Abstract

The nanosecond optical-limiting characteristics (at 532 nm) of some rare-earth metallo-phthalocyanines (Sm(Pc)2, Eu(Pc)2, and LaPc) doped in a copolymer matrix of poly(methyl methacrylate) and methyl-2-cyanoacrylate have been studied for the first time to our knowledge. The optical-limiting response is attributed to reverse saturable absorption due to excited-state absorption. The performance of LaPc in a copolymer host is studied at different linear transmissions. The laser damage thresholds of all the samples are also reported.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Dini, M. Barthel, and M. Hanack, “Phthalocyanines as active materials for optical limiting,” Eur. J. Org. Chem. 20, 3759–3769 (2001), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. F. E. Hernandez, S. Yang, E. W. Van Stryland, and D. J. Hagan, “High-dynamic-range cascaded-focus optical limiter,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1180–1182 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. P. Unnikrishnan, J. Thomas, B. Paul, A. Kurian, P. Gopinath, V. P. N. Nampoori, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, “Nonlinear absorption and optical limiting in solutions of some rare earth substituted phthalocyanines,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 10, 113–121 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Peiwang Zhu, Peng Wang, Wenfeng Qiu, Yunqi Liu, Cheng Ye, Guangyu Fang, and Yinglin Song, “Optical limiting properties of phthalocyanines-fullerence derivatives,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1319–1321 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. S. Shirk, R. G. S. Pong, S. R. Flom, H. Heckmann, and M. Hanack, “Effect of axial substitution on the optical limiting properties of indium phthalocyanines,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 1438 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Chunfei Li, Lei Zhang, Miao Yang, Hui Wang, and Yuxiao Wang, “Dynamic and steady-state behaviors of reverse saturable absorption in metallophthalocyanine,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 1149–1157 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I.-Y. S. Lee, X.-L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C.-T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533–1536 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. I. S. Kirin, P. N. Moskalev, and Yu. A. Moskashev, “New complex compounds of phthalocyanine with rare earth elements,” Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 12, 707–712 (1967).
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    [CrossRef]
  12. Haiping Xia and M. Nogami, “Copper phthalocyanine bonding with gel and their optical limiting properties,” Opt. Mater. 15, 93–98 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Kost, L. Tutt, M. B. Klein, T. Kirk Dougherty, and W. E. Elias, “Optical limiting with C60 in polymethylmethacrylate,” Opt. Lett. 18, 334–336 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Meneghetti, R. Signorini, M. Zerbetto, R. Bozio, M. Maggini, G. Scorrano, M. Prato, G. Brusatin, E. Menegazzo, and M. Guglielmi, Synth. Met. 86, 2353–2354 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. R. Giuliano and L. D. Hess, “Nonlinear absorption of light: optical saturation of electronic transitions in organic molecules with high intensity laser radiation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 358–367 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Sanghadasa, In-Seok Shin, R. D. Clark, Huaisong Guo, and B. G. Penn, “Optical limiting behavior of octa-decyloxy metallo-phthalocyanines,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 31–37 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Tiejun Xia, D. J. Hagan, A. Dogariu, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Optimization of optical limiting devices based on excited-state absorption,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4110–4122 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. T. C. Wen and I. D. Lian, “Nanosecond measurements ofnonlinear absorption and refraction in solutions of bis-phthalocyanines at 532 nm,” Synth. Met. 83, 111–116 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, S. R. Marder, K. J. Perry, D. Alvarez, Jr., and I. Choong, “Enhanced reverse saturable absorption and optical limiting in heavy-atom-substituted phthalocyanines,” Opt. Lett. 19, 625–627 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. G. A. Kumar, J. Thomas, N. V. Unnikrishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, “Optical properties of phthalocyanine molecules in cyano acrylate polymer host,” Mater. Res. Bull. 36, 1–8 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Xin Wang, Chunling Liu, Qihuang Gong, Yanyi Huang, and Chunhui Huang, “Anomalous heavy atom effect on optical limiting property of homoleptic double decked sandwich-type lanthanide diphthalocyanines,” Opt. Commun. 197, 83–87 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Pen Wang, Shuang Zhang, Peiji Wu, Cheng Ye, Hong Wei Liu, and Fu Xi, “Optical limiting property of optically active phthalocyanine derivatives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 340, 261–266 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Y. Kojima, T. Matsuoka, N. Sato, and H. Takahashi, “Optical limiting property of a polyacene-based oligomer synthesized under high pressure,” Macromolecules 28, 2893–2896 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (7)

K. P. Unnikrishnan, J. Thomas, B. Paul, A. Kurian, P. Gopinath, V. P. N. Nampoori, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, “Nonlinear absorption and optical limiting in solutions of some rare earth substituted phthalocyanines,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 10, 113–121 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Peiwang Zhu, Peng Wang, Wenfeng Qiu, Yunqi Liu, Cheng Ye, Guangyu Fang, and Yinglin Song, “Optical limiting properties of phthalocyanines-fullerence derivatives,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1319–1321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Sanghadasa, In-Seok Shin, R. D. Clark, Huaisong Guo, and B. G. Penn, “Optical limiting behavior of octa-decyloxy metallo-phthalocyanines,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 31–37 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Dini, M. Barthel, and M. Hanack, “Phthalocyanines as active materials for optical limiting,” Eur. J. Org. Chem. 20, 3759–3769 (2001), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

G. A. Kumar, J. Thomas, N. V. Unnikrishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, “Optical properties of phthalocyanine molecules in cyano acrylate polymer host,” Mater. Res. Bull. 36, 1–8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xin Wang, Chunling Liu, Qihuang Gong, Yanyi Huang, and Chunhui Huang, “Anomalous heavy atom effect on optical limiting property of homoleptic double decked sandwich-type lanthanide diphthalocyanines,” Opt. Commun. 197, 83–87 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pen Wang, Shuang Zhang, Peiji Wu, Cheng Ye, Hong Wei Liu, and Fu Xi, “Optical limiting property of optically active phthalocyanine derivatives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 340, 261–266 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

J. S. Shirk, R. G. S. Pong, S. R. Flom, H. Heckmann, and M. Hanack, “Effect of axial substitution on the optical limiting properties of indium phthalocyanines,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 1438 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Haiping Xia and M. Nogami, “Copper phthalocyanine bonding with gel and their optical limiting properties,” Opt. Mater. 15, 93–98 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hernandez, S. Yang, E. W. Van Stryland, and D. J. Hagan, “High-dynamic-range cascaded-focus optical limiter,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1180–1182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

G. de la Torre, P. Vazquez, F. Agullo-Lopez, and T. Torres, “Phthalocyanines and related compounds: organic targets for nonlinear optical applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 8, 1671–1683 (1998), and reference therein.
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

M. Meneghetti, R. Signorini, M. Zerbetto, R. Bozio, M. Maggini, G. Scorrano, M. Prato, G. Brusatin, E. Menegazzo, and M. Guglielmi, Synth. Met. 86, 2353–2354 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tiejun Xia, D. J. Hagan, A. Dogariu, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Optimization of optical limiting devices based on excited-state absorption,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4110–4122 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I.-Y. S. Lee, X.-L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C.-T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Wen and I. D. Lian, “Nanosecond measurements ofnonlinear absorption and refraction in solutions of bis-phthalocyanines at 532 nm,” Synth. Met. 83, 111–116 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Y. Kojima, T. Matsuoka, N. Sato, and H. Takahashi, “Optical limiting property of a polyacene-based oligomer synthesized under high pressure,” Macromolecules 28, 2893–2896 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

Chunfei Li, Lei Zhang, Miao Yang, Hui Wang, and Yuxiao Wang, “Dynamic and steady-state behaviors of reverse saturable absorption in metallophthalocyanine,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 1149–1157 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, S. R. Marder, K. J. Perry, D. Alvarez, Jr., and I. Choong, “Enhanced reverse saturable absorption and optical limiting in heavy-atom-substituted phthalocyanines,” Opt. Lett. 19, 625–627 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1980 (1)

K. Kasuga, M. Tsutsui, R. C. Petterson, K. Tatsumi, N. van Opdenbosch, G. Pepe, and J. E. F. Meyer, “Structure of bis(phthalocyaninato)neodymium(III),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 102, 4835–4836 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1967 (2)

I. S. Kirin, P. N. Moskalev, and Yu. A. Moskashev, “New complex compounds of phthalocyanine with rare earth elements,” Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 12, 707–712 (1967).

C. R. Giuliano and L. D. Hess, “Nonlinear absorption of light: optical saturation of electronic transitions in organic molecules with high intensity laser radiation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 358–367 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Agullo-Lopez, F.

G. de la Torre, P. Vazquez, F. Agullo-Lopez, and T. Torres, “Phthalocyanines and related compounds: organic targets for nonlinear optical applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 8, 1671–1683 (1998), and reference therein.
[CrossRef]

Alvarez Jr., D.

Barthel, M.

D. Dini, M. Barthel, and M. Hanack, “Phthalocyanines as active materials for optical limiting,” Eur. J. Org. Chem. 20, 3759–3769 (2001), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Bedworth, P. V.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I.-Y. S. Lee, X.-L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C.-T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bozio, R.

M. Meneghetti, R. Signorini, M. Zerbetto, R. Bozio, M. Maggini, G. Scorrano, M. Prato, G. Brusatin, E. Menegazzo, and M. Guglielmi, Synth. Met. 86, 2353–2354 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brusatin, G.

M. Meneghetti, R. Signorini, M. Zerbetto, R. Bozio, M. Maggini, G. Scorrano, M. Prato, G. Brusatin, E. Menegazzo, and M. Guglielmi, Synth. Met. 86, 2353–2354 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-T.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I.-Y. S. Lee, X.-L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C.-T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Choong, I.

Clark, R. D.

M. Sanghadasa, In-Seok Shin, R. D. Clark, Huaisong Guo, and B. G. Penn, “Optical limiting behavior of octa-decyloxy metallo-phthalocyanines,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 31–37 (2001).
[CrossRef]

de la Torre, G.

G. de la Torre, P. Vazquez, F. Agullo-Lopez, and T. Torres, “Phthalocyanines and related compounds: organic targets for nonlinear optical applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 8, 1671–1683 (1998), and reference therein.
[CrossRef]

Dini, D.

D. Dini, M. Barthel, and M. Hanack, “Phthalocyanines as active materials for optical limiting,” Eur. J. Org. Chem. 20, 3759–3769 (2001), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Dogariu, A.

Elias, W. E.

Fang, Guangyu

Peiwang Zhu, Peng Wang, Wenfeng Qiu, Yunqi Liu, Cheng Ye, Guangyu Fang, and Yinglin Song, “Optical limiting properties of phthalocyanines-fullerence derivatives,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1319–1321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Flom, S. R.

J. S. Shirk, R. G. S. Pong, S. R. Flom, H. Heckmann, and M. Hanack, “Effect of axial substitution on the optical limiting properties of indium phthalocyanines,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 1438 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Giuliano, C. R.

C. R. Giuliano and L. D. Hess, “Nonlinear absorption of light: optical saturation of electronic transitions in organic molecules with high intensity laser radiation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 358–367 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Qihuang

Xin Wang, Chunling Liu, Qihuang Gong, Yanyi Huang, and Chunhui Huang, “Anomalous heavy atom effect on optical limiting property of homoleptic double decked sandwich-type lanthanide diphthalocyanines,” Opt. Commun. 197, 83–87 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gopinath, P.

K. P. Unnikrishnan, J. Thomas, B. Paul, A. Kurian, P. Gopinath, V. P. N. Nampoori, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, “Nonlinear absorption and optical limiting in solutions of some rare earth substituted phthalocyanines,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 10, 113–121 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Guglielmi, M.

M. Meneghetti, R. Signorini, M. Zerbetto, R. Bozio, M. Maggini, G. Scorrano, M. Prato, G. Brusatin, E. Menegazzo, and M. Guglielmi, Synth. Met. 86, 2353–2354 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Huaisong

M. Sanghadasa, In-Seok Shin, R. D. Clark, Huaisong Guo, and B. G. Penn, “Optical limiting behavior of octa-decyloxy metallo-phthalocyanines,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 31–37 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

Hanack, M.

D. Dini, M. Barthel, and M. Hanack, “Phthalocyanines as active materials for optical limiting,” Eur. J. Org. Chem. 20, 3759–3769 (2001), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

J. S. Shirk, R. G. S. Pong, S. R. Flom, H. Heckmann, and M. Hanack, “Effect of axial substitution on the optical limiting properties of indium phthalocyanines,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 1438 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Heckmann, H.

J. S. Shirk, R. G. S. Pong, S. R. Flom, H. Heckmann, and M. Hanack, “Effect of axial substitution on the optical limiting properties of indium phthalocyanines,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 1438 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez, F. E.

Hess, L. D.

C. R. Giuliano and L. D. Hess, “Nonlinear absorption of light: optical saturation of electronic transitions in organic molecules with high intensity laser radiation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 358–367 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Chunhui

Xin Wang, Chunling Liu, Qihuang Gong, Yanyi Huang, and Chunhui Huang, “Anomalous heavy atom effect on optical limiting property of homoleptic double decked sandwich-type lanthanide diphthalocyanines,” Opt. Commun. 197, 83–87 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Yanyi

Xin Wang, Chunling Liu, Qihuang Gong, Yanyi Huang, and Chunhui Huang, “Anomalous heavy atom effect on optical limiting property of homoleptic double decked sandwich-type lanthanide diphthalocyanines,” Opt. Commun. 197, 83–87 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kasuga, K.

K. Kasuga, M. Tsutsui, R. C. Petterson, K. Tatsumi, N. van Opdenbosch, G. Pepe, and J. E. F. Meyer, “Structure of bis(phthalocyaninato)neodymium(III),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 102, 4835–4836 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kirin, I. S.

I. S. Kirin, P. N. Moskalev, and Yu. A. Moskashev, “New complex compounds of phthalocyanine with rare earth elements,” Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 12, 707–712 (1967).

Kirk Dougherty, T.

Klein, M. B.

Kojima, Y.

Y. Kojima, T. Matsuoka, N. Sato, and H. Takahashi, “Optical limiting property of a polyacene-based oligomer synthesized under high pressure,” Macromolecules 28, 2893–2896 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kost, A.

Kumar, G. A.

G. A. Kumar, J. Thomas, N. V. Unnikrishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, “Optical properties of phthalocyanine molecules in cyano acrylate polymer host,” Mater. Res. Bull. 36, 1–8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kurian, A.

K. P. Unnikrishnan, J. Thomas, B. Paul, A. Kurian, P. Gopinath, V. P. N. Nampoori, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, “Nonlinear absorption and optical limiting in solutions of some rare earth substituted phthalocyanines,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 10, 113–121 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, I.-Y. S.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I.-Y. S. Lee, X.-L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C.-T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Li, Chunfei

Chunfei Li, Lei Zhang, Miao Yang, Hui Wang, and Yuxiao Wang, “Dynamic and steady-state behaviors of reverse saturable absorption in metallophthalocyanine,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 1149–1157 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lian, I. D.

T. C. Wen and I. D. Lian, “Nanosecond measurements ofnonlinear absorption and refraction in solutions of bis-phthalocyanines at 532 nm,” Synth. Met. 83, 111–116 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Chunling

Xin Wang, Chunling Liu, Qihuang Gong, Yanyi Huang, and Chunhui Huang, “Anomalous heavy atom effect on optical limiting property of homoleptic double decked sandwich-type lanthanide diphthalocyanines,” Opt. Commun. 197, 83–87 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Hong Wei

Pen Wang, Shuang Zhang, Peiji Wu, Cheng Ye, Hong Wei Liu, and Fu Xi, “Optical limiting property of optically active phthalocyanine derivatives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 340, 261–266 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Yunqi

Peiwang Zhu, Peng Wang, Wenfeng Qiu, Yunqi Liu, Cheng Ye, Guangyu Fang, and Yinglin Song, “Optical limiting properties of phthalocyanines-fullerence derivatives,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1319–1321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maggini, M.

M. Meneghetti, R. Signorini, M. Zerbetto, R. Bozio, M. Maggini, G. Scorrano, M. Prato, G. Brusatin, E. Menegazzo, and M. Guglielmi, Synth. Met. 86, 2353–2354 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mansour, K.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I.-Y. S. Lee, X.-L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C.-T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, S. R. Marder, K. J. Perry, D. Alvarez, Jr., and I. Choong, “Enhanced reverse saturable absorption and optical limiting in heavy-atom-substituted phthalocyanines,” Opt. Lett. 19, 625–627 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marder, S. R.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I.-Y. S. Lee, X.-L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C.-T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, S. R. Marder, K. J. Perry, D. Alvarez, Jr., and I. Choong, “Enhanced reverse saturable absorption and optical limiting in heavy-atom-substituted phthalocyanines,” Opt. Lett. 19, 625–627 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuoka, T.

Y. Kojima, T. Matsuoka, N. Sato, and H. Takahashi, “Optical limiting property of a polyacene-based oligomer synthesized under high pressure,” Macromolecules 28, 2893–2896 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Menegazzo, E.

M. Meneghetti, R. Signorini, M. Zerbetto, R. Bozio, M. Maggini, G. Scorrano, M. Prato, G. Brusatin, E. Menegazzo, and M. Guglielmi, Synth. Met. 86, 2353–2354 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meneghetti, M.

M. Meneghetti, R. Signorini, M. Zerbetto, R. Bozio, M. Maggini, G. Scorrano, M. Prato, G. Brusatin, E. Menegazzo, and M. Guglielmi, Synth. Met. 86, 2353–2354 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, J. E. F.

K. Kasuga, M. Tsutsui, R. C. Petterson, K. Tatsumi, N. van Opdenbosch, G. Pepe, and J. E. F. Meyer, “Structure of bis(phthalocyaninato)neodymium(III),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 102, 4835–4836 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Miles, P.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I.-Y. S. Lee, X.-L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C.-T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Moskalev, P. N.

I. S. Kirin, P. N. Moskalev, and Yu. A. Moskashev, “New complex compounds of phthalocyanine with rare earth elements,” Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 12, 707–712 (1967).

Moskashev, Yu. A.

I. S. Kirin, P. N. Moskalev, and Yu. A. Moskashev, “New complex compounds of phthalocyanine with rare earth elements,” Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 12, 707–712 (1967).

Nampoori, V. P. N.

K. P. Unnikrishnan, J. Thomas, B. Paul, A. Kurian, P. Gopinath, V. P. N. Nampoori, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, “Nonlinear absorption and optical limiting in solutions of some rare earth substituted phthalocyanines,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 10, 113–121 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Kumar, J. Thomas, N. V. Unnikrishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, “Optical properties of phthalocyanine molecules in cyano acrylate polymer host,” Mater. Res. Bull. 36, 1–8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ng, D.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I.-Y. S. Lee, X.-L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C.-T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nogami, M.

Haiping Xia and M. Nogami, “Copper phthalocyanine bonding with gel and their optical limiting properties,” Opt. Mater. 15, 93–98 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Paul, B.

K. P. Unnikrishnan, J. Thomas, B. Paul, A. Kurian, P. Gopinath, V. P. N. Nampoori, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, “Nonlinear absorption and optical limiting in solutions of some rare earth substituted phthalocyanines,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 10, 113–121 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Penn, B. G.

M. Sanghadasa, In-Seok Shin, R. D. Clark, Huaisong Guo, and B. G. Penn, “Optical limiting behavior of octa-decyloxy metallo-phthalocyanines,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 31–37 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pepe, G.

K. Kasuga, M. Tsutsui, R. C. Petterson, K. Tatsumi, N. van Opdenbosch, G. Pepe, and J. E. F. Meyer, “Structure of bis(phthalocyaninato)neodymium(III),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 102, 4835–4836 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Perry, J. W.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I.-Y. S. Lee, X.-L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C.-T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, S. R. Marder, K. J. Perry, D. Alvarez, Jr., and I. Choong, “Enhanced reverse saturable absorption and optical limiting in heavy-atom-substituted phthalocyanines,” Opt. Lett. 19, 625–627 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perry, K. J.

Petterson, R. C.

K. Kasuga, M. Tsutsui, R. C. Petterson, K. Tatsumi, N. van Opdenbosch, G. Pepe, and J. E. F. Meyer, “Structure of bis(phthalocyaninato)neodymium(III),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 102, 4835–4836 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Pong, R. G. S.

J. S. Shirk, R. G. S. Pong, S. R. Flom, H. Heckmann, and M. Hanack, “Effect of axial substitution on the optical limiting properties of indium phthalocyanines,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 1438 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Prato, M.

M. Meneghetti, R. Signorini, M. Zerbetto, R. Bozio, M. Maggini, G. Scorrano, M. Prato, G. Brusatin, E. Menegazzo, and M. Guglielmi, Synth. Met. 86, 2353–2354 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, Wenfeng

Peiwang Zhu, Peng Wang, Wenfeng Qiu, Yunqi Liu, Cheng Ye, Guangyu Fang, and Yinglin Song, “Optical limiting properties of phthalocyanines-fullerence derivatives,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1319–1321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

Sanghadasa, M.

M. Sanghadasa, In-Seok Shin, R. D. Clark, Huaisong Guo, and B. G. Penn, “Optical limiting behavior of octa-decyloxy metallo-phthalocyanines,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 31–37 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sasabe, H.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I.-Y. S. Lee, X.-L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C.-T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sato, N.

Y. Kojima, T. Matsuoka, N. Sato, and H. Takahashi, “Optical limiting property of a polyacene-based oligomer synthesized under high pressure,” Macromolecules 28, 2893–2896 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Scorrano, G.

M. Meneghetti, R. Signorini, M. Zerbetto, R. Bozio, M. Maggini, G. Scorrano, M. Prato, G. Brusatin, E. Menegazzo, and M. Guglielmi, Synth. Met. 86, 2353–2354 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shin, In-Seok

M. Sanghadasa, In-Seok Shin, R. D. Clark, Huaisong Guo, and B. G. Penn, “Optical limiting behavior of octa-decyloxy metallo-phthalocyanines,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 31–37 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shirk, J. S.

J. S. Shirk, R. G. S. Pong, S. R. Flom, H. Heckmann, and M. Hanack, “Effect of axial substitution on the optical limiting properties of indium phthalocyanines,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 1438 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Signorini, R.

M. Meneghetti, R. Signorini, M. Zerbetto, R. Bozio, M. Maggini, G. Scorrano, M. Prato, G. Brusatin, E. Menegazzo, and M. Guglielmi, Synth. Met. 86, 2353–2354 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Song, Yinglin

Peiwang Zhu, Peng Wang, Wenfeng Qiu, Yunqi Liu, Cheng Ye, Guangyu Fang, and Yinglin Song, “Optical limiting properties of phthalocyanines-fullerence derivatives,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1319–1321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

Y. Kojima, T. Matsuoka, N. Sato, and H. Takahashi, “Optical limiting property of a polyacene-based oligomer synthesized under high pressure,” Macromolecules 28, 2893–2896 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tatsumi, K.

K. Kasuga, M. Tsutsui, R. C. Petterson, K. Tatsumi, N. van Opdenbosch, G. Pepe, and J. E. F. Meyer, “Structure of bis(phthalocyaninato)neodymium(III),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 102, 4835–4836 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, J.

K. P. Unnikrishnan, J. Thomas, B. Paul, A. Kurian, P. Gopinath, V. P. N. Nampoori, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, “Nonlinear absorption and optical limiting in solutions of some rare earth substituted phthalocyanines,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 10, 113–121 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Kumar, J. Thomas, N. V. Unnikrishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, “Optical properties of phthalocyanine molecules in cyano acrylate polymer host,” Mater. Res. Bull. 36, 1–8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tian, M.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I.-Y. S. Lee, X.-L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C.-T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Torres, T.

G. de la Torre, P. Vazquez, F. Agullo-Lopez, and T. Torres, “Phthalocyanines and related compounds: organic targets for nonlinear optical applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 8, 1671–1683 (1998), and reference therein.
[CrossRef]

Tsutsui, M.

K. Kasuga, M. Tsutsui, R. C. Petterson, K. Tatsumi, N. van Opdenbosch, G. Pepe, and J. E. F. Meyer, “Structure of bis(phthalocyaninato)neodymium(III),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 102, 4835–4836 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Tutt, L.

Unnikrishnan, K. P.

K. P. Unnikrishnan, J. Thomas, B. Paul, A. Kurian, P. Gopinath, V. P. N. Nampoori, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, “Nonlinear absorption and optical limiting in solutions of some rare earth substituted phthalocyanines,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 10, 113–121 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Unnikrishnan, N. V.

G. A. Kumar, J. Thomas, N. V. Unnikrishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, “Optical properties of phthalocyanine molecules in cyano acrylate polymer host,” Mater. Res. Bull. 36, 1–8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vallabhan, C. P. G.

G. A. Kumar, J. Thomas, N. V. Unnikrishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, “Optical properties of phthalocyanine molecules in cyano acrylate polymer host,” Mater. Res. Bull. 36, 1–8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Unnikrishnan, J. Thomas, B. Paul, A. Kurian, P. Gopinath, V. P. N. Nampoori, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, “Nonlinear absorption and optical limiting in solutions of some rare earth substituted phthalocyanines,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 10, 113–121 (2001).
[CrossRef]

van Opdenbosch, N.

K. Kasuga, M. Tsutsui, R. C. Petterson, K. Tatsumi, N. van Opdenbosch, G. Pepe, and J. E. F. Meyer, “Structure of bis(phthalocyaninato)neodymium(III),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 102, 4835–4836 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

Vazquez, P.

G. de la Torre, P. Vazquez, F. Agullo-Lopez, and T. Torres, “Phthalocyanines and related compounds: organic targets for nonlinear optical applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 8, 1671–1683 (1998), and reference therein.
[CrossRef]

Wada, T.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I.-Y. S. Lee, X.-L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C.-T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Hui

Chunfei Li, Lei Zhang, Miao Yang, Hui Wang, and Yuxiao Wang, “Dynamic and steady-state behaviors of reverse saturable absorption in metallophthalocyanine,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 1149–1157 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Pen

Pen Wang, Shuang Zhang, Peiji Wu, Cheng Ye, Hong Wei Liu, and Fu Xi, “Optical limiting property of optically active phthalocyanine derivatives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 340, 261–266 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Peng

Peiwang Zhu, Peng Wang, Wenfeng Qiu, Yunqi Liu, Cheng Ye, Guangyu Fang, and Yinglin Song, “Optical limiting properties of phthalocyanines-fullerence derivatives,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1319–1321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Xin

Xin Wang, Chunling Liu, Qihuang Gong, Yanyi Huang, and Chunhui Huang, “Anomalous heavy atom effect on optical limiting property of homoleptic double decked sandwich-type lanthanide diphthalocyanines,” Opt. Commun. 197, 83–87 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Yuxiao

Chunfei Li, Lei Zhang, Miao Yang, Hui Wang, and Yuxiao Wang, “Dynamic and steady-state behaviors of reverse saturable absorption in metallophthalocyanine,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 1149–1157 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wen, T. C.

T. C. Wen and I. D. Lian, “Nanosecond measurements ofnonlinear absorption and refraction in solutions of bis-phthalocyanines at 532 nm,” Synth. Met. 83, 111–116 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Peiji

Pen Wang, Shuang Zhang, Peiji Wu, Cheng Ye, Hong Wei Liu, and Fu Xi, “Optical limiting property of optically active phthalocyanine derivatives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 340, 261–266 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X.-L.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I.-Y. S. Lee, X.-L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C.-T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Xi, Fu

Pen Wang, Shuang Zhang, Peiji Wu, Cheng Ye, Hong Wei Liu, and Fu Xi, “Optical limiting property of optically active phthalocyanine derivatives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 340, 261–266 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Haiping

Haiping Xia and M. Nogami, “Copper phthalocyanine bonding with gel and their optical limiting properties,” Opt. Mater. 15, 93–98 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Tiejun

Yang, Miao

Chunfei Li, Lei Zhang, Miao Yang, Hui Wang, and Yuxiao Wang, “Dynamic and steady-state behaviors of reverse saturable absorption in metallophthalocyanine,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 1149–1157 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, S.

Ye, Cheng

Pen Wang, Shuang Zhang, Peiji Wu, Cheng Ye, Hong Wei Liu, and Fu Xi, “Optical limiting property of optically active phthalocyanine derivatives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 340, 261–266 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Peiwang Zhu, Peng Wang, Wenfeng Qiu, Yunqi Liu, Cheng Ye, Guangyu Fang, and Yinglin Song, “Optical limiting properties of phthalocyanines-fullerence derivatives,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1319–1321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zerbetto, M.

M. Meneghetti, R. Signorini, M. Zerbetto, R. Bozio, M. Maggini, G. Scorrano, M. Prato, G. Brusatin, E. Menegazzo, and M. Guglielmi, Synth. Met. 86, 2353–2354 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Lei

Chunfei Li, Lei Zhang, Miao Yang, Hui Wang, and Yuxiao Wang, “Dynamic and steady-state behaviors of reverse saturable absorption in metallophthalocyanine,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 1149–1157 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Shuang

Pen Wang, Shuang Zhang, Peiji Wu, Cheng Ye, Hong Wei Liu, and Fu Xi, “Optical limiting property of optically active phthalocyanine derivatives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 340, 261–266 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Peiwang

Peiwang Zhu, Peng Wang, Wenfeng Qiu, Yunqi Liu, Cheng Ye, Guangyu Fang, and Yinglin Song, “Optical limiting properties of phthalocyanines-fullerence derivatives,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1319–1321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Peiwang Zhu, Peng Wang, Wenfeng Qiu, Yunqi Liu, Cheng Ye, Guangyu Fang, and Yinglin Song, “Optical limiting properties of phthalocyanines-fullerence derivatives,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1319–1321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

Pen Wang, Shuang Zhang, Peiji Wu, Cheng Ye, Hong Wei Liu, and Fu Xi, “Optical limiting property of optically active phthalocyanine derivatives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 340, 261–266 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Eur. J. Org. Chem. (1)

D. Dini, M. Barthel, and M. Hanack, “Phthalocyanines as active materials for optical limiting,” Eur. J. Org. Chem. 20, 3759–3769 (2001), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. R. Giuliano and L. D. Hess, “Nonlinear absorption of light: optical saturation of electronic transitions in organic molecules with high intensity laser radiation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 358–367 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

K. Kasuga, M. Tsutsui, R. C. Petterson, K. Tatsumi, N. van Opdenbosch, G. Pepe, and J. E. F. Meyer, “Structure of bis(phthalocyaninato)neodymium(III),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 102, 4835–4836 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Sanghadasa, In-Seok Shin, R. D. Clark, Huaisong Guo, and B. G. Penn, “Optical limiting behavior of octa-decyloxy metallo-phthalocyanines,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 31–37 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

G. de la Torre, P. Vazquez, F. Agullo-Lopez, and T. Torres, “Phthalocyanines and related compounds: organic targets for nonlinear optical applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 8, 1671–1683 (1998), and reference therein.
[CrossRef]

J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. (1)

K. P. Unnikrishnan, J. Thomas, B. Paul, A. Kurian, P. Gopinath, V. P. N. Nampoori, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, “Nonlinear absorption and optical limiting in solutions of some rare earth substituted phthalocyanines,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 10, 113–121 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. A (1)

J. S. Shirk, R. G. S. Pong, S. R. Flom, H. Heckmann, and M. Hanack, “Effect of axial substitution on the optical limiting properties of indium phthalocyanines,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 1438 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (1)

Y. Kojima, T. Matsuoka, N. Sato, and H. Takahashi, “Optical limiting property of a polyacene-based oligomer synthesized under high pressure,” Macromolecules 28, 2893–2896 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Bull. (1)

G. A. Kumar, J. Thomas, N. V. Unnikrishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, “Optical properties of phthalocyanine molecules in cyano acrylate polymer host,” Mater. Res. Bull. 36, 1–8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Xin Wang, Chunling Liu, Qihuang Gong, Yanyi Huang, and Chunhui Huang, “Anomalous heavy atom effect on optical limiting property of homoleptic double decked sandwich-type lanthanide diphthalocyanines,” Opt. Commun. 197, 83–87 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Mater. (1)

Haiping Xia and M. Nogami, “Copper phthalocyanine bonding with gel and their optical limiting properties,” Opt. Mater. 15, 93–98 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

Chunfei Li, Lei Zhang, Miao Yang, Hui Wang, and Yuxiao Wang, “Dynamic and steady-state behaviors of reverse saturable absorption in metallophthalocyanine,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 1149–1157 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. (1)

I. S. Kirin, P. N. Moskalev, and Yu. A. Moskashev, “New complex compounds of phthalocyanine with rare earth elements,” Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 12, 707–712 (1967).

Science (1)

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I.-Y. S. Lee, X.-L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C.-T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Synth. Met. (2)

M. Meneghetti, R. Signorini, M. Zerbetto, R. Bozio, M. Maggini, G. Scorrano, M. Prato, G. Brusatin, E. Menegazzo, and M. Guglielmi, Synth. Met. 86, 2353–2354 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Wen and I. D. Lian, “Nanosecond measurements ofnonlinear absorption and refraction in solutions of bis-phthalocyanines at 532 nm,” Synth. Met. 83, 111–116 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

C. C. Leznoff and A. B. P. Lever, eds., Phthalocyanines: Properties and Applications (VCH, Deerfield Beach, Fla., 1989).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Five-level energy-level model for the reverse saturable absorption for RePc in copolymer host.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Room-temperature ground-state linear absorption spectra of Sm(Pc)2 in MMA monomer solution and in a copolymer host.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical-limiting behavior of the RePc-doped copolymer samples for excitation at 532 nm. The linear transmission (LT) at 532 nm for the Sm(Pc)2-doped sample is 51% and for the Eu(Pc)2- and LaPc-doped samples is 42%.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variation of output fluence with respect to input fluence for LaPc-doped copolymer sample for an optical path length of 2.2 mm for a linear transmission (LT) of 42% and 21%.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Plot of ln(I0/I) versus (I0-I) for the RePc-doped copolymer samples. The plot for Sm(Pc)2 and LaPc are upshifted by 0.5 and 1 unit, respectively, for presentation. The straight line is the best linear fit to the data points.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σeff/σ0=ln Tsat/ln Tlin,
Tsat=exp(-σeff N0l),
ln(I0/I)=k(I0-I)+Ag,

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