Abstract

A comparison of Tm, Ho:YLF; Tm, Ho:LuLF; and Tm, Ho:LuAG crystals under identical experimental conditions showed that Tm, Ho:LuLF yielded significantly better performance. The thermal expansion coefficients were measured. These crystals were experimentally characterized in the spectral region of 680 nm and 780 nm accessible to laser diodes. The effective energy storage lifetimes of the Ho 5I7 manifold at room temperature were measured experimentally. At 10 Hz and 273 K, free-running laser output energy in excess of 17 mJ was obtained in Tm, Ho:YLF compared with 30 mJ in Tm, Ho:LuLF and 24.4 mJ in Tm, Ho:LuAG. The slope efficiencies with respect to the incident pump energy were 7.4%, 12.9%, and 11.6%, respectively. The temperature dependence of the output energies of these lasers was investigated.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  5. V. Sudesh and J. A. Piper, “Spectroscopy, modeling, and laser operation of thulium-doped crystals at 2.3 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 879–884 (2000).
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  17. V. Sudesh, K. Asai, K. Shimamura, and T. Fukuda, “Room-temperature Tm, Ho:LuLiF4 laser using a novel quasi-end pump technique,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1675–1677 (2001).
  18. V. Sudesh, K. Asai, K. Shimamura, and T. Fukuda, “Pulsed laser action in Tm, Ho:LuLiF4 and Tm, Ho:YLiF4 crystals using a novel quasi-end-pumping technique,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1102–1109 (2002).
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  25. D. W. Hart, M. Jani, and N. P. Barnes, “Room-temperature lasing of end-pumped Ho:Lu3Al5O12,” Opt. Lett. 21, 728–730 (1996).
  26. P. J. Morris, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, “Operation of resonantly pumped Tm, Ho:YAG in active mirror mode,” Opt. Commun. 104, 97–101 (1993).

2002 (3)

V. Sudesh, K. Asai, K. Shimamura, and T. Fukuda, “Pulsed laser action in Tm, Ho:LuLiF4 and Tm, Ho:YLiF4 crystals using a novel quasi-end-pumping technique,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1102–1109 (2002).

H. Sato, K. Shimamura, V. Sudesh, M. Ito, H. Machida, and T. Fukuda, “Growth and characterization of Tm, Ho-codoped Lu3Al5O12 single crystals by the Czochralski technique,” J. Cryst. Growth 234, 463–468 (2002).

G. J. Koch, M. Petros, J. Yu, and U. N. Singh, “Precise wavelength control of a single-frequency pulsed Ho:Tm:YLF laser,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1718–1721 (2002).

2001 (3)

V. Sudesh, K. Asai, K. Shimamura, and T. Fukuda, “Room-temperature Tm, Ho:LuLiF4 laser using a novel quasi-end pump technique,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1675–1677 (2001).

V. Sudesh, K. Asai, A. Kudou, K. Ito, K. Shimamura, and T. Fukuda, “Growth and characterization of Tm, Ho-doped LuLiF4 and YLiF4 crystals,” in Growth, Fabrication, Devices and Applications of Lasers and Nonlinear Materials, J. W. Pierce, K. I. Schaffers, eds., Proc. SPIE 4268, 153–160 (2001).

A. Bensalah, K. Shimamura, V. Sudesh, H. Sato, K. Ito, and T. Fukuda, “Growth of Tm, Ho-codoped YLiF4 and LuLiF4 single crystals for eye-safe lasers,” J. Cryst. Growth 223, 539–544 (2001).

2000 (2)

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, and B. Di Bartolo, “The temperature dependence of energy transfer between the Tm 3F4 and Ho 5I7 manifolds of Tm-sensitized Ho luminescence in YAG and YLF,” J. Lumin. 90, 39–48 (2000).

V. Sudesh and J. A. Piper, “Spectroscopy, modeling, and laser operation of thulium-doped crystals at 2.3 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 879–884 (2000).

1998 (2)

I. F. Elder and M. J. Payne, “Lasing in diode-pumped Tm:YAP, Tm, Ho:YAP and Tm, Ho:YLF,” Opt. Commun. 145, 329–339 (1998).

J. Yu, U. N. Singh, N. P. Barnes, and M. Petros, “125-mJ diode-pumped injection-seeded Ho, Tm:YLF laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 780–782 (1998).

1997 (1)

M. G. Jani, N. P. Barnes, K. E. Murray, D. W. Hart, G. J. Quarles, and V. K. Castillo, “Diode-pumped Ho, Tm:LuLiF4 laser at room temperature,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 112–115 (1997).

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

1993 (2)

N. P. Barnes, E. D. Filer, F. L. Naranjo, W. J. Rodriguez, and M. R. Kokta, “Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Ho:Tm:LuAG,” Opt. Lett. 18, 708–710 (1993).

P. J. Morris, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, “Operation of resonantly pumped Tm, Ho:YAG in active mirror mode,” Opt. Commun. 104, 97–101 (1993).

1992 (2)

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, Larry K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).

P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, E. P. Chicklis, and H. P. Jenssen, “Performance of a diode-pumped high PRF Tm, Ho:YLF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1029–1032 (1992).

1991 (1)

1988 (1)

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, and P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm, Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 924–933 (1988).

1987 (1)

Asai, K.

V. Sudesh, K. Asai, K. Shimamura, and T. Fukuda, “Pulsed laser action in Tm, Ho:LuLiF4 and Tm, Ho:YLiF4 crystals using a novel quasi-end-pumping technique,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1102–1109 (2002).

V. Sudesh, K. Asai, K. Shimamura, and T. Fukuda, “Room-temperature Tm, Ho:LuLiF4 laser using a novel quasi-end pump technique,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1675–1677 (2001).

V. Sudesh, K. Asai, A. Kudou, K. Ito, K. Shimamura, and T. Fukuda, “Growth and characterization of Tm, Ho-doped LuLiF4 and YLiF4 crystals,” in Growth, Fabrication, Devices and Applications of Lasers and Nonlinear Materials, J. W. Pierce, K. I. Schaffers, eds., Proc. SPIE 4268, 153–160 (2001).

Baer, T.

Barnes, N. P.

Bensalah, A.

A. Bensalah, K. Shimamura, V. Sudesh, H. Sato, K. Ito, and T. Fukuda, “Growth of Tm, Ho-codoped YLiF4 and LuLiF4 single crystals for eye-safe lasers,” J. Cryst. Growth 223, 539–544 (2001).

Budni, P. A.

P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, E. P. Chicklis, and H. P. Jenssen, “Performance of a diode-pumped high PRF Tm, Ho:YLF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1029–1032 (1992).

Byer, R. L.

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, and P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm, Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 924–933 (1988).

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, and P. Mitzscherlich, “Continuous-wave operation at 2.1 μm of a diode-laser-pumped, Tm-sensitized Ho:Y3Al5O12 laser at 300 K,” Opt. Lett. 12, 678–680 (1987).

Castillo, V. K.

M. G. Jani, N. P. Barnes, K. E. Murray, D. W. Hart, G. J. Quarles, and V. K. Castillo, “Diode-pumped Ho, Tm:LuLiF4 laser at room temperature,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 112–115 (1997).

Chase, L. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, Larry K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).

Chicklis, E. P.

P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, E. P. Chicklis, and H. P. Jenssen, “Performance of a diode-pumped high PRF Tm, Ho:YLF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1029–1032 (1992).

Di Bartolo, B.

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, and B. Di Bartolo, “The temperature dependence of energy transfer between the Tm 3F4 and Ho 5I7 manifolds of Tm-sensitized Ho luminescence in YAG and YLF,” J. Lumin. 90, 39–48 (2000).

Elder, I. F.

I. F. Elder and M. J. Payne, “Lasing in diode-pumped Tm:YAP, Tm, Ho:YAP and Tm, Ho:YLF,” Opt. Commun. 145, 329–339 (1998).

Esterowitz, L.

Fan, T. Y.

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, and P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm, Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 924–933 (1988).

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, and P. Mitzscherlich, “Continuous-wave operation at 2.1 μm of a diode-laser-pumped, Tm-sensitized Ho:Y3Al5O12 laser at 300 K,” Opt. Lett. 12, 678–680 (1987).

Filer, E. D.

Fukuda, T.

H. Sato, K. Shimamura, V. Sudesh, M. Ito, H. Machida, and T. Fukuda, “Growth and characterization of Tm, Ho-codoped Lu3Al5O12 single crystals by the Czochralski technique,” J. Cryst. Growth 234, 463–468 (2002).

V. Sudesh, K. Asai, K. Shimamura, and T. Fukuda, “Pulsed laser action in Tm, Ho:LuLiF4 and Tm, Ho:YLiF4 crystals using a novel quasi-end-pumping technique,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1102–1109 (2002).

V. Sudesh, K. Asai, K. Shimamura, and T. Fukuda, “Room-temperature Tm, Ho:LuLiF4 laser using a novel quasi-end pump technique,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1675–1677 (2001).

A. Bensalah, K. Shimamura, V. Sudesh, H. Sato, K. Ito, and T. Fukuda, “Growth of Tm, Ho-codoped YLiF4 and LuLiF4 single crystals for eye-safe lasers,” J. Cryst. Growth 223, 539–544 (2001).

V. Sudesh, K. Asai, A. Kudou, K. Ito, K. Shimamura, and T. Fukuda, “Growth and characterization of Tm, Ho-doped LuLiF4 and YLiF4 crystals,” in Growth, Fabrication, Devices and Applications of Lasers and Nonlinear Materials, J. W. Pierce, K. I. Schaffers, eds., Proc. SPIE 4268, 153–160 (2001).

Hart, D. W.

M. G. Jani, N. P. Barnes, K. E. Murray, D. W. Hart, G. J. Quarles, and V. K. Castillo, “Diode-pumped Ho, Tm:LuLiF4 laser at room temperature,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 112–115 (1997).

D. W. Hart, M. Jani, and N. P. Barnes, “Room-temperature lasing of end-pumped Ho:Lu3Al5O12,” Opt. Lett. 21, 728–730 (1996).

Huber, G.

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, and P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm, Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 924–933 (1988).

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, and P. Mitzscherlich, “Continuous-wave operation at 2.1 μm of a diode-laser-pumped, Tm-sensitized Ho:Y3Al5O12 laser at 300 K,” Opt. Lett. 12, 678–680 (1987).

Ito, K.

A. Bensalah, K. Shimamura, V. Sudesh, H. Sato, K. Ito, and T. Fukuda, “Growth of Tm, Ho-codoped YLiF4 and LuLiF4 single crystals for eye-safe lasers,” J. Cryst. Growth 223, 539–544 (2001).

V. Sudesh, K. Asai, A. Kudou, K. Ito, K. Shimamura, and T. Fukuda, “Growth and characterization of Tm, Ho-doped LuLiF4 and YLiF4 crystals,” in Growth, Fabrication, Devices and Applications of Lasers and Nonlinear Materials, J. W. Pierce, K. I. Schaffers, eds., Proc. SPIE 4268, 153–160 (2001).

Ito, M.

H. Sato, K. Shimamura, V. Sudesh, M. Ito, H. Machida, and T. Fukuda, “Growth and characterization of Tm, Ho-codoped Lu3Al5O12 single crystals by the Czochralski technique,” J. Cryst. Growth 234, 463–468 (2002).

Jani, M.

Jani, M. G.

M. G. Jani, N. P. Barnes, K. E. Murray, D. W. Hart, G. J. Quarles, and V. K. Castillo, “Diode-pumped Ho, Tm:LuLiF4 laser at room temperature,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 112–115 (1997).

M. G. Jani, F. L. Naranjo, N. P. Barnes, K. E. Murray, and G. E. Lockard, “Diode-pumped long-pulse-length Ho, Tm:YLiF4 laser at 10 Hz,” Opt. Lett. 20, 872–874 (1995).

Jenssen, H. P.

P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, E. P. Chicklis, and H. P. Jenssen, “Performance of a diode-pumped high PRF Tm, Ho:YLF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1029–1032 (1992).

Knights, M. G.

P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, E. P. Chicklis, and H. P. Jenssen, “Performance of a diode-pumped high PRF Tm, Ho:YLF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1029–1032 (1992).

Koch, G. J.

Kokta, M. R.

Krupke, W. F.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, Larry K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).

Kudou, A.

V. Sudesh, K. Asai, A. Kudou, K. Ito, K. Shimamura, and T. Fukuda, “Growth and characterization of Tm, Ho-doped LuLiF4 and YLiF4 crystals,” in Growth, Fabrication, Devices and Applications of Lasers and Nonlinear Materials, J. W. Pierce, K. I. Schaffers, eds., Proc. SPIE 4268, 153–160 (2001).

Kway, W. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, Larry K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).

Lockard, G. E.

Luthy, W.

P. J. Morris, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, “Operation of resonantly pumped Tm, Ho:YAG in active mirror mode,” Opt. Commun. 104, 97–101 (1993).

Machida, H.

H. Sato, K. Shimamura, V. Sudesh, M. Ito, H. Machida, and T. Fukuda, “Growth and characterization of Tm, Ho-codoped Lu3Al5O12 single crystals by the Czochralski technique,” J. Cryst. Growth 234, 463–468 (2002).

Mitzscherlich, P.

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, and P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm, Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 924–933 (1988).

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, and P. Mitzscherlich, “Continuous-wave operation at 2.1 μm of a diode-laser-pumped, Tm-sensitized Ho:Y3Al5O12 laser at 300 K,” Opt. Lett. 12, 678–680 (1987).

Morris, P. J.

P. J. Morris, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, “Operation of resonantly pumped Tm, Ho:YAG in active mirror mode,” Opt. Commun. 104, 97–101 (1993).

Murray, K. E.

M. G. Jani, N. P. Barnes, K. E. Murray, D. W. Hart, G. J. Quarles, and V. K. Castillo, “Diode-pumped Ho, Tm:LuLiF4 laser at room temperature,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 112–115 (1997).

M. G. Jani, F. L. Naranjo, N. P. Barnes, K. E. Murray, and G. E. Lockard, “Diode-pumped long-pulse-length Ho, Tm:YLiF4 laser at 10 Hz,” Opt. Lett. 20, 872–874 (1995).

Naranjo, F. L.

Payne, M. J.

I. F. Elder and M. J. Payne, “Lasing in diode-pumped Tm:YAP, Tm, Ho:YAP and Tm, Ho:YLF,” Opt. Commun. 145, 329–339 (1998).

Payne, S. A.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, Larry K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).

Petros, M.

Pinto, J. F.

Piper, J. A.

V. Sudesh and J. A. Piper, “Spectroscopy, modeling, and laser operation of thulium-doped crystals at 2.3 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 879–884 (2000).

Quarles, G. J.

M. G. Jani, N. P. Barnes, K. E. Murray, D. W. Hart, G. J. Quarles, and V. K. Castillo, “Diode-pumped Ho, Tm:LuLiF4 laser at room temperature,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 112–115 (1997).

Reichert, P.

Rodriguez, W. J.

Rosenblatt, G. H.

Sato, H.

H. Sato, K. Shimamura, V. Sudesh, M. Ito, H. Machida, and T. Fukuda, “Growth and characterization of Tm, Ho-codoped Lu3Al5O12 single crystals by the Czochralski technique,” J. Cryst. Growth 234, 463–468 (2002).

A. Bensalah, K. Shimamura, V. Sudesh, H. Sato, K. Ito, and T. Fukuda, “Growth of Tm, Ho-codoped YLiF4 and LuLiF4 single crystals for eye-safe lasers,” J. Cryst. Growth 223, 539–544 (2001).

Shimamura, K.

H. Sato, K. Shimamura, V. Sudesh, M. Ito, H. Machida, and T. Fukuda, “Growth and characterization of Tm, Ho-codoped Lu3Al5O12 single crystals by the Czochralski technique,” J. Cryst. Growth 234, 463–468 (2002).

V. Sudesh, K. Asai, K. Shimamura, and T. Fukuda, “Pulsed laser action in Tm, Ho:LuLiF4 and Tm, Ho:YLiF4 crystals using a novel quasi-end-pumping technique,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1102–1109 (2002).

V. Sudesh, K. Asai, K. Shimamura, and T. Fukuda, “Room-temperature Tm, Ho:LuLiF4 laser using a novel quasi-end pump technique,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1675–1677 (2001).

A. Bensalah, K. Shimamura, V. Sudesh, H. Sato, K. Ito, and T. Fukuda, “Growth of Tm, Ho-codoped YLiF4 and LuLiF4 single crystals for eye-safe lasers,” J. Cryst. Growth 223, 539–544 (2001).

V. Sudesh, K. Asai, A. Kudou, K. Ito, K. Shimamura, and T. Fukuda, “Growth and characterization of Tm, Ho-doped LuLiF4 and YLiF4 crystals,” in Growth, Fabrication, Devices and Applications of Lasers and Nonlinear Materials, J. W. Pierce, K. I. Schaffers, eds., Proc. SPIE 4268, 153–160 (2001).

Singh, U. N.

Smith, Larry K.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, Larry K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).

Snyder, J. J.

Sudesh, V.

V. Sudesh, K. Asai, K. Shimamura, and T. Fukuda, “Pulsed laser action in Tm, Ho:LuLiF4 and Tm, Ho:YLiF4 crystals using a novel quasi-end-pumping technique,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1102–1109 (2002).

H. Sato, K. Shimamura, V. Sudesh, M. Ito, H. Machida, and T. Fukuda, “Growth and characterization of Tm, Ho-codoped Lu3Al5O12 single crystals by the Czochralski technique,” J. Cryst. Growth 234, 463–468 (2002).

A. Bensalah, K. Shimamura, V. Sudesh, H. Sato, K. Ito, and T. Fukuda, “Growth of Tm, Ho-codoped YLiF4 and LuLiF4 single crystals for eye-safe lasers,” J. Cryst. Growth 223, 539–544 (2001).

V. Sudesh, K. Asai, A. Kudou, K. Ito, K. Shimamura, and T. Fukuda, “Growth and characterization of Tm, Ho-doped LuLiF4 and YLiF4 crystals,” in Growth, Fabrication, Devices and Applications of Lasers and Nonlinear Materials, J. W. Pierce, K. I. Schaffers, eds., Proc. SPIE 4268, 153–160 (2001).

V. Sudesh, K. Asai, K. Shimamura, and T. Fukuda, “Room-temperature Tm, Ho:LuLiF4 laser using a novel quasi-end pump technique,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1675–1677 (2001).

V. Sudesh and J. A. Piper, “Spectroscopy, modeling, and laser operation of thulium-doped crystals at 2.3 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 879–884 (2000).

Walsh, B. M.

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, and B. Di Bartolo, “The temperature dependence of energy transfer between the Tm 3F4 and Ho 5I7 manifolds of Tm-sensitized Ho luminescence in YAG and YLF,” J. Lumin. 90, 39–48 (2000).

Weber, H. P.

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V. Sudesh, K. Asai, K. Shimamura, and T. Fukuda, “Pulsed laser action in Tm, Ho:LuLiF4 and Tm, Ho:YLiF4 crystals using a novel quasi-end-pumping technique,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1102–1109 (2002).

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A. Bensalah, K. Shimamura, V. Sudesh, H. Sato, K. Ito, and T. Fukuda, “Growth of Tm, Ho-codoped YLiF4 and LuLiF4 single crystals for eye-safe lasers,” J. Cryst. Growth 223, 539–544 (2001).

H. Sato, K. Shimamura, V. Sudesh, M. Ito, H. Machida, and T. Fukuda, “Growth and characterization of Tm, Ho-codoped Lu3Al5O12 single crystals by the Czochralski technique,” J. Cryst. Growth 234, 463–468 (2002).

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B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, and B. Di Bartolo, “The temperature dependence of energy transfer between the Tm 3F4 and Ho 5I7 manifolds of Tm-sensitized Ho luminescence in YAG and YLF,” J. Lumin. 90, 39–48 (2000).

Opt. Commun. (2)

P. J. Morris, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, “Operation of resonantly pumped Tm, Ho:YAG in active mirror mode,” Opt. Commun. 104, 97–101 (1993).

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Proc. SPIE (1)

V. Sudesh, K. Asai, A. Kudou, K. Ito, K. Shimamura, and T. Fukuda, “Growth and characterization of Tm, Ho-doped LuLiF4 and YLiF4 crystals,” in Growth, Fabrication, Devices and Applications of Lasers and Nonlinear Materials, J. W. Pierce, K. I. Schaffers, eds., Proc. SPIE 4268, 153–160 (2001).

Other (5)

V. Sudesh, K. Shimamura, T. Fukuda, and K. Asai, “Pulsed Tm, Ho:LuLiF4 2-μm laser using a novel side-pump technique,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Marshall, ed., Vol. 50 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 571–576.

G. Armagan, A. M. Buoncristiani, A. T. Inge, and B. DiBartolo, “Comparison of spectroscopic properties of Tm and Ho in YAG and YLF crystals,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, G. Dube, L. Chase, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 166–168.

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N. P. Barnes and J. Yu, NASA Langley Research Center, 5 North Dryden Street, Mail Stop 468, Hampton, Virginia 23681 (personal communication, 2002).

M. G. Jani, N. P. Barnes, K. E. Murray, and R. L. Hutcheson, “Diode-pumped Ho:Tm:Lu3Al5O12 room temperature laser,” Advanced Solid-State Lasers, T. Y. Fan, B. H. T. Chai, eds. Vol. 20 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 109–112.

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