Abstract

The possibility of realizing the fundamental logic gates AND, OR, and NOT, which operate in parallel through two interlinked χ(2) interactions of sum- and difference-frequency generations in a single type I β-BaB2O4 crystal, is presented both theoretically and experimentally. Optical bits are encoded and read as amplitude modulation of the harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser. Owing to the excellent optical resolution of the system, data can be encoded at high density. The implementation of an all-optical parallel half-adder is also shown. The output fields can be frequency converted to implement an all-optical looping circuit.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2004

2003

M. Bondani, A. Allevi, and A. Andreoni, “Holography by nondegenerate χ(2) interactions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1–13 (2003).

S. Pereira, P. Chak, and J. E. Sipe, “All-optical AND gate by use of a Kerr nonlinear microresonator structure,” Opt. Lett. 28, 444–446 (2003).

J. H. Kim, Y. T. Byun, Y. M. Jhon, S. Lee, D. H. Woo, and S. H. Kim, “All-optical half adder using semiconductor optical amplifier based devices,” Opt. Commun. 218, 345–349 (2003).

P. Wen, M. Sanchez, M. Gross, and S. Esener, “Vertical-cavity optical AND gate,” Opt. Commun. 219, 383–387 (2003).

C. P. Singh and S. Roy, “All-optical switching in bacteriorhodopsin based on M state dynamics and its application to photonic logic gates,” Opt. Commun. 218, 55–66 (2003).

2002

2001

P. O. Hedekvist, A. Bhardwaj, K. Vahala, and H. Andersson, “Advanced all-optical logic gates on a spectral bus,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1761–1766 (2001).

A. Chowdhury, C. Staus, B. F. Boland, T. F. Kuech, and L. McCaughan, “Experimental demonstration of 1535–1555-nm simultaneous optical wavelength interchange with a nonlinear photonic crystal,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1353–1355 (2001).

L. Brzozowski and E. H. Sargent, “All-optical analog-to-digital converters, hardlimiters, and logic gates,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 114–119 (2001).

A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, M. C. A. Potenza, Yu. N. Denisyuk, and E. Puddu, “Boolean algebra operations performed on optical bits by the generation of holographic fields through second-order nonlinear interactions,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2525–2531 (2001).

G. S. Kanter, P. Kumar, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, “Wavelength-selective pulsed all-optical switching based on cascaded second-order nonlinearity in a periodically poled lithium-niobate waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 341–343 (2001).

2000

I. S. Nefedov, V. N. Gusyatnikov, P. K. Kashkarov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Low threshold photonic band-gap optical logic gates,” Laser Phys. 10, 640–643 (2000).

L. Brzozowski and E. H. Sargent, “Optical signal processing using nonlinear distributed feedback structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 550–555 (2000).

K. R. Parameswaran, M. Fujimura, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, “Low-power all-optical gate based on sum frequency mixing in APE waveguides in PPLN,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 654–656 (2000).

A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, and M. C. A. Potenza, “Combination tasks performed by second-harmonic-generated holograms,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1570–1572 (2000).

1999

1997

1996

M. Shirakawa, T. Takemori, and J. Ohtsubo, “Optical computing based on a selector logic,” Opt. Commun. 124, 333–344 (1996).

1990

1989

S. A. Collins, Jr., “Application of liquid crystals to optical logic gates,” in Liquid Crystal Chemistry, Physics, and Applications, J. W. Doane and Z. Yaniv, eds., Proc. SPIE 1080, 72–82 (1989).

1987

Albert, O.

Allevi, A.

Andersson, H.

Andreoni, A.

M. Bondani, A. Allevi, E. Puddu, A. Andreoni, A. Ferraro, and M. G. A. Paris, “Properties of two interlinked χ(2) interactions in noncollinear phase matching,” Opt. Lett. 29, 180–182 (2004).

A. Allevi, A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, A. Ferraro, M. G. A. Paris, and E. Puddu, “Quantum and classical properties of the fields generated by two interlinked second-order non-linear interactions,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1031–1036 (2004).

M. Bondani, A. Allevi, A. Brega, E. Puddu, and A. Andreoni, “Difference-frequency-generated holograms of two-dimensional objects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 280–288 (2004).

M. Bondani, A. Allevi, and A. Andreoni, “Holography by nondegenerate χ(2) interactions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1–13 (2003).

A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, M. C. A. Potenza, Yu. N. Denisyuk, and E. Puddu, “Boolean algebra operations performed on optical bits by the generation of holographic fields through second-order nonlinear interactions,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2525–2531 (2001).

A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, and M. C. A. Potenza, “Combination tasks performed by second-harmonic-generated holograms,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1570–1572 (2000).

Assanto, G.

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, “All-optical switching and logic gating with spatial solitons in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3335–3337 (2002).

Bhardwaj, A.

Boland, B. F.

Bondani, M.

A. Allevi, A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, A. Ferraro, M. G. A. Paris, and E. Puddu, “Quantum and classical properties of the fields generated by two interlinked second-order non-linear interactions,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1031–1036 (2004).

M. Bondani, A. Allevi, E. Puddu, A. Andreoni, A. Ferraro, and M. G. A. Paris, “Properties of two interlinked χ(2) interactions in noncollinear phase matching,” Opt. Lett. 29, 180–182 (2004).

M. Bondani, A. Allevi, A. Brega, E. Puddu, and A. Andreoni, “Difference-frequency-generated holograms of two-dimensional objects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 280–288 (2004).

M. Bondani, A. Allevi, and A. Andreoni, “Holography by nondegenerate χ(2) interactions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1–13 (2003).

A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, M. C. A. Potenza, Yu. N. Denisyuk, and E. Puddu, “Boolean algebra operations performed on optical bits by the generation of holographic fields through second-order nonlinear interactions,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2525–2531 (2001).

A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, and M. C. A. Potenza, “Combination tasks performed by second-harmonic-generated holograms,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1570–1572 (2000).

Brega, A.

Brzozowski, L.

L. Brzozowski and E. H. Sargent, “All-optical analog-to-digital converters, hardlimiters, and logic gates,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 114–119 (2001).

L. Brzozowski and E. H. Sargent, “Optical signal processing using nonlinear distributed feedback structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 550–555 (2000).

Byun, Y. T.

J. H. Kim, Y. T. Byun, Y. M. Jhon, S. Lee, D. H. Woo, and S. H. Kim, “All-optical half adder using semiconductor optical amplifier based devices,” Opt. Commun. 218, 345–349 (2003).

Castro, M.

H. Soto, J. Topomonzo, D. Erasme, G. Guekos, and M. Castro, “Experimental demonstration of all-optical logic gates using cross-polarization modulation in a semiconductor optical amplifier,” in Smart Structure, Devices, and Systems, E. C. Harvey, D. Abbott, and V. K. Varadan, eds., Proc. SPIE 4935, 495–502 (2002).

Chak, P.

Chou, M. H.

K. R. Parameswaran, M. Fujimura, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, “Low-power all-optical gate based on sum frequency mixing in APE waveguides in PPLN,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 654–656 (2000).

Chou, M.-H.

Chowdhury, A.

Collins Jr., S. A.

S. A. Collins, Jr., “Application of liquid crystals to optical logic gates,” in Liquid Crystal Chemistry, Physics, and Applications, J. W. Doane and Z. Yaniv, eds., Proc. SPIE 1080, 72–82 (1989).

Conti, C.

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, “All-optical switching and logic gating with spatial solitons in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3335–3337 (2002).

De Luca, A.

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, “All-optical switching and logic gating with spatial solitons in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3335–3337 (2002).

DeLong, K. W.

Denisyuk, Yu. N.

A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, M. C. A. Potenza, Yu. N. Denisyuk, and E. Puddu, “Boolean algebra operations performed on optical bits by the generation of holographic fields through second-order nonlinear interactions,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2525–2531 (2001).

Erasme, D.

H. Soto, J. Topomonzo, D. Erasme, G. Guekos, and M. Castro, “Experimental demonstration of all-optical logic gates using cross-polarization modulation in a semiconductor optical amplifier,” in Smart Structure, Devices, and Systems, E. C. Harvey, D. Abbott, and V. K. Varadan, eds., Proc. SPIE 4935, 495–502 (2002).

Esener, S.

P. Wen, M. Sanchez, M. Gross, and S. Esener, “Vertical-cavity optical AND gate,” Opt. Commun. 219, 383–387 (2003).

Etchepare, J.

Fan, S.

Fang, H.

Fejer, M. M.

G. S. Kanter, P. Kumar, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, “Wavelength-selective pulsed all-optical switching based on cascaded second-order nonlinearity in a periodically poled lithium-niobate waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 341–343 (2001).

K. R. Parameswaran, M. Fujimura, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, “Low-power all-optical gate based on sum frequency mixing in APE waveguides in PPLN,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 654–656 (2000).

R. Schiek, L. Friedrich, H. Fang, G. I. Stegeman, K. R. Parameswaran, M.-H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, “Nonlinear directional coupler in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1617–1619 (1999).

Ferraro, A.

M. Bondani, A. Allevi, E. Puddu, A. Andreoni, A. Ferraro, and M. G. A. Paris, “Properties of two interlinked χ(2) interactions in noncollinear phase matching,” Opt. Lett. 29, 180–182 (2004).

A. Allevi, A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, A. Ferraro, M. G. A. Paris, and E. Puddu, “Quantum and classical properties of the fields generated by two interlinked second-order non-linear interactions,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1031–1036 (2004).

Fittinghoff, D. N.

Friedrich, L.

Fujimura, M.

K. R. Parameswaran, M. Fujimura, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, “Low-power all-optical gate based on sum frequency mixing in APE waveguides in PPLN,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 654–656 (2000).

Gregory, D. A.

Gross, M.

P. Wen, M. Sanchez, M. Gross, and S. Esener, “Vertical-cavity optical AND gate,” Opt. Commun. 219, 383–387 (2003).

Guekos, G.

H. Soto, J. Topomonzo, D. Erasme, G. Guekos, and M. Castro, “Experimental demonstration of all-optical logic gates using cross-polarization modulation in a semiconductor optical amplifier,” in Smart Structure, Devices, and Systems, E. C. Harvey, D. Abbott, and V. K. Varadan, eds., Proc. SPIE 4935, 495–502 (2002).

Gusyatnikov, V. N.

I. S. Nefedov, V. N. Gusyatnikov, P. K. Kashkarov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Low threshold photonic band-gap optical logic gates,” Laser Phys. 10, 640–643 (2000).

Hedekvist, P. O.

Huang, D.

Huang, Y.

Ibanescu, M.

Ippen, E.

Jhon, Y. M.

J. H. Kim, Y. T. Byun, Y. M. Jhon, S. Lee, D. H. Woo, and S. H. Kim, “All-optical half adder using semiconductor optical amplifier based devices,” Opt. Commun. 218, 345–349 (2003).

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Johnson, S. G.

Jutamulia, S.

Kanter, G. S.

G. S. Kanter, P. Kumar, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, “Wavelength-selective pulsed all-optical switching based on cascaded second-order nonlinearity in a periodically poled lithium-niobate waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 341–343 (2001).

Kashkarov, P. K.

I. S. Nefedov, V. N. Gusyatnikov, P. K. Kashkarov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Low threshold photonic band-gap optical logic gates,” Laser Phys. 10, 640–643 (2000).

Khan, A. H.

Kim, J. H.

J. H. Kim, Y. T. Byun, Y. M. Jhon, S. Lee, D. H. Woo, and S. H. Kim, “All-optical half adder using semiconductor optical amplifier based devices,” Opt. Commun. 218, 345–349 (2003).

Kim, S. H.

J. H. Kim, Y. T. Byun, Y. M. Jhon, S. Lee, D. H. Woo, and S. H. Kim, “All-optical half adder using semiconductor optical amplifier based devices,” Opt. Commun. 218, 345–349 (2003).

Kivshar, Y. S.

Krumbügel, M. A.

Kuech, T. F.

Kumar, P.

G. S. Kanter, P. Kumar, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, “Wavelength-selective pulsed all-optical switching based on cascaded second-order nonlinearity in a periodically poled lithium-niobate waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 341–343 (2001).

Lee, S.

J. H. Kim, Y. T. Byun, Y. M. Jhon, S. Lee, D. H. Woo, and S. H. Kim, “All-optical half adder using semiconductor optical amplifier based devices,” Opt. Commun. 218, 345–349 (2003).

Liu, D.

McCaughan, L.

Minkovski, N.

Nefedov, I. S.

I. S. Nefedov, V. N. Gusyatnikov, P. K. Kashkarov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Low threshold photonic band-gap optical logic gates,” Laser Phys. 10, 640–643 (2000).

Nejib, U. R.

Ohtsubo, J.

M. Shirakawa, T. Takemori, and J. Ohtsubo, “Optical computing based on a selector logic,” Opt. Commun. 124, 333–344 (1996).

Ohzu, H.

Y. Takaki and H. Ohzu, “Optical half-adder using wavefront superposition,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4351–4358 (1990).

Y. Takaki and H. Ohzu, “Optical logic operations by holographic filters,” Jpn. J. Opt. 16, 345–351 (1987).

Parameswaran, K. R.

G. S. Kanter, P. Kumar, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, “Wavelength-selective pulsed all-optical switching based on cascaded second-order nonlinearity in a periodically poled lithium-niobate waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 341–343 (2001).

K. R. Parameswaran, M. Fujimura, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, “Low-power all-optical gate based on sum frequency mixing in APE waveguides in PPLN,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 654–656 (2000).

R. Schiek, L. Friedrich, H. Fang, G. I. Stegeman, K. R. Parameswaran, M.-H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, “Nonlinear directional coupler in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1617–1619 (1999).

Paris, M. G. A.

A. Allevi, A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, A. Ferraro, M. G. A. Paris, and E. Puddu, “Quantum and classical properties of the fields generated by two interlinked second-order non-linear interactions,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1031–1036 (2004).

M. Bondani, A. Allevi, E. Puddu, A. Andreoni, A. Ferraro, and M. G. A. Paris, “Properties of two interlinked χ(2) interactions in noncollinear phase matching,” Opt. Lett. 29, 180–182 (2004).

Peccianti, M.

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, “All-optical switching and logic gating with spatial solitons in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3335–3337 (2002).

Pereira, S.

Petrov, G. I.

Potenza, M. C. A.

A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, M. C. A. Potenza, Yu. N. Denisyuk, and E. Puddu, “Boolean algebra operations performed on optical bits by the generation of holographic fields through second-order nonlinear interactions,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2525–2531 (2001).

A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, and M. C. A. Potenza, “Combination tasks performed by second-harmonic-generated holograms,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1570–1572 (2000).

Puddu, E.

A. Allevi, A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, A. Ferraro, M. G. A. Paris, and E. Puddu, “Quantum and classical properties of the fields generated by two interlinked second-order non-linear interactions,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1031–1036 (2004).

M. Bondani, A. Allevi, E. Puddu, A. Andreoni, A. Ferraro, and M. G. A. Paris, “Properties of two interlinked χ(2) interactions in noncollinear phase matching,” Opt. Lett. 29, 180–182 (2004).

M. Bondani, A. Allevi, A. Brega, E. Puddu, and A. Andreoni, “Difference-frequency-generated holograms of two-dimensional objects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 280–288 (2004).

A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, M. C. A. Potenza, Yu. N. Denisyuk, and E. Puddu, “Boolean algebra operations performed on optical bits by the generation of holographic fields through second-order nonlinear interactions,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2525–2531 (2001).

Roy, S.

C. P. Singh and S. Roy, “All-optical switching in bacteriorhodopsin based on M state dynamics and its application to photonic logic gates,” Opt. Commun. 218, 55–66 (2003).

Saltiel, S. M.

Sanchez, M.

P. Wen, M. Sanchez, M. Gross, and S. Esener, “Vertical-cavity optical AND gate,” Opt. Commun. 219, 383–387 (2003).

Sargent, E. H.

L. Brzozowski and E. H. Sargent, “All-optical analog-to-digital converters, hardlimiters, and logic gates,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 114–119 (2001).

L. Brzozowski and E. H. Sargent, “Optical signal processing using nonlinear distributed feedback structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 550–555 (2000).

Schiek, R.

Shirakawa, M.

M. Shirakawa, T. Takemori, and J. Ohtsubo, “Optical computing based on a selector logic,” Opt. Commun. 124, 333–344 (1996).

Singh, C. P.

C. P. Singh and S. Roy, “All-optical switching in bacteriorhodopsin based on M state dynamics and its application to photonic logic gates,” Opt. Commun. 218, 55–66 (2003).

Sipe, J. E.

Soljaceic, M.

Soto, H.

H. Soto, J. Topomonzo, D. Erasme, G. Guekos, and M. Castro, “Experimental demonstration of all-optical logic gates using cross-polarization modulation in a semiconductor optical amplifier,” in Smart Structure, Devices, and Systems, E. C. Harvey, D. Abbott, and V. K. Varadan, eds., Proc. SPIE 4935, 495–502 (2002).

Staus, C.

Stegeman, G. I.

Sun, J.

Sweetser, J. N.

Takaki, Y.

Y. Takaki and H. Ohzu, “Optical half-adder using wavefront superposition,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4351–4358 (1990).

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