Abstract

An experiment is described in which an apparatus is used to demonstrate the feasibility of measuring multiphoton photoionization rates in the interaction of short pulsed lasers with atoms or molecules. With this methodology, the ionization rate is measured as a function of the spatial position in the beam-waist region of the laser through the direct three-dimensional spatial imaging of the ionization events. Thus, if the spatial dependence of the laser beam intensity were known, a series of experiments could yield the intensity dependence of multiphoton ionization without the assumptions or errors that are generally inherent in the integration over one or more dimensions in the laser focal volume.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. REFERENCES AND NOTESC. Guo, M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Single and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R4271–R4274 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, “Theory of molecular tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 033402 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Alignment-dependent strong field ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 233003 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. X. M. Tong and S. I. Chu, “Probing the spectral and temporal structures of high-order harmonic generation in intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 021802 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Ellert and P. B. Corkum, “Disentangling molecular alignment and enhanced ionization in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 59, R3170–R3173 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Wells, M. J. DeWitt, and R. R. Jones, “Comparison of intense-field ionization of diatomic molecules and rare-gas atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 013409 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. R. Jones, “Multiphoton ionization enchancement using two phase-coherent laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1491–1494 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Talebpour, C.-Y. Chien, and S. L. Chin, “Population trapping in rare gases,” J. Phys. B 29, 5725–5733 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Hansch and L. D. Woerkom, “High-precision intensity-selective observation of multiphoton ionization: a new method of photoelectron spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1286–1288 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. Hansch, M. A. Walker, and L. D. Woerkom, “Spatially dependent multiphoton multiple ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R2559 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. J. Uiterwaal, Behlen Laboratory B56, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebr. 68588 (personal communication, 2003).
  12. M. A. Walker, P. Hansch, and L. D. Woerkom, “Intensity-resolved multiphoton ionization: circumventing spatial averaging,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R701–R704 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. M. Hankin, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner, “Intense-field laser ionization rates in atoms and molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013405 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Nguyen, X. Fléchard, R. Brédy, H. A. Camp, and B. D. DePaola, “Target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy using magneto-optically trapped atoms,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 032704 (2004).
  15. The pulse width reported here is only approximate. For the purposes of this work, the exact pulse width is not relevant.
  16. SAES Getters USA Inc., 1222 East Cheyenne Mountain Blvd., Colorado Springs, Colo. 80906.
  17. H. C. Straub, M. A. Mangan, B. G. Lindsay, K. A. Smith, and R. F. Stebbings, “Absolute detection efficiency of a microchannel plate detector for kilo-electron volt energy ions,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4238–4240 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Del Mar Ventures, 12595 Ruette Alliante 148, San Diego, Calif. 92130.
  19. O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, K. Ullmann-Pfelger, L. Spielberger, U. Meyer, R. Dörner, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Fast position and time-resolved read-out of microchannelplates with the delay-line techniques for single-particle and photon detection,” in Imaging Spectrometry IV, M. R. Descour and S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE 3438, 322–333 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. The SIMION 3D Version 6.113 software package was developed by D. A. Dahl, MS 2208.
  21. X. Fléchard, H. Nguyen, E. Wells, I. Ben-Itzhak, and B. D. DePaola, “Kinematically complete charge exchange experiment in the Cs++Rb collision system using a MOT target,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 123203 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  22. X. Fléchard, H. Nguyen, R. Brédy, S. R. Lundeen, M. Stauffer, H. A. Camp, C. W. Fehrenbach, and B. D. DePaola, “State selective charge transfer cross sections for Na+ with excited rubidium: A unique diagnostic of the population dynamics of a magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 243005 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. van der Poel, C. V. Nielsen, M.-A. Gearba, and N. Andersen, “Fraunhofer diffraction of atomic matter waves: electron transfer studies with a laser cooled target,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 123201 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. W. Turkstra, R. Hoekstra, D. Meyer, R. Morgenstern, and R. E. Olson, “Recoil momentum spectroscopy of highly charged ion collisions on magneto-optically trapped Na,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 123202 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. H. Nguyen, “Magneto optical trap recoil ion momentum spectroscopy,” Ph.D. dissertation (Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, 2003).
  26. V. Mergel, Diploma Thesis, Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe Universität Frankfurt (unpublished 1994).
  27. V. Mergel, R. Dörner, J. Ullrich, O. Jagutzki, S. Lencinas, S. Nüttgens, L. Spielberger, M. Unverzagt, C. L. Cocke, R. E. Olson, M. Schulz, U. Buck, E. Zanger, W. Theisinger, M. Isser, S. Geis, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “State selective scattering angle dependent capture cross sections measured by cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2200–2203 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

H. Nguyen, X. Fléchard, R. Brédy, H. A. Camp, and B. D. DePaola, “Target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy using magneto-optically trapped atoms,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 032704 (2004).

2003

X. Fléchard, H. Nguyen, R. Brédy, S. R. Lundeen, M. Stauffer, H. A. Camp, C. W. Fehrenbach, and B. D. DePaola, “State selective charge transfer cross sections for Na+ with excited rubidium: A unique diagnostic of the population dynamics of a magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 243005 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Alignment-dependent strong field ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 233003 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, “Theory of molecular tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 033402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Wells, M. J. DeWitt, and R. R. Jones, “Comparison of intense-field ionization of diatomic molecules and rare-gas atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 013409 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. van der Poel, C. V. Nielsen, M.-A. Gearba, and N. Andersen, “Fraunhofer diffraction of atomic matter waves: electron transfer studies with a laser cooled target,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 123201 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Turkstra, R. Hoekstra, D. Meyer, R. Morgenstern, and R. E. Olson, “Recoil momentum spectroscopy of highly charged ion collisions on magneto-optically trapped Na,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 123202 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Hankin, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner, “Intense-field laser ionization rates in atoms and molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Fléchard, H. Nguyen, E. Wells, I. Ben-Itzhak, and B. D. DePaola, “Kinematically complete charge exchange experiment in the Cs++Rb collision system using a MOT target,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 123203 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

X. M. Tong and S. I. Chu, “Probing the spectral and temporal structures of high-order harmonic generation in intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 021802 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

C. Ellert and P. B. Corkum, “Disentangling molecular alignment and enhanced ionization in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 59, R3170–R3173 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Straub, M. A. Mangan, B. G. Lindsay, K. A. Smith, and R. F. Stebbings, “Absolute detection efficiency of a microchannel plate detector for kilo-electron volt energy ions,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4238–4240 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, K. Ullmann-Pfelger, L. Spielberger, U. Meyer, R. Dörner, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Fast position and time-resolved read-out of microchannelplates with the delay-line techniques for single-particle and photon detection,” in Imaging Spectrometry IV, M. R. Descour and S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE 3438, 322–333 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Walker, P. Hansch, and L. D. Woerkom, “Intensity-resolved multiphoton ionization: circumventing spatial averaging,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R701–R704 (1998).
[CrossRef]

REFERENCES AND NOTESC. Guo, M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Single and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R4271–R4274 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

A. Talebpour, C.-Y. Chien, and S. L. Chin, “Population trapping in rare gases,” J. Phys. B 29, 5725–5733 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Hansch and L. D. Woerkom, “High-precision intensity-selective observation of multiphoton ionization: a new method of photoelectron spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1286–1288 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Hansch, M. A. Walker, and L. D. Woerkom, “Spatially dependent multiphoton multiple ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R2559 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

R. R. Jones, “Multiphoton ionization enchancement using two phase-coherent laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1491–1494 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Mergel, R. Dörner, J. Ullrich, O. Jagutzki, S. Lencinas, S. Nüttgens, L. Spielberger, M. Unverzagt, C. L. Cocke, R. E. Olson, M. Schulz, U. Buck, E. Zanger, W. Theisinger, M. Isser, S. Geis, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “State selective scattering angle dependent capture cross sections measured by cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2200–2203 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersen, N.

M. van der Poel, C. V. Nielsen, M.-A. Gearba, and N. Andersen, “Fraunhofer diffraction of atomic matter waves: electron transfer studies with a laser cooled target,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 123201 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ben-Itzhak, I.

X. Fléchard, H. Nguyen, E. Wells, I. Ben-Itzhak, and B. D. DePaola, “Kinematically complete charge exchange experiment in the Cs++Rb collision system using a MOT target,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 123203 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brédy, R.

H. Nguyen, X. Fléchard, R. Brédy, H. A. Camp, and B. D. DePaola, “Target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy using magneto-optically trapped atoms,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 032704 (2004).

X. Fléchard, H. Nguyen, R. Brédy, S. R. Lundeen, M. Stauffer, H. A. Camp, C. W. Fehrenbach, and B. D. DePaola, “State selective charge transfer cross sections for Na+ with excited rubidium: A unique diagnostic of the population dynamics of a magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 243005 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Buck, U.

V. Mergel, R. Dörner, J. Ullrich, O. Jagutzki, S. Lencinas, S. Nüttgens, L. Spielberger, M. Unverzagt, C. L. Cocke, R. E. Olson, M. Schulz, U. Buck, E. Zanger, W. Theisinger, M. Isser, S. Geis, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “State selective scattering angle dependent capture cross sections measured by cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2200–2203 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Camp, H. A.

H. Nguyen, X. Fléchard, R. Brédy, H. A. Camp, and B. D. DePaola, “Target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy using magneto-optically trapped atoms,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 032704 (2004).

X. Fléchard, H. Nguyen, R. Brédy, S. R. Lundeen, M. Stauffer, H. A. Camp, C. W. Fehrenbach, and B. D. DePaola, “State selective charge transfer cross sections for Na+ with excited rubidium: A unique diagnostic of the population dynamics of a magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 243005 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chien, C.-Y.

A. Talebpour, C.-Y. Chien, and S. L. Chin, “Population trapping in rare gases,” J. Phys. B 29, 5725–5733 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

A. Talebpour, C.-Y. Chien, and S. L. Chin, “Population trapping in rare gases,” J. Phys. B 29, 5725–5733 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. I.

X. M. Tong and S. I. Chu, “Probing the spectral and temporal structures of high-order harmonic generation in intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 021802 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cocke, C. L.

V. Mergel, R. Dörner, J. Ullrich, O. Jagutzki, S. Lencinas, S. Nüttgens, L. Spielberger, M. Unverzagt, C. L. Cocke, R. E. Olson, M. Schulz, U. Buck, E. Zanger, W. Theisinger, M. Isser, S. Geis, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “State selective scattering angle dependent capture cross sections measured by cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2200–2203 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Alignment-dependent strong field ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 233003 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Hankin, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner, “Intense-field laser ionization rates in atoms and molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Ellert and P. B. Corkum, “Disentangling molecular alignment and enhanced ionization in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 59, R3170–R3173 (1999).
[CrossRef]

DePaola, B. D.

H. Nguyen, X. Fléchard, R. Brédy, H. A. Camp, and B. D. DePaola, “Target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy using magneto-optically trapped atoms,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 032704 (2004).

X. Fléchard, H. Nguyen, R. Brédy, S. R. Lundeen, M. Stauffer, H. A. Camp, C. W. Fehrenbach, and B. D. DePaola, “State selective charge transfer cross sections for Na+ with excited rubidium: A unique diagnostic of the population dynamics of a magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 243005 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Fléchard, H. Nguyen, E. Wells, I. Ben-Itzhak, and B. D. DePaola, “Kinematically complete charge exchange experiment in the Cs++Rb collision system using a MOT target,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 123203 (2001).
[CrossRef]

DeWitt, M. J.

E. Wells, M. J. DeWitt, and R. R. Jones, “Comparison of intense-field ionization of diatomic molecules and rare-gas atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 013409 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dooley, P. W.

I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Alignment-dependent strong field ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 233003 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dörner, R.

O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, K. Ullmann-Pfelger, L. Spielberger, U. Meyer, R. Dörner, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Fast position and time-resolved read-out of microchannelplates with the delay-line techniques for single-particle and photon detection,” in Imaging Spectrometry IV, M. R. Descour and S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE 3438, 322–333 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Mergel, R. Dörner, J. Ullrich, O. Jagutzki, S. Lencinas, S. Nüttgens, L. Spielberger, M. Unverzagt, C. L. Cocke, R. E. Olson, M. Schulz, U. Buck, E. Zanger, W. Theisinger, M. Isser, S. Geis, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “State selective scattering angle dependent capture cross sections measured by cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2200–2203 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ellert, C.

C. Ellert and P. B. Corkum, “Disentangling molecular alignment and enhanced ionization in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 59, R3170–R3173 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fehrenbach, C. W.

X. Fléchard, H. Nguyen, R. Brédy, S. R. Lundeen, M. Stauffer, H. A. Camp, C. W. Fehrenbach, and B. D. DePaola, “State selective charge transfer cross sections for Na+ with excited rubidium: A unique diagnostic of the population dynamics of a magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 243005 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fléchard, X.

H. Nguyen, X. Fléchard, R. Brédy, H. A. Camp, and B. D. DePaola, “Target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy using magneto-optically trapped atoms,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 032704 (2004).

X. Fléchard, H. Nguyen, R. Brédy, S. R. Lundeen, M. Stauffer, H. A. Camp, C. W. Fehrenbach, and B. D. DePaola, “State selective charge transfer cross sections for Na+ with excited rubidium: A unique diagnostic of the population dynamics of a magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 243005 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Fléchard, H. Nguyen, E. Wells, I. Ben-Itzhak, and B. D. DePaola, “Kinematically complete charge exchange experiment in the Cs++Rb collision system using a MOT target,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 123203 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gearba, M.-A.

M. van der Poel, C. V. Nielsen, M.-A. Gearba, and N. Andersen, “Fraunhofer diffraction of atomic matter waves: electron transfer studies with a laser cooled target,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 123201 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geis, S.

V. Mergel, R. Dörner, J. Ullrich, O. Jagutzki, S. Lencinas, S. Nüttgens, L. Spielberger, M. Unverzagt, C. L. Cocke, R. E. Olson, M. Schulz, U. Buck, E. Zanger, W. Theisinger, M. Isser, S. Geis, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “State selective scattering angle dependent capture cross sections measured by cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2200–2203 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, G. N.

REFERENCES AND NOTESC. Guo, M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Single and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R4271–R4274 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guo, C.

REFERENCES AND NOTESC. Guo, M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Single and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R4271–R4274 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hankin, S. M.

S. M. Hankin, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner, “Intense-field laser ionization rates in atoms and molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hansch, P.

M. A. Walker, P. Hansch, and L. D. Woerkom, “Intensity-resolved multiphoton ionization: circumventing spatial averaging,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R701–R704 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Hansch, M. A. Walker, and L. D. Woerkom, “Spatially dependent multiphoton multiple ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R2559 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Hansch and L. D. Woerkom, “High-precision intensity-selective observation of multiphoton ionization: a new method of photoelectron spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1286–1288 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoekstra, R.

J. W. Turkstra, R. Hoekstra, D. Meyer, R. Morgenstern, and R. E. Olson, “Recoil momentum spectroscopy of highly charged ion collisions on magneto-optically trapped Na,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 123202 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Isser, M.

V. Mergel, R. Dörner, J. Ullrich, O. Jagutzki, S. Lencinas, S. Nüttgens, L. Spielberger, M. Unverzagt, C. L. Cocke, R. E. Olson, M. Schulz, U. Buck, E. Zanger, W. Theisinger, M. Isser, S. Geis, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “State selective scattering angle dependent capture cross sections measured by cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2200–2203 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jagutzki, O.

O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, K. Ullmann-Pfelger, L. Spielberger, U. Meyer, R. Dörner, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Fast position and time-resolved read-out of microchannelplates with the delay-line techniques for single-particle and photon detection,” in Imaging Spectrometry IV, M. R. Descour and S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE 3438, 322–333 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Mergel, R. Dörner, J. Ullrich, O. Jagutzki, S. Lencinas, S. Nüttgens, L. Spielberger, M. Unverzagt, C. L. Cocke, R. E. Olson, M. Schulz, U. Buck, E. Zanger, W. Theisinger, M. Isser, S. Geis, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “State selective scattering angle dependent capture cross sections measured by cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2200–2203 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, R. R.

E. Wells, M. J. DeWitt, and R. R. Jones, “Comparison of intense-field ionization of diatomic molecules and rare-gas atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 013409 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Jones, “Multiphoton ionization enchancement using two phase-coherent laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1491–1494 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K. F.

I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Alignment-dependent strong field ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 233003 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lencinas, S.

V. Mergel, R. Dörner, J. Ullrich, O. Jagutzki, S. Lencinas, S. Nüttgens, L. Spielberger, M. Unverzagt, C. L. Cocke, R. E. Olson, M. Schulz, U. Buck, E. Zanger, W. Theisinger, M. Isser, S. Geis, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “State selective scattering angle dependent capture cross sections measured by cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2200–2203 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, M.

REFERENCES AND NOTESC. Guo, M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Single and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R4271–R4274 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. D.

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, “Theory of molecular tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 033402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lindsay, B. G.

H. C. Straub, M. A. Mangan, B. G. Lindsay, K. A. Smith, and R. F. Stebbings, “Absolute detection efficiency of a microchannel plate detector for kilo-electron volt energy ions,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4238–4240 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Litvinyuk, I. V.

I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Alignment-dependent strong field ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 233003 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lundeen, S. R.

X. Fléchard, H. Nguyen, R. Brédy, S. R. Lundeen, M. Stauffer, H. A. Camp, C. W. Fehrenbach, and B. D. DePaola, “State selective charge transfer cross sections for Na+ with excited rubidium: A unique diagnostic of the population dynamics of a magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 243005 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mangan, M. A.

H. C. Straub, M. A. Mangan, B. G. Lindsay, K. A. Smith, and R. F. Stebbings, “Absolute detection efficiency of a microchannel plate detector for kilo-electron volt energy ions,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4238–4240 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mergel, V.

O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, K. Ullmann-Pfelger, L. Spielberger, U. Meyer, R. Dörner, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Fast position and time-resolved read-out of microchannelplates with the delay-line techniques for single-particle and photon detection,” in Imaging Spectrometry IV, M. R. Descour and S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE 3438, 322–333 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Mergel, R. Dörner, J. Ullrich, O. Jagutzki, S. Lencinas, S. Nüttgens, L. Spielberger, M. Unverzagt, C. L. Cocke, R. E. Olson, M. Schulz, U. Buck, E. Zanger, W. Theisinger, M. Isser, S. Geis, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “State selective scattering angle dependent capture cross sections measured by cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2200–2203 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyer, D.

J. W. Turkstra, R. Hoekstra, D. Meyer, R. Morgenstern, and R. E. Olson, “Recoil momentum spectroscopy of highly charged ion collisions on magneto-optically trapped Na,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 123202 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyer, U.

O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, K. Ullmann-Pfelger, L. Spielberger, U. Meyer, R. Dörner, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Fast position and time-resolved read-out of microchannelplates with the delay-line techniques for single-particle and photon detection,” in Imaging Spectrometry IV, M. R. Descour and S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE 3438, 322–333 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morgenstern, R.

J. W. Turkstra, R. Hoekstra, D. Meyer, R. Morgenstern, and R. E. Olson, “Recoil momentum spectroscopy of highly charged ion collisions on magneto-optically trapped Na,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 123202 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, H.

H. Nguyen, X. Fléchard, R. Brédy, H. A. Camp, and B. D. DePaola, “Target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy using magneto-optically trapped atoms,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 032704 (2004).

X. Fléchard, H. Nguyen, R. Brédy, S. R. Lundeen, M. Stauffer, H. A. Camp, C. W. Fehrenbach, and B. D. DePaola, “State selective charge transfer cross sections for Na+ with excited rubidium: A unique diagnostic of the population dynamics of a magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 243005 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Fléchard, H. Nguyen, E. Wells, I. Ben-Itzhak, and B. D. DePaola, “Kinematically complete charge exchange experiment in the Cs++Rb collision system using a MOT target,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 123203 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nibarger, J. P.

REFERENCES AND NOTESC. Guo, M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Single and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R4271–R4274 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, C. V.

M. van der Poel, C. V. Nielsen, M.-A. Gearba, and N. Andersen, “Fraunhofer diffraction of atomic matter waves: electron transfer studies with a laser cooled target,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 123201 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nüttgens, S.

V. Mergel, R. Dörner, J. Ullrich, O. Jagutzki, S. Lencinas, S. Nüttgens, L. Spielberger, M. Unverzagt, C. L. Cocke, R. E. Olson, M. Schulz, U. Buck, E. Zanger, W. Theisinger, M. Isser, S. Geis, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “State selective scattering angle dependent capture cross sections measured by cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2200–2203 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olson, R. E.

J. W. Turkstra, R. Hoekstra, D. Meyer, R. Morgenstern, and R. E. Olson, “Recoil momentum spectroscopy of highly charged ion collisions on magneto-optically trapped Na,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 123202 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Mergel, R. Dörner, J. Ullrich, O. Jagutzki, S. Lencinas, S. Nüttgens, L. Spielberger, M. Unverzagt, C. L. Cocke, R. E. Olson, M. Schulz, U. Buck, E. Zanger, W. Theisinger, M. Isser, S. Geis, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “State selective scattering angle dependent capture cross sections measured by cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2200–2203 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rayner, D. M.

I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Alignment-dependent strong field ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 233003 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Hankin, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner, “Intense-field laser ionization rates in atoms and molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt-Böcking, H.

O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, K. Ullmann-Pfelger, L. Spielberger, U. Meyer, R. Dörner, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Fast position and time-resolved read-out of microchannelplates with the delay-line techniques for single-particle and photon detection,” in Imaging Spectrometry IV, M. R. Descour and S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE 3438, 322–333 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Mergel, R. Dörner, J. Ullrich, O. Jagutzki, S. Lencinas, S. Nüttgens, L. Spielberger, M. Unverzagt, C. L. Cocke, R. E. Olson, M. Schulz, U. Buck, E. Zanger, W. Theisinger, M. Isser, S. Geis, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “State selective scattering angle dependent capture cross sections measured by cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2200–2203 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schulz, M.

V. Mergel, R. Dörner, J. Ullrich, O. Jagutzki, S. Lencinas, S. Nüttgens, L. Spielberger, M. Unverzagt, C. L. Cocke, R. E. Olson, M. Schulz, U. Buck, E. Zanger, W. Theisinger, M. Isser, S. Geis, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “State selective scattering angle dependent capture cross sections measured by cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2200–2203 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, K. A.

H. C. Straub, M. A. Mangan, B. G. Lindsay, K. A. Smith, and R. F. Stebbings, “Absolute detection efficiency of a microchannel plate detector for kilo-electron volt energy ions,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4238–4240 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Spielberger, L.

O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, K. Ullmann-Pfelger, L. Spielberger, U. Meyer, R. Dörner, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Fast position and time-resolved read-out of microchannelplates with the delay-line techniques for single-particle and photon detection,” in Imaging Spectrometry IV, M. R. Descour and S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE 3438, 322–333 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Mergel, R. Dörner, J. Ullrich, O. Jagutzki, S. Lencinas, S. Nüttgens, L. Spielberger, M. Unverzagt, C. L. Cocke, R. E. Olson, M. Schulz, U. Buck, E. Zanger, W. Theisinger, M. Isser, S. Geis, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “State selective scattering angle dependent capture cross sections measured by cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2200–2203 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stauffer, M.

X. Fléchard, H. Nguyen, R. Brédy, S. R. Lundeen, M. Stauffer, H. A. Camp, C. W. Fehrenbach, and B. D. DePaola, “State selective charge transfer cross sections for Na+ with excited rubidium: A unique diagnostic of the population dynamics of a magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 243005 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stebbings, R. F.

H. C. Straub, M. A. Mangan, B. G. Lindsay, K. A. Smith, and R. F. Stebbings, “Absolute detection efficiency of a microchannel plate detector for kilo-electron volt energy ions,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4238–4240 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Straub, H. C.

H. C. Straub, M. A. Mangan, B. G. Lindsay, K. A. Smith, and R. F. Stebbings, “Absolute detection efficiency of a microchannel plate detector for kilo-electron volt energy ions,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4238–4240 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Talebpour, A.

A. Talebpour, C.-Y. Chien, and S. L. Chin, “Population trapping in rare gases,” J. Phys. B 29, 5725–5733 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Theisinger, W.

V. Mergel, R. Dörner, J. Ullrich, O. Jagutzki, S. Lencinas, S. Nüttgens, L. Spielberger, M. Unverzagt, C. L. Cocke, R. E. Olson, M. Schulz, U. Buck, E. Zanger, W. Theisinger, M. Isser, S. Geis, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “State selective scattering angle dependent capture cross sections measured by cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2200–2203 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tong, X. M.

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, “Theory of molecular tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 033402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Tong and S. I. Chu, “Probing the spectral and temporal structures of high-order harmonic generation in intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 021802 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Turkstra, J. W.

J. W. Turkstra, R. Hoekstra, D. Meyer, R. Morgenstern, and R. E. Olson, “Recoil momentum spectroscopy of highly charged ion collisions on magneto-optically trapped Na,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 123202 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ullmann-Pfelger, K.

O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, K. Ullmann-Pfelger, L. Spielberger, U. Meyer, R. Dörner, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Fast position and time-resolved read-out of microchannelplates with the delay-line techniques for single-particle and photon detection,” in Imaging Spectrometry IV, M. R. Descour and S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE 3438, 322–333 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ullrich, J.

V. Mergel, R. Dörner, J. Ullrich, O. Jagutzki, S. Lencinas, S. Nüttgens, L. Spielberger, M. Unverzagt, C. L. Cocke, R. E. Olson, M. Schulz, U. Buck, E. Zanger, W. Theisinger, M. Isser, S. Geis, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “State selective scattering angle dependent capture cross sections measured by cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2200–2203 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unverzagt, M.

V. Mergel, R. Dörner, J. Ullrich, O. Jagutzki, S. Lencinas, S. Nüttgens, L. Spielberger, M. Unverzagt, C. L. Cocke, R. E. Olson, M. Schulz, U. Buck, E. Zanger, W. Theisinger, M. Isser, S. Geis, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “State selective scattering angle dependent capture cross sections measured by cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2200–2203 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Poel, M.

M. van der Poel, C. V. Nielsen, M.-A. Gearba, and N. Andersen, “Fraunhofer diffraction of atomic matter waves: electron transfer studies with a laser cooled target,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 123201 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, D. M.

I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Alignment-dependent strong field ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 233003 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Hankin, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner, “Intense-field laser ionization rates in atoms and molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Walker, M. A.

M. A. Walker, P. Hansch, and L. D. Woerkom, “Intensity-resolved multiphoton ionization: circumventing spatial averaging,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R701–R704 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Hansch, M. A. Walker, and L. D. Woerkom, “Spatially dependent multiphoton multiple ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R2559 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wells, E.

E. Wells, M. J. DeWitt, and R. R. Jones, “Comparison of intense-field ionization of diatomic molecules and rare-gas atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 013409 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Fléchard, H. Nguyen, E. Wells, I. Ben-Itzhak, and B. D. DePaola, “Kinematically complete charge exchange experiment in the Cs++Rb collision system using a MOT target,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 123203 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Woerkom, L. D.

M. A. Walker, P. Hansch, and L. D. Woerkom, “Intensity-resolved multiphoton ionization: circumventing spatial averaging,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R701–R704 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Hansch, M. A. Walker, and L. D. Woerkom, “Spatially dependent multiphoton multiple ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R2559 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Hansch and L. D. Woerkom, “High-precision intensity-selective observation of multiphoton ionization: a new method of photoelectron spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1286–1288 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zanger, E.

V. Mergel, R. Dörner, J. Ullrich, O. Jagutzki, S. Lencinas, S. Nüttgens, L. Spielberger, M. Unverzagt, C. L. Cocke, R. E. Olson, M. Schulz, U. Buck, E. Zanger, W. Theisinger, M. Isser, S. Geis, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “State selective scattering angle dependent capture cross sections measured by cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2200–2203 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Z. X.

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, “Theory of molecular tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 033402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B

A. Talebpour, C.-Y. Chien, and S. L. Chin, “Population trapping in rare gases,” J. Phys. B 29, 5725–5733 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

P. Hansch, M. A. Walker, and L. D. Woerkom, “Spatially dependent multiphoton multiple ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R2559 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. M. Tong and S. I. Chu, “Probing the spectral and temporal structures of high-order harmonic generation in intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 021802 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Ellert and P. B. Corkum, “Disentangling molecular alignment and enhanced ionization in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 59, R3170–R3173 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Wells, M. J. DeWitt, and R. R. Jones, “Comparison of intense-field ionization of diatomic molecules and rare-gas atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 013409 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Walker, P. Hansch, and L. D. Woerkom, “Intensity-resolved multiphoton ionization: circumventing spatial averaging,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R701–R704 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Hankin, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner, “Intense-field laser ionization rates in atoms and molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

REFERENCES AND NOTESC. Guo, M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Single and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R4271–R4274 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, “Theory of molecular tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 033402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Alignment-dependent strong field ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 233003 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Jones, “Multiphoton ionization enchancement using two phase-coherent laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1491–1494 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Fléchard, H. Nguyen, E. Wells, I. Ben-Itzhak, and B. D. DePaola, “Kinematically complete charge exchange experiment in the Cs++Rb collision system using a MOT target,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 123203 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Fléchard, H. Nguyen, R. Brédy, S. R. Lundeen, M. Stauffer, H. A. Camp, C. W. Fehrenbach, and B. D. DePaola, “State selective charge transfer cross sections for Na+ with excited rubidium: A unique diagnostic of the population dynamics of a magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 243005 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. van der Poel, C. V. Nielsen, M.-A. Gearba, and N. Andersen, “Fraunhofer diffraction of atomic matter waves: electron transfer studies with a laser cooled target,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 123201 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Turkstra, R. Hoekstra, D. Meyer, R. Morgenstern, and R. E. Olson, “Recoil momentum spectroscopy of highly charged ion collisions on magneto-optically trapped Na,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 123202 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Mergel, R. Dörner, J. Ullrich, O. Jagutzki, S. Lencinas, S. Nüttgens, L. Spielberger, M. Unverzagt, C. L. Cocke, R. E. Olson, M. Schulz, U. Buck, E. Zanger, W. Theisinger, M. Isser, S. Geis, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “State selective scattering angle dependent capture cross sections measured by cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2200–2203 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, K. Ullmann-Pfelger, L. Spielberger, U. Meyer, R. Dörner, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Fast position and time-resolved read-out of microchannelplates with the delay-line techniques for single-particle and photon detection,” in Imaging Spectrometry IV, M. R. Descour and S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE 3438, 322–333 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

H. C. Straub, M. A. Mangan, B. G. Lindsay, K. A. Smith, and R. F. Stebbings, “Absolute detection efficiency of a microchannel plate detector for kilo-electron volt energy ions,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4238–4240 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Nguyen, X. Fléchard, R. Brédy, H. A. Camp, and B. D. DePaola, “Target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy using magneto-optically trapped atoms,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 032704 (2004).

Other

The pulse width reported here is only approximate. For the purposes of this work, the exact pulse width is not relevant.

SAES Getters USA Inc., 1222 East Cheyenne Mountain Blvd., Colorado Springs, Colo. 80906.

Del Mar Ventures, 12595 Ruette Alliante 148, San Diego, Calif. 92130.

C. J. Uiterwaal, Behlen Laboratory B56, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebr. 68588 (personal communication, 2003).

The SIMION 3D Version 6.113 software package was developed by D. A. Dahl, MS 2208.

H. Nguyen, “Magneto optical trap recoil ion momentum spectroscopy,” Ph.D. dissertation (Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, 2003).

V. Mergel, Diploma Thesis, Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe Universität Frankfurt (unpublished 1994).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simplified schematic of the experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time-of-flight to Z conversion. The focal point is translated inside the chamber when the lens is translated along the direction of propagation of the laser beam. Owing to the input angle of the ion beam, the TOF spectrum of the ionized atoms is shifted depending on the focal-point position. This spectrum represents the Z position of the focal point as a function of the centroid of the TOF spectrum. TOF to Z conversion: Z=6.36t-353.14, with t in microseconds and Z in millimeters.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Use of a 700 K Rb vapor as a target. (a), typical PSD image of the ionized region; (b), projection on the Yi axis; (c), projection on the Xi axis; (d), corresponding TOF spectra. The curve labeled “gated TOF” corresponds to the TOF of the ions detected inside a ΔXi=0.636 mm by ΔYi=0.636 mm gate set on the detector image. Gate positions are shown on each projection.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

As in Fig. 3, but with 200 µK  87Rb atoms in a MOT. The measured TOF width is now consistent with estimates.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

|Mx|=4.60±0.05.
|My|=4.6±0.2.
Z=6.36t-353.14,

Metrics