Abstract

A detailed numerical study of the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities (χ(3)) of semiconductor quantum wells is presented. The dependence of χ(3) on material parameters (electron-hole mass ratio and exciton linewidths), on the light polarization configuration (co- and countercircularly polarized) and on the spectral configuration is discussed. The goal of this study is to map out the nonlinear phase shift per quantum well and a related figure of merit caused by quasi-resonant excitonic and biexcitonic nonlinearities induced by picosecond light pulses. The study is based on the dynamics-controlled truncation formalism and evaluated under the assumption that only 1s-heavy-hole excitons contribute to the nonlinearities. It includes all correlation effects (exciton–exciton scattering in the singlet and triplet channels and coherent biexciton formation in the singlet channel) that contribute within the coherent excitonic χ(3) regime.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2004

H. Ishihara, “Anomalous size dependence of optical nonlinearities due to excitonic coherence,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 16, R247–R273 (2004).

2002

E. J. Gansen, K. Jarasiunas, and A. L. Smirl, “Femtosecond all-optical polarization switching based on the virtual excitation of spin-polarized excitons in quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 971–973 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Lövenich, C. Lai, D. Hägele, D. Chemla, and W. Schäfer, “Semiconductor polarization dynamics from the coherent to the incoherent regime: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 045306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Takayama, N. H. Kwong, I. Rumyantsev, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and R. Binder, “T-matrix analysis of biexcitonic correlations in the nonlinear optical response of semiconductor quantum wells,” Eur. Phys. J. B 25, 445–462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

P. Brick, C. Ell, S. Chatterjee, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Meier, C. Sieh, and S. W. Koch, “Influence of light holes on the heavy-hole excitonic optical stark effect,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 075323 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Kwong, R. Takayama, I. Rumyantsev, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and R. Binder, “Third-order exciton-correlation and nonlinear cavity-polariton effects in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 045316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Kwong, R. Takayama, I. Rumyantsev, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and R. Binder, “Evidence of nonperturbative continuum correlations in two-dimensional exciton systems in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 027402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Axt, B. Haase, and U. Neukirch, “Influence of two-pair continuum correlations following resonant excitation of excitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4620–4623 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Axt, S. R. Bolton, U. Neukirch, L. J. Sham, and D. S. Chemla, “Evidence of six-particle Coulomb correlations in six-wave-mixing signals from a semiconductor quantum well,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 115303 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Koch, M. Kira, and T. Meier, “Correlation effects in the excitonic optical properties of semiconductors,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 3, R29–R45 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Schäfer, R. Lövenich, N. Fromer, and D. Chemla, “From coherently excited highly correlated states to incoherent relaxation processes in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 344–347 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Langbein, T. Meier, S. Koch, and J. Hvam, “Spectral signatures of χ(5) processes in four-wave mixing of homogeneously broadened excitons,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 1318–1325 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Donovan, A. Schülzgen, J. Lee, P.-A. Blanche, N. Peyghambarian, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, I. Rumyantsev, N. H. Kwong, R. Takayama, Z. S. Yang, and R. Binder, “Evidence for intervalence band coherences in semiconductor quantum wells via coherently coupled optical stark shifts,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 237402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

R. Binder, I. Rumyantsev, N. H. Kwong, and R. Takayama, “On the identification of intervalence-band coherences in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi B 221, 169–178 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Kwong and R. Binder, “Green’s function approach to the dynamics-controlled truncation formalism: derivation of the χ(3) equations of motion,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 8341–8358 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, T. Aoki, C. Ramkumar, R. Shimano, and Y. Svirko, “Role of exciton–exciton interaction on resonant third-order nonlinear optical responses,” J. Lumin. 87–89, 162–167 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Svirko and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Signatures of the excitonic memory effects in four-wave mixing processes in cavity polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 6912–6915 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Meier, S. W. Koch, M. Phillips, and H. Wang, “Strong coupling of heavy- and light-hole excitons induced by many-body correlations,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 12605–12608 (2000).
[CrossRef]

U. Neukirch, S. R. Bolton, L. J. Sham, and D. S. Chemla, “Electronic four-particle correlations in semiconductors: renormalization of coherent pump-probe oscillations,” Phys. Rev. B 61, R7835–R7837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Bolton, U. Neukirch, L. J. Sham, D. S. Chemla, and V. M. Axt, “Demonstration of sixth-order coulomb correlations in a semiconductor single quantum well,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2002–2005 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

P. Kner, S. Bar-Ad, M. Marquezini, D. Chemla, R. Lövenich, and W. Schäfer, “Effect of magnetoexciton correlations on the coherent emission of semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 4731–4748 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Koch, C. Sieh, T. Meier, F. Jahnke, A. Knorr, P. Brick, M. Hubner, C. Ell, J. Prineas, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Theory of coherent effects in semiconductors,” J. Lumin. 83, 1–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Svirko, M. Shirane, H. Suzuura, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Four-wave mixing theory at the excitonic resonance: weakly interacting boson model,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 68, 647–682 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Wagner, A. Schätz, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, and A. L. Smirl, “Interaction-induced effects in the nonlinear coherent response of quantum-well excitons,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 4454–4457 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Sieh, T. Meier, F. Jahnke, A. Knorr, S. W. Koch, P. Brick, M. Hübner, C. Ell, J. Prineas, G. Khitrova, and H. Gibbs, “Coulomb memory signatures in the excitonic optical stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3112–3115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, F. Jahnke, M. Kira, and S. W. Koch, “Nonlinear optics of normal-mode coupling semiconductor microcavities,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, 1591–1639 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

T. Östreich, K. Schönhammer, and L. Sham, “Theory of exciton–exciton correlation in nonlinear optical response,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 12920–12936 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Axt and S. Mukamel, “Influence of a photon bath on electronic correlations and optical response in molecular aggregates,” Nonlinear Opti. Mater. 101, 1–32 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Axt, K. Victor, and T. Kuhn, “Exciton-exciton continuum and its contribution to four-wave mixing signals,” Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 189–196 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Shirane, C. Ramkumar, Y. P. Svirko, H. Suzuura, S. Inoue, R. Shimano, T. Someya, H. Sakaki, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Degenerate four-wave mixing measurements on an exciton-photon coupled system in a semiconductor microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 7978–7985 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Suzuura, Y. Svirko, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Four-wave mixing theory in a cavity-polariton system,” Solid State Commun. 108, 289–293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Kner, W. Schäfer, R. Lövenich, and D. S. Chemla, “Coherence of four-particle correlations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5386–5389 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

P. Kner, S. Bar-Ad, M. V. Marquezini, D. S. Chemla, and W. Schäfer, “Magnetically enhanced exciton–exciton correlations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1319–1322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Bartels, G. Cho, T. Dekorsy, H. Kurz, A. Stahl, and K. Köhler, “Coherent signature of differential transmission signals in semiconductors: theory and experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 16404–16413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, S. Inoue, H. Suzuura, M. Shirane, and R. Shimano, “Parametric scattering of cavity polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1341–1344 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, “The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341–348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Nayak, T. Sahu, S. P. Mohanty, and P. K. Misra, “Third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of wide-bandgap nitrides,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 12, 544–549 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

J. A. Bolger, A. E. Paul, and A. L. Smirl, “Ultrafast ellipsometry of coherent processes and exciton–exciton interactions in quantum wells at negative delays,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 11666–11671 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Paul, J. A. Bolger, A. L. Smirl, and J. G. Pellegrino, “Time-resolved measurements of the polarization state of four-wave mixing signals from GaAs multiple quantum wells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1016–1025 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Schäfer, D. Kim, J. Shah, T. Damen, J. Cunningham, K. Goossen, L. Pfeiffer, and K. Köhler, “Femtosecond coherent fields induced by many-particle correlations in transient four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 16429–16443 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

K. Victor, V. Axt, and A. Stahl, “Hierachy of density matrices in coherent semiconductor optics,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 14164–14175 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Östreich, K. Schönhammer, and L. J. Sham, “Exciton–exciton correlation in the nonlinear opical regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4698–4701 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Schroeder, D. S. McCallum, D. R. Harken, M. D. Dvorak, D. R. Anderson, A. L. Smirl, and B. W. Wherrett, “Intrinsic and induced anisotropy of nonlinear absorption and refraction in zinc blende semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 401–415 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Patkar, A. E. Paul, W. Sha, J. A. Bolger, and A. L. Smirl, “Degree and state of polarization of the time-integrated coherent four-wave mixing signal from semiconductor multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10789–10794 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hutchings and B. S. Wherrett, “Theory of the anisotropy of ultrafast nonlinear refraction in zinc-blende semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 8150–8159 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Aversa and J. E. Sipe, “Nonlinear optical sustibilities of semiconductors: results with a length-gauge analysis,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 14636–14645 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Ivanov, M. Hasuo, N. Nagasawa, and H. Haug, “Two-photon generation of excitonic molecules in CuCl: an exactly solvable bipolariton model and high-precision experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 11017–11033 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

C. Aversa, J. E. Sipe, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E. W. V. Stryland, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in semiconductors: the two-band model,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 18073–18082 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to four-wave mixing in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14730–14733 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Dvorak, W. A. Schroeder, D. R. Andersen, A. L. Smirl, and B. S. Wherrett, “Measurement of the anisotropy of two-photon absorption coefficients in zincblende semiconductors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 256–269 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Lindberg, R. Binder, Y. Z. Hu, and S. W. Koch, “Dipole selection rules in multiband semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16942–16951 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Axt and A. Stahl, “A dynamics-controlled truncation scheme for the hierarchy of density matrices in semiconductor optics,” Z. Phys. B: Condens. Matter 93, 195–204 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Axt and A. Stahl, “The role of the biexciton in a dynamic density matrix theory of the semiconductor band edge,” Z. Phys. B: Condens. Matter 93, 205–211 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Z. Maialle and L. J. Sham, “Exciton spin dynamics and polarized luminescence in quantum wells,” Surf. Sci. 305, 256–262 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Lindberg, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “χ(3) formalism in optically excited semiconductors and its applications in four-wave-mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 18060–18072 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

A. Ivanov and H. Haug, “Self-consistent theory of the biexciton optical nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 1490–1504 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Nayak, T. Sahu, and S. P. Mohanty, “Third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities of group IV and III–V compound semiconductors,” Physica B 191, 334–340 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

S. Bar-Ad and I. Bar-Joseph, “Exciton spin dynamics in GaAs heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 349–352 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

B. F. Feuerbacher, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, “Biexitonic contribution to the degenerate-four-wave-mixing signal from a GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum well,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 2439–2441 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. V. Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Grant and W. Sibbett, “Observations of ultrafast nonlinear refraction in an InGaAsP optical amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1119–1121 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Hultgren and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrafast refactive index dynamics in AlGaAs diode laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 635–637 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

M. Combescot, “Optical stark effect of the exciton. II. Polarization effects and exciton splitting,” Phys. Rev. B 41, 3517–3517 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

M. Combescot and R. Combescot, “Optical stark effect of the exciton: biexcitonic origin of the shift,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 3788–3801 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337–3550 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

M. Combescot and R. Combescot, “Excitonic stark shift: a coupling to semivirtual biexcitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 117–120 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

Y. L. Klimontovich, D. Kremp, and W. D. Kraeft, “Kinetic theory for chemically reacting gases and partially ionized plasmas,” Adv. Chem. Phys. 68, 175–253 (1987).

1979

K. Arya and S. S. Jha, “Tight-binding bonding orbital model for third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities in group-IV crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 20, 1611–1616 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977

E. Hanamura and H. Haug, “Condensation effects of excitons,” Phys. Rep. 33, 209–284 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1973

E. Hanamura, “Giant two-photon absorption due to excitonic molecule,” Solid State Commun. 12, 951–953 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972

O. Akimoto and E. Hanamura, “Excitonic molecule. I. Calculation of the binding energy,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 33, 1537–1544 (1972).
[CrossRef]

E. Yablonovitch, C. Flytzanis, and N. Bloembergen, “Anisotropic interference of three-wave and double two-wave frequency mixing in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 865–868 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Adair, R.

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337–3550 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, “The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341–348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Akimoto, O.

O. Akimoto and E. Hanamura, “Excitonic molecule. I. Calculation of the binding energy,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 33, 1537–1544 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, D. R.

D. Dvorak, W. A. Schroeder, D. R. Andersen, A. L. Smirl, and B. S. Wherrett, “Measurement of the anisotropy of two-photon absorption coefficients in zincblende semiconductors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 256–269 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, D. R.

Aoki, T.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, T. Aoki, C. Ramkumar, R. Shimano, and Y. Svirko, “Role of exciton–exciton interaction on resonant third-order nonlinear optical responses,” J. Lumin. 87–89, 162–167 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Arya, K.

K. Arya and S. S. Jha, “Tight-binding bonding orbital model for third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities in group-IV crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 20, 1611–1616 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Aversa, C.

C. Aversa and J. E. Sipe, “Nonlinear optical sustibilities of semiconductors: results with a length-gauge analysis,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 14636–14645 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Aversa, J. E. Sipe, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E. W. V. Stryland, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in semiconductors: the two-band model,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 18073–18082 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Axt, V.

K. Victor, V. Axt, and A. Stahl, “Hierachy of density matrices in coherent semiconductor optics,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 14164–14175 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Axt, V. M.

V. M. Axt, S. R. Bolton, U. Neukirch, L. J. Sham, and D. S. Chemla, “Evidence of six-particle Coulomb correlations in six-wave-mixing signals from a semiconductor quantum well,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 115303 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Axt, B. Haase, and U. Neukirch, “Influence of two-pair continuum correlations following resonant excitation of excitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4620–4623 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Bolton, U. Neukirch, L. J. Sham, D. S. Chemla, and V. M. Axt, “Demonstration of sixth-order coulomb correlations in a semiconductor single quantum well,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2002–2005 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Axt, K. Victor, and T. Kuhn, “Exciton-exciton continuum and its contribution to four-wave mixing signals,” Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 189–196 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Axt and S. Mukamel, “Influence of a photon bath on electronic correlations and optical response in molecular aggregates,” Nonlinear Opti. Mater. 101, 1–32 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Axt and A. Stahl, “A dynamics-controlled truncation scheme for the hierarchy of density matrices in semiconductor optics,” Z. Phys. B: Condens. Matter 93, 195–204 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Axt and A. Stahl, “The role of the biexciton in a dynamic density matrix theory of the semiconductor band edge,” Z. Phys. B: Condens. Matter 93, 205–211 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bar-Ad, S.

P. Kner, S. Bar-Ad, M. Marquezini, D. Chemla, R. Lövenich, and W. Schäfer, “Effect of magnetoexciton correlations on the coherent emission of semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 4731–4748 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Kner, S. Bar-Ad, M. V. Marquezini, D. S. Chemla, and W. Schäfer, “Magnetically enhanced exciton–exciton correlations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1319–1322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Bar-Ad and I. Bar-Joseph, “Exciton spin dynamics in GaAs heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 349–352 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bar-Joseph, I.

S. Bar-Ad and I. Bar-Joseph, “Exciton spin dynamics in GaAs heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 349–352 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartels, G.

G. Bartels, G. Cho, T. Dekorsy, H. Kurz, A. Stahl, and K. Köhler, “Coherent signature of differential transmission signals in semiconductors: theory and experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 16404–16413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bennhardt, D.

E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to four-wave mixing in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14730–14733 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Binder, R.

R. Takayama, N. H. Kwong, I. Rumyantsev, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and R. Binder, “T-matrix analysis of biexcitonic correlations in the nonlinear optical response of semiconductor quantum wells,” Eur. Phys. J. B 25, 445–462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Kwong, R. Takayama, I. Rumyantsev, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and R. Binder, “Third-order exciton-correlation and nonlinear cavity-polariton effects in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 045316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Kwong, R. Takayama, I. Rumyantsev, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and R. Binder, “Evidence of nonperturbative continuum correlations in two-dimensional exciton systems in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 027402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Donovan, A. Schülzgen, J. Lee, P.-A. Blanche, N. Peyghambarian, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, I. Rumyantsev, N. H. Kwong, R. Takayama, Z. S. Yang, and R. Binder, “Evidence for intervalence band coherences in semiconductor quantum wells via coherently coupled optical stark shifts,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 237402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Binder, I. Rumyantsev, N. H. Kwong, and R. Takayama, “On the identification of intervalence-band coherences in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi B 221, 169–178 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Kwong and R. Binder, “Green’s function approach to the dynamics-controlled truncation formalism: derivation of the χ(3) equations of motion,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 8341–8358 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Lindberg, R. Binder, Y. Z. Hu, and S. W. Koch, “Dipole selection rules in multiband semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16942–16951 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Lindberg, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “χ(3) formalism in optically excited semiconductors and its applications in four-wave-mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 18060–18072 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Blanche, P.-A.

M. E. Donovan, A. Schülzgen, J. Lee, P.-A. Blanche, N. Peyghambarian, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, I. Rumyantsev, N. H. Kwong, R. Takayama, Z. S. Yang, and R. Binder, “Evidence for intervalence band coherences in semiconductor quantum wells via coherently coupled optical stark shifts,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 237402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bloembergen, N.

E. Yablonovitch, C. Flytzanis, and N. Bloembergen, “Anisotropic interference of three-wave and double two-wave frequency mixing in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 865–868 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bolger, J. A.

A. E. Paul, J. A. Bolger, A. L. Smirl, and J. G. Pellegrino, “Time-resolved measurements of the polarization state of four-wave mixing signals from GaAs multiple quantum wells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1016–1025 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Bolger, A. E. Paul, and A. L. Smirl, “Ultrafast ellipsometry of coherent processes and exciton–exciton interactions in quantum wells at negative delays,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 11666–11671 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Patkar, A. E. Paul, W. Sha, J. A. Bolger, and A. L. Smirl, “Degree and state of polarization of the time-integrated coherent four-wave mixing signal from semiconductor multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10789–10794 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bolton, S. R.

V. M. Axt, S. R. Bolton, U. Neukirch, L. J. Sham, and D. S. Chemla, “Evidence of six-particle Coulomb correlations in six-wave-mixing signals from a semiconductor quantum well,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 115303 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Bolton, U. Neukirch, L. J. Sham, D. S. Chemla, and V. M. Axt, “Demonstration of sixth-order coulomb correlations in a semiconductor single quantum well,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2002–2005 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Neukirch, S. R. Bolton, L. J. Sham, and D. S. Chemla, “Electronic four-particle correlations in semiconductors: renormalization of coherent pump-probe oscillations,” Phys. Rev. B 61, R7835–R7837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bott, K.

E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to four-wave mixing in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14730–14733 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brick, P.

P. Brick, C. Ell, S. Chatterjee, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Meier, C. Sieh, and S. W. Koch, “Influence of light holes on the heavy-hole excitonic optical stark effect,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 075323 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Koch, C. Sieh, T. Meier, F. Jahnke, A. Knorr, P. Brick, M. Hubner, C. Ell, J. Prineas, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Theory of coherent effects in semiconductors,” J. Lumin. 83, 1–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Sieh, T. Meier, F. Jahnke, A. Knorr, S. W. Koch, P. Brick, M. Hübner, C. Ell, J. Prineas, G. Khitrova, and H. Gibbs, “Coulomb memory signatures in the excitonic optical stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3112–3115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chase, L. L.

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337–3550 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chatterjee, S.

P. Brick, C. Ell, S. Chatterjee, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Meier, C. Sieh, and S. W. Koch, “Influence of light holes on the heavy-hole excitonic optical stark effect,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 075323 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D.

R. Lövenich, C. Lai, D. Hägele, D. Chemla, and W. Schäfer, “Semiconductor polarization dynamics from the coherent to the incoherent regime: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 045306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Schäfer, R. Lövenich, N. Fromer, and D. Chemla, “From coherently excited highly correlated states to incoherent relaxation processes in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 344–347 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kner, S. Bar-Ad, M. Marquezini, D. Chemla, R. Lövenich, and W. Schäfer, “Effect of magnetoexciton correlations on the coherent emission of semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 4731–4748 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D. S.

V. M. Axt, S. R. Bolton, U. Neukirch, L. J. Sham, and D. S. Chemla, “Evidence of six-particle Coulomb correlations in six-wave-mixing signals from a semiconductor quantum well,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 115303 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Bolton, U. Neukirch, L. J. Sham, D. S. Chemla, and V. M. Axt, “Demonstration of sixth-order coulomb correlations in a semiconductor single quantum well,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2002–2005 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Neukirch, S. R. Bolton, L. J. Sham, and D. S. Chemla, “Electronic four-particle correlations in semiconductors: renormalization of coherent pump-probe oscillations,” Phys. Rev. B 61, R7835–R7837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Kner, W. Schäfer, R. Lövenich, and D. S. Chemla, “Coherence of four-particle correlations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5386–5389 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Kner, S. Bar-Ad, M. V. Marquezini, D. S. Chemla, and W. Schäfer, “Magnetically enhanced exciton–exciton correlations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1319–1322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cho, G.

G. Bartels, G. Cho, T. Dekorsy, H. Kurz, A. Stahl, and K. Köhler, “Coherent signature of differential transmission signals in semiconductors: theory and experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 16404–16413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Combescot, M.

M. Combescot, “Optical stark effect of the exciton. II. Polarization effects and exciton splitting,” Phys. Rev. B 41, 3517–3517 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Combescot and R. Combescot, “Optical stark effect of the exciton: biexcitonic origin of the shift,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 3788–3801 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Combescot and R. Combescot, “Excitonic stark shift: a coupling to semivirtual biexcitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 117–120 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Combescot, R.

M. Combescot and R. Combescot, “Optical stark effect of the exciton: biexcitonic origin of the shift,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 3788–3801 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Combescot and R. Combescot, “Excitonic stark shift: a coupling to semivirtual biexcitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 117–120 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cunningham, J.

W. Schäfer, D. Kim, J. Shah, T. Damen, J. Cunningham, K. Goossen, L. Pfeiffer, and K. Köhler, “Femtosecond coherent fields induced by many-particle correlations in transient four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 16429–16443 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Damen, T.

W. Schäfer, D. Kim, J. Shah, T. Damen, J. Cunningham, K. Goossen, L. Pfeiffer, and K. Köhler, “Femtosecond coherent fields induced by many-particle correlations in transient four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 16429–16443 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dekorsy, T.

G. Bartels, G. Cho, T. Dekorsy, H. Kurz, A. Stahl, and K. Köhler, “Coherent signature of differential transmission signals in semiconductors: theory and experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 16404–16413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Donovan, M. E.

M. E. Donovan, A. Schülzgen, J. Lee, P.-A. Blanche, N. Peyghambarian, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, I. Rumyantsev, N. H. Kwong, R. Takayama, Z. S. Yang, and R. Binder, “Evidence for intervalence band coherences in semiconductor quantum wells via coherently coupled optical stark shifts,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 237402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dvorak, D.

D. Dvorak, W. A. Schroeder, D. R. Andersen, A. L. Smirl, and B. S. Wherrett, “Measurement of the anisotropy of two-photon absorption coefficients in zincblende semiconductors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 256–269 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dvorak, M. D.

Ell, C.

P. Brick, C. Ell, S. Chatterjee, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Meier, C. Sieh, and S. W. Koch, “Influence of light holes on the heavy-hole excitonic optical stark effect,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 075323 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Koch, C. Sieh, T. Meier, F. Jahnke, A. Knorr, P. Brick, M. Hubner, C. Ell, J. Prineas, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Theory of coherent effects in semiconductors,” J. Lumin. 83, 1–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Sieh, T. Meier, F. Jahnke, A. Knorr, S. W. Koch, P. Brick, M. Hübner, C. Ell, J. Prineas, G. Khitrova, and H. Gibbs, “Coulomb memory signatures in the excitonic optical stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3112–3115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Feuerbacher, B. F.

B. F. Feuerbacher, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, “Biexitonic contribution to the degenerate-four-wave-mixing signal from a GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum well,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 2439–2441 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Flytzanis, C.

E. Yablonovitch, C. Flytzanis, and N. Bloembergen, “Anisotropic interference of three-wave and double two-wave frequency mixing in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 865–868 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Fromer, N.

W. Schäfer, R. Lövenich, N. Fromer, and D. Chemla, “From coherently excited highly correlated states to incoherent relaxation processes in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 344–347 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gansen, E. J.

E. J. Gansen, K. Jarasiunas, and A. L. Smirl, “Femtosecond all-optical polarization switching based on the virtual excitation of spin-polarized excitons in quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 971–973 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gibbs, H.

C. Sieh, T. Meier, F. Jahnke, A. Knorr, S. W. Koch, P. Brick, M. Hübner, C. Ell, J. Prineas, G. Khitrova, and H. Gibbs, “Coulomb memory signatures in the excitonic optical stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3112–3115 (1999).
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M. E. Donovan, A. Schülzgen, J. Lee, P.-A. Blanche, N. Peyghambarian, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, I. Rumyantsev, N. H. Kwong, R. Takayama, Z. S. Yang, and R. Binder, “Evidence for intervalence band coherences in semiconductor quantum wells via coherently coupled optical stark shifts,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 237402 (2001).
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S. W. Koch, C. Sieh, T. Meier, F. Jahnke, A. Knorr, P. Brick, M. Hubner, C. Ell, J. Prineas, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Theory of coherent effects in semiconductors,” J. Lumin. 83, 1–6 (1999).
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E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to four-wave mixing in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14730–14733 (1994).
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M. Lindberg, R. Binder, Y. Z. Hu, and S. W. Koch, “Dipole selection rules in multiband semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16942–16951 (1994).
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M. Lindberg, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “χ(3) formalism in optically excited semiconductors and its applications in four-wave-mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 18060–18072 (1994).
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S. W. Koch, C. Sieh, T. Meier, F. Jahnke, A. Knorr, P. Brick, M. Hubner, C. Ell, J. Prineas, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Theory of coherent effects in semiconductors,” J. Lumin. 83, 1–6 (1999).
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C. Sieh, T. Meier, F. Jahnke, A. Knorr, S. W. Koch, P. Brick, M. Hübner, C. Ell, J. Prineas, G. Khitrova, and H. Gibbs, “Coulomb memory signatures in the excitonic optical stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3112–3115 (1999).
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P. Brick, C. Ell, S. Chatterjee, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Meier, C. Sieh, and S. W. Koch, “Influence of light holes on the heavy-hole excitonic optical stark effect,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 075323 (2001).
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M. E. Donovan, A. Schülzgen, J. Lee, P.-A. Blanche, N. Peyghambarian, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, I. Rumyantsev, N. H. Kwong, R. Takayama, Z. S. Yang, and R. Binder, “Evidence for intervalence band coherences in semiconductor quantum wells via coherently coupled optical stark shifts,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 237402 (2001).
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S. W. Koch, C. Sieh, T. Meier, F. Jahnke, A. Knorr, P. Brick, M. Hubner, C. Ell, J. Prineas, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Theory of coherent effects in semiconductors,” J. Lumin. 83, 1–6 (1999).
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C. Sieh, T. Meier, F. Jahnke, A. Knorr, S. W. Koch, P. Brick, M. Hübner, C. Ell, J. Prineas, G. Khitrova, and H. Gibbs, “Coulomb memory signatures in the excitonic optical stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3112–3115 (1999).
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G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, F. Jahnke, M. Kira, and S. W. Koch, “Nonlinear optics of normal-mode coupling semiconductor microcavities,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, 1591–1639 (1999).
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G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, F. Jahnke, M. Kira, and S. W. Koch, “Nonlinear optics of normal-mode coupling semiconductor microcavities,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, 1591–1639 (1999).
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P. Kner, S. Bar-Ad, M. Marquezini, D. Chemla, R. Lövenich, and W. Schäfer, “Effect of magnetoexciton correlations on the coherent emission of semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 4731–4748 (1999).
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P. Kner, W. Schäfer, R. Lövenich, and D. S. Chemla, “Coherence of four-particle correlations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5386–5389 (1998).
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P. Kner, S. Bar-Ad, M. V. Marquezini, D. S. Chemla, and W. Schäfer, “Magnetically enhanced exciton–exciton correlations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1319–1322 (1997).
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S. W. Koch, C. Sieh, T. Meier, F. Jahnke, A. Knorr, P. Brick, M. Hubner, C. Ell, J. Prineas, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Theory of coherent effects in semiconductors,” J. Lumin. 83, 1–6 (1999).
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C. Sieh, T. Meier, F. Jahnke, A. Knorr, S. W. Koch, P. Brick, M. Hübner, C. Ell, J. Prineas, G. Khitrova, and H. Gibbs, “Coulomb memory signatures in the excitonic optical stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3112–3115 (1999).
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Koch, S. W.

P. Brick, C. Ell, S. Chatterjee, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Meier, C. Sieh, and S. W. Koch, “Influence of light holes on the heavy-hole excitonic optical stark effect,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 075323 (2001).
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S. W. Koch, M. Kira, and T. Meier, “Correlation effects in the excitonic optical properties of semiconductors,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 3, R29–R45 (2001).
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G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, F. Jahnke, M. Kira, and S. W. Koch, “Nonlinear optics of normal-mode coupling semiconductor microcavities,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, 1591–1639 (1999).
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S. W. Koch, C. Sieh, T. Meier, F. Jahnke, A. Knorr, P. Brick, M. Hubner, C. Ell, J. Prineas, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Theory of coherent effects in semiconductors,” J. Lumin. 83, 1–6 (1999).
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M. Lindberg, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “χ(3) formalism in optically excited semiconductors and its applications in four-wave-mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 18060–18072 (1994).
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E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to four-wave mixing in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14730–14733 (1994).
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Y. L. Klimontovich, D. Kremp, and W. D. Kraeft, “Kinetic theory for chemically reacting gases and partially ionized plasmas,” Adv. Chem. Phys. 68, 175–253 (1987).

Kremp, D.

Y. L. Klimontovich, D. Kremp, and W. D. Kraeft, “Kinetic theory for chemically reacting gases and partially ionized plasmas,” Adv. Chem. Phys. 68, 175–253 (1987).

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E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to four-wave mixing in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14730–14733 (1994).
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G. Bartels, G. Cho, T. Dekorsy, H. Kurz, A. Stahl, and K. Köhler, “Coherent signature of differential transmission signals in semiconductors: theory and experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 16404–16413 (1997).
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R. Takayama, N. H. Kwong, I. Rumyantsev, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and R. Binder, “T-matrix analysis of biexcitonic correlations in the nonlinear optical response of semiconductor quantum wells,” Eur. Phys. J. B 25, 445–462 (2002).
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N. H. Kwong, R. Takayama, I. Rumyantsev, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and R. Binder, “Third-order exciton-correlation and nonlinear cavity-polariton effects in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 045316 (2001).
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N. H. Kwong, R. Takayama, I. Rumyantsev, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and R. Binder, “Evidence of nonperturbative continuum correlations in two-dimensional exciton systems in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 027402 (2001).
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M. Shirane, C. Ramkumar, Y. P. Svirko, H. Suzuura, S. Inoue, R. Shimano, T. Someya, H. Sakaki, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Degenerate four-wave mixing measurements on an exciton-photon coupled system in a semiconductor microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 7978–7985 (1998).
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H. Suzuura, Y. Svirko, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Four-wave mixing theory in a cavity-polariton system,” Solid State Commun. 108, 289–293 (1998).
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M. Kuwata-Gonokami, S. Inoue, H. Suzuura, M. Shirane, and R. Shimano, “Parametric scattering of cavity polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1341–1344 (1997).
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Kwong, N. H.

R. Takayama, N. H. Kwong, I. Rumyantsev, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and R. Binder, “T-matrix analysis of biexcitonic correlations in the nonlinear optical response of semiconductor quantum wells,” Eur. Phys. J. B 25, 445–462 (2002).
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N. H. Kwong, R. Takayama, I. Rumyantsev, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and R. Binder, “Third-order exciton-correlation and nonlinear cavity-polariton effects in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 045316 (2001).
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M. E. Donovan, A. Schülzgen, J. Lee, P.-A. Blanche, N. Peyghambarian, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, I. Rumyantsev, N. H. Kwong, R. Takayama, Z. S. Yang, and R. Binder, “Evidence for intervalence band coherences in semiconductor quantum wells via coherently coupled optical stark shifts,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 237402 (2001).
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N. H. Kwong, R. Takayama, I. Rumyantsev, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and R. Binder, “Evidence of nonperturbative continuum correlations in two-dimensional exciton systems in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 027402 (2001).
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R. Binder, I. Rumyantsev, N. H. Kwong, and R. Takayama, “On the identification of intervalence-band coherences in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi B 221, 169–178 (2000).
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N. H. Kwong and R. Binder, “Green’s function approach to the dynamics-controlled truncation formalism: derivation of the χ(3) equations of motion,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 8341–8358 (2000).
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R. Lövenich, C. Lai, D. Hägele, D. Chemla, and W. Schäfer, “Semiconductor polarization dynamics from the coherent to the incoherent regime: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 045306 (2002).
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W. Langbein, T. Meier, S. Koch, and J. Hvam, “Spectral signatures of χ(5) processes in four-wave mixing of homogeneously broadened excitons,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 1318–1325 (2001).
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H. P. Wagner, A. Schätz, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, and A. L. Smirl, “Interaction-induced effects in the nonlinear coherent response of quantum-well excitons,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 4454–4457 (1999).
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M. E. Donovan, A. Schülzgen, J. Lee, P.-A. Blanche, N. Peyghambarian, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, I. Rumyantsev, N. H. Kwong, R. Takayama, Z. S. Yang, and R. Binder, “Evidence for intervalence band coherences in semiconductor quantum wells via coherently coupled optical stark shifts,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 237402 (2001).
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Lindberg, M.

M. Lindberg, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “χ(3) formalism in optically excited semiconductors and its applications in four-wave-mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 18060–18072 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Lindberg, R. Binder, Y. Z. Hu, and S. W. Koch, “Dipole selection rules in multiband semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16942–16951 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lövenich, R.

R. Lövenich, C. Lai, D. Hägele, D. Chemla, and W. Schäfer, “Semiconductor polarization dynamics from the coherent to the incoherent regime: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 045306 (2002).
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W. Schäfer, R. Lövenich, N. Fromer, and D. Chemla, “From coherently excited highly correlated states to incoherent relaxation processes in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 344–347 (2001).
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P. Kner, S. Bar-Ad, M. Marquezini, D. Chemla, R. Lövenich, and W. Schäfer, “Effect of magnetoexciton correlations on the coherent emission of semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 4731–4748 (1999).
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P. Kner, W. Schäfer, R. Lövenich, and D. S. Chemla, “Coherence of four-particle correlations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5386–5389 (1998).
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P. Kner, S. Bar-Ad, M. Marquezini, D. Chemla, R. Lövenich, and W. Schäfer, “Effect of magnetoexciton correlations on the coherent emission of semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 4731–4748 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Marquezini, M. V.

P. Kner, S. Bar-Ad, M. V. Marquezini, D. S. Chemla, and W. Schäfer, “Magnetically enhanced exciton–exciton correlations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1319–1322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, E. J.

E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to four-wave mixing in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14730–14733 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McCallum, D. S.

Meier, T.

W. Langbein, T. Meier, S. Koch, and J. Hvam, “Spectral signatures of χ(5) processes in four-wave mixing of homogeneously broadened excitons,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 1318–1325 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Brick, C. Ell, S. Chatterjee, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Meier, C. Sieh, and S. W. Koch, “Influence of light holes on the heavy-hole excitonic optical stark effect,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 075323 (2001).
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S. W. Koch, M. Kira, and T. Meier, “Correlation effects in the excitonic optical properties of semiconductors,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 3, R29–R45 (2001).
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T. Meier, S. W. Koch, M. Phillips, and H. Wang, “Strong coupling of heavy- and light-hole excitons induced by many-body correlations,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 12605–12608 (2000).
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C. Sieh, T. Meier, F. Jahnke, A. Knorr, S. W. Koch, P. Brick, M. Hübner, C. Ell, J. Prineas, G. Khitrova, and H. Gibbs, “Coulomb memory signatures in the excitonic optical stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3112–3115 (1999).
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S. W. Koch, C. Sieh, T. Meier, F. Jahnke, A. Knorr, P. Brick, M. Hubner, C. Ell, J. Prineas, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Theory of coherent effects in semiconductors,” J. Lumin. 83, 1–6 (1999).
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E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to four-wave mixing in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14730–14733 (1994).
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S. K. Nayak, T. Sahu, S. P. Mohanty, and P. K. Misra, “Third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of wide-bandgap nitrides,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 12, 544–549 (1997).
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S. K. Nayak, T. Sahu, S. P. Mohanty, and P. K. Misra, “Third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of wide-bandgap nitrides,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 12, 544–549 (1997).
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S. K. Nayak, T. Sahu, and S. P. Mohanty, “Third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities of group IV and III–V compound semiconductors,” Physica B 191, 334–340 (1993).
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V. M. Axt and S. Mukamel, “Influence of a photon bath on electronic correlations and optical response in molecular aggregates,” Nonlinear Opti. Mater. 101, 1–32 (1998).
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S. K. Nayak, T. Sahu, S. P. Mohanty, and P. K. Misra, “Third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of wide-bandgap nitrides,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 12, 544–549 (1997).
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S. K. Nayak, T. Sahu, and S. P. Mohanty, “Third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities of group IV and III–V compound semiconductors,” Physica B 191, 334–340 (1993).
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V. M. Axt, B. Haase, and U. Neukirch, “Influence of two-pair continuum correlations following resonant excitation of excitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4620–4623 (2001).
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V. M. Axt, S. R. Bolton, U. Neukirch, L. J. Sham, and D. S. Chemla, “Evidence of six-particle Coulomb correlations in six-wave-mixing signals from a semiconductor quantum well,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 115303 (2001).
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S. R. Bolton, U. Neukirch, L. J. Sham, D. S. Chemla, and V. M. Axt, “Demonstration of sixth-order coulomb correlations in a semiconductor single quantum well,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2002–2005 (2000).
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U. Neukirch, S. R. Bolton, L. J. Sham, and D. S. Chemla, “Electronic four-particle correlations in semiconductors: renormalization of coherent pump-probe oscillations,” Phys. Rev. B 61, R7835–R7837 (2000).
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T. Östreich, K. Schönhammer, and L. Sham, “Theory of exciton–exciton correlation in nonlinear optical response,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 12920–12936 (1998).
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T. Östreich, K. Schönhammer, and L. J. Sham, “Exciton–exciton correlation in the nonlinear opical regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4698–4701 (1995).
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S. Patkar, A. E. Paul, W. Sha, J. A. Bolger, and A. L. Smirl, “Degree and state of polarization of the time-integrated coherent four-wave mixing signal from semiconductor multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10789–10794 (1995).
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J. A. Bolger, A. E. Paul, and A. L. Smirl, “Ultrafast ellipsometry of coherent processes and exciton–exciton interactions in quantum wells at negative delays,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 11666–11671 (1996).
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A. E. Paul, J. A. Bolger, A. L. Smirl, and J. G. Pellegrino, “Time-resolved measurements of the polarization state of four-wave mixing signals from GaAs multiple quantum wells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1016–1025 (1996).
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S. Patkar, A. E. Paul, W. Sha, J. A. Bolger, and A. L. Smirl, “Degree and state of polarization of the time-integrated coherent four-wave mixing signal from semiconductor multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10789–10794 (1995).
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M. E. Donovan, A. Schülzgen, J. Lee, P.-A. Blanche, N. Peyghambarian, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, I. Rumyantsev, N. H. Kwong, R. Takayama, Z. S. Yang, and R. Binder, “Evidence for intervalence band coherences in semiconductor quantum wells via coherently coupled optical stark shifts,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 237402 (2001).
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W. Schäfer, D. Kim, J. Shah, T. Damen, J. Cunningham, K. Goossen, L. Pfeiffer, and K. Köhler, “Femtosecond coherent fields induced by many-particle correlations in transient four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 16429–16443 (1996).
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T. Meier, S. W. Koch, M. Phillips, and H. Wang, “Strong coupling of heavy- and light-hole excitons induced by many-body correlations,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 12605–12608 (2000).
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E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to four-wave mixing in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14730–14733 (1994).
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C. Sieh, T. Meier, F. Jahnke, A. Knorr, S. W. Koch, P. Brick, M. Hübner, C. Ell, J. Prineas, G. Khitrova, and H. Gibbs, “Coulomb memory signatures in the excitonic optical stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3112–3115 (1999).
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S. W. Koch, C. Sieh, T. Meier, F. Jahnke, A. Knorr, P. Brick, M. Hubner, C. Ell, J. Prineas, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Theory of coherent effects in semiconductors,” J. Lumin. 83, 1–6 (1999).
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M. Kuwata-Gonokami, T. Aoki, C. Ramkumar, R. Shimano, and Y. Svirko, “Role of exciton–exciton interaction on resonant third-order nonlinear optical responses,” J. Lumin. 87–89, 162–167 (2000).
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M. Shirane, C. Ramkumar, Y. P. Svirko, H. Suzuura, S. Inoue, R. Shimano, T. Someya, H. Sakaki, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Degenerate four-wave mixing measurements on an exciton-photon coupled system in a semiconductor microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 7978–7985 (1998).
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R. Takayama, N. H. Kwong, I. Rumyantsev, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and R. Binder, “T-matrix analysis of biexcitonic correlations in the nonlinear optical response of semiconductor quantum wells,” Eur. Phys. J. B 25, 445–462 (2002).
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N. H. Kwong, R. Takayama, I. Rumyantsev, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and R. Binder, “Third-order exciton-correlation and nonlinear cavity-polariton effects in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 045316 (2001).
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N. H. Kwong, R. Takayama, I. Rumyantsev, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and R. Binder, “Evidence of nonperturbative continuum correlations in two-dimensional exciton systems in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 027402 (2001).
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M. E. Donovan, A. Schülzgen, J. Lee, P.-A. Blanche, N. Peyghambarian, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, I. Rumyantsev, N. H. Kwong, R. Takayama, Z. S. Yang, and R. Binder, “Evidence for intervalence band coherences in semiconductor quantum wells via coherently coupled optical stark shifts,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 237402 (2001).
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R. Binder, I. Rumyantsev, N. H. Kwong, and R. Takayama, “On the identification of intervalence-band coherences in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi B 221, 169–178 (2000).
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S. K. Nayak, T. Sahu, S. P. Mohanty, and P. K. Misra, “Third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of wide-bandgap nitrides,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 12, 544–549 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Nayak, T. Sahu, and S. P. Mohanty, “Third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities of group IV and III–V compound semiconductors,” Physica B 191, 334–340 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sakaki, H.

M. Shirane, C. Ramkumar, Y. P. Svirko, H. Suzuura, S. Inoue, R. Shimano, T. Someya, H. Sakaki, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Degenerate four-wave mixing measurements on an exciton-photon coupled system in a semiconductor microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 7978–7985 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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R. Lövenich, C. Lai, D. Hägele, D. Chemla, and W. Schäfer, “Semiconductor polarization dynamics from the coherent to the incoherent regime: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 045306 (2002).
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W. Schäfer, R. Lövenich, N. Fromer, and D. Chemla, “From coherently excited highly correlated states to incoherent relaxation processes in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 344–347 (2001).
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P. Kner, S. Bar-Ad, M. Marquezini, D. Chemla, R. Lövenich, and W. Schäfer, “Effect of magnetoexciton correlations on the coherent emission of semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 4731–4748 (1999).
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P. Kner, W. Schäfer, R. Lövenich, and D. S. Chemla, “Coherence of four-particle correlations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5386–5389 (1998).
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P. Kner, S. Bar-Ad, M. V. Marquezini, D. S. Chemla, and W. Schäfer, “Magnetically enhanced exciton–exciton correlations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1319–1322 (1997).
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W. Schäfer, D. Kim, J. Shah, T. Damen, J. Cunningham, K. Goossen, L. Pfeiffer, and K. Köhler, “Femtosecond coherent fields induced by many-particle correlations in transient four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 16429–16443 (1996).
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H. P. Wagner, A. Schätz, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, and A. L. Smirl, “Interaction-induced effects in the nonlinear coherent response of quantum-well excitons,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 4454–4457 (1999).
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T. Östreich, K. Schönhammer, and L. Sham, “Theory of exciton–exciton correlation in nonlinear optical response,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 12920–12936 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Östreich, K. Schönhammer, and L. J. Sham, “Exciton–exciton correlation in the nonlinear opical regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4698–4701 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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W. A. Schroeder, D. S. McCallum, D. R. Harken, M. D. Dvorak, D. R. Anderson, A. L. Smirl, and B. W. Wherrett, “Intrinsic and induced anisotropy of nonlinear absorption and refraction in zinc blende semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 401–415 (1995).
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D. Dvorak, W. A. Schroeder, D. R. Andersen, A. L. Smirl, and B. S. Wherrett, “Measurement of the anisotropy of two-photon absorption coefficients in zincblende semiconductors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 256–269 (1994).
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E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to four-wave mixing in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14730–14733 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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M. E. Donovan, A. Schülzgen, J. Lee, P.-A. Blanche, N. Peyghambarian, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, I. Rumyantsev, N. H. Kwong, R. Takayama, Z. S. Yang, and R. Binder, “Evidence for intervalence band coherences in semiconductor quantum wells via coherently coupled optical stark shifts,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 237402 (2001).
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S. Patkar, A. E. Paul, W. Sha, J. A. Bolger, and A. L. Smirl, “Degree and state of polarization of the time-integrated coherent four-wave mixing signal from semiconductor multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10789–10794 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shah, J.

W. Schäfer, D. Kim, J. Shah, T. Damen, J. Cunningham, K. Goossen, L. Pfeiffer, and K. Köhler, “Femtosecond coherent fields induced by many-particle correlations in transient four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 16429–16443 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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T. Östreich, K. Schönhammer, and L. Sham, “Theory of exciton–exciton correlation in nonlinear optical response,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 12920–12936 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sham, L. J.

V. M. Axt, S. R. Bolton, U. Neukirch, L. J. Sham, and D. S. Chemla, “Evidence of six-particle Coulomb correlations in six-wave-mixing signals from a semiconductor quantum well,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 115303 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Bolton, U. Neukirch, L. J. Sham, D. S. Chemla, and V. M. Axt, “Demonstration of sixth-order coulomb correlations in a semiconductor single quantum well,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2002–2005 (2000).
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U. Neukirch, S. R. Bolton, L. J. Sham, and D. S. Chemla, “Electronic four-particle correlations in semiconductors: renormalization of coherent pump-probe oscillations,” Phys. Rev. B 61, R7835–R7837 (2000).
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T. Östreich, K. Schönhammer, and L. J. Sham, “Exciton–exciton correlation in the nonlinear opical regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4698–4701 (1995).
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M. Z. Maialle and L. J. Sham, “Exciton spin dynamics and polarized luminescence in quantum wells,” Surf. Sci. 305, 256–262 (1994).
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C. Aversa, J. E. Sipe, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E. W. V. Stryland, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in semiconductors: the two-band model,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 18073–18082 (1994).
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M. Sheik-Bahae, D. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. V. Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shimano, R.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, T. Aoki, C. Ramkumar, R. Shimano, and Y. Svirko, “Role of exciton–exciton interaction on resonant third-order nonlinear optical responses,” J. Lumin. 87–89, 162–167 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Shirane, C. Ramkumar, Y. P. Svirko, H. Suzuura, S. Inoue, R. Shimano, T. Someya, H. Sakaki, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Degenerate four-wave mixing measurements on an exciton-photon coupled system in a semiconductor microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 7978–7985 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, S. Inoue, H. Suzuura, M. Shirane, and R. Shimano, “Parametric scattering of cavity polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1341–1344 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Y. P. Svirko, M. Shirane, H. Suzuura, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Four-wave mixing theory at the excitonic resonance: weakly interacting boson model,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 68, 647–682 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Shirane, C. Ramkumar, Y. P. Svirko, H. Suzuura, S. Inoue, R. Shimano, T. Someya, H. Sakaki, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Degenerate four-wave mixing measurements on an exciton-photon coupled system in a semiconductor microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 7978–7985 (1998).
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M. Kuwata-Gonokami, S. Inoue, H. Suzuura, M. Shirane, and R. Shimano, “Parametric scattering of cavity polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1341–1344 (1997).
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R. Grant and W. Sibbett, “Observations of ultrafast nonlinear refraction in an InGaAsP optical amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1119–1121 (1991).
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P. Brick, C. Ell, S. Chatterjee, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Meier, C. Sieh, and S. W. Koch, “Influence of light holes on the heavy-hole excitonic optical stark effect,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 075323 (2001).
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S. W. Koch, C. Sieh, T. Meier, F. Jahnke, A. Knorr, P. Brick, M. Hubner, C. Ell, J. Prineas, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Theory of coherent effects in semiconductors,” J. Lumin. 83, 1–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Sieh, T. Meier, F. Jahnke, A. Knorr, S. W. Koch, P. Brick, M. Hübner, C. Ell, J. Prineas, G. Khitrova, and H. Gibbs, “Coulomb memory signatures in the excitonic optical stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3112–3115 (1999).
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C. Aversa and J. E. Sipe, “Nonlinear optical sustibilities of semiconductors: results with a length-gauge analysis,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 14636–14645 (1995).
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C. Aversa, J. E. Sipe, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E. W. V. Stryland, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in semiconductors: the two-band model,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 18073–18082 (1994).
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E. J. Gansen, K. Jarasiunas, and A. L. Smirl, “Femtosecond all-optical polarization switching based on the virtual excitation of spin-polarized excitons in quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 971–973 (2002).
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H. P. Wagner, A. Schätz, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, and A. L. Smirl, “Interaction-induced effects in the nonlinear coherent response of quantum-well excitons,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 4454–4457 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Bolger, A. E. Paul, and A. L. Smirl, “Ultrafast ellipsometry of coherent processes and exciton–exciton interactions in quantum wells at negative delays,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 11666–11671 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Paul, J. A. Bolger, A. L. Smirl, and J. G. Pellegrino, “Time-resolved measurements of the polarization state of four-wave mixing signals from GaAs multiple quantum wells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1016–1025 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Schroeder, D. S. McCallum, D. R. Harken, M. D. Dvorak, D. R. Anderson, A. L. Smirl, and B. W. Wherrett, “Intrinsic and induced anisotropy of nonlinear absorption and refraction in zinc blende semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 401–415 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Patkar, A. E. Paul, W. Sha, J. A. Bolger, and A. L. Smirl, “Degree and state of polarization of the time-integrated coherent four-wave mixing signal from semiconductor multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10789–10794 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Dvorak, W. A. Schroeder, D. R. Andersen, A. L. Smirl, and B. S. Wherrett, “Measurement of the anisotropy of two-photon absorption coefficients in zincblende semiconductors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 256–269 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G. O.

E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to four-wave mixing in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14730–14733 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Someya, T.

M. Shirane, C. Ramkumar, Y. P. Svirko, H. Suzuura, S. Inoue, R. Shimano, T. Someya, H. Sakaki, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Degenerate four-wave mixing measurements on an exciton-photon coupled system in a semiconductor microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 7978–7985 (1998).
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G. Bartels, G. Cho, T. Dekorsy, H. Kurz, A. Stahl, and K. Köhler, “Coherent signature of differential transmission signals in semiconductors: theory and experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 16404–16413 (1997).
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K. Victor, V. Axt, and A. Stahl, “Hierachy of density matrices in coherent semiconductor optics,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 14164–14175 (1995).
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V. M. Axt and A. Stahl, “The role of the biexciton in a dynamic density matrix theory of the semiconductor band edge,” Z. Phys. B: Condens. Matter 93, 205–211 (1994).
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V. M. Axt and A. Stahl, “A dynamics-controlled truncation scheme for the hierarchy of density matrices in semiconductor optics,” Z. Phys. B: Condens. Matter 93, 195–204 (1994).
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J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, “The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341–348 (1997).
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Stryland, E. W. V.

C. Aversa, J. E. Sipe, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E. W. V. Stryland, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in semiconductors: the two-band model,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 18073–18082 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. V. Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Suzuura, H.

Y. P. Svirko, M. Shirane, H. Suzuura, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Four-wave mixing theory at the excitonic resonance: weakly interacting boson model,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 68, 647–682 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Shirane, C. Ramkumar, Y. P. Svirko, H. Suzuura, S. Inoue, R. Shimano, T. Someya, H. Sakaki, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Degenerate four-wave mixing measurements on an exciton-photon coupled system in a semiconductor microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 7978–7985 (1998).
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H. Suzuura, Y. Svirko, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Four-wave mixing theory in a cavity-polariton system,” Solid State Commun. 108, 289–293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, S. Inoue, H. Suzuura, M. Shirane, and R. Shimano, “Parametric scattering of cavity polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1341–1344 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Svirko, Y.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, T. Aoki, C. Ramkumar, R. Shimano, and Y. Svirko, “Role of exciton–exciton interaction on resonant third-order nonlinear optical responses,” J. Lumin. 87–89, 162–167 (2000).
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Y. Svirko and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Signatures of the excitonic memory effects in four-wave mixing processes in cavity polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 6912–6915 (2000).
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H. Suzuura, Y. Svirko, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Four-wave mixing theory in a cavity-polariton system,” Solid State Commun. 108, 289–293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Svirko, Y. P.

Y. P. Svirko, M. Shirane, H. Suzuura, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Four-wave mixing theory at the excitonic resonance: weakly interacting boson model,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 68, 647–682 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Shirane, C. Ramkumar, Y. P. Svirko, H. Suzuura, S. Inoue, R. Shimano, T. Someya, H. Sakaki, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Degenerate four-wave mixing measurements on an exciton-photon coupled system in a semiconductor microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 7978–7985 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Takayama, R.

R. Takayama, N. H. Kwong, I. Rumyantsev, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and R. Binder, “T-matrix analysis of biexcitonic correlations in the nonlinear optical response of semiconductor quantum wells,” Eur. Phys. J. B 25, 445–462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Kwong, R. Takayama, I. Rumyantsev, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and R. Binder, “Third-order exciton-correlation and nonlinear cavity-polariton effects in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 045316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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N. H. Kwong, R. Takayama, I. Rumyantsev, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and R. Binder, “Evidence of nonperturbative continuum correlations in two-dimensional exciton systems in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 027402 (2001).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the frequency configurations for the pump (ωp) and probe (ωt) frequencies used in the following figures. All the frequencies are defined with respect to the frequency of the hh-exciton resonance.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated linear transmission (T0), reflectivity (R0), and absorptivity (A0) of one quantum well in the vicinity of the 1s-hh-exciton resonance for a dephasing rate of γ2=1.0 meV.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) and (c) Nonlinear phase shift divided by the pump intensity, evaluated along line 1 of Fig. 1. (b) and (d) Corresponding FOM (see text). All results are for oppositely circular polarization of pump and probe [(+-) configuration]. (a) and (b) The dephasing is γ2=1.0 meV; (c) and (d) it is 0.1 meV.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Same as Fig. 3 but for the (++) configuration (cocircular polarization of pump and probe).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) and (b) Same as Figs. 3(a) and 3(b) but along line 3 of Fig. 1. (c) and (d) Same as Figs. 4(a) and 4(b) but along line 3 of Fig. 1.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Dimensionless quantity F3 as a function of dephasing rate for various electron–hole mass ratios evaluated with a pump frequency ωp=-0.5εxx and a probe frequency corresponding to the maximized value of F3 (line 3 of Fig. 1). (b) The value of the probe frequency. (a) and (b) Results for the (+-) configuration, and (c) and (d) results for the (++) configuration.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) and (c) Dependence of the nonlinear susceptibility and (b) and (d) the corresponding FOM on the electron–hole mass ratio. The results are for the (+-) and (++) configurations with the frequencies corresponding to the maximized FOM, indicated in Fig. 8. The dephasing rate is chosen to be γ2/Eb=0.10.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Location of the frequencies corresponding to the maximized FOM in the (+-) (dashed line) and (++) (dotted–dashed line) configurations. Solid line, the biexciton resonance condition. The frequencies corresponding to Fig. 7 are also indicated. The dephasing rate is chosen to be γ2/Eb=0.10.

Equations (24)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

psj(t)=kϕ*(k)aj(-k)as(k),
iddtpsj(t)=[ε(0)-iγ2]psj(t)-Ωsj(t)ϕj*(0)+sj[Ωsj(t)Ajjjpsj(t)psj*(t)+Ωsj(t)Ajjjpsj(t)psj*(t)]+sjVHFpsj(t)psj(t)psj*(t)+sjλpsj*(t)-dtGλ(t-t)×[psj(t)psj(t)+λpsj(t)psj(t)].
Gλ(t-t)=12iθ(t-t)qqqWxx(λ)*(q, 0)×(exp{-(i/)[Hxx(λ)-iγbI](t-t)})×(q, q)(I-λS)-1(q, q)×Wxx(λ)(q, 0),
PM(3)(t)=δ(z-zqw)PQW(3)(t),
PQW(3)(t)=P(3)(t)+c.c.,
P(3)(t)=sjμsj*ϕ(0)psj(t).
Pi(3)(ω)=1(2π)2 jkldω1dω2dω3×δ(ω1+ω2-ω3-ω)χijkl(3)(ω1, ω2, ω3)×Ej(ω1)Ek(ω2)El*(ω3),
χijkl(3)(ω1, ω2, ω3)=12[δijδklχik(ω1, ω2, ω3)+δikδjlχij(ω2, ω1, ω3)],
χij(ω1, ω2, ω3)
=-1|μ|4χ(1)(ω1)χ(1)(ω2)χ(1)*(ω3)χ(1)(ω1+ω2-ω3)×[δijGPSF(ω1+ω2)+Tij(ω1+ω2)],
χxxxx(3)(ω1, ω2, ω3)=12{χ++(ω1, ω2, ω3)+12[χ+-(ω1, ω2, ω3)+χ+-(ω2, ω1, ω3)]},
χxxyy(3)(ω1, ω2, ω3)=12{χ++(ω1, ω2, ω3)+12[χ+-(ω1, ω2, ω3)-χ+-(ω2, ω1, ω3)]},
χxyxy(3)(ω1, ω2, ω3)=12{χ++(ω1, ω2, ω3)-12[χ+-(ω1, ω2, ω3)-χ+-(ω2, ω1, ω3)]},
χxyyx(3)(ω1, ω2, ω3)=12{-χ++(ω1, ω2, ω3)+12[χ+-(ω1, ω2, ω3)+χ+-(ω2, ω1, ω3)]},
E±(t)=Ep± exp(-iωpt)+Et± exp(-iωtt).
P±(3)(ω)=2πδ(ω-ωt)[χDA++(ωp, ωt)|Ep±|2+χDA+-(ωp, ωt)|Ep±|2]Et±,
χDA++(ωp, ωt)χDA+-(ωp, ωt)
=-|μ|4[ωt+iγ2]2[(ωp)2+γ22]×2T++(ωt+ωp)+2GPSF(ωt+ωp)T+-(ωt+ωp).
Etrans(ωt)=Ein(ωt)+iηP(ωt),
Δφij-φwij-φw/o.
Δφijη Re χDAij|Ep|2,
FOM=ΔφA0tA0p,
FOM=ΔφA0pA0t=C1γ23|εp|2F3(ω˜p, ω˜t, γ˜2),
F3(ω˜p, ω˜t, γ˜2)=γ˜23 Re χ¯(3)Im χ¯p(1)  Im χ¯t(1)

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