Abstract

A novel Mach–Zehnder interferometer all-optical 1×2 switch with cross-phase modulation in optically pumped GaN/AlN intersubband optical amplifiers (ISOAs) has been proposed, and the feasibility has been theoretically investigated by a one-dimensional finite-difference time-domain model. The intensity modulation due to gain saturation, which degrades the extinction ratio, is canceled by saturation of excited-state absorption in the ISOA or saturable absorption in the integrated absorption region. Pattern effect-free 1×2 and 2×2 switching operation at 640 Gbits/s has been predicted. The extinction ratio has been calculated to be greater than 16 dB at a control pulse energy of 1 pJ.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Akiyama, N. Georgiev, T. Mozume, H. Yoshida, A. V. Gopal, and O. Wada, “1.55-μm picosecond all-optical switching by using intersubband absorption in InGaAs-AlAs-AlAsSb coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 495–497 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, S.-N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Intersubband absorption at λ~1.55 μm in well- and modulation-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with superlattice barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3722–3724 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Kishino, A. Kikuchi, H. Kanazawa, and T. Tachibana, “Intersubband transition in (GaN)m/(AlN)n superlattices in the wavelength range from 1.08 to 1.61 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1234–1236 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “Near-infrared intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1803–1805 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitrofanov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and C. N. G. Chu, “Resonant optical nonlinearities from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 263–265 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. N. Suzuki, N. Iizuka, and K. Kaneko, “Calculation of near-infrared intersubband absorption spectra in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 132–139 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. N. Suzuki, “Simulation of interferometer-type ultrafast all-optical gate switches based on intersubband transition in GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C, 174–180 (2002).
  23. N. Suzuki, “Simulation of ultrafast cross-gain modulation in optically-pumped GaN/AlN intersubband optical amplifiers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 5607–5612 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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  27. N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, N. Suzuki, T. Asano, S. Noda, and O. Wada, “Ultrafast intersubband relaxation (≤150 fs) in AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 648–650 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  30. M. Kuball, J. M. Hayes, M. J. Uren, T. Martin, J. C. H. Birbeck, R. S. Balmer, and B. T. Hughes, “Measurement of temperature in active high-power AlGaN/GaN HFETs using Raman spectroscopy,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 23, 7–9 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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2004 (1)

J. Hamazaki, S. Matsui, H. Kunugita, K. Ema, H. Kanazawa, T. Tachibana, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Ultrafast intersubband relaxation and nonlinear susceptibility at 1.55 μm in GaN/AlN multiple-quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1102–1104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (7)

R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitrofanov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and C. N. G. Chu, “Resonant optical nonlinearities from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 263–265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Waki, C. Kumtornkittikul, Y. Shimogaki, and Y. Nakano, “Shortest intersubband transition wavelength (1.68 μm) achieved in AlN/GaN multiple quantum wells by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4465–4467 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Hofstetter, S.-S. Schad, H. Wu, W. J. Schaff, and L. F. Eastman, “GaN/AlN-based quantum-well infrared photodetector for 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 572–574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Helman, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lusson, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, Kh. Moumanis, G. Fishman, E. Monroy, B. Daudin, D. Le Si Dang, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Intersubband spectroscopy of doped and undoped GaN/AlN quantum wells grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5196–5198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Suzuki, N. Iizuka, and K. Kaneko, “Calculation of near-infrared intersubband absorption spectra in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 132–139 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Suzuki, “Simulation of ultrafast cross-gain modulation in optically-pumped GaN/AlN intersubband optical amplifiers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 5607–5612 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Bimberg and N. Ledentsov, “Quantum dots: lasers and amplifiers,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 15, R1063–R1076 (2003).

2002 (8)

L. F. Eastman, V. Tilak, V. Kaper, J. Smart, R. Thompson, B. Green, J. R. Shealy, and T. Prunty, “Progress in high-power, high frequency AlGaN/GaN HEMTs,” Phys. Status Solidi A 194, 433–438 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuball, J. M. Hayes, M. J. Uren, T. Martin, J. C. H. Birbeck, R. S. Balmer, and B. T. Hughes, “Measurement of temperature in active high-power AlGaN/GaN HFETs using Raman spectroscopy,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 23, 7–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Suzuki, “Simulation of interferometer-type ultrafast all-optical gate switches based on intersubband transition in GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C, 174–180 (2002).

T. Akiyama, N. Georgiev, T. Mozume, H. Yoshida, A. V. Gopal, and O. Wada, “1.55-μm picosecond all-optical switching by using intersubband absorption in InGaAs-AlAs-AlAsSb coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 495–497 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Akimoto, K. Akita, F. Sasaki, and T. Hasama, “Sub-picosecond electron relaxation of near-infrared intersubband transitions in n-doped (CdS/ZnSe)/BeTe quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2998–3000 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Kishino, A. Kikuchi, H. Kanazawa, and T. Tachibana, “Intersubband transition in (GaN)m/(AlN)n superlattices in the wavelength range from 1.08 to 1.61 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1234–1236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “Near-infrared intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1803–1805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Heber, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and A. Y. Cho, “Comparative study of ultrafast intersubband electron scattering times at ~1.55 μm wavelength in GaN/AlGaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1237–1239 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

N. Suzuki, “FDTD simulation of wavelength conversion of ultrashort pulses utilizing intersubband absorption in AlGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 985–997 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, and Y. Ueno, “Ultrafast all-optical signal processing with symmetric Mach-Zehnder type all-optical switches,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 875–897 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, S.-N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Intersubband absorption at λ~1.55 μm in well- and modulation-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with superlattice barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3722–3724 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Suzuki, N. Iizuka, and K. Kaneko, “FDTD simulation of femtosecond optical gating in nonlinear optical waveguide utilizing intersubband transition in AlGaN/GaN quantum wells,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 981–988 (2000).

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, N. Suzuki, T. Asano, S. Noda, and O. Wada, “Ultrafast intersubband relaxation (≤150 fs) in AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 648–650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

N. Suzuki and N. Iizuka, “Effect of polarization field on intersubband transition in AlGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L363–L365 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

J. Leuthold, P. A. Besse, J. Eckner, E. Gamper, M. Dülk, and H. Melchior, “All-optical space switches with gain and principally ideal extinction ratios,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 622–633 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Suzuki and N. Iizuka, “Electron scattering rates in AlGaN/GaN quantum wells for 1.55-μm inter-subband transition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L369–L371 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56, R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Sung, H. C. Chui, M. M. Fejer, and J. S. Harris, Jr., “Near-infrared wavelength intersubband transitions in high indium content InGaAs/AlAs quantum wells grown on GaAs,” Electron. Lett. 33, 818–820 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Suzuki and N. Iizuka, “Feasibility study on ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of 1.55-μm intersubband transition in AlGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 36, L1006–L1008 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Akimoto, R.

R. Akimoto, K. Akita, F. Sasaki, and T. Hasama, “Sub-picosecond electron relaxation of near-infrared intersubband transitions in n-doped (CdS/ZnSe)/BeTe quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2998–3000 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Akita, K.

R. Akimoto, K. Akita, F. Sasaki, and T. Hasama, “Sub-picosecond electron relaxation of near-infrared intersubband transitions in n-doped (CdS/ZnSe)/BeTe quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2998–3000 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Akiyama, T.

T. Akiyama, N. Georgiev, T. Mozume, H. Yoshida, A. V. Gopal, and O. Wada, “1.55-μm picosecond all-optical switching by using intersubband absorption in InGaAs-AlAs-AlAsSb coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 495–497 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, N. Suzuki, T. Asano, S. Noda, and O. Wada, “Ultrafast intersubband relaxation (≤150 fs) in AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 648–650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Balmer, R. S.

M. Kuball, J. M. Hayes, M. J. Uren, T. Martin, J. C. H. Birbeck, R. S. Balmer, and B. T. Hughes, “Measurement of temperature in active high-power AlGaN/GaN HFETs using Raman spectroscopy,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 23, 7–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bellet-Amalric, E.

A. Helman, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lusson, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, Kh. Moumanis, G. Fishman, E. Monroy, B. Daudin, D. Le Si Dang, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Intersubband spectroscopy of doped and undoped GaN/AlN quantum wells grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5196–5198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bernardini, F.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56, R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Besse, P. A.

J. Leuthold, P. A. Besse, J. Eckner, E. Gamper, M. Dülk, and H. Melchior, “All-optical space switches with gain and principally ideal extinction ratios,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 622–633 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bimberg, D.

D. Bimberg and N. Ledentsov, “Quantum dots: lasers and amplifiers,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 15, R1063–R1076 (2003).

Birbeck, J. C. H.

M. Kuball, J. M. Hayes, M. J. Uren, T. Martin, J. C. H. Birbeck, R. S. Balmer, and B. T. Hughes, “Measurement of temperature in active high-power AlGaN/GaN HFETs using Raman spectroscopy,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 23, 7–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitrofanov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and C. N. G. Chu, “Resonant optical nonlinearities from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 263–265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

J. D. Heber, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and A. Y. Cho, “Comparative study of ultrafast intersubband electron scattering times at ~1.55 μm wavelength in GaN/AlGaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1237–1239 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, S.-N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Intersubband absorption at λ~1.55 μm in well- and modulation-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with superlattice barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3722–3724 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chu, C. N. G.

R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitrofanov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and C. N. G. Chu, “Resonant optical nonlinearities from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 263–265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.-N. G.

C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, S.-N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Intersubband absorption at λ~1.55 μm in well- and modulation-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with superlattice barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3722–3724 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chui, H. C.

B. Sung, H. C. Chui, M. M. Fejer, and J. S. Harris, Jr., “Near-infrared wavelength intersubband transitions in high indium content InGaAs/AlAs quantum wells grown on GaAs,” Electron. Lett. 33, 818–820 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Daudin, B.

A. Helman, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lusson, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, Kh. Moumanis, G. Fishman, E. Monroy, B. Daudin, D. Le Si Dang, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Intersubband spectroscopy of doped and undoped GaN/AlN quantum wells grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5196–5198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dülk, M.

J. Leuthold, P. A. Besse, J. Eckner, E. Gamper, M. Dülk, and H. Melchior, “All-optical space switches with gain and principally ideal extinction ratios,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 622–633 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eastman, L. F.

D. Hofstetter, S.-S. Schad, H. Wu, W. J. Schaff, and L. F. Eastman, “GaN/AlN-based quantum-well infrared photodetector for 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 572–574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Eastman, V. Tilak, V. Kaper, J. Smart, R. Thompson, B. Green, J. R. Shealy, and T. Prunty, “Progress in high-power, high frequency AlGaN/GaN HEMTs,” Phys. Status Solidi A 194, 433–438 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eckner, J.

J. Leuthold, P. A. Besse, J. Eckner, E. Gamper, M. Dülk, and H. Melchior, “All-optical space switches with gain and principally ideal extinction ratios,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 622–633 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ema, K.

J. Hamazaki, S. Matsui, H. Kunugita, K. Ema, H. Kanazawa, T. Tachibana, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Ultrafast intersubband relaxation and nonlinear susceptibility at 1.55 μm in GaN/AlN multiple-quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1102–1104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

B. Sung, H. C. Chui, M. M. Fejer, and J. S. Harris, Jr., “Near-infrared wavelength intersubband transitions in high indium content InGaAs/AlAs quantum wells grown on GaAs,” Electron. Lett. 33, 818–820 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fiorentini, V.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56, R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fishman, G.

A. Helman, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lusson, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, Kh. Moumanis, G. Fishman, E. Monroy, B. Daudin, D. Le Si Dang, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Intersubband spectroscopy of doped and undoped GaN/AlN quantum wells grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5196–5198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gamper, E.

J. Leuthold, P. A. Besse, J. Eckner, E. Gamper, M. Dülk, and H. Melchior, “All-optical space switches with gain and principally ideal extinction ratios,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 622–633 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Georgiev, N.

T. Akiyama, N. Georgiev, T. Mozume, H. Yoshida, A. V. Gopal, and O. Wada, “1.55-μm picosecond all-optical switching by using intersubband absorption in InGaAs-AlAs-AlAsSb coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 495–497 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitrofanov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and C. N. G. Chu, “Resonant optical nonlinearities from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 263–265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Heber, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and A. Y. Cho, “Comparative study of ultrafast intersubband electron scattering times at ~1.55 μm wavelength in GaN/AlGaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1237–1239 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, S.-N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Intersubband absorption at λ~1.55 μm in well- and modulation-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with superlattice barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3722–3724 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gopal, A. V.

T. Akiyama, N. Georgiev, T. Mozume, H. Yoshida, A. V. Gopal, and O. Wada, “1.55-μm picosecond all-optical switching by using intersubband absorption in InGaAs-AlAs-AlAsSb coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 495–497 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Green, B.

L. F. Eastman, V. Tilak, V. Kaper, J. Smart, R. Thompson, B. Green, J. R. Shealy, and T. Prunty, “Progress in high-power, high frequency AlGaN/GaN HEMTs,” Phys. Status Solidi A 194, 433–438 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hamazaki, J.

J. Hamazaki, S. Matsui, H. Kunugita, K. Ema, H. Kanazawa, T. Tachibana, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Ultrafast intersubband relaxation and nonlinear susceptibility at 1.55 μm in GaN/AlN multiple-quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1102–1104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Harris Jr., J. S.

B. Sung, H. C. Chui, M. M. Fejer, and J. S. Harris, Jr., “Near-infrared wavelength intersubband transitions in high indium content InGaAs/AlAs quantum wells grown on GaAs,” Electron. Lett. 33, 818–820 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hasama, T.

R. Akimoto, K. Akita, F. Sasaki, and T. Hasama, “Sub-picosecond electron relaxation of near-infrared intersubband transitions in n-doped (CdS/ZnSe)/BeTe quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2998–3000 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hayes, J. M.

M. Kuball, J. M. Hayes, M. J. Uren, T. Martin, J. C. H. Birbeck, R. S. Balmer, and B. T. Hughes, “Measurement of temperature in active high-power AlGaN/GaN HFETs using Raman spectroscopy,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 23, 7–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Heber, J. D.

J. D. Heber, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and A. Y. Cho, “Comparative study of ultrafast intersubband electron scattering times at ~1.55 μm wavelength in GaN/AlGaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1237–1239 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Helman, A.

A. Helman, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lusson, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, Kh. Moumanis, G. Fishman, E. Monroy, B. Daudin, D. Le Si Dang, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Intersubband spectroscopy of doped and undoped GaN/AlN quantum wells grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5196–5198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hofstetter, D.

D. Hofstetter, S.-S. Schad, H. Wu, W. J. Schaff, and L. F. Eastman, “GaN/AlN-based quantum-well infrared photodetector for 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 572–574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, B. T.

M. Kuball, J. M. Hayes, M. J. Uren, T. Martin, J. C. H. Birbeck, R. S. Balmer, and B. T. Hughes, “Measurement of temperature in active high-power AlGaN/GaN HFETs using Raman spectroscopy,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 23, 7–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Iizuka, N.

N. Suzuki, N. Iizuka, and K. Kaneko, “Calculation of near-infrared intersubband absorption spectra in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 132–139 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “Near-infrared intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1803–1805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Suzuki, N. Iizuka, and K. Kaneko, “FDTD simulation of femtosecond optical gating in nonlinear optical waveguide utilizing intersubband transition in AlGaN/GaN quantum wells,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 981–988 (2000).

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, N. Suzuki, T. Asano, S. Noda, and O. Wada, “Ultrafast intersubband relaxation (≤150 fs) in AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 648–650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Suzuki and N. Iizuka, “Effect of polarization field on intersubband transition in AlGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L363–L365 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Suzuki and N. Iizuka, “Electron scattering rates in AlGaN/GaN quantum wells for 1.55-μm inter-subband transition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L369–L371 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Suzuki and N. Iizuka, “Feasibility study on ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of 1.55-μm intersubband transition in AlGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 36, L1006–L1008 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jalabert, D.

A. Helman, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lusson, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, Kh. Moumanis, G. Fishman, E. Monroy, B. Daudin, D. Le Si Dang, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Intersubband spectroscopy of doped and undoped GaN/AlN quantum wells grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5196–5198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Julien, F. H.

A. Helman, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lusson, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, Kh. Moumanis, G. Fishman, E. Monroy, B. Daudin, D. Le Si Dang, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Intersubband spectroscopy of doped and undoped GaN/AlN quantum wells grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5196–5198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kanazawa, H.

J. Hamazaki, S. Matsui, H. Kunugita, K. Ema, H. Kanazawa, T. Tachibana, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Ultrafast intersubband relaxation and nonlinear susceptibility at 1.55 μm in GaN/AlN multiple-quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1102–1104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Kishino, A. Kikuchi, H. Kanazawa, and T. Tachibana, “Intersubband transition in (GaN)m/(AlN)n superlattices in the wavelength range from 1.08 to 1.61 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1234–1236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, K.

N. Suzuki, N. Iizuka, and K. Kaneko, “Calculation of near-infrared intersubband absorption spectra in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 132–139 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “Near-infrared intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1803–1805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, N. Suzuki, T. Asano, S. Noda, and O. Wada, “Ultrafast intersubband relaxation (≤150 fs) in AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 648–650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Suzuki, N. Iizuka, and K. Kaneko, “FDTD simulation of femtosecond optical gating in nonlinear optical waveguide utilizing intersubband transition in AlGaN/GaN quantum wells,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 981–988 (2000).

Kaper, V.

L. F. Eastman, V. Tilak, V. Kaper, J. Smart, R. Thompson, B. Green, J. R. Shealy, and T. Prunty, “Progress in high-power, high frequency AlGaN/GaN HEMTs,” Phys. Status Solidi A 194, 433–438 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, A.

J. Hamazaki, S. Matsui, H. Kunugita, K. Ema, H. Kanazawa, T. Tachibana, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Ultrafast intersubband relaxation and nonlinear susceptibility at 1.55 μm in GaN/AlN multiple-quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1102–1104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Kishino, A. Kikuchi, H. Kanazawa, and T. Tachibana, “Intersubband transition in (GaN)m/(AlN)n superlattices in the wavelength range from 1.08 to 1.61 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1234–1236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kishino, K.

J. Hamazaki, S. Matsui, H. Kunugita, K. Ema, H. Kanazawa, T. Tachibana, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Ultrafast intersubband relaxation and nonlinear susceptibility at 1.55 μm in GaN/AlN multiple-quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1102–1104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Kishino, A. Kikuchi, H. Kanazawa, and T. Tachibana, “Intersubband transition in (GaN)m/(AlN)n superlattices in the wavelength range from 1.08 to 1.61 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1234–1236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuball, M.

M. Kuball, J. M. Hayes, M. J. Uren, T. Martin, J. C. H. Birbeck, R. S. Balmer, and B. T. Hughes, “Measurement of temperature in active high-power AlGaN/GaN HFETs using Raman spectroscopy,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 23, 7–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kumtornkittikul, C.

I. Waki, C. Kumtornkittikul, Y. Shimogaki, and Y. Nakano, “Shortest intersubband transition wavelength (1.68 μm) achieved in AlN/GaN multiple quantum wells by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4465–4467 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kunugita, H.

J. Hamazaki, S. Matsui, H. Kunugita, K. Ema, H. Kanazawa, T. Tachibana, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Ultrafast intersubband relaxation and nonlinear susceptibility at 1.55 μm in GaN/AlN multiple-quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1102–1104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Le Si Dang, D.

A. Helman, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lusson, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, Kh. Moumanis, G. Fishman, E. Monroy, B. Daudin, D. Le Si Dang, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Intersubband spectroscopy of doped and undoped GaN/AlN quantum wells grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5196–5198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ledentsov, N.

D. Bimberg and N. Ledentsov, “Quantum dots: lasers and amplifiers,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 15, R1063–R1076 (2003).

Leuthold, J.

J. Leuthold, P. A. Besse, J. Eckner, E. Gamper, M. Dülk, and H. Melchior, “All-optical space switches with gain and principally ideal extinction ratios,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 622–633 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lusson, A.

A. Helman, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lusson, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, Kh. Moumanis, G. Fishman, E. Monroy, B. Daudin, D. Le Si Dang, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Intersubband spectroscopy of doped and undoped GaN/AlN quantum wells grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5196–5198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Martin, T.

M. Kuball, J. M. Hayes, M. J. Uren, T. Martin, J. C. H. Birbeck, R. S. Balmer, and B. T. Hughes, “Measurement of temperature in active high-power AlGaN/GaN HFETs using Raman spectroscopy,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 23, 7–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, S.

J. Hamazaki, S. Matsui, H. Kunugita, K. Ema, H. Kanazawa, T. Tachibana, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Ultrafast intersubband relaxation and nonlinear susceptibility at 1.55 μm in GaN/AlN multiple-quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1102–1104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Melchior, H.

J. Leuthold, P. A. Besse, J. Eckner, E. Gamper, M. Dülk, and H. Melchior, “All-optical space switches with gain and principally ideal extinction ratios,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 622–633 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mitrofanov, O.

R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitrofanov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and C. N. G. Chu, “Resonant optical nonlinearities from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 263–265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Monroy, E.

A. Helman, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lusson, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, Kh. Moumanis, G. Fishman, E. Monroy, B. Daudin, D. Le Si Dang, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Intersubband spectroscopy of doped and undoped GaN/AlN quantum wells grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5196–5198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moumanis, Kh.

A. Helman, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lusson, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, Kh. Moumanis, G. Fishman, E. Monroy, B. Daudin, D. Le Si Dang, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Intersubband spectroscopy of doped and undoped GaN/AlN quantum wells grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5196–5198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mozume, T.

T. Akiyama, N. Georgiev, T. Mozume, H. Yoshida, A. V. Gopal, and O. Wada, “1.55-μm picosecond all-optical switching by using intersubband absorption in InGaAs-AlAs-AlAsSb coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 495–497 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, and Y. Ueno, “Ultrafast all-optical signal processing with symmetric Mach-Zehnder type all-optical switches,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 875–897 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, Y.

I. Waki, C. Kumtornkittikul, Y. Shimogaki, and Y. Nakano, “Shortest intersubband transition wavelength (1.68 μm) achieved in AlN/GaN multiple quantum wells by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4465–4467 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ng, H. M.

R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitrofanov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and C. N. G. Chu, “Resonant optical nonlinearities from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 263–265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Heber, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and A. Y. Cho, “Comparative study of ultrafast intersubband electron scattering times at ~1.55 μm wavelength in GaN/AlGaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1237–1239 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, S.-N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Intersubband absorption at λ~1.55 μm in well- and modulation-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with superlattice barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3722–3724 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, N. Suzuki, T. Asano, S. Noda, and O. Wada, “Ultrafast intersubband relaxation (≤150 fs) in AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 648–650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Prunty, T.

L. F. Eastman, V. Tilak, V. Kaper, J. Smart, R. Thompson, B. Green, J. R. Shealy, and T. Prunty, “Progress in high-power, high frequency AlGaN/GaN HEMTs,” Phys. Status Solidi A 194, 433–438 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rapaport, R.

R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitrofanov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and C. N. G. Chu, “Resonant optical nonlinearities from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 263–265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, F.

R. Akimoto, K. Akita, F. Sasaki, and T. Hasama, “Sub-picosecond electron relaxation of near-infrared intersubband transitions in n-doped (CdS/ZnSe)/BeTe quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2998–3000 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schad, S.-S.

D. Hofstetter, S.-S. Schad, H. Wu, W. J. Schaff, and L. F. Eastman, “GaN/AlN-based quantum-well infrared photodetector for 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 572–574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schaff, W. J.

D. Hofstetter, S.-S. Schad, H. Wu, W. J. Schaff, and L. F. Eastman, “GaN/AlN-based quantum-well infrared photodetector for 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 572–574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shealy, J. R.

L. F. Eastman, V. Tilak, V. Kaper, J. Smart, R. Thompson, B. Green, J. R. Shealy, and T. Prunty, “Progress in high-power, high frequency AlGaN/GaN HEMTs,” Phys. Status Solidi A 194, 433–438 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shimogaki, Y.

I. Waki, C. Kumtornkittikul, Y. Shimogaki, and Y. Nakano, “Shortest intersubband transition wavelength (1.68 μm) achieved in AlN/GaN multiple quantum wells by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4465–4467 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smart, J.

L. F. Eastman, V. Tilak, V. Kaper, J. Smart, R. Thompson, B. Green, J. R. Shealy, and T. Prunty, “Progress in high-power, high frequency AlGaN/GaN HEMTs,” Phys. Status Solidi A 194, 433–438 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sung, B.

B. Sung, H. C. Chui, M. M. Fejer, and J. S. Harris, Jr., “Near-infrared wavelength intersubband transitions in high indium content InGaAs/AlAs quantum wells grown on GaAs,” Electron. Lett. 33, 818–820 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, N.

N. Suzuki, “Simulation of ultrafast cross-gain modulation in optically-pumped GaN/AlN intersubband optical amplifiers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 5607–5612 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Suzuki, N. Iizuka, and K. Kaneko, “Calculation of near-infrared intersubband absorption spectra in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 132–139 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Suzuki, “Simulation of interferometer-type ultrafast all-optical gate switches based on intersubband transition in GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C, 174–180 (2002).

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “Near-infrared intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1803–1805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Suzuki, “FDTD simulation of wavelength conversion of ultrashort pulses utilizing intersubband absorption in AlGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 985–997 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Suzuki, N. Iizuka, and K. Kaneko, “FDTD simulation of femtosecond optical gating in nonlinear optical waveguide utilizing intersubband transition in AlGaN/GaN quantum wells,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 981–988 (2000).

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, N. Suzuki, T. Asano, S. Noda, and O. Wada, “Ultrafast intersubband relaxation (≤150 fs) in AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 648–650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Suzuki and N. Iizuka, “Effect of polarization field on intersubband transition in AlGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L363–L365 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Suzuki and N. Iizuka, “Electron scattering rates in AlGaN/GaN quantum wells for 1.55-μm inter-subband transition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L369–L371 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Suzuki and N. Iizuka, “Feasibility study on ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of 1.55-μm intersubband transition in AlGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 36, L1006–L1008 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tachibana, T.

J. Hamazaki, S. Matsui, H. Kunugita, K. Ema, H. Kanazawa, T. Tachibana, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Ultrafast intersubband relaxation and nonlinear susceptibility at 1.55 μm in GaN/AlN multiple-quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1102–1104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Kishino, A. Kikuchi, H. Kanazawa, and T. Tachibana, “Intersubband transition in (GaN)m/(AlN)n superlattices in the wavelength range from 1.08 to 1.61 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1234–1236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tajima, K.

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, and Y. Ueno, “Ultrafast all-optical signal processing with symmetric Mach-Zehnder type all-optical switches,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 875–897 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tchernycheva, M.

A. Helman, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lusson, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, Kh. Moumanis, G. Fishman, E. Monroy, B. Daudin, D. Le Si Dang, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Intersubband spectroscopy of doped and undoped GaN/AlN quantum wells grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5196–5198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, R.

L. F. Eastman, V. Tilak, V. Kaper, J. Smart, R. Thompson, B. Green, J. R. Shealy, and T. Prunty, “Progress in high-power, high frequency AlGaN/GaN HEMTs,” Phys. Status Solidi A 194, 433–438 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tilak, V.

L. F. Eastman, V. Tilak, V. Kaper, J. Smart, R. Thompson, B. Green, J. R. Shealy, and T. Prunty, “Progress in high-power, high frequency AlGaN/GaN HEMTs,” Phys. Status Solidi A 194, 433–438 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ueno, Y.

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, and Y. Ueno, “Ultrafast all-optical signal processing with symmetric Mach-Zehnder type all-optical switches,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 875–897 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Uren, M. J.

M. Kuball, J. M. Hayes, M. J. Uren, T. Martin, J. C. H. Birbeck, R. S. Balmer, and B. T. Hughes, “Measurement of temperature in active high-power AlGaN/GaN HFETs using Raman spectroscopy,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 23, 7–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vanderbilt, D.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56, R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wada, O.

T. Akiyama, N. Georgiev, T. Mozume, H. Yoshida, A. V. Gopal, and O. Wada, “1.55-μm picosecond all-optical switching by using intersubband absorption in InGaAs-AlAs-AlAsSb coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 495–497 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, N. Suzuki, T. Asano, S. Noda, and O. Wada, “Ultrafast intersubband relaxation (≤150 fs) in AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 648–650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Waki, I.

I. Waki, C. Kumtornkittikul, Y. Shimogaki, and Y. Nakano, “Shortest intersubband transition wavelength (1.68 μm) achieved in AlN/GaN multiple quantum wells by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4465–4467 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Warde, E.

A. Helman, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lusson, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, Kh. Moumanis, G. Fishman, E. Monroy, B. Daudin, D. Le Si Dang, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Intersubband spectroscopy of doped and undoped GaN/AlN quantum wells grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5196–5198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H.

D. Hofstetter, S.-S. Schad, H. Wu, W. J. Schaff, and L. F. Eastman, “GaN/AlN-based quantum-well infrared photodetector for 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 572–574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, H.

T. Akiyama, N. Georgiev, T. Mozume, H. Yoshida, A. V. Gopal, and O. Wada, “1.55-μm picosecond all-optical switching by using intersubband absorption in InGaAs-AlAs-AlAsSb coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 495–497 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (11)

R. Akimoto, K. Akita, F. Sasaki, and T. Hasama, “Sub-picosecond electron relaxation of near-infrared intersubband transitions in n-doped (CdS/ZnSe)/BeTe quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2998–3000 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, S.-N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Intersubband absorption at λ~1.55 μm in well- and modulation-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with superlattice barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3722–3724 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Kishino, A. Kikuchi, H. Kanazawa, and T. Tachibana, “Intersubband transition in (GaN)m/(AlN)n superlattices in the wavelength range from 1.08 to 1.61 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1234–1236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “Near-infrared intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1803–1805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Waki, C. Kumtornkittikul, Y. Shimogaki, and Y. Nakano, “Shortest intersubband transition wavelength (1.68 μm) achieved in AlN/GaN multiple quantum wells by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4465–4467 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Hofstetter, S.-S. Schad, H. Wu, W. J. Schaff, and L. F. Eastman, “GaN/AlN-based quantum-well infrared photodetector for 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 572–574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Helman, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lusson, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, Kh. Moumanis, G. Fishman, E. Monroy, B. Daudin, D. Le Si Dang, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Intersubband spectroscopy of doped and undoped GaN/AlN quantum wells grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5196–5198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Heber, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and A. Y. Cho, “Comparative study of ultrafast intersubband electron scattering times at ~1.55 μm wavelength in GaN/AlGaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1237–1239 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Hamazaki, S. Matsui, H. Kunugita, K. Ema, H. Kanazawa, T. Tachibana, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Ultrafast intersubband relaxation and nonlinear susceptibility at 1.55 μm in GaN/AlN multiple-quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1102–1104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitrofanov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and C. N. G. Chu, “Resonant optical nonlinearities from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 263–265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, N. Suzuki, T. Asano, S. Noda, and O. Wada, “Ultrafast intersubband relaxation (≤150 fs) in AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 648–650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

B. Sung, H. C. Chui, M. M. Fejer, and J. S. Harris, Jr., “Near-infrared wavelength intersubband transitions in high indium content InGaAs/AlAs quantum wells grown on GaAs,” Electron. Lett. 33, 818–820 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

M. Kuball, J. M. Hayes, M. J. Uren, T. Martin, J. C. H. Birbeck, R. S. Balmer, and B. T. Hughes, “Measurement of temperature in active high-power AlGaN/GaN HFETs using Raman spectroscopy,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 23, 7–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Leuthold, P. A. Besse, J. Eckner, E. Gamper, M. Dülk, and H. Melchior, “All-optical space switches with gain and principally ideal extinction ratios,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 622–633 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

T. Akiyama, N. Georgiev, T. Mozume, H. Yoshida, A. V. Gopal, and O. Wada, “1.55-μm picosecond all-optical switching by using intersubband absorption in InGaAs-AlAs-AlAsSb coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 495–497 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron. (2)

N. Suzuki, “Simulation of interferometer-type ultrafast all-optical gate switches based on intersubband transition in GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C, 174–180 (2002).

N. Suzuki, N. Iizuka, and K. Kaneko, “FDTD simulation of femtosecond optical gating in nonlinear optical waveguide utilizing intersubband transition in AlGaN/GaN quantum wells,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 981–988 (2000).

J. Phys.: Condens. Matter (1)

D. Bimberg and N. Ledentsov, “Quantum dots: lasers and amplifiers,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 15, R1063–R1076 (2003).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (5)

N. Suzuki, “Simulation of ultrafast cross-gain modulation in optically-pumped GaN/AlN intersubband optical amplifiers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 5607–5612 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Suzuki and N. Iizuka, “Effect of polarization field on intersubband transition in AlGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L363–L365 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Suzuki, N. Iizuka, and K. Kaneko, “Calculation of near-infrared intersubband absorption spectra in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 132–139 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Suzuki and N. Iizuka, “Feasibility study on ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of 1.55-μm intersubband transition in AlGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 36, L1006–L1008 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Suzuki and N. Iizuka, “Electron scattering rates in AlGaN/GaN quantum wells for 1.55-μm inter-subband transition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L369–L371 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (2)

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, and Y. Ueno, “Ultrafast all-optical signal processing with symmetric Mach-Zehnder type all-optical switches,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 875–897 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Suzuki, “FDTD simulation of wavelength conversion of ultrashort pulses utilizing intersubband absorption in AlGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 985–997 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56, R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

L. F. Eastman, V. Tilak, V. Kaper, J. Smart, R. Thompson, B. Green, J. R. Shealy, and T. Prunty, “Progress in high-power, high frequency AlGaN/GaN HEMTs,” Phys. Status Solidi A 194, 433–438 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

S. T. Sheppard, R. P. Smith, W. L. Pribble, Z. Ring, T. Smith, S. T. Allen, J. Milligan, and J. W. Palmour, “High power hybrid and MMIC amplifiers using wide-bandgap semiconductor devices on semi-insulating SiC substrates,” presented at the 60th Device Research Conference, Santa Barbara, Calif., 24–26 June, 2002, paper VII. A-1.

N. Suzuki, “Theoretical study on ultrafast Mach-Zehnder interferometer switches utilizing GaN/AlN intersubband optical amplifiers,” presented at the Tenth International Workshop on Femtosecond Technology, Chiba, Japan, 16–17 July, 2003, paper WP-6.

N. Suzuki, “Theoretical study on 1.55-μm ultrafast all-optical 2×2 switches based on optically-pumped AlGaN intersubband optical amplifiers,” presented at the Seventh International Conference on Intersubband Transitions in Quantum Wells, Evolène, Switzerland, 1–5 September 2003, paper R8.

S. Noda, “Ultrafast interband-resonant light modulation by intersubband-resonant light in quantum wells,” in Femtosecond Technology, from Basic Research to Application Prospects, T. Kamiya, F. Saito, O. Wada, and H. Yajima, eds. (Springer, Berlin, 1999), pp. 222–233.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Conduction-band diagram of one period of the CQWs in the ISOA.23 It consists of AlN (2.25 nm), GaN (0.25 nm), AlN (0.25 nm), GaN (1.05 nm), AlN (0.7 nm), and GaN (1.9 nm). The squared envelope functions of the subbands are also shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Calculation model of the MZI switch. Type A has the SA regions, whereas type B does not have the SA region. (b) Cross-sectional view of the ISOA and the SA region. The ISOA has four CQWs in the middle of the GaN core, whereas the SA region has four GaN(2 nm)/AlN(4.6 nm) quantum wells (QWs) instead. BPF, bandpass filter; Cnt, control pulse.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Extinction ratio (ExR, solid curve), cross talk (XT, dashed curve), and effective phase shift (Δϕeff, dashed–dotted curve) for cw light as functions of intensity modulation in path A when the phase shift in path A is π.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated transmission spectra in one branch of the MZI: (a) type A and (b) type B. Dotted and solid curves denote the spectra with and without a 1-pJ control pulse (1.522 µm), respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Evolution of the effective phase shift due to the 1-pJ control pulse in type A with the ISOA (140 µm) and the SA region (60 µm) for λs=1.462 µm (dashed curve), 1.570 µm (solid curve), and 1.621 µm (dotted curve).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Extinction ratio (ExR, solid curve), cross talk (XT, dashed curve), intensity modulation (IM, dashed–dotted curve), and the effective phase shift (Δϕeff, dotted curve) of type B around the zero-gain wavelength.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Evolutions of effective phase shift due to the 1-pJ control pulse in type B. (a) Dephasing time dependence. (b) Pumping power dependence. Pp=4.0 W (dotted curve), 5.5 W (solid curve), and 7.0 W (dashed–dotted curve).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Switching characteristics of (a) type A and (b) type B. The responses are not periodic because of the saturation. The thick solid curve, the thin solid curve, and the dotted curve, respectively, denote the output pulse energy from Out 1 (E1), from Out 2 (E2), and the effective phase shift.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Calculated dynamic response of type B at 640 Gbits/s. The input pattern is 01011000. The on/off ratio is 16.4 dB for Out 1. div, division.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Response of carriers at the output edge of the ISOA (type B) at 640 Gbits/s. The input pattern is 01011000. div, division.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Calculated 2×2 switching characteristics of type B at 640 Gbits/s. The ratio of pulse heights from the two inputs was assumed to be 5:4. The input pattern of the control pulse is 01011000. div, division.

Equations (2)

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sin2Δϕeff(Ec)2=E2(Ec)E1(Ec)+E2(Ec),
NF=1G+2nsp1-1G,

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