Abstract

We present a numerical and experimental study of a self-Q-switching phase-conjugation Nd:YAG laser oscillator with a stimulated-Brillouin-scattering mirror. Q-switching is provided only by a nonlinear liquid in the cavity without further need for any shutter. During the stimulated-Brillouin-scattering process, through switching by intracavity radiation, laser beam spot-size widening occurs because of imperfect phase conjugation. It is demonstrated that the results of numerical simulation of the intracavity photon number, pulse duration, and laser beam spot size at the output coupling mirror for the laser are comparable with those observed experimentally.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. E. Siegman, P. A. Belanger, and A. Hardy, Optical Phase Conjugation, R. A. Fisher, ed. (Academic, New York, 1983), Chap. 13.
  2. K. Viliam, F. Henryk, A. A. Alexander, J. W. Klaus, D. Hiroyuki, F. Hisanori, N. Masahiro, and Y. Tatsuhiko, “Reliable stimulated Brillouin scattering compression of Nd:YAG laser pulses with liquid fluorocarbon for long-time operation at 10 Hz,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7085–7090 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. J. Damzen, V. I. Vlad, V. Babin, and A. Mocofanescu, Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Fundamentals and Applications (Institute of Physics, London, 2003).
  4. N. N. Il’ichev, A. A. Malyutin, and P. P. Pashinin, “Laser with diffraction-limited divergence and Q-switching by stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1161–1164 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. M. Denariez-Roberge and G. Giuliani, “High-power single-mode laser operation using stimulated Rayleigh scattering,” Opt. Lett. 6, 339–341 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. Giuliani, M. M. Denariez-Roberge, and P. A. Belanger, “Transverse modes of a stimulated scattering phase conjugate resonator,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3719–3724 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. J. Eichler, A. Haase, S. Hermann, R. Menzel, and D. Schumann, “Beam quality improvement of pulsed Nd:YAG-lasers using Brillouin phase conjugation,” Proc. SPIE 1834, 176–183 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. V. Kir’yanov, V. Aboites, and N. N. Il’ichev, “Analysis of a large-mode neodymium laser passively Q switched with a saturable absorber and a stimulated-Brillouin-scattering mirror,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 11–17 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Yang Jingguo and Jiang Hongwei, “Self-Q-switching Nd:YAG laser operation using stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 929–932 (1994).
  10. A. Agnesi and G. C. Reali, “Passive and self-Q-switching of phase conjugation Nd:YAG laser oscillators,” Opt. Commun. 89, 41–46 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Meng, V. Aboites, and H. J. Eichler, “Q-switched Nd:YAG laser by SBS,” presented at the Lasers ’90 International Conference, San Diego, Calif., December 10–14, 1990.
  12. H. Meng, V. Aboites, and H. J. Eichler, “SBS Q-switched Nd:YAG laser,” Rev. Mex. Fis. 36, 335–339 (1990).
  13. N. N. Ilichev, A. V. Kiryanov, A. A. Malyutin, P. P. Pashinin, V. S. Sidorin, and E. I. Shklovskii, “Passive Q switching of a 1.3-μm laser resonator using a stimulated Brillouin scattering mirror,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 1383–1384 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Meng, V. Aboites, and H. J. Eichler, “Characterization of a Nd:YAG phase conjugated laser,” Rev. Mex. Fis. 38, 427–431 (1992).

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

1994 (1)

Yang Jingguo and Jiang Hongwei, “Self-Q-switching Nd:YAG laser operation using stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 929–932 (1994).

1992 (3)

A. Agnesi and G. C. Reali, “Passive and self-Q-switching of phase conjugation Nd:YAG laser oscillators,” Opt. Commun. 89, 41–46 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Eichler, A. Haase, S. Hermann, R. Menzel, and D. Schumann, “Beam quality improvement of pulsed Nd:YAG-lasers using Brillouin phase conjugation,” Proc. SPIE 1834, 176–183 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Meng, V. Aboites, and H. J. Eichler, “Characterization of a Nd:YAG phase conjugated laser,” Rev. Mex. Fis. 38, 427–431 (1992).

1990 (2)

H. Meng, V. Aboites, and H. J. Eichler, “SBS Q-switched Nd:YAG laser,” Rev. Mex. Fis. 36, 335–339 (1990).

N. N. Ilichev, A. V. Kiryanov, A. A. Malyutin, P. P. Pashinin, V. S. Sidorin, and E. I. Shklovskii, “Passive Q switching of a 1.3-μm laser resonator using a stimulated Brillouin scattering mirror,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 1383–1384 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

N. N. Il’ichev, A. A. Malyutin, and P. P. Pashinin, “Laser with diffraction-limited divergence and Q-switching by stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1161–1164 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. Giuliani, M. M. Denariez-Roberge, and P. A. Belanger, “Transverse modes of a stimulated scattering phase conjugate resonator,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3719–3724 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

Aboites, V.

A. V. Kir’yanov, V. Aboites, and N. N. Il’ichev, “Analysis of a large-mode neodymium laser passively Q switched with a saturable absorber and a stimulated-Brillouin-scattering mirror,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 11–17 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Meng, V. Aboites, and H. J. Eichler, “Characterization of a Nd:YAG phase conjugated laser,” Rev. Mex. Fis. 38, 427–431 (1992).

H. Meng, V. Aboites, and H. J. Eichler, “SBS Q-switched Nd:YAG laser,” Rev. Mex. Fis. 36, 335–339 (1990).

Agnesi, A.

A. Agnesi and G. C. Reali, “Passive and self-Q-switching of phase conjugation Nd:YAG laser oscillators,” Opt. Commun. 89, 41–46 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, A. A.

Belanger, P. A.

Denariez-Roberge, M. M.

Eichler, H. J.

H. Meng, V. Aboites, and H. J. Eichler, “Characterization of a Nd:YAG phase conjugated laser,” Rev. Mex. Fis. 38, 427–431 (1992).

H. J. Eichler, A. Haase, S. Hermann, R. Menzel, and D. Schumann, “Beam quality improvement of pulsed Nd:YAG-lasers using Brillouin phase conjugation,” Proc. SPIE 1834, 176–183 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Meng, V. Aboites, and H. J. Eichler, “SBS Q-switched Nd:YAG laser,” Rev. Mex. Fis. 36, 335–339 (1990).

Giuliani, G.

Haase, A.

H. J. Eichler, A. Haase, S. Hermann, R. Menzel, and D. Schumann, “Beam quality improvement of pulsed Nd:YAG-lasers using Brillouin phase conjugation,” Proc. SPIE 1834, 176–183 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Henryk, F.

Hermann, S.

H. J. Eichler, A. Haase, S. Hermann, R. Menzel, and D. Schumann, “Beam quality improvement of pulsed Nd:YAG-lasers using Brillouin phase conjugation,” Proc. SPIE 1834, 176–183 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hiroyuki, D.

Hisanori, F.

Hongwei, Jiang

Yang Jingguo and Jiang Hongwei, “Self-Q-switching Nd:YAG laser operation using stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 929–932 (1994).

Il’ichev, N. N.

A. V. Kir’yanov, V. Aboites, and N. N. Il’ichev, “Analysis of a large-mode neodymium laser passively Q switched with a saturable absorber and a stimulated-Brillouin-scattering mirror,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 11–17 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Il’ichev, A. A. Malyutin, and P. P. Pashinin, “Laser with diffraction-limited divergence and Q-switching by stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1161–1164 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ilichev, N. N.

N. N. Ilichev, A. V. Kiryanov, A. A. Malyutin, P. P. Pashinin, V. S. Sidorin, and E. I. Shklovskii, “Passive Q switching of a 1.3-μm laser resonator using a stimulated Brillouin scattering mirror,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 1383–1384 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jingguo, Yang

Yang Jingguo and Jiang Hongwei, “Self-Q-switching Nd:YAG laser operation using stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 929–932 (1994).

Kir’yanov, A. V.

Kiryanov, A. V.

N. N. Ilichev, A. V. Kiryanov, A. A. Malyutin, P. P. Pashinin, V. S. Sidorin, and E. I. Shklovskii, “Passive Q switching of a 1.3-μm laser resonator using a stimulated Brillouin scattering mirror,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 1383–1384 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Klaus, J. W.

Malyutin, A. A.

N. N. Ilichev, A. V. Kiryanov, A. A. Malyutin, P. P. Pashinin, V. S. Sidorin, and E. I. Shklovskii, “Passive Q switching of a 1.3-μm laser resonator using a stimulated Brillouin scattering mirror,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 1383–1384 (1990).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Il’ichev, A. A. Malyutin, and P. P. Pashinin, “Laser with diffraction-limited divergence and Q-switching by stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1161–1164 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Masahiro, N.

Meng, H.

H. Meng, V. Aboites, and H. J. Eichler, “Characterization of a Nd:YAG phase conjugated laser,” Rev. Mex. Fis. 38, 427–431 (1992).

H. Meng, V. Aboites, and H. J. Eichler, “SBS Q-switched Nd:YAG laser,” Rev. Mex. Fis. 36, 335–339 (1990).

Menzel, R.

H. J. Eichler, A. Haase, S. Hermann, R. Menzel, and D. Schumann, “Beam quality improvement of pulsed Nd:YAG-lasers using Brillouin phase conjugation,” Proc. SPIE 1834, 176–183 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pashinin, P. P.

N. N. Ilichev, A. V. Kiryanov, A. A. Malyutin, P. P. Pashinin, V. S. Sidorin, and E. I. Shklovskii, “Passive Q switching of a 1.3-μm laser resonator using a stimulated Brillouin scattering mirror,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 1383–1384 (1990).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Il’ichev, A. A. Malyutin, and P. P. Pashinin, “Laser with diffraction-limited divergence and Q-switching by stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1161–1164 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Reali, G. C.

A. Agnesi and G. C. Reali, “Passive and self-Q-switching of phase conjugation Nd:YAG laser oscillators,” Opt. Commun. 89, 41–46 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schumann, D.

H. J. Eichler, A. Haase, S. Hermann, R. Menzel, and D. Schumann, “Beam quality improvement of pulsed Nd:YAG-lasers using Brillouin phase conjugation,” Proc. SPIE 1834, 176–183 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shklovskii, E. I.

N. N. Ilichev, A. V. Kiryanov, A. A. Malyutin, P. P. Pashinin, V. S. Sidorin, and E. I. Shklovskii, “Passive Q switching of a 1.3-μm laser resonator using a stimulated Brillouin scattering mirror,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 1383–1384 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sidorin, V. S.

N. N. Ilichev, A. V. Kiryanov, A. A. Malyutin, P. P. Pashinin, V. S. Sidorin, and E. I. Shklovskii, “Passive Q switching of a 1.3-μm laser resonator using a stimulated Brillouin scattering mirror,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 1383–1384 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tatsuhiko, Y.

Viliam, K.

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Agnesi and G. C. Reali, “Passive and self-Q-switching of phase conjugation Nd:YAG laser oscillators,” Opt. Commun. 89, 41–46 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

Yang Jingguo and Jiang Hongwei, “Self-Q-switching Nd:YAG laser operation using stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 929–932 (1994).

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. J. Eichler, A. Haase, S. Hermann, R. Menzel, and D. Schumann, “Beam quality improvement of pulsed Nd:YAG-lasers using Brillouin phase conjugation,” Proc. SPIE 1834, 176–183 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mex. Fis. (2)

H. Meng, V. Aboites, and H. J. Eichler, “SBS Q-switched Nd:YAG laser,” Rev. Mex. Fis. 36, 335–339 (1990).

H. Meng, V. Aboites, and H. J. Eichler, “Characterization of a Nd:YAG phase conjugated laser,” Rev. Mex. Fis. 38, 427–431 (1992).

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (2)

N. N. Ilichev, A. V. Kiryanov, A. A. Malyutin, P. P. Pashinin, V. S. Sidorin, and E. I. Shklovskii, “Passive Q switching of a 1.3-μm laser resonator using a stimulated Brillouin scattering mirror,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 1383–1384 (1990).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Il’ichev, A. A. Malyutin, and P. P. Pashinin, “Laser with diffraction-limited divergence and Q-switching by stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1161–1164 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

A. E. Siegman, P. A. Belanger, and A. Hardy, Optical Phase Conjugation, R. A. Fisher, ed. (Academic, New York, 1983), Chap. 13.

M. J. Damzen, V. I. Vlad, V. Babin, and A. Mocofanescu, Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Fundamentals and Applications (Institute of Physics, London, 2003).

H. Meng, V. Aboites, and H. J. Eichler, “Q-switched Nd:YAG laser by SBS,” presented at the Lasers ’90 International Conference, San Diego, Calif., December 10–14, 1990.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Phase-conjugation resonator with a SBS mirror: (a) experimental setup, (b) theoretical model.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Input beam spot size at M1 versus β with aperture and no aperture; (b) input beam spot size at M1 versus the diameter of the pinhole dph.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Input beam spot size at M1 versus l1 and f with no aperture.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Results of numerical simulation with relations (4) for a self-Q-switching Nd:YAG phase-conjugation laser: (a) intracavity photon number N; (b) incident beam cross section S at PCM; (c) reflection coefficient r2 at PCM.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Pulse shape of Nd:YAG laser with the PCR; (b) pulse shape of Nd:YAG laser with a conventional resonator.

Equations (9)

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M=abcd=1l10110-1/f11l201×1l3/na011l40110-iλ/πdph211l501,
MPCM=10-2/R2i-iλ(1-β2)/πβ2W2i21.
M2=ABCD=abcd10-2/ρ11dbca×10-2/R2i-iλ(1-β2)/πβ2W2i21,
q2i(W2i, R2i)=(Aq2i+B)/(Cq2i+D),
dN/dt=c1NMa/S-N[ln(1/r1r2)+α0]/tR,
dMa/dt=-c1δNMa/S+maladS/dt,
dS/dtΔS/Δt=S(1/β2-1)/tR(SSAM),0(S>SAM),
r2=rsbsmax(S<SAM)rsbsmaxexp(-1/β2)(S>SAM).
χN=gBIL={G+ln[rsbs(1-rsbs)+exp(-G)]}/(1-rsbs),

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