, “Spectroscopic analysis of Tm3+ in PbO–Bi2O3–Ga2O3 glass,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4284–4289 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shojiya, M.

M. Shojiya, M. Takahashi, R. Kanno, Y. Kawamoto, and K. Kadono, “Optical absorption and multiphonon relaxation of Nd3+ ions in ZnCl2-based glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 882–884 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sigel Jr., G. H.

J. S. Wang, E. Snitzer, E. M. Vogel, and G. H. Sigel, Jr., “1.47, 1.88 and 2.8 μm emissions of Tm3+- and Tm3–Ho3+-codoped tellurite glasses,” J. Lumin. 60–61, 145–149 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Snitzer, E.

J. S. Wang, E. Snitzer, E. M. Vogel, and G. H. Sigel, Jr., “1.47, 1.88 and 2.8 μm emissions of Tm3+- and Tm3–Ho3+-codoped tellurite glasses,” J. Lumin. 60–61, 145–149 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sudo, S.

T. Sakamoto, M. Shimizu, T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, Y. Ohishi, M. Yamada, and S. Sudo, “1.4-μm-band gain characteristics of a Tm–Ho-doped ZBLYAN fiber amplifier pumped in the 0.8-μm band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 983–985 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sugawa, T.

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, “Efficient upconversion pumping at 1.064 μm in a Tm3+-doped fluoride fibre laser operating around 1.47 μm,” Electron. Lett. 28, 830–832 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Szebesta, D.

R. M. Percival, D. Szebesta, and S. T. Davey, “Highly efficient cw cascade operation of 1.47 and 1.82 μm transitions in Tm-doped fluoride fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1866–1868 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, M.

M. Shojiya, M. Takahashi, R. Kanno, Y. Kawamoto, and K. Kadono, “Optical absorption and multiphonon relaxation of Nd3+ ions in ZnCl2-based glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 882–884 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Terunuma, Y.

T. Sakamoto, M. Shimizu, T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, Y. Ohishi, M. Yamada, and S. Sudo, “1.4-μm-band gain characteristics of a Tm–Ho-doped ZBLYAN fiber amplifier pumped in the 0.8-μm band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 983–985 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Toratani, H.

H. Toratani, T. Izumitani, and H. Kuroda, “Compositional dependence of nonradiative decay rate in Nd laser glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 52, 303–313 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, E. M.

J. S. Wang, E. Snitzer, E. M. Vogel, and G. H. Sigel, Jr., “1.47, 1.88 and 2.8 μm emissions of Tm3+- and Tm3–Ho3+-codoped tellurite glasses,” J. Lumin. 60–61, 145–149 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. S.

J. S. Wang, E. Snitzer, E. M. Vogel, and G. H. Sigel, Jr., “1.47, 1.88 and 2.8 μm emissions of Tm3+- and Tm3–Ho3+-codoped tellurite glasses,” J. Lumin. 60–61, 145–149 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. J. Weber, “Multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in oxide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 16, 10–20 (1977).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Weber, “Multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in yttrium orthoaluminate,” Phys. Rev. B 8, 54–64 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Wong, R. S. F.

Yamada, M.

T. Sakamoto, M. Shimizu, T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, Y. Ohishi, M. Yamada, and S. Sudo, “1.4-μm-band gain characteristics of a Tm–Ho-doped ZBLYAN fiber amplifier pumped in the 0.8-μm band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 983–985 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, T.

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, “Efficient upconversion pumping at 1.064 μm in a Tm3+-doped fluoride fibre laser operating around 1.47 μm,” Electron. Lett. 28, 830–832 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull.

J. C. Lapp, “Alkali bismuth gallate glasses,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 71, 1543–1549 (1992).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Q. Man, E. Y. B. Pun, and P. S. Chung, “Upconversion luminescence of Er3+ in alkali bismuth gallate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 483–485 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Shojiya, M. Takahashi, R. Kanno, Y. Kawamoto, and K. Kadono, “Optical absorption and multiphonon relaxation of Nd3+ ions in ZnCl2-based glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 882–884 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev.

J. L. Adam, “Lanthanides in nonoxide glasses,” Chem. Rev. 102, 2461–2476 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, “Tunable cw lasing around 0.82, 1.48, 1.88 and 2.35 μm in thulium-doped fluorozirconate fibre,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1660–1662 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Percival, D. Szebesta, and S. T. Davey, “Highly efficient cw cascade operation of 1.47 and 1.82 μm transitions in Tm-doped fluoride fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1866–1868 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, “Efficient upconversion pumping at 1.064 μm in a Tm3+-doped fluoride fibre laser operating around 1.47 μm,” Electron. Lett. 28, 830–832 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

T. Sakamoto, M. Shimizu, T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, Y. Ohishi, M. Yamada, and S. Sudo, “1.4-μm-band gain characteristics of a Tm–Ho-doped ZBLYAN fiber amplifier pumped in the 0.8-μm band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 983–985 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin.

J. S. Wang, E. Snitzer, E. M. Vogel, and G. H. Sigel, Jr., “1.47, 1.88 and 2.8 μm emissions of Tm3+- and Tm3–Ho3+-codoped tellurite glasses,” J. Lumin. 60–61, 145–149 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

Y. B. Shin, W. Y. Cho, and J. Heo, “Multiphonon and cross-relaxation phenomena in Ge–As (or Ga)–S glasses doped with Tm3+,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208, 29–35 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Toratani, T. Izumitani, and H. Kuroda, “Compositional dependence of nonradiative decay rate in Nd laser glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 52, 303–313 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Mater. Sci. Forum

M. Saad and M. Poulain, “Glass-forming ability criterion,” Mater. Sci. Forum 19–20, 11–18 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

M. J. Weber, “Multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in yttrium orthoaluminate,” Phys. Rev. B 8, 54–64 (1973).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. J. Weber, “Multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in oxide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 16, 10–20 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. Reisfeld and C. K. Jørgensen, “Excited state phenomena in vitreous materials,” in Handbook of Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, K. A. Gschneider, Jr., and L. Eyring, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1987), Vol. 9, pp. 1–90.

W. J. Miniscalco, “Optical and electronic properties of rare-earth ions in glasses,” in Rare-Earth-Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers, M. J. F. Digonnet, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1993), pp. 19–134.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectrum of KBG glass doped with 1.0 wt% Tm2O3.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fluoresence spectra of Tm3+-doped KBG and tellurite glasses in the range of 1300–1700 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Multiphonon relaxation rates of (curves labeled) 1 borate, 2 phosphate, 3 silicate, 4 germanate, 5 tellurite, 6 ZrF4-based, 7 ZnCl2-based, 8 Ge–Ga–S, and KBG (solid curve) glasses. Squares, measured data for KBG glasses.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Energy levels of Tm3+ and Ho3+ ions in KBG glasses.

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured Oscillator Strengths of Tm3+ in Various Oxide Glass Hosts

Tables Icon

Table 2 Measured and Calculated Oscillator Strengths and Electric-Dipole Line Strengths Sed for Some Transitions of Tm3+ in KBG Glasses

Tables Icon

Table 3 Judd–Ofelt Intensity Parameters of Tm3+ in KBG Glasses

Tables Icon

Table 4 Calculated Spontaneous Emission Probabilities, Branching Ratios, and Lifetimes of Tm3+ in KBG Glasses

Tables Icon

Table 5 Parameters of Multiphonon Relaxations in Various Glasses

Tables Icon

Table 6 Measured Lifetimes of  3H4 and  3F4 in Tm3+Ho3+-Codoped KBG Glasses

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Wmeas=WR+WMP+WCR+WET,
WMP=1τm-1τrad,
WMP=C exp(-αΔE),
α=-ln /ωmax,

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