Abstract

We have studied the threshold, slope efficiency, and emission kinetics in the NdSc3(BO3)4 random laser as a function of powder particle size. The experimental results are compared with the predictions of diffusion theory. It is shown that under a certain set of assumptions, the diffusion model can qualitatively explain major features in random laser behavior, such as the minimum of the threshold pumping energy at intermediate particle sizes. However, we could not describe with this model functional relationships between various system parameters measured in the experiment.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2003

2002

C. M. Soukoulis, X. Jiang, J. Y. Xu, and H. Cao, “Dynamic response and relaxation oscillations in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 041103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Bahoura, K. J. Morris, and M. A. Noginov, “Thresholdand slope efficiency of Nd0.5La0.5Al3(BO3)4 ceramic random laser: effect of the pumped spot size,” Opt. Commun. 201, 405–412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

Y. Ling, H. Cao, A. L. Burin, M. A. Ratner, X. Liu, and R. P. Chang, “Investigation of random lasers with resonant feedback,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 063808 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Williams, B. Bayram, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, and R. M. Laine, “Laser action in strongly scattering rare-earthdoped dielectric nanophosphors,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 013807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Soest, F. J. Poelwijk, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, “Dynamics of a random laser above threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1522–1525 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cao, Y. Ling, and C. Q. Cao, “Photon statistics of random lasers with resonant feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4524–4527 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Polson, J. D. Huang, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasers in π-conjugated polymer films,” Synth. Met. 119, 7–12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Polson, A. Chipouline, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in p-conjugated films and infiltrated opals,” Adv. Mater. 13, 760–764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, K. M. Ho, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Mode distribution in coherently amplifying laser medium,” Physica B 296, 78–84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Durmanov, O. V. Kuzmin, G. M. Kuzmicheva, S. A. Kutovoi, A. A. Martynov, E. K. Nesynov, V. L. Panyutin, Yu. P. Rudnitsky, G. V. Smirnov, V. I. Chizhikov, “Binary rare-earth scandium borates for diode-pumped lasers,” Opt. Mater. 18, 243–284 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

K. Totsuka, G. V. Soest, T. Ito, A. Lagendijk, and M. Tomita, “Amplification and diffusion of spontaneous emission in strongly scattering medium,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7623–7628 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Rand, “Strong localization of light and photonic atoms,” Can. J. Phys. 78, 625–637 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Laine, T. Hinklin, G. Williams, and S. C. Rand, “Low-cost nanopowders for phosphor and laser applications by flame spray pyrolysis,” Mater. Sci. Forum 343, 500–510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. F. Zolin, “The nature of plaser-powdered laser,” J. Alloys Compd. 300–301, 214–217 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Auzel and P. Goldner, “Coherent light sources with powder: stimulated amplification versus superradiance,” J. Alloys Compd. 300–301, 11–17 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, E. W. Seeling, and R. P. H. Chang, “Microlaser made of disordered media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2997–2999 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S. H. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial confinement of laser light in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5584–5587 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

M. A. Noginov, S. U. Egarievwe, N. Noginova, H. J. Caulfield, and J. C. Wang, “Interferometric studies in a powder laser,” Opt. Mater. 12, 127–134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Lichmanov, C. M. Briskina, N. P. Soshchin, and V. F. Zolin, “Lasing in powders and its use for data processing,” Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR, Phys. Ser. 63, 922–926 (1999).

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, X. Liu, E. W. Seelig, and R. P. H. Chang, “Effect of external feedback on lasing in random media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1213–1215 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Soest, M. Tomita, A. Lagendijk, “Amplifying volume in scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 24, 306–308 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. A. Noginov, S. U. Egarievwe, N. Noginova, J. C. Wang, and H. J. Caulfield, “Demonstration of a second-harmonic powder laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2854–2860 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Ostroumov, T. Jensen, J. P. Meyn, G. Huber, and M. A. Noginov, “Study of luminescence concentration quenching and energy transfer upconversion in Nd-doped LaSc3(BO3)4 and GdVO4 laser crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1052–1060 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Lichmanov, C. M. Briskina, V. M. Markushev, V. N. Lichmanova, and N. P. Soshchin, “Degree of coherence and dimensions of the generation region of powder lasers,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 65, 818–825 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3656–3658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, N. Noginova, S. U. Egarievwe, J. C. Wang, M. R. Kokta, and J. Paitz, “Study of light propagation in scattering powder laser materials,” Opt. Mater. 11, 1–7 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, N. Noginova, S. U. Egarievwe, H. J. Caulfield, C. Cochrane, J. C. Wang, M. R. Kokta, and J. Paitz, “Study of the pumping regimes in Ti-sapphire and Nd0.5La0.5Al3(BO3)4 powders,” Opt. Mater. 10, 297–303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Tissue, “Synthesis and luminescence of lanthanide ions in nanoscale insulating hosts,” Chem. Mater. 10, 2837–2845 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

M. A. Noginov, N. E. Noginova, H. J. Caulfield, P. Venkateswarlu, T. Thompson, M. Mahdi, and V. Ostroumov, “Short-pulsed stimulated emission in the powders of NdAl3(BO3)4, NdSc3(BO3)4, and Nd:Sr5(PO4)3F laser crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2024–2033 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Briskina, V. M. Markushev, and N. È. Ter-Gabriélyan, “Use of a model of coupled microcavities in the interpretation of experiments on powder lasers,” Quantum Electron. 26, 923–927 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Hide, B. J. Schwartz, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, “Laser emission from solutions and films containing semiconducting polymer and titanium dioxide nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 256, 424–430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wiersma and A. Lagendijk, “Light diffusion with gain and random lasers,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 4256–4265 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

D. Wolf, J. Wang, S. R. Phillpot, and H. Gleiter, “Phonon-induced anomalous specific heat of a nanocrystalline model material by computer simulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4686–4689 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering medium,” Nature 368, 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

1991

N. È. Ter-Gabriélyan, V. M. Markushev, V. R. Belan, C. M. Briskina, and V. F. Zolin, “Stimulated emission spectra of powders of double sodium and lanthanum tetramolybdate,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 32–33 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. È. Ter-Gabriélyan, V. M. Markushev, V. R. Belan, C. M. Briskina, O. V. Dimitrova, V. F. Zolin, and A. V. Lavrov, “Stimulated radiation emitted by lithium neodymium tetraphosphate LiNd(PO3)4 and neodymium pentaphosphate NdP5O14 powders,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 840–841 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

V. M. Markushev, N. È. Ter-Gabriélyan, C. M. Briskina, V. R. Belan, and V. F. Zolin, “Stimulated emission kinetics of neodymium powder lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 772–777 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986

V. M. Markushev, V. F. Zolin, and C. M. Briskina, “Luminescence and stimulated emission of neodymium in sodium lanthanum molybdate powders,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 281–283 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

P. W. Anderson, “The question of classical localization: A theory of white paint,” Philos. Mag. B 52, 505–509 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1981

V. A. Nikitenko, A. I. Tereschenko, I. P. Kuz’mina, and A. N. Lobachev, “Stimulated emission of ZnO at high level of single photon excitation,” (in Russian), Opt. Spektrosk. 50, 605–607 (1981).

1968

V. S. Letokhov, “Generation of light by a scattering medium with negative resonance absorption,” Sov. Phys. JETP 26, 835–840 (1968).

1967

V. S. Letokhov, “Stimulated emission of an ensemble of scattering particles with negative absorption,” JETP Lett. 5, 212–215 (1967).

Anderson, P. W.

P. W. Anderson, “The question of classical localization: A theory of white paint,” Philos. Mag. B 52, 505–509 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Auzel, F.

Bahoura, M.

M. Bahoura and M. A. Noginov, “Determination of the transport mean free path in a solid-state random laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2389–2394 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Bahoura, K. J. Morris, and M. A. Noginov, “Thresholdand slope efficiency of Nd0.5La0.5Al3(BO3)4 ceramic random laser: effect of the pumped spot size,” Opt. Commun. 201, 405–412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Balachandran, R. M.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering medium,” Nature 368, 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bayram, B.

G. Williams, B. Bayram, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, and R. M. Laine, “Laser action in strongly scattering rare-earthdoped dielectric nanophosphors,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 013807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Belan, V. R.

N. È. Ter-Gabriélyan, V. M. Markushev, V. R. Belan, C. M. Briskina, O. V. Dimitrova, V. F. Zolin, and A. V. Lavrov, “Stimulated radiation emitted by lithium neodymium tetraphosphate LiNd(PO3)4 and neodymium pentaphosphate NdP5O14 powders,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 840–841 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. È. Ter-Gabriélyan, V. M. Markushev, V. R. Belan, C. M. Briskina, and V. F. Zolin, “Stimulated emission spectra of powders of double sodium and lanthanum tetramolybdate,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 32–33 (1991).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Markushev, N. È. Ter-Gabriélyan, C. M. Briskina, V. R. Belan, and V. F. Zolin, “Stimulated emission kinetics of neodymium powder lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 772–777 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Briskina, C. M.

A. A. Lichmanov, C. M. Briskina, N. P. Soshchin, and V. F. Zolin, “Lasing in powders and its use for data processing,” Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR, Phys. Ser. 63, 922–926 (1999).

A. A. Lichmanov, C. M. Briskina, V. M. Markushev, V. N. Lichmanova, and N. P. Soshchin, “Degree of coherence and dimensions of the generation region of powder lasers,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 65, 818–825 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Briskina, V. M. Markushev, and N. È. Ter-Gabriélyan, “Use of a model of coupled microcavities in the interpretation of experiments on powder lasers,” Quantum Electron. 26, 923–927 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. È. Ter-Gabriélyan, V. M. Markushev, V. R. Belan, C. M. Briskina, and V. F. Zolin, “Stimulated emission spectra of powders of double sodium and lanthanum tetramolybdate,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 32–33 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. È. Ter-Gabriélyan, V. M. Markushev, V. R. Belan, C. M. Briskina, O. V. Dimitrova, V. F. Zolin, and A. V. Lavrov, “Stimulated radiation emitted by lithium neodymium tetraphosphate LiNd(PO3)4 and neodymium pentaphosphate NdP5O14 powders,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 840–841 (1991).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Markushev, N. È. Ter-Gabriélyan, C. M. Briskina, V. R. Belan, and V. F. Zolin, “Stimulated emission kinetics of neodymium powder lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 772–777 (1990).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Markushev, V. F. Zolin, and C. M. Briskina, “Luminescence and stimulated emission of neodymium in sodium lanthanum molybdate powders,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 281–283 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Burin, A. L.

Y. Ling, H. Cao, A. L. Burin, M. A. Ratner, X. Liu, and R. P. Chang, “Investigation of random lasers with resonant feedback,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 063808 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cao, C. Q.

H. Cao, Y. Ling, and C. Q. Cao, “Photon statistics of random lasers with resonant feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4524–4527 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, H.

C. M. Soukoulis, X. Jiang, J. Y. Xu, and H. Cao, “Dynamic response and relaxation oscillations in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 041103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ling, H. Cao, A. L. Burin, M. A. Ratner, X. Liu, and R. P. Chang, “Investigation of random lasers with resonant feedback,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 063808 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, Y. Ling, and C. Q. Cao, “Photon statistics of random lasers with resonant feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4524–4527 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, E. W. Seeling, and R. P. H. Chang, “Microlaser made of disordered media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2997–2999 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S. H. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial confinement of laser light in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5584–5587 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, X. Liu, E. W. Seelig, and R. P. H. Chang, “Effect of external feedback on lasing in random media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1213–1215 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3656–3658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Caulfield, H. J.

Chang, R. P.

Y. Ling, H. Cao, A. L. Burin, M. A. Ratner, X. Liu, and R. P. Chang, “Investigation of random lasers with resonant feedback,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 063808 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. P. H.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, E. W. Seeling, and R. P. H. Chang, “Microlaser made of disordered media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2997–2999 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S. H. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial confinement of laser light in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5584–5587 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, X. Liu, E. W. Seelig, and R. P. H. Chang, “Effect of external feedback on lasing in random media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1213–1215 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3656–3658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. H.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S. H. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial confinement of laser light in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5584–5587 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. C. Polson, A. Chipouline, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in p-conjugated films and infiltrated opals,” Adv. Mater. 13, 760–764 (2001).
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S. T. Durmanov, O. V. Kuzmin, G. M. Kuzmicheva, S. A. Kutovoi, A. A. Martynov, E. K. Nesynov, V. L. Panyutin, Yu. P. Rudnitsky, G. V. Smirnov, V. I. Chizhikov, “Binary rare-earth scandium borates for diode-pumped lasers,” Opt. Mater. 18, 243–284 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cochrane, C.

M. A. Noginov, N. Noginova, S. U. Egarievwe, H. J. Caulfield, C. Cochrane, J. C. Wang, M. R. Kokta, and J. Paitz, “Study of the pumping regimes in Ti-sapphire and Nd0.5La0.5Al3(BO3)4 powders,” Opt. Mater. 10, 297–303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dai, J. Y.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3656–3658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Díaz-García, M. A.

F. Hide, B. J. Schwartz, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, “Laser emission from solutions and films containing semiconducting polymer and titanium dioxide nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 256, 424–430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dimitrova, O. V.

N. È. Ter-Gabriélyan, V. M. Markushev, V. R. Belan, C. M. Briskina, O. V. Dimitrova, V. F. Zolin, and A. V. Lavrov, “Stimulated radiation emitted by lithium neodymium tetraphosphate LiNd(PO3)4 and neodymium pentaphosphate NdP5O14 powders,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 840–841 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Durmanov, S. T.

S. T. Durmanov, O. V. Kuzmin, G. M. Kuzmicheva, S. A. Kutovoi, A. A. Martynov, E. K. Nesynov, V. L. Panyutin, Yu. P. Rudnitsky, G. V. Smirnov, V. I. Chizhikov, “Binary rare-earth scandium borates for diode-pumped lasers,” Opt. Mater. 18, 243–284 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Egarievwe, S. U.

M. A. Noginov, S. U. Egarievwe, N. Noginova, H. J. Caulfield, and J. C. Wang, “Interferometric studies in a powder laser,” Opt. Mater. 12, 127–134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, S. U. Egarievwe, N. Noginova, J. C. Wang, and H. J. Caulfield, “Demonstration of a second-harmonic powder laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2854–2860 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, N. Noginova, S. U. Egarievwe, H. J. Caulfield, C. Cochrane, J. C. Wang, M. R. Kokta, and J. Paitz, “Study of the pumping regimes in Ti-sapphire and Nd0.5La0.5Al3(BO3)4 powders,” Opt. Mater. 10, 297–303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, N. Noginova, S. U. Egarievwe, J. C. Wang, M. R. Kokta, and J. Paitz, “Study of light propagation in scattering powder laser materials,” Opt. Mater. 11, 1–7 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, N. E. Noginova, S. U. Egarievwe, H. J. Caulfield, P. Venkateswarlu, A. Williams, and S. B. Mirov, “Color-center powder laser: the effect of pulverization on color-center characteristics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2153–2160 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gleiter, H.

D. Wolf, J. Wang, S. R. Phillpot, and H. Gleiter, “Phonon-induced anomalous specific heat of a nanocrystalline model material by computer simulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4686–4689 (1995).
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F. Auzel and P. Goldner, “Coherent light sources with powder: stimulated amplification versus superradiance,” J. Alloys Compd. 300–301, 11–17 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A. S. L.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering medium,” Nature 368, 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gouedard, C.

Heeger, A. J.

F. Hide, B. J. Schwartz, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, “Laser emission from solutions and films containing semiconducting polymer and titanium dioxide nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 256, 424–430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hide, F.

F. Hide, B. J. Schwartz, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, “Laser emission from solutions and films containing semiconducting polymer and titanium dioxide nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 256, 424–430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hinklin, T.

G. Williams, B. Bayram, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, and R. M. Laine, “Laser action in strongly scattering rare-earthdoped dielectric nanophosphors,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 013807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Laine, T. Hinklin, G. Williams, and S. C. Rand, “Low-cost nanopowders for phosphor and laser applications by flame spray pyrolysis,” Mater. Sci. Forum 343, 500–510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ho, K. M.

Q. Li, K. M. Ho, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Mode distribution in coherently amplifying laser medium,” Physica B 296, 78–84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S. T.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S. H. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial confinement of laser light in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5584–5587 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3656–3658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. D.

R. C. Polson, J. D. Huang, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasers in π-conjugated polymer films,” Synth. Met. 119, 7–12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

Husson, D.

Ito, T.

K. Totsuka, G. V. Soest, T. Ito, A. Lagendijk, and M. Tomita, “Amplification and diffusion of spontaneous emission in strongly scattering medium,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7623–7628 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, T.

Jiang, X.

C. M. Soukoulis, X. Jiang, J. Y. Xu, and H. Cao, “Dynamic response and relaxation oscillations in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 041103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kokta, M. R.

M. A. Noginov, N. Noginova, S. U. Egarievwe, H. J. Caulfield, C. Cochrane, J. C. Wang, M. R. Kokta, and J. Paitz, “Study of the pumping regimes in Ti-sapphire and Nd0.5La0.5Al3(BO3)4 powders,” Opt. Mater. 10, 297–303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, N. Noginova, S. U. Egarievwe, J. C. Wang, M. R. Kokta, and J. Paitz, “Study of light propagation in scattering powder laser materials,” Opt. Mater. 11, 1–7 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kutovoi, S. A.

S. T. Durmanov, O. V. Kuzmin, G. M. Kuzmicheva, S. A. Kutovoi, A. A. Martynov, E. K. Nesynov, V. L. Panyutin, Yu. P. Rudnitsky, G. V. Smirnov, V. I. Chizhikov, “Binary rare-earth scandium borates for diode-pumped lasers,” Opt. Mater. 18, 243–284 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kuz’mina, I. P.

V. A. Nikitenko, A. I. Tereschenko, I. P. Kuz’mina, and A. N. Lobachev, “Stimulated emission of ZnO at high level of single photon excitation,” (in Russian), Opt. Spektrosk. 50, 605–607 (1981).

Kuzmicheva, G. M.

S. T. Durmanov, O. V. Kuzmin, G. M. Kuzmicheva, S. A. Kutovoi, A. A. Martynov, E. K. Nesynov, V. L. Panyutin, Yu. P. Rudnitsky, G. V. Smirnov, V. I. Chizhikov, “Binary rare-earth scandium borates for diode-pumped lasers,” Opt. Mater. 18, 243–284 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kuzmin, O. V.

S. T. Durmanov, O. V. Kuzmin, G. M. Kuzmicheva, S. A. Kutovoi, A. A. Martynov, E. K. Nesynov, V. L. Panyutin, Yu. P. Rudnitsky, G. V. Smirnov, V. I. Chizhikov, “Binary rare-earth scandium borates for diode-pumped lasers,” Opt. Mater. 18, 243–284 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lagendijk, A.

G. V. Soest, F. J. Poelwijk, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, “Dynamics of a random laser above threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1522–1525 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Totsuka, G. V. Soest, T. Ito, A. Lagendijk, and M. Tomita, “Amplification and diffusion of spontaneous emission in strongly scattering medium,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7623–7628 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Soest, M. Tomita, A. Lagendijk, “Amplifying volume in scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 24, 306–308 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wiersma and A. Lagendijk, “Light diffusion with gain and random lasers,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 4256–4265 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Laine, R. M.

G. Williams, B. Bayram, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, and R. M. Laine, “Laser action in strongly scattering rare-earthdoped dielectric nanophosphors,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 013807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Laine, T. Hinklin, G. Williams, and S. C. Rand, “Low-cost nanopowders for phosphor and laser applications by flame spray pyrolysis,” Mater. Sci. Forum 343, 500–510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lavrov, A. V.

N. È. Ter-Gabriélyan, V. M. Markushev, V. R. Belan, C. M. Briskina, O. V. Dimitrova, V. F. Zolin, and A. V. Lavrov, “Stimulated radiation emitted by lithium neodymium tetraphosphate LiNd(PO3)4 and neodymium pentaphosphate NdP5O14 powders,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 840–841 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lawandy, N. M.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering medium,” Nature 368, 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Letokhov, V. S.

V. S. Letokhov, “Generation of light by a scattering medium with negative resonance absorption,” Sov. Phys. JETP 26, 835–840 (1968).

V. S. Letokhov, “Stimulated emission of an ensemble of scattering particles with negative absorption,” JETP Lett. 5, 212–215 (1967).

Li, Q.

Q. Li, K. M. Ho, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Mode distribution in coherently amplifying laser medium,” Physica B 296, 78–84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lichmanov, A. A.

A. A. Lichmanov, C. M. Briskina, N. P. Soshchin, and V. F. Zolin, “Lasing in powders and its use for data processing,” Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR, Phys. Ser. 63, 922–926 (1999).

A. A. Lichmanov, C. M. Briskina, V. M. Markushev, V. N. Lichmanova, and N. P. Soshchin, “Degree of coherence and dimensions of the generation region of powder lasers,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 65, 818–825 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lichmanova, V. N.

A. A. Lichmanov, C. M. Briskina, V. M. Markushev, V. N. Lichmanova, and N. P. Soshchin, “Degree of coherence and dimensions of the generation region of powder lasers,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 65, 818–825 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ling, Y.

H. Cao, Y. Ling, and C. Q. Cao, “Photon statistics of random lasers with resonant feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4524–4527 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ling, H. Cao, A. L. Burin, M. A. Ratner, X. Liu, and R. P. Chang, “Investigation of random lasers with resonant feedback,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 063808 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Y. Ling, H. Cao, A. L. Burin, M. A. Ratner, X. Liu, and R. P. Chang, “Investigation of random lasers with resonant feedback,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 063808 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S. H. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial confinement of laser light in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5584–5587 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, X. Liu, E. W. Seelig, and R. P. H. Chang, “Effect of external feedback on lasing in random media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1213–1215 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lobachev, A. N.

V. A. Nikitenko, A. I. Tereschenko, I. P. Kuz’mina, and A. N. Lobachev, “Stimulated emission of ZnO at high level of single photon excitation,” (in Russian), Opt. Spektrosk. 50, 605–607 (1981).

Mahdi, M.

Markushev, V. M.

A. A. Lichmanov, C. M. Briskina, V. M. Markushev, V. N. Lichmanova, and N. P. Soshchin, “Degree of coherence and dimensions of the generation region of powder lasers,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 65, 818–825 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Briskina, V. M. Markushev, and N. È. Ter-Gabriélyan, “Use of a model of coupled microcavities in the interpretation of experiments on powder lasers,” Quantum Electron. 26, 923–927 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. È. Ter-Gabriélyan, V. M. Markushev, V. R. Belan, C. M. Briskina, and V. F. Zolin, “Stimulated emission spectra of powders of double sodium and lanthanum tetramolybdate,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 32–33 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. È. Ter-Gabriélyan, V. M. Markushev, V. R. Belan, C. M. Briskina, O. V. Dimitrova, V. F. Zolin, and A. V. Lavrov, “Stimulated radiation emitted by lithium neodymium tetraphosphate LiNd(PO3)4 and neodymium pentaphosphate NdP5O14 powders,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 840–841 (1991).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Markushev, N. È. Ter-Gabriélyan, C. M. Briskina, V. R. Belan, and V. F. Zolin, “Stimulated emission kinetics of neodymium powder lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 772–777 (1990).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Markushev, V. F. Zolin, and C. M. Briskina, “Luminescence and stimulated emission of neodymium in sodium lanthanum molybdate powders,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 281–283 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Martynov, A. A.

S. T. Durmanov, O. V. Kuzmin, G. M. Kuzmicheva, S. A. Kutovoi, A. A. Martynov, E. K. Nesynov, V. L. Panyutin, Yu. P. Rudnitsky, G. V. Smirnov, V. I. Chizhikov, “Binary rare-earth scandium borates for diode-pumped lasers,” Opt. Mater. 18, 243–284 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Meyn, J. P.

Migus, A.

Mirov, S. B.

Morris, K. J.

M. Bahoura, K. J. Morris, and M. A. Noginov, “Thresholdand slope efficiency of Nd0.5La0.5Al3(BO3)4 ceramic random laser: effect of the pumped spot size,” Opt. Commun. 201, 405–412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nesynov, E. K.

S. T. Durmanov, O. V. Kuzmin, G. M. Kuzmicheva, S. A. Kutovoi, A. A. Martynov, E. K. Nesynov, V. L. Panyutin, Yu. P. Rudnitsky, G. V. Smirnov, V. I. Chizhikov, “Binary rare-earth scandium borates for diode-pumped lasers,” Opt. Mater. 18, 243–284 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nikitenko, V. A.

V. A. Nikitenko, A. I. Tereschenko, I. P. Kuz’mina, and A. N. Lobachev, “Stimulated emission of ZnO at high level of single photon excitation,” (in Russian), Opt. Spektrosk. 50, 605–607 (1981).

Noginov, M. A.

M. Bahoura and M. A. Noginov, “Determination of the transport mean free path in a solid-state random laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2389–2394 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Bahoura, K. J. Morris, and M. A. Noginov, “Thresholdand slope efficiency of Nd0.5La0.5Al3(BO3)4 ceramic random laser: effect of the pumped spot size,” Opt. Commun. 201, 405–412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, S. U. Egarievwe, N. Noginova, H. J. Caulfield, and J. C. Wang, “Interferometric studies in a powder laser,” Opt. Mater. 12, 127–134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, S. U. Egarievwe, N. Noginova, J. C. Wang, and H. J. Caulfield, “Demonstration of a second-harmonic powder laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2854–2860 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, N. Noginova, S. U. Egarievwe, H. J. Caulfield, C. Cochrane, J. C. Wang, M. R. Kokta, and J. Paitz, “Study of the pumping regimes in Ti-sapphire and Nd0.5La0.5Al3(BO3)4 powders,” Opt. Mater. 10, 297–303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Ostroumov, T. Jensen, J. P. Meyn, G. Huber, and M. A. Noginov, “Study of luminescence concentration quenching and energy transfer upconversion in Nd-doped LaSc3(BO3)4 and GdVO4 laser crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1052–1060 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, N. Noginova, S. U. Egarievwe, J. C. Wang, M. R. Kokta, and J. Paitz, “Study of light propagation in scattering powder laser materials,” Opt. Mater. 11, 1–7 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, N. E. Noginova, S. U. Egarievwe, H. J. Caulfield, P. Venkateswarlu, A. Williams, and S. B. Mirov, “Color-center powder laser: the effect of pulverization on color-center characteristics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2153–2160 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, N. E. Noginova, H. J. Caulfield, P. Venkateswarlu, T. Thompson, M. Mahdi, and V. Ostroumov, “Short-pulsed stimulated emission in the powders of NdAl3(BO3)4, NdSc3(BO3)4, and Nd:Sr5(PO4)3F laser crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2024–2033 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Noginova, N.

M. A. Noginov, S. U. Egarievwe, N. Noginova, H. J. Caulfield, and J. C. Wang, “Interferometric studies in a powder laser,” Opt. Mater. 12, 127–134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, N. Noginova, S. U. Egarievwe, H. J. Caulfield, C. Cochrane, J. C. Wang, M. R. Kokta, and J. Paitz, “Study of the pumping regimes in Ti-sapphire and Nd0.5La0.5Al3(BO3)4 powders,” Opt. Mater. 10, 297–303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, S. U. Egarievwe, N. Noginova, J. C. Wang, and H. J. Caulfield, “Demonstration of a second-harmonic powder laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2854–2860 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, N. Noginova, S. U. Egarievwe, J. C. Wang, M. R. Kokta, and J. Paitz, “Study of light propagation in scattering powder laser materials,” Opt. Mater. 11, 1–7 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Noginova, N. E.

Ong, H. C.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3656–3658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ostroumov, V.

Paitz, J.

M. A. Noginov, N. Noginova, S. U. Egarievwe, H. J. Caulfield, C. Cochrane, J. C. Wang, M. R. Kokta, and J. Paitz, “Study of the pumping regimes in Ti-sapphire and Nd0.5La0.5Al3(BO3)4 powders,” Opt. Mater. 10, 297–303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, N. Noginova, S. U. Egarievwe, J. C. Wang, M. R. Kokta, and J. Paitz, “Study of light propagation in scattering powder laser materials,” Opt. Mater. 11, 1–7 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Panyutin, V. L.

S. T. Durmanov, O. V. Kuzmin, G. M. Kuzmicheva, S. A. Kutovoi, A. A. Martynov, E. K. Nesynov, V. L. Panyutin, Yu. P. Rudnitsky, G. V. Smirnov, V. I. Chizhikov, “Binary rare-earth scandium borates for diode-pumped lasers,” Opt. Mater. 18, 243–284 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phillpot, S. R.

D. Wolf, J. Wang, S. R. Phillpot, and H. Gleiter, “Phonon-induced anomalous specific heat of a nanocrystalline model material by computer simulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4686–4689 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poelwijk, F. J.

G. V. Soest, F. J. Poelwijk, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, “Dynamics of a random laser above threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1522–1525 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polson, R. C.

R. C. Polson, A. Chipouline, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in p-conjugated films and infiltrated opals,” Adv. Mater. 13, 760–764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Polson, J. D. Huang, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasers in π-conjugated polymer films,” Synth. Met. 119, 7–12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rand, S. C.

G. Williams, B. Bayram, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, and R. M. Laine, “Laser action in strongly scattering rare-earthdoped dielectric nanophosphors,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 013807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Rand, “Strong localization of light and photonic atoms,” Can. J. Phys. 78, 625–637 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Laine, T. Hinklin, G. Williams, and S. C. Rand, “Low-cost nanopowders for phosphor and laser applications by flame spray pyrolysis,” Mater. Sci. Forum 343, 500–510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ratner, M. A.

Y. Ling, H. Cao, A. L. Burin, M. A. Ratner, X. Liu, and R. P. Chang, “Investigation of random lasers with resonant feedback,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 063808 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rudnitsky, Yu. P.

S. T. Durmanov, O. V. Kuzmin, G. M. Kuzmicheva, S. A. Kutovoi, A. A. Martynov, E. K. Nesynov, V. L. Panyutin, Yu. P. Rudnitsky, G. V. Smirnov, V. I. Chizhikov, “Binary rare-earth scandium borates for diode-pumped lasers,” Opt. Mater. 18, 243–284 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sauteret, C.

Sauvain, E.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering medium,” Nature 368, 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, B. J.

F. Hide, B. J. Schwartz, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, “Laser emission from solutions and films containing semiconducting polymer and titanium dioxide nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 256, 424–430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Seelig, E. W.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S. H. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial confinement of laser light in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5584–5587 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, X. Liu, E. W. Seelig, and R. P. H. Chang, “Effect of external feedback on lasing in random media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1213–1215 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Seeling, E. W.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, E. W. Seeling, and R. P. H. Chang, “Microlaser made of disordered media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2997–2999 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, G. V.

S. T. Durmanov, O. V. Kuzmin, G. M. Kuzmicheva, S. A. Kutovoi, A. A. Martynov, E. K. Nesynov, V. L. Panyutin, Yu. P. Rudnitsky, G. V. Smirnov, V. I. Chizhikov, “Binary rare-earth scandium borates for diode-pumped lasers,” Opt. Mater. 18, 243–284 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Soest, G. V.

G. V. Soest, F. J. Poelwijk, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, “Dynamics of a random laser above threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1522–1525 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Totsuka, G. V. Soest, T. Ito, A. Lagendijk, and M. Tomita, “Amplification and diffusion of spontaneous emission in strongly scattering medium,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7623–7628 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Soest, M. Tomita, A. Lagendijk, “Amplifying volume in scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 24, 306–308 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Soshchin, N. P.

A. A. Lichmanov, C. M. Briskina, N. P. Soshchin, and V. F. Zolin, “Lasing in powders and its use for data processing,” Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR, Phys. Ser. 63, 922–926 (1999).

A. A. Lichmanov, C. M. Briskina, V. M. Markushev, V. N. Lichmanova, and N. P. Soshchin, “Degree of coherence and dimensions of the generation region of powder lasers,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 65, 818–825 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

C. M. Soukoulis, X. Jiang, J. Y. Xu, and H. Cao, “Dynamic response and relaxation oscillations in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 041103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, K. M. Ho, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Mode distribution in coherently amplifying laser medium,” Physica B 296, 78–84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sprik, R.

G. V. Soest, F. J. Poelwijk, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, “Dynamics of a random laser above threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1522–1525 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tereschenko, A. I.

V. A. Nikitenko, A. I. Tereschenko, I. P. Kuz’mina, and A. N. Lobachev, “Stimulated emission of ZnO at high level of single photon excitation,” (in Russian), Opt. Spektrosk. 50, 605–607 (1981).

Ter-Gabriélyan, N. È.

C. M. Briskina, V. M. Markushev, and N. È. Ter-Gabriélyan, “Use of a model of coupled microcavities in the interpretation of experiments on powder lasers,” Quantum Electron. 26, 923–927 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. È. Ter-Gabriélyan, V. M. Markushev, V. R. Belan, C. M. Briskina, and V. F. Zolin, “Stimulated emission spectra of powders of double sodium and lanthanum tetramolybdate,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 32–33 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. È. Ter-Gabriélyan, V. M. Markushev, V. R. Belan, C. M. Briskina, O. V. Dimitrova, V. F. Zolin, and A. V. Lavrov, “Stimulated radiation emitted by lithium neodymium tetraphosphate LiNd(PO3)4 and neodymium pentaphosphate NdP5O14 powders,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 840–841 (1991).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Markushev, N. È. Ter-Gabriélyan, C. M. Briskina, V. R. Belan, and V. F. Zolin, “Stimulated emission kinetics of neodymium powder lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 772–777 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, T.

Tissue, B. M.

B. M. Tissue, “Synthesis and luminescence of lanthanide ions in nanoscale insulating hosts,” Chem. Mater. 10, 2837–2845 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tomita, M.

K. Totsuka, G. V. Soest, T. Ito, A. Lagendijk, and M. Tomita, “Amplification and diffusion of spontaneous emission in strongly scattering medium,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7623–7628 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Soest, M. Tomita, A. Lagendijk, “Amplifying volume in scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 24, 306–308 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Totsuka, K.

K. Totsuka, G. V. Soest, T. Ito, A. Lagendijk, and M. Tomita, “Amplification and diffusion of spontaneous emission in strongly scattering medium,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7623–7628 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vardeny, Z. V.

R. C. Polson, A. Chipouline, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in p-conjugated films and infiltrated opals,” Adv. Mater. 13, 760–764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Polson, J. D. Huang, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasers in π-conjugated polymer films,” Synth. Met. 119, 7–12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Venkateswarlu, P.

Wang, J.

D. Wolf, J. Wang, S. R. Phillpot, and H. Gleiter, “Phonon-induced anomalous specific heat of a nanocrystalline model material by computer simulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4686–4689 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J. C.

M. A. Noginov, S. U. Egarievwe, N. Noginova, H. J. Caulfield, and J. C. Wang, “Interferometric studies in a powder laser,” Opt. Mater. 12, 127–134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, S. U. Egarievwe, N. Noginova, J. C. Wang, and H. J. Caulfield, “Demonstration of a second-harmonic powder laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2854–2860 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, N. Noginova, S. U. Egarievwe, H. J. Caulfield, C. Cochrane, J. C. Wang, M. R. Kokta, and J. Paitz, “Study of the pumping regimes in Ti-sapphire and Nd0.5La0.5Al3(BO3)4 powders,” Opt. Mater. 10, 297–303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, N. Noginova, S. U. Egarievwe, J. C. Wang, M. R. Kokta, and J. Paitz, “Study of light propagation in scattering powder laser materials,” Opt. Mater. 11, 1–7 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wiersma, D. S.

D. S. Wiersma and A. Lagendijk, “Light diffusion with gain and random lasers,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 4256–4265 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Williams, A.

Williams, G.

G. Williams, B. Bayram, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, and R. M. Laine, “Laser action in strongly scattering rare-earthdoped dielectric nanophosphors,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 013807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Laine, T. Hinklin, G. Williams, and S. C. Rand, “Low-cost nanopowders for phosphor and laser applications by flame spray pyrolysis,” Mater. Sci. Forum 343, 500–510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, D.

D. Wolf, J. Wang, S. R. Phillpot, and H. Gleiter, “Phonon-induced anomalous specific heat of a nanocrystalline model material by computer simulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4686–4689 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, J. Y.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3656–3658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J. Y.

C. M. Soukoulis, X. Jiang, J. Y. Xu, and H. Cao, “Dynamic response and relaxation oscillations in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 041103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S. H. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial confinement of laser light in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5584–5587 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, E. W. Seeling, and R. P. H. Chang, “Microlaser made of disordered media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2997–2999 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D. Z.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S. H. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial confinement of laser light in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5584–5587 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y. G.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, X. Liu, E. W. Seelig, and R. P. H. Chang, “Effect of external feedback on lasing in random media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1213–1215 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3656–3658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zolin, V. F.

V. F. Zolin, “The nature of plaser-powdered laser,” J. Alloys Compd. 300–301, 214–217 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Lichmanov, C. M. Briskina, N. P. Soshchin, and V. F. Zolin, “Lasing in powders and its use for data processing,” Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR, Phys. Ser. 63, 922–926 (1999).

N. È. Ter-Gabriélyan, V. M. Markushev, V. R. Belan, C. M. Briskina, O. V. Dimitrova, V. F. Zolin, and A. V. Lavrov, “Stimulated radiation emitted by lithium neodymium tetraphosphate LiNd(PO3)4 and neodymium pentaphosphate NdP5O14 powders,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 840–841 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. È. Ter-Gabriélyan, V. M. Markushev, V. R. Belan, C. M. Briskina, and V. F. Zolin, “Stimulated emission spectra of powders of double sodium and lanthanum tetramolybdate,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 32–33 (1991).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Markushev, N. È. Ter-Gabriélyan, C. M. Briskina, V. R. Belan, and V. F. Zolin, “Stimulated emission kinetics of neodymium powder lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 772–777 (1990).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Markushev, V. F. Zolin, and C. M. Briskina, “Luminescence and stimulated emission of neodymium in sodium lanthanum molybdate powders,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 281–283 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

R. C. Polson, A. Chipouline, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in p-conjugated films and infiltrated opals,” Adv. Mater. 13, 760–764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3656–3658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, X. Liu, E. W. Seelig, and R. P. H. Chang, “Effect of external feedback on lasing in random media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1213–1215 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, E. W. Seeling, and R. P. H. Chang, “Microlaser made of disordered media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2997–2999 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR, Phys. Ser.

A. A. Lichmanov, C. M. Briskina, N. P. Soshchin, and V. F. Zolin, “Lasing in powders and its use for data processing,” Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR, Phys. Ser. 63, 922–926 (1999).

Can. J. Phys.

S. C. Rand, “Strong localization of light and photonic atoms,” Can. J. Phys. 78, 625–637 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater.

B. M. Tissue, “Synthesis and luminescence of lanthanide ions in nanoscale insulating hosts,” Chem. Mater. 10, 2837–2845 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

F. Hide, B. J. Schwartz, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, “Laser emission from solutions and films containing semiconducting polymer and titanium dioxide nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 256, 424–430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloys Compd.

V. F. Zolin, “The nature of plaser-powdered laser,” J. Alloys Compd. 300–301, 214–217 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Auzel and P. Goldner, “Coherent light sources with powder: stimulated amplification versus superradiance,” J. Alloys Compd. 300–301, 11–17 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

K. Totsuka, G. V. Soest, T. Ito, A. Lagendijk, and M. Tomita, “Amplification and diffusion of spontaneous emission in strongly scattering medium,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7623–7628 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Spectrosc.

A. A. Lichmanov, C. M. Briskina, V. M. Markushev, V. N. Lichmanova, and N. P. Soshchin, “Degree of coherence and dimensions of the generation region of powder lasers,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 65, 818–825 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

JETP Lett.

V. S. Letokhov, “Stimulated emission of an ensemble of scattering particles with negative absorption,” JETP Lett. 5, 212–215 (1967).

Mater. Sci. Forum

R. M. Laine, T. Hinklin, G. Williams, and S. C. Rand, “Low-cost nanopowders for phosphor and laser applications by flame spray pyrolysis,” Mater. Sci. Forum 343, 500–510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nature

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering medium,” Nature 368, 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

M. Bahoura, K. J. Morris, and M. A. Noginov, “Thresholdand slope efficiency of Nd0.5La0.5Al3(BO3)4 ceramic random laser: effect of the pumped spot size,” Opt. Commun. 201, 405–412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

S. T. Durmanov, O. V. Kuzmin, G. M. Kuzmicheva, S. A. Kutovoi, A. A. Martynov, E. K. Nesynov, V. L. Panyutin, Yu. P. Rudnitsky, G. V. Smirnov, V. I. Chizhikov, “Binary rare-earth scandium borates for diode-pumped lasers,” Opt. Mater. 18, 243–284 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, N. Noginova, S. U. Egarievwe, H. J. Caulfield, C. Cochrane, J. C. Wang, M. R. Kokta, and J. Paitz, “Study of the pumping regimes in Ti-sapphire and Nd0.5La0.5Al3(BO3)4 powders,” Opt. Mater. 10, 297–303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, N. Noginova, S. U. Egarievwe, J. C. Wang, M. R. Kokta, and J. Paitz, “Study of light propagation in scattering powder laser materials,” Opt. Mater. 11, 1–7 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, S. U. Egarievwe, N. Noginova, H. J. Caulfield, and J. C. Wang, “Interferometric studies in a powder laser,” Opt. Mater. 12, 127–134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spektrosk.

V. A. Nikitenko, A. I. Tereschenko, I. P. Kuz’mina, and A. N. Lobachev, “Stimulated emission of ZnO at high level of single photon excitation,” (in Russian), Opt. Spektrosk. 50, 605–607 (1981).

Philos. Mag. B

P. W. Anderson, “The question of classical localization: A theory of white paint,” Philos. Mag. B 52, 505–509 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

Y. Ling, H. Cao, A. L. Burin, M. A. Ratner, X. Liu, and R. P. Chang, “Investigation of random lasers with resonant feedback,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 063808 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Williams, B. Bayram, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, and R. M. Laine, “Laser action in strongly scattering rare-earthdoped dielectric nanophosphors,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 013807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

C. M. Soukoulis, X. Jiang, J. Y. Xu, and H. Cao, “Dynamic response and relaxation oscillations in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 041103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

D. S. Wiersma and A. Lagendijk, “Light diffusion with gain and random lasers,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 4256–4265 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

G. V. Soest, F. J. Poelwijk, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, “Dynamics of a random laser above threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1522–1525 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Wolf, J. Wang, S. R. Phillpot, and H. Gleiter, “Phonon-induced anomalous specific heat of a nanocrystalline model material by computer simulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4686–4689 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S. H. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial confinement of laser light in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5584–5587 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cao, Y. Ling, and C. Q. Cao, “Photon statistics of random lasers with resonant feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4524–4527 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Physica B

Q. Li, K. M. Ho, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Mode distribution in coherently amplifying laser medium,” Physica B 296, 78–84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electron.

C. M. Briskina, V. M. Markushev, and N. È. Ter-Gabriélyan, “Use of a model of coupled microcavities in the interpretation of experiments on powder lasers,” Quantum Electron. 26, 923–927 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron.

V. M. Markushev, V. F. Zolin, and C. M. Briskina, “Luminescence and stimulated emission of neodymium in sodium lanthanum molybdate powders,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 281–283 (1986).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Markushev, N. È. Ter-Gabriélyan, C. M. Briskina, V. R. Belan, and V. F. Zolin, “Stimulated emission kinetics of neodymium powder lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 772–777 (1990).
[CrossRef]

N. È. Ter-Gabriélyan, V. M. Markushev, V. R. Belan, C. M. Briskina, and V. F. Zolin, “Stimulated emission spectra of powders of double sodium and lanthanum tetramolybdate,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 32–33 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. È. Ter-Gabriélyan, V. M. Markushev, V. R. Belan, C. M. Briskina, O. V. Dimitrova, V. F. Zolin, and A. V. Lavrov, “Stimulated radiation emitted by lithium neodymium tetraphosphate LiNd(PO3)4 and neodymium pentaphosphate NdP5O14 powders,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 840–841 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP

V. S. Letokhov, “Generation of light by a scattering medium with negative resonance absorption,” Sov. Phys. JETP 26, 835–840 (1968).

Synth. Met.

R. C. Polson, J. D. Huang, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasers in π-conjugated polymer films,” Synth. Met. 119, 7–12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Scanning electron microscope image of the NdSc3(BO3)4 powder sample and (b) the corresponding distribution of particles by their sizes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Luminescence decay times in NdSc3(BO3)4 powder as a function of particle size. Triangles, measurements done at the initial stage of the decay kinetics; circles, measurements done when the luminescence signal has dropped to the level 1/e.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Emission intensity as a function of the particle size, measured at weak pumping.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical stimulated emission kinetics in NdSc3(BO3)4 powder; in this sample, the mean particle size s=0.79 µm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Threshold of stimulated emission in NdSc3(BO3)4 random laser as a function of the particle size. Different characters correspond to measurements done at different pumped-spot diameters. Inset, typical input–output curve.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Slope efficiency of stimulated emission in the NdSc3(BO3)4 random laser (normalized to absorbed pumping energy) as a function of particle size.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Time intervals Δt12 (saturated values) in the NdSc3(BO3)4 random laser (squares) and residence times τres calculated according to Eq. (10b) (dots) plotted against mean particle size s. Inset, typical dependence of Δt12 on pumping energy measured in two representative powder samples; lines serve as guides for the eye.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Transport mean free path lt in NdSc3(BO3)4 powder calculated according to Eq. (1b) as a function of mean particle size s: open squares, λ=1.06 µm; filled circles, λ=0.53 µm; dotted line, wavelength-independent value of lt calculated according to Eq. (1a).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Stimulated emission in one-dimensional array of amplifying volumes: (a) schematic diagram of the array; (b) position-dependent kinetics of stimulated emission calculated in one-dimensional array; raver=5%, τres=0.32 ps. The color scale is shown on the right, the time profile of the pumping pulse on the left.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Calculated time intervals Δt12 between the first and the second stimulated emission pulses (diamonds and triangles) and the time intervals between damped oscillation pulses (lines). Diamonds and solid curve: raver=10%, τres=0.50 ps; triangles and dashed curve: raver=5%, τres=0.32 ps.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Threshold absorbed energy as a function of the particle size in NdSc3(BO3)4 powder. Different characters correspond to measurements done at different pumped-spot diameters. Connected dots represent theoretical curve Pth/S calculated in diffusion approximation by using Eq. (11b). Inset, same data plotted in log–log scale. (The experimental data in Fig. 11 correspond to those in Fig. 5).

Equations (17)

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lt=ls1-cos θs1-cos θ,
lt=s1-cos θθS(s)θS(s).
λ<ltL,
lp=(labslt/3)1/2,
Pth=hνpumpcσemτSlpτresp,
I(z)exp(-αz)exp(-z/lp),
lp=[K(K+2S)]-1/2.
lp=1labs 1labs+2 plta-1/2,
τresp=qlp2/D,
D=c(3/lte-1/lg),
τresp=q labs2lta(3lg-lte)clglte(2plabs+lta).
τresp=3q2p labsltaclte.
τresp=3q2p labsc32 labsc.
PthS=hνpump1labs 1labs+2 plta1/2qσemτ3lte-1lg.
PthS=23pq hνpumpσemτlabs ltelta.
PthS=23pq hνpumpσemτ ltlabs.
ω=PSσemchνpumplp-1τrescτeff=PPth-1τrescτ,

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