Abstract

Absolute frequency measurements of the R(85)330 transition of molecular iodine at the blue end of the tuning range of a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser are implemented with a femtosecond optical comb based on a mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser. The hyperfine structure of the R(85)330 transition is observed by use of high-resolution laser spectroscopy and is measured by the femtosecond optical comb. The observed hyperfine transitions are good frequency references for both frequency-doubled Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 lasers in the 532-nm region. High-accuracy hyperfine constants are obtained by our fitting the measured hyperfine splittings to a four-term Hamiltonian, which includes the electric quadrupole, spin–rotation, tensor spin–spin, and scalar spin–spin interactions.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, K. Sugiyama, A. Onae, H. Matsumoto, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Comparison of independent optical frequency measurements using a portable iodine-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 52, 240–244 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Yu. Nevsky, R. Holzwarth, J. Reichert, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. von Zanthire, H. Walther, H. Schnatz, F. Riehle, P. V. Pokasov, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, “Frequency comparison and absolute frequency measurement of I2-stabilized lasers at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 192, 263–272 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Robertsson, S. Picard, F.-L. Hong, Y. Millerioux, P. Juncar, and L.-S. Ma, “International comparison of 127I2-stabilized frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers between the BIPM, the NRLM and the BNM–INM, October 2000,” Metrologia 38, 567–572 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Picard, L. Robertsson, L.-S. Ma, K. Nyholm, M. Merimaa, T. E. Ahola, P. Balling, P. Křen, and J.-P. Wallerand, “Comparison of 127I2-stabilized frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1019–1028 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. J. Quinn, “Practical realization of the definition of the metre, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2001),” Metrologia 40, 103–133 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Sugiyama, A. Onae, F.-L. Hong, H. Inaba, S. N. Slyusarev, T. Ikegami, J. Ishikawa, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Optical frequency measurement using an ultrafast mode-locked laser at NMIJ/AIST,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, P. Gill, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 2002), pp. 427–434.
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    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Absolute frequency atlas of molecular I2 lines at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544–549 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F.-L. Hong and J. Ishikawa, “Hyperfine structures of the R(122)35–0 and P(84)33–0 transitions of 127I2 near 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 183, 101–108 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, “Rotation dependence of the excited-state electric quadrupole hyperfine interaction by high-resolution laser spectroscopy of 127I2,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 1416–1422 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F.-L. Hong, Y. Zhang, J. Ishikawa, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, “Vibration dependence of the tensor spin–spin and scalar spin–spin hyperfine interactions by precision measurement of hyperfine structures of 127I2 near 532 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 946–953 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F.-L. Hong, Y. Zhang, J. Ishikawa, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, “Hyperfine structure and absolute frequency determination of the R(121)35–0 and P(142)37–0 transitions of 127I2 near 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 212, 89–95 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Zhang, J. Ishikawa, and F.-L. Hong, “Accurate frequency atlas of molecular iodine near 532 nm measured by an optical frequency comb generator,” Opt. Commun. 200, 209–215 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Kourogi, K. Nakagawa, and M. Ohtsu, “Wide-span optical frequency comb generator for accurate optical frequency difference measurement,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2693–2701 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1547–1549 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, D. Mogilevtsev, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Experimental measurement of group velocity dispersion in photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 35, 63–64 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Absolute optical frequency measurement of the cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568–3571 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, “Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583–586 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. F.-L. Hong, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, S. Picard, Ch. J. Bordé, and J. L. Hall, “Rotation dependence of electric quadrupole hyperfine interaction in the ground state of molecular iodine by high-resolution laser spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 379–387 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264–2267 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  24. G. Camy, C. J. Bordé, and M. Ducloy, “Heterodyne saturation spectroscopy through frequency modulation of the saturation beam,” Opt. Commun. 41, 325–330 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. H. Shirley, “Modulation transfer processes in optical heterodyne saturation spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 7, 537–539 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Z.-Y. Bi, J. Zhang, A. Onae, and J. Yoda, “A portable I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser for international comparisons,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 486–489 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  27. D. W. Allan, “Statistics of atomic frequency standards,” Proc. IEEE 54, 221–230 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  28. F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, J. Yoda, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Frequency comparison of 127I2-stabilized Nd:YAG lasers,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 532–536 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  29. F.-L. Hong, Y. Zhang, J. Ishikawa, Y. Bitou, A. Onae, J. Yoda, and H. Matsumoto, “Frequency reproducibility of I2-stabilized Nd:YAG lasers,” in Laser Frequency Stabilization, Standards, Measurement, and Applications, J. L. Hall and J. Ye, eds., Proc. SPIE 4269, 143–154 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  30. F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Z.-Y. Bi, J. Zhang, A. Onae, and J. Yoda, “A portable I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser for international comparisons,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 486–489 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  31. N. Shen, E. J. Zang, H. Cao, K. Zhao, H. Lu, X. Zhang, Y. Sun, C. Xu, X. Chen, K. Zhang, and X. Bai, “Modulation transfer spectroscopy of 127I2 hyperfine structure near 532nm using a self-made diode-pumped Nd:VVO4-KTP laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 604–607 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  32. H. J. Foth and F. Spieweck, “Hyperfine structure of the R(98), 58–1 line of 127I2 at 514.5 nm,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 65, 347–352 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  33. Ch. J. Bordé, G. Camy, B. Decomps, J.-P. Descoubes, and J. Vigué, “High precision saturation spectroscopy of 127I2 with argon lasers at 5145 Å and 5017 Å: I-Main resonances,” J. Physique 42, 1393–1411 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  34. S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, “Description of the absorption spectrum of iodine recorded by means of Fourier transform spectroscopy: the (B–X) system,” J. Phys. (Paris) 46, 867–881 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  35. Ch. J. Bordé, F. Du Burck, and A. N. Goncharov, “A new accurate fit of the hyperfine structure of molecular iodine,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, P. Gill, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 2002), pp. 524–526.
  36. J. L. Hall and C. J. Bordé, “Shift and broadening of saturation absorption resonances due to curvature of the laser wave fronts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 788–790 (1976).
    [CrossRef]

2003

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, K. Sugiyama, A. Onae, H. Matsumoto, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Comparison of independent optical frequency measurements using a portable iodine-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 52, 240–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Quinn, “Practical realization of the definition of the metre, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2001),” Metrologia 40, 103–133 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Picard, L. Robertsson, L.-S. Ma, K. Nyholm, M. Merimaa, T. E. Ahola, P. Balling, P. Křen, and J.-P. Wallerand, “Comparison of 127I2-stabilized frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1019–1028 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

F.-L. Hong, Y. Zhang, J. Ishikawa, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, “Vibration dependence of the tensor spin–spin and scalar spin–spin hyperfine interactions by precision measurement of hyperfine structures of 127I2 near 532 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 946–953 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, Y. Zhang, J. Ishikawa, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, “Hyperfine structure and absolute frequency determination of the R(121)35–0 and P(142)37–0 transitions of 127I2 near 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 212, 89–95 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

Y. Zhang, J. Ishikawa, and F.-L. Hong, “Accurate frequency atlas of molecular iodine near 532 nm measured by an optical frequency comb generator,” Opt. Commun. 200, 209–215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Yu. Nevsky, R. Holzwarth, J. Reichert, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. von Zanthire, H. Walther, H. Schnatz, F. Riehle, P. V. Pokasov, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, “Frequency comparison and absolute frequency measurement of I2-stabilized lasers at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 192, 263–272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Robertsson, S. Picard, F.-L. Hong, Y. Millerioux, P. Juncar, and L.-S. Ma, “International comparison of 127I2-stabilized frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers between the BIPM, the NRLM and the BNM–INM, October 2000,” Metrologia 38, 567–572 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Z.-Y. Bi, J. Zhang, A. Onae, and J. Yoda, “A portable I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser for international comparisons,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 486–489 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, Y. Zhang, J. Ishikawa, Y. Bitou, A. Onae, J. Yoda, and H. Matsumoto, “Frequency reproducibility of I2-stabilized Nd:YAG lasers,” in Laser Frequency Stabilization, Standards, Measurement, and Applications, J. L. Hall and J. Ye, eds., Proc. SPIE 4269, 143–154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Z.-Y. Bi, J. Zhang, A. Onae, and J. Yoda, “A portable I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser for international comparisons,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 486–489 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, S. Picard, Ch. J. Bordé, and J. L. Hall, “Rotation dependence of electric quadrupole hyperfine interaction in the ground state of molecular iodine by high-resolution laser spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 379–387 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, “Rotation dependence of the excited-state electric quadrupole hyperfine interaction by high-resolution laser spectroscopy of 127I2,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 1416–1422 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Optical properties of high-delta air silica microstructure optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 796–798 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F.-L. Hong and J. Ishikawa, “Hyperfine structures of the R(122)35–0 and P(84)33–0 transitions of 127I2 near 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 183, 101–108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Absolute frequency atlas of molecular I2 lines at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544–549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Shen, E. J. Zang, H. Cao, K. Zhao, H. Lu, X. Zhang, Y. Sun, C. Xu, X. Chen, K. Zhang, and X. Bai, “Modulation transfer spectroscopy of 127I2 hyperfine structure near 532nm using a self-made diode-pumped Nd:VVO4-KTP laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 604–607 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, D. Mogilevtsev, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Experimental measurement of group velocity dispersion in photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 35, 63–64 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, “Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583–586 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264–2267 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, J. Yoda, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Frequency comparison of 127I2-stabilized Nd:YAG lasers,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 532–536 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Absolute optical frequency measurement of the cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568–3571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

1993

A. Arie and R. L. Byer, “Laser heterodyne spectroscopy of 127I2 hyperfine structure near 532 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1990–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Kourogi, K. Nakagawa, and M. Ohtsu, “Wide-span optical frequency comb generator for accurate optical frequency difference measurement,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2693–2701 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1985

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, “Description of the absorption spectrum of iodine recorded by means of Fourier transform spectroscopy: the (B–X) system,” J. Phys. (Paris) 46, 867–881 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1982

G. Camy, C. J. Bordé, and M. Ducloy, “Heterodyne saturation spectroscopy through frequency modulation of the saturation beam,” Opt. Commun. 41, 325–330 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Shirley, “Modulation transfer processes in optical heterodyne saturation spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 7, 537–539 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981

Ch. J. Bordé, G. Camy, B. Decomps, J.-P. Descoubes, and J. Vigué, “High precision saturation spectroscopy of 127I2 with argon lasers at 5145 Å and 5017 Å: I-Main resonances,” J. Physique 42, 1393–1411 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979

H. J. Foth and F. Spieweck, “Hyperfine structure of the R(98), 58–1 line of 127I2 at 514.5 nm,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 65, 347–352 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1976

J. L. Hall and C. J. Bordé, “Shift and broadening of saturation absorption resonances due to curvature of the laser wave fronts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 788–790 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1966

D. W. Allan, “Statistics of atomic frequency standards,” Proc. IEEE 54, 221–230 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Ahola, T. E.

Allan, D. W.

D. W. Allan, “Statistics of atomic frequency standards,” Proc. IEEE 54, 221–230 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Arie, A.

Atkin, D. M.

Bagayev, S. N.

A. Yu. Nevsky, R. Holzwarth, J. Reichert, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. von Zanthire, H. Walther, H. Schnatz, F. Riehle, P. V. Pokasov, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, “Frequency comparison and absolute frequency measurement of I2-stabilized lasers at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 192, 263–272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bai, X.

N. Shen, E. J. Zang, H. Cao, K. Zhao, H. Lu, X. Zhang, Y. Sun, C. Xu, X. Chen, K. Zhang, and X. Bai, “Modulation transfer spectroscopy of 127I2 hyperfine structure near 532nm using a self-made diode-pumped Nd:VVO4-KTP laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 604–607 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Balling, P.

Bi, Z.-Y.

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Z.-Y. Bi, J. Zhang, A. Onae, and J. Yoda, “A portable I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser for international comparisons,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 486–489 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Z.-Y. Bi, J. Zhang, A. Onae, and J. Yoda, “A portable I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser for international comparisons,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 486–489 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, D. Mogilevtsev, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Experimental measurement of group velocity dispersion in photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 35, 63–64 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1547–1549 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bitou, Y.

F.-L. Hong, Y. Zhang, J. Ishikawa, Y. Bitou, A. Onae, J. Yoda, and H. Matsumoto, “Frequency reproducibility of I2-stabilized Nd:YAG lasers,” in Laser Frequency Stabilization, Standards, Measurement, and Applications, J. L. Hall and J. Ye, eds., Proc. SPIE 4269, 143–154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bordé, C. J.

G. Camy, C. J. Bordé, and M. Ducloy, “Heterodyne saturation spectroscopy through frequency modulation of the saturation beam,” Opt. Commun. 41, 325–330 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall and C. J. Bordé, “Shift and broadening of saturation absorption resonances due to curvature of the laser wave fronts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 788–790 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Bordé, Ch. J.

F.-L. Hong, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, S. Picard, Ch. J. Bordé, and J. L. Hall, “Rotation dependence of electric quadrupole hyperfine interaction in the ground state of molecular iodine by high-resolution laser spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 379–387 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ch. J. Bordé, G. Camy, B. Decomps, J.-P. Descoubes, and J. Vigué, “High precision saturation spectroscopy of 127I2 with argon lasers at 5145 Å and 5017 Å: I-Main resonances,” J. Physique 42, 1393–1411 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

Camy, G.

G. Camy, C. J. Bordé, and M. Ducloy, “Heterodyne saturation spectroscopy through frequency modulation of the saturation beam,” Opt. Commun. 41, 325–330 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ch. J. Bordé, G. Camy, B. Decomps, J.-P. Descoubes, and J. Vigué, “High precision saturation spectroscopy of 127I2 with argon lasers at 5145 Å and 5017 Å: I-Main resonances,” J. Physique 42, 1393–1411 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

N. Shen, E. J. Zang, H. Cao, K. Zhao, H. Lu, X. Zhang, Y. Sun, C. Xu, X. Chen, K. Zhang, and X. Bai, “Modulation transfer spectroscopy of 127I2 hyperfine structure near 532nm using a self-made diode-pumped Nd:VVO4-KTP laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 604–607 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

N. Shen, E. J. Zang, H. Cao, K. Zhao, H. Lu, X. Zhang, Y. Sun, C. Xu, X. Chen, K. Zhang, and X. Bai, “Modulation transfer spectroscopy of 127I2 hyperfine structure near 532nm using a self-made diode-pumped Nd:VVO4-KTP laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 604–607 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cundiff, S. T.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Decomps, B.

Ch. J. Bordé, G. Camy, B. Decomps, J.-P. Descoubes, and J. Vigué, “High precision saturation spectroscopy of 127I2 with argon lasers at 5145 Å and 5017 Å: I-Main resonances,” J. Physique 42, 1393–1411 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Descoubes, J.-P.

Ch. J. Bordé, G. Camy, B. Decomps, J.-P. Descoubes, and J. Vigué, “High precision saturation spectroscopy of 127I2 with argon lasers at 5145 Å and 5017 Å: I-Main resonances,” J. Physique 42, 1393–1411 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ducloy, M.

G. Camy, C. J. Bordé, and M. Ducloy, “Heterodyne saturation spectroscopy through frequency modulation of the saturation beam,” Opt. Commun. 41, 325–330 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Foth, H. J.

H. J. Foth and F. Spieweck, “Hyperfine structure of the R(98), 58–1 line of 127I2 at 514.5 nm,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 65, 347–352 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Gander, M. J.

M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, D. Mogilevtsev, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Experimental measurement of group velocity dispersion in photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 35, 63–64 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gerstenkorn, S.

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, “Description of the absorption spectrum of iodine recorded by means of Fourier transform spectroscopy: the (B–X) system,” J. Phys. (Paris) 46, 867–881 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, K. Sugiyama, A. Onae, H. Matsumoto, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Comparison of independent optical frequency measurements using a portable iodine-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 52, 240–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, S. Picard, Ch. J. Bordé, and J. L. Hall, “Rotation dependence of electric quadrupole hyperfine interaction in the ground state of molecular iodine by high-resolution laser spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 379–387 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Absolute frequency atlas of molecular I2 lines at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544–549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, “Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583–586 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, J. Yoda, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Frequency comparison of 127I2-stabilized Nd:YAG lasers,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 532–536 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall and C. J. Bordé, “Shift and broadening of saturation absorption resonances due to curvature of the laser wave fronts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 788–790 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

A. Yu. Nevsky, R. Holzwarth, J. Reichert, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. von Zanthire, H. Walther, H. Schnatz, F. Riehle, P. V. Pokasov, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, “Frequency comparison and absolute frequency measurement of I2-stabilized lasers at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 192, 263–272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264–2267 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Absolute optical frequency measurement of the cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568–3571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R.

A. Yu. Nevsky, R. Holzwarth, J. Reichert, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. von Zanthire, H. Walther, H. Schnatz, F. Riehle, P. V. Pokasov, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, “Frequency comparison and absolute frequency measurement of I2-stabilized lasers at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 192, 263–272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Absolute optical frequency measurement of the cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568–3571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264–2267 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hong, F.-L.

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, K. Sugiyama, A. Onae, H. Matsumoto, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Comparison of independent optical frequency measurements using a portable iodine-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 52, 240–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, Y. Zhang, J. Ishikawa, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, “Vibration dependence of the tensor spin–spin and scalar spin–spin hyperfine interactions by precision measurement of hyperfine structures of 127I2 near 532 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 946–953 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, Y. Zhang, J. Ishikawa, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, “Hyperfine structure and absolute frequency determination of the R(121)35–0 and P(142)37–0 transitions of 127I2 near 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 212, 89–95 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Z.-Y. Bi, J. Zhang, A. Onae, and J. Yoda, “A portable I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser for international comparisons,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 486–489 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Z.-Y. Bi, J. Zhang, A. Onae, and J. Yoda, “A portable I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser for international comparisons,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 486–489 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, S. Picard, Ch. J. Bordé, and J. L. Hall, “Rotation dependence of electric quadrupole hyperfine interaction in the ground state of molecular iodine by high-resolution laser spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 379–387 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Robertsson, S. Picard, F.-L. Hong, Y. Millerioux, P. Juncar, and L.-S. Ma, “International comparison of 127I2-stabilized frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers between the BIPM, the NRLM and the BNM–INM, October 2000,” Metrologia 38, 567–572 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, “Rotation dependence of the excited-state electric quadrupole hyperfine interaction by high-resolution laser spectroscopy of 127I2,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 1416–1422 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, J. Ishikawa, and F.-L. Hong, “Accurate frequency atlas of molecular iodine near 532 nm measured by an optical frequency comb generator,” Opt. Commun. 200, 209–215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, Y. Zhang, J. Ishikawa, Y. Bitou, A. Onae, J. Yoda, and H. Matsumoto, “Frequency reproducibility of I2-stabilized Nd:YAG lasers,” in Laser Frequency Stabilization, Standards, Measurement, and Applications, J. L. Hall and J. Ye, eds., Proc. SPIE 4269, 143–154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong and J. Ishikawa, “Hyperfine structures of the R(122)35–0 and P(84)33–0 transitions of 127I2 near 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 183, 101–108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, “Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583–586 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, J. Yoda, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Frequency comparison of 127I2-stabilized Nd:YAG lasers,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 532–536 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, J.

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, K. Sugiyama, A. Onae, H. Matsumoto, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Comparison of independent optical frequency measurements using a portable iodine-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 52, 240–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, Y. Zhang, J. Ishikawa, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, “Vibration dependence of the tensor spin–spin and scalar spin–spin hyperfine interactions by precision measurement of hyperfine structures of 127I2 near 532 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 946–953 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, Y. Zhang, J. Ishikawa, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, “Hyperfine structure and absolute frequency determination of the R(121)35–0 and P(142)37–0 transitions of 127I2 near 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 212, 89–95 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Z.-Y. Bi, J. Zhang, A. Onae, and J. Yoda, “A portable I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser for international comparisons,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 486–489 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Z.-Y. Bi, J. Zhang, A. Onae, and J. Yoda, “A portable I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser for international comparisons,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 486–489 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, “Rotation dependence of the excited-state electric quadrupole hyperfine interaction by high-resolution laser spectroscopy of 127I2,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 1416–1422 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, J. Ishikawa, and F.-L. Hong, “Accurate frequency atlas of molecular iodine near 532 nm measured by an optical frequency comb generator,” Opt. Commun. 200, 209–215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, Y. Zhang, J. Ishikawa, Y. Bitou, A. Onae, J. Yoda, and H. Matsumoto, “Frequency reproducibility of I2-stabilized Nd:YAG lasers,” in Laser Frequency Stabilization, Standards, Measurement, and Applications, J. L. Hall and J. Ye, eds., Proc. SPIE 4269, 143–154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong and J. Ishikawa, “Hyperfine structures of the R(122)35–0 and P(84)33–0 transitions of 127I2 near 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 183, 101–108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, J. Yoda, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Frequency comparison of 127I2-stabilized Nd:YAG lasers,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 532–536 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. J.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, J. D. C.

M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, D. Mogilevtsev, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Experimental measurement of group velocity dispersion in photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 35, 63–64 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Juncar, P.

L. Robertsson, S. Picard, F.-L. Hong, Y. Millerioux, P. Juncar, and L.-S. Ma, “International comparison of 127I2-stabilized frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers between the BIPM, the NRLM and the BNM–INM, October 2000,” Metrologia 38, 567–572 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264–2267 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, D. Mogilevtsev, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Experimental measurement of group velocity dispersion in photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 35, 63–64 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1547–1549 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kourogi, M.

M. Kourogi, K. Nakagawa, and M. Ohtsu, “Wide-span optical frequency comb generator for accurate optical frequency difference measurement,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2693–2701 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kren, P.

Lu, H.

N. Shen, E. J. Zang, H. Cao, K. Zhao, H. Lu, X. Zhang, Y. Sun, C. Xu, X. Chen, K. Zhang, and X. Bai, “Modulation transfer spectroscopy of 127I2 hyperfine structure near 532nm using a self-made diode-pumped Nd:VVO4-KTP laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 604–607 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Luc, P.

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, “Description of the absorption spectrum of iodine recorded by means of Fourier transform spectroscopy: the (B–X) system,” J. Phys. (Paris) 46, 867–881 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ma, L.-S.

S. Picard, L. Robertsson, L.-S. Ma, K. Nyholm, M. Merimaa, T. E. Ahola, P. Balling, P. Křen, and J.-P. Wallerand, “Comparison of 127I2-stabilized frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1019–1028 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, S. Picard, Ch. J. Bordé, and J. L. Hall, “Rotation dependence of electric quadrupole hyperfine interaction in the ground state of molecular iodine by high-resolution laser spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 379–387 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Robertsson, S. Picard, F.-L. Hong, Y. Millerioux, P. Juncar, and L.-S. Ma, “International comparison of 127I2-stabilized frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers between the BIPM, the NRLM and the BNM–INM, October 2000,” Metrologia 38, 567–572 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, “Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583–586 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, J. Yoda, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Frequency comparison of 127I2-stabilized Nd:YAG lasers,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 532–536 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Absolute frequency atlas of molecular I2 lines at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544–549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, H.

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, K. Sugiyama, A. Onae, H. Matsumoto, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Comparison of independent optical frequency measurements using a portable iodine-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 52, 240–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, Y. Zhang, J. Ishikawa, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, “Vibration dependence of the tensor spin–spin and scalar spin–spin hyperfine interactions by precision measurement of hyperfine structures of 127I2 near 532 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 946–953 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, Y. Zhang, J. Ishikawa, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, “Hyperfine structure and absolute frequency determination of the R(121)35–0 and P(142)37–0 transitions of 127I2 near 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 212, 89–95 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, “Rotation dependence of the excited-state electric quadrupole hyperfine interaction by high-resolution laser spectroscopy of 127I2,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 1416–1422 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, Y. Zhang, J. Ishikawa, Y. Bitou, A. Onae, J. Yoda, and H. Matsumoto, “Frequency reproducibility of I2-stabilized Nd:YAG lasers,” in Laser Frequency Stabilization, Standards, Measurement, and Applications, J. L. Hall and J. Ye, eds., Proc. SPIE 4269, 143–154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McBride, R.

M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, D. Mogilevtsev, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Experimental measurement of group velocity dispersion in photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 35, 63–64 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Merimaa, M.

Millerioux, Y.

L. Robertsson, S. Picard, F.-L. Hong, Y. Millerioux, P. Juncar, and L.-S. Ma, “International comparison of 127I2-stabilized frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers between the BIPM, the NRLM and the BNM–INM, October 2000,” Metrologia 38, 567–572 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mogilevtsev, D.

M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, D. Mogilevtsev, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Experimental measurement of group velocity dispersion in photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 35, 63–64 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, K.

M. Kourogi, K. Nakagawa, and M. Ohtsu, “Wide-span optical frequency comb generator for accurate optical frequency difference measurement,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2693–2701 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nevsky, A. Yu.

A. Yu. Nevsky, R. Holzwarth, J. Reichert, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. von Zanthire, H. Walther, H. Schnatz, F. Riehle, P. V. Pokasov, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, “Frequency comparison and absolute frequency measurement of I2-stabilized lasers at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 192, 263–272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nyholm, K.

Ohtsu, M.

M. Kourogi, K. Nakagawa, and M. Ohtsu, “Wide-span optical frequency comb generator for accurate optical frequency difference measurement,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2693–2701 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Onae, A.

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, K. Sugiyama, A. Onae, H. Matsumoto, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Comparison of independent optical frequency measurements using a portable iodine-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 52, 240–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, Y. Zhang, J. Ishikawa, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, “Hyperfine structure and absolute frequency determination of the R(121)35–0 and P(142)37–0 transitions of 127I2 near 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 212, 89–95 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, Y. Zhang, J. Ishikawa, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, “Vibration dependence of the tensor spin–spin and scalar spin–spin hyperfine interactions by precision measurement of hyperfine structures of 127I2 near 532 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 946–953 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Z.-Y. Bi, J. Zhang, A. Onae, and J. Yoda, “A portable I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser for international comparisons,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 486–489 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Z.-Y. Bi, J. Zhang, A. Onae, and J. Yoda, “A portable I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser for international comparisons,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 486–489 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, Y. Zhang, J. Ishikawa, Y. Bitou, A. Onae, J. Yoda, and H. Matsumoto, “Frequency reproducibility of I2-stabilized Nd:YAG lasers,” in Laser Frequency Stabilization, Standards, Measurement, and Applications, J. L. Hall and J. Ye, eds., Proc. SPIE 4269, 143–154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, “Rotation dependence of the excited-state electric quadrupole hyperfine interaction by high-resolution laser spectroscopy of 127I2,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 1416–1422 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pfister, O.

J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, “Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583–586 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Picard, S.

S. Picard, L. Robertsson, L.-S. Ma, K. Nyholm, M. Merimaa, T. E. Ahola, P. Balling, P. Křen, and J.-P. Wallerand, “Comparison of 127I2-stabilized frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1019–1028 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, S. Picard, Ch. J. Bordé, and J. L. Hall, “Rotation dependence of electric quadrupole hyperfine interaction in the ground state of molecular iodine by high-resolution laser spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 379–387 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Robertsson, S. Picard, F.-L. Hong, Y. Millerioux, P. Juncar, and L.-S. Ma, “International comparison of 127I2-stabilized frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers between the BIPM, the NRLM and the BNM–INM, October 2000,” Metrologia 38, 567–572 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Absolute frequency atlas of molecular I2 lines at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544–549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pokasov, P. V.

A. Yu. Nevsky, R. Holzwarth, J. Reichert, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. von Zanthire, H. Walther, H. Schnatz, F. Riehle, P. V. Pokasov, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, “Frequency comparison and absolute frequency measurement of I2-stabilized lasers at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 192, 263–272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Quinn, T. J.

T. J. Quinn, “Practical realization of the definition of the metre, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2001),” Metrologia 40, 103–133 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ranka, J. K.

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Optical properties of high-delta air silica microstructure optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 796–798 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reichert, J.

A. Yu. Nevsky, R. Holzwarth, J. Reichert, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. von Zanthire, H. Walther, H. Schnatz, F. Riehle, P. V. Pokasov, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, “Frequency comparison and absolute frequency measurement of I2-stabilized lasers at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 192, 263–272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Absolute optical frequency measurement of the cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568–3571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Riehle, F.

A. Yu. Nevsky, R. Holzwarth, J. Reichert, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. von Zanthire, H. Walther, H. Schnatz, F. Riehle, P. V. Pokasov, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, “Frequency comparison and absolute frequency measurement of I2-stabilized lasers at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 192, 263–272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Robertsson, L.

S. Picard, L. Robertsson, L.-S. Ma, K. Nyholm, M. Merimaa, T. E. Ahola, P. Balling, P. Křen, and J.-P. Wallerand, “Comparison of 127I2-stabilized frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1019–1028 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Robertsson, S. Picard, F.-L. Hong, Y. Millerioux, P. Juncar, and L.-S. Ma, “International comparison of 127I2-stabilized frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers between the BIPM, the NRLM and the BNM–INM, October 2000,” Metrologia 38, 567–572 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Absolute frequency atlas of molecular I2 lines at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544–549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264–2267 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, D. Mogilevtsev, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Experimental measurement of group velocity dispersion in photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 35, 63–64 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1547–1549 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnatz, H.

A. Yu. Nevsky, R. Holzwarth, J. Reichert, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. von Zanthire, H. Walther, H. Schnatz, F. Riehle, P. V. Pokasov, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, “Frequency comparison and absolute frequency measurement of I2-stabilized lasers at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 192, 263–272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shen, N.

N. Shen, E. J. Zang, H. Cao, K. Zhao, H. Lu, X. Zhang, Y. Sun, C. Xu, X. Chen, K. Zhang, and X. Bai, “Modulation transfer spectroscopy of 127I2 hyperfine structure near 532nm using a self-made diode-pumped Nd:VVO4-KTP laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 604–607 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shirley, J. H.

Skvortsov, M. N.

A. Yu. Nevsky, R. Holzwarth, J. Reichert, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. von Zanthire, H. Walther, H. Schnatz, F. Riehle, P. V. Pokasov, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, “Frequency comparison and absolute frequency measurement of I2-stabilized lasers at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 192, 263–272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Spieweck, F.

H. J. Foth and F. Spieweck, “Hyperfine structure of the R(98), 58–1 line of 127I2 at 514.5 nm,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 65, 347–352 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stentz, A. J.

Sugiyama, K.

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, K. Sugiyama, A. Onae, H. Matsumoto, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Comparison of independent optical frequency measurements using a portable iodine-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 52, 240–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

N. Shen, E. J. Zang, H. Cao, K. Zhao, H. Lu, X. Zhang, Y. Sun, C. Xu, X. Chen, K. Zhang, and X. Bai, “Modulation transfer spectroscopy of 127I2 hyperfine structure near 532nm using a self-made diode-pumped Nd:VVO4-KTP laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 604–607 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Taubman, M.

J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, “Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583–586 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tiemann, B.

J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, “Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583–586 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Udem, T.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Udem, Th.

A. Yu. Nevsky, R. Holzwarth, J. Reichert, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. von Zanthire, H. Walther, H. Schnatz, F. Riehle, P. V. Pokasov, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, “Frequency comparison and absolute frequency measurement of I2-stabilized lasers at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 192, 263–272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264–2267 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Absolute optical frequency measurement of the cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568–3571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vigué, J.

Ch. J. Bordé, G. Camy, B. Decomps, J.-P. Descoubes, and J. Vigué, “High precision saturation spectroscopy of 127I2 with argon lasers at 5145 Å and 5017 Å: I-Main resonances,” J. Physique 42, 1393–1411 (1981).
[CrossRef]

von Zanthire, J.

A. Yu. Nevsky, R. Holzwarth, J. Reichert, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. von Zanthire, H. Walther, H. Schnatz, F. Riehle, P. V. Pokasov, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, “Frequency comparison and absolute frequency measurement of I2-stabilized lasers at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 192, 263–272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W. J.

R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264–2267 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wallerand, J.-P.

Walther, H.

A. Yu. Nevsky, R. Holzwarth, J. Reichert, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. von Zanthire, H. Walther, H. Schnatz, F. Riehle, P. V. Pokasov, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, “Frequency comparison and absolute frequency measurement of I2-stabilized lasers at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 192, 263–272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Optical properties of high-delta air silica microstructure optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 796–798 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.

N. Shen, E. J. Zang, H. Cao, K. Zhao, H. Lu, X. Zhang, Y. Sun, C. Xu, X. Chen, K. Zhang, and X. Bai, “Modulation transfer spectroscopy of 127I2 hyperfine structure near 532nm using a self-made diode-pumped Nd:VVO4-KTP laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 604–607 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, K. Sugiyama, A. Onae, H. Matsumoto, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Comparison of independent optical frequency measurements using a portable iodine-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 52, 240–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, S. Picard, Ch. J. Bordé, and J. L. Hall, “Rotation dependence of electric quadrupole hyperfine interaction in the ground state of molecular iodine by high-resolution laser spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 379–387 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Absolute frequency atlas of molecular I2 lines at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544–549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, J. Yoda, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Frequency comparison of 127I2-stabilized Nd:YAG lasers,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 532–536 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, “Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583–586 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yoda, J.

F.-L. Hong, Y. Zhang, J. Ishikawa, Y. Bitou, A. Onae, J. Yoda, and H. Matsumoto, “Frequency reproducibility of I2-stabilized Nd:YAG lasers,” in Laser Frequency Stabilization, Standards, Measurement, and Applications, J. L. Hall and J. Ye, eds., Proc. SPIE 4269, 143–154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Z.-Y. Bi, J. Zhang, A. Onae, and J. Yoda, “A portable I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser for international comparisons,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 486–489 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Z.-Y. Bi, J. Zhang, A. Onae, and J. Yoda, “A portable I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser for international comparisons,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 486–489 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, J. Yoda, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Frequency comparison of 127I2-stabilized Nd:YAG lasers,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 532–536 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zang, E. J.

N. Shen, E. J. Zang, H. Cao, K. Zhao, H. Lu, X. Zhang, Y. Sun, C. Xu, X. Chen, K. Zhang, and X. Bai, “Modulation transfer spectroscopy of 127I2 hyperfine structure near 532nm using a self-made diode-pumped Nd:VVO4-KTP laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 604–607 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Z.-Y. Bi, J. Zhang, A. Onae, and J. Yoda, “A portable I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser for international comparisons,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 486–489 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Z.-Y. Bi, J. Zhang, A. Onae, and J. Yoda, “A portable I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser for international comparisons,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 486–489 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, K.

N. Shen, E. J. Zang, H. Cao, K. Zhao, H. Lu, X. Zhang, Y. Sun, C. Xu, X. Chen, K. Zhang, and X. Bai, “Modulation transfer spectroscopy of 127I2 hyperfine structure near 532nm using a self-made diode-pumped Nd:VVO4-KTP laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 604–607 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

N. Shen, E. J. Zang, H. Cao, K. Zhao, H. Lu, X. Zhang, Y. Sun, C. Xu, X. Chen, K. Zhang, and X. Bai, “Modulation transfer spectroscopy of 127I2 hyperfine structure near 532nm using a self-made diode-pumped Nd:VVO4-KTP laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 604–607 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

F.-L. Hong, Y. Zhang, J. Ishikawa, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, “Vibration dependence of the tensor spin–spin and scalar spin–spin hyperfine interactions by precision measurement of hyperfine structures of 127I2 near 532 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 946–953 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, Y. Zhang, J. Ishikawa, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, “Hyperfine structure and absolute frequency determination of the R(121)35–0 and P(142)37–0 transitions of 127I2 near 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 212, 89–95 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, J. Ishikawa, and F.-L. Hong, “Accurate frequency atlas of molecular iodine near 532 nm measured by an optical frequency comb generator,” Opt. Commun. 200, 209–215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, Y. Zhang, J. Ishikawa, Y. Bitou, A. Onae, J. Yoda, and H. Matsumoto, “Frequency reproducibility of I2-stabilized Nd:YAG lasers,” in Laser Frequency Stabilization, Standards, Measurement, and Applications, J. L. Hall and J. Ye, eds., Proc. SPIE 4269, 143–154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, K.

N. Shen, E. J. Zang, H. Cao, K. Zhao, H. Lu, X. Zhang, Y. Sun, C. Xu, X. Chen, K. Zhang, and X. Bai, “Modulation transfer spectroscopy of 127I2 hyperfine structure near 532nm using a self-made diode-pumped Nd:VVO4-KTP laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 604–607 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

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J. L. Hall and C. J. Bordé, “Shift and broadening of saturation absorption resonances due to curvature of the laser wave fronts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 788–790 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

H. J. Foth and F. Spieweck, “Hyperfine structure of the R(98), 58–1 line of 127I2 at 514.5 nm,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 65, 347–352 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, D. Mogilevtsev, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Experimental measurement of group velocity dispersion in photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 35, 63–64 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

M. Kourogi, K. Nakagawa, and M. Ohtsu, “Wide-span optical frequency comb generator for accurate optical frequency difference measurement,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2693–2701 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Z.-Y. Bi, J. Zhang, A. Onae, and J. Yoda, “A portable I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser for international comparisons,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 486–489 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, J. Yoda, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Frequency comparison of 127I2-stabilized Nd:YAG lasers,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 532–536 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Z.-Y. Bi, J. Zhang, A. Onae, and J. Yoda, “A portable I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser for international comparisons,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 486–489 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Shen, E. J. Zang, H. Cao, K. Zhao, H. Lu, X. Zhang, Y. Sun, C. Xu, X. Chen, K. Zhang, and X. Bai, “Modulation transfer spectroscopy of 127I2 hyperfine structure near 532nm using a self-made diode-pumped Nd:VVO4-KTP laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 604–607 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, K. Sugiyama, A. Onae, H. Matsumoto, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Comparison of independent optical frequency measurements using a portable iodine-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 52, 240–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Absolute frequency atlas of molecular I2 lines at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544–549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, “Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583–586 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. (Paris)

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, “Description of the absorption spectrum of iodine recorded by means of Fourier transform spectroscopy: the (B–X) system,” J. Phys. (Paris) 46, 867–881 (1985).
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J. Physique

Ch. J. Bordé, G. Camy, B. Decomps, J.-P. Descoubes, and J. Vigué, “High precision saturation spectroscopy of 127I2 with argon lasers at 5145 Å and 5017 Å: I-Main resonances,” J. Physique 42, 1393–1411 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia

L. Robertsson, S. Picard, F.-L. Hong, Y. Millerioux, P. Juncar, and L.-S. Ma, “International comparison of 127I2-stabilized frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers between the BIPM, the NRLM and the BNM–INM, October 2000,” Metrologia 38, 567–572 (2001).
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A. Yu. Nevsky, R. Holzwarth, J. Reichert, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. von Zanthire, H. Walther, H. Schnatz, F. Riehle, P. V. Pokasov, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, “Frequency comparison and absolute frequency measurement of I2-stabilized lasers at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 192, 263–272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong and J. Ishikawa, “Hyperfine structures of the R(122)35–0 and P(84)33–0 transitions of 127I2 near 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 183, 101–108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, Y. Zhang, J. Ishikawa, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, “Hyperfine structure and absolute frequency determination of the R(121)35–0 and P(142)37–0 transitions of 127I2 near 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 212, 89–95 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, J. Ishikawa, and F.-L. Hong, “Accurate frequency atlas of molecular iodine near 532 nm measured by an optical frequency comb generator,” Opt. Commun. 200, 209–215 (2001).
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R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264–2267 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Absolute optical frequency measurement of the cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568–3571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
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Proc. SPIE

F.-L. Hong, Y. Zhang, J. Ishikawa, Y. Bitou, A. Onae, J. Yoda, and H. Matsumoto, “Frequency reproducibility of I2-stabilized Nd:YAG lasers,” in Laser Frequency Stabilization, Standards, Measurement, and Applications, J. L. Hall and J. Ye, eds., Proc. SPIE 4269, 143–154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Science

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

Ch. J. Bordé, F. Du Burck, and A. N. Goncharov, “A new accurate fit of the hyperfine structure of molecular iodine,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, P. Gill, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 2002), pp. 524–526.

K. Sugiyama, A. Onae, F.-L. Hong, H. Inaba, S. N. Slyusarev, T. Ikegami, J. Ishikawa, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Optical frequency measurement using an ultrafast mode-locked laser at NMIJ/AIST,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, P. Gill, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 2002), pp. 427–434.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the frequency measurement of an iodine-stabilized Nd:YAG laser that uses a fs optical comb. EOM, an electro-optic modulator; PCF, a photonic crystal fiber; DM, a dichroic mirror; SHG, second-harmonic generation; PBS, a polarization beam splitter; PZT, a piezoelectric transducer; PLL, a phase-lock loop; AMP, an amplifier; SYN, a synthesizer; SMF, a single-mode fiber; D, a detector; AIST, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectra of the original comb of the Ti:sapphire laser and the broadened comb by use of a PCF. The resolution bandwidth was 5 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Observed CEO beat frequency. The resolution bandwidth was 300 kHz. (b) Beat frequency observed between an iodine-stabilized Nd:YAG laser and the broadened comb after the PCF at 1064 nm. The resolution bandwidth was 300 kHz.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Root Allan variance of the measured frequencies. The solid curve with triangles is for the measured beat frequency between the comb based on a H maser and the Nd:YAG laser locked on the R ( 56 ) 32 0 : a 10 transition. The solid curve with circles is for the measured beat frequency between the comb based on a H maser and the Nd:YAG laser locked on the R ( 85 ) 33 0 : a 1 transition. The dashed curve is for a H maser. The dotted curve is for beat frequency between two Nd:YAG lasers, both of which were locked on the R ( 56 ) 32 0 : a 10 transition.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Modulation transfer signals of the R ( 85 ) 33 0 transition observed with a 1-kHz bandwidth.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured absolute frequency of the a 1 component of the R ( 85 ) 33 0 transition. The uncertainties are given as one standard deviation of the averaging.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Observed and Calculated Hyperfine Splittings of the R ( 85 ) 33 0 Transitiona

Tables Icon

Table 2 Fitted Hyperfine Constants

Tables Icon

Table 3 Measured Frequency Interval of the Observed Transition

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f = nf rep + f CEO ± f beat ,
H HFS = eQq · H EQ + C · H SR + d · H TSS + δ · H SSS ,
JIF | H R | JIF = BJ ( J + 1 ) - DJ 2 ( J + 1 ) 2 + HJ 3 ( J + 1 ) 3 ,
Δ d = - 48.75 ( 14 ) kHz ,
Δ δ = - 10.28 ( 20 ) kHz ,
f = 563   260   223   513 ( 5 ) kHz + f interval + f HFS ,

Metrics