Abstract

Iron-doped BaTiO3 composite thin films were fabricated by pulsed-laser deposition from pure metallic Fe and ceramic BaTiO3 targets. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to check the Fe chemical bond state for the deposited films. Optical absorption spectra showed resonancelike spectral peaks around 380 nm and 500 nm. The nonlinear optical properties of the films were determined with the Z-scan method at a wavelength of 532 nm with a laser duration of 10 ns. The iron doping in BaTiO3 did not change the imaginary part of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) significantly, but introduced a large real part of χ(3) as high as 7.18×10-7 esu.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, J. S. Fu, P. Yu, G. K. L. Wong, and Ping Sheng, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity in Au:SiO2 composite films near the percolation threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1–3 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. M. Ballesteros, R. Serna, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, A. K. Petford-Long, D. H. Osborne, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Pulsed laser deposition of Cu:Al2O3 nanocrystal thin films with high third-order optical susceptibility,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2445–2447 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. Tanahashi, Y. Manabe, T. Tohda, S. Sasaki, and A. Nakamura, “Optical nonlinearities of Au/SiO2 composite thin films prepared by a sputtering method,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1244–1249 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. F. Haglund, Jr., L. Yang, R. H. Magruder III, J. E. Wittig, K. Becker, and R. A. Zuhr, “Picosecond nonlinear optical response of a Cu:silica nanocluster composite,” Opt. Lett. 18, 373–375 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. De, L. Tapfer, M. Catalano, G. Battaglin, F. Caccavale, F. Gonella, P. Mazzoldi, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Formation of copper and silver nanometer dimension clusters in silica by the solgel process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3820–3822 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Takeda, T. Hioki, T. Motohiro, and S. Noda, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity of tin microcrystallite-doped silica glass formed by ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3420–3422 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Serna, C. N. Afonso, J. M. Ballesteros, A. Naudon, D. Babonneau, and A. K. Petford-Long, “Size, shape anisotropy, and distribution of Cu nanocrystals prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 138–139, 1–5 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Serna, J. M. Ballesteros, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, Jr., and A. K. Petford-Long, “Laser-induced modification of the nonlinear optical response of laser-deposited Cu:Al2O3 nanocomposite films,” Thin Solid Films 318, 96–99 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. De La Cruz and L. C. Araiza, “Pulsed laser deposition of crystalline Fe nanoparticles on Al2O3 substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi B 220, 569–573 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, “High-sensitivity, single-beam n2 measurements,” Opt. Lett. 14, 955–957 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. D. Nolte, “Optical scattering and absorption by metal nanoclusters in GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 3740–3745 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. S. Shi, Z. H. Chen, N. N. Liu, H. B. Lu, Y. L. Zhou, D. F. Cui, and G. Z. Yang, “Nonlinear optical properties of self-organized complex oxide Ce:BaTiO3 quantum dots grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1547–1549 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Ando, K. Kadono, M. Haruta, T. Sakaguchi, and M. Miya, “Large third-order optical nonlinearities in transition-metal oxides,” Nature 374, 625–627 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, J. S. Fu, H. Wang, K. S. Wong, and G. K. L. Wong, “Origin of third-order optical nonlinearity in Au:SiO2 composite films on femtosecond and picosecond time scales,” Opt. Lett. 23, 388–390 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Uchida, S. Kaneko, S. Omi, C. Hata, H. Tanji, Y. Asahara, A. J. Ikushima, T. Tokizaki, and A. Nakamura, “Optical nonlinearities of a high concentration of small metal particles dispersed in glass:copper and silver particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1236–1243 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. E. Sipe and R. W. Boyd, “Nonlinear susceptibility of composite optical materials in the Maxwell Garnett model,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 1614–1629 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, and T. J. McKay, “Single-beam z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251–293 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (1)

W. De La Cruz and L. C. Araiza, “Pulsed laser deposition of crystalline Fe nanoparticles on Al2O3 substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi B 220, 569–573 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

W. S. Shi, Z. H. Chen, N. N. Liu, H. B. Lu, Y. L. Zhou, D. F. Cui, and G. Z. Yang, “Nonlinear optical properties of self-organized complex oxide Ce:BaTiO3 quantum dots grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1547–1549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Serna, C. N. Afonso, J. M. Ballesteros, A. Naudon, D. Babonneau, and A. K. Petford-Long, “Size, shape anisotropy, and distribution of Cu nanocrystals prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 138–139, 1–5 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

R. Serna, J. M. Ballesteros, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, Jr., and A. K. Petford-Long, “Laser-induced modification of the nonlinear optical response of laser-deposited Cu:Al2O3 nanocomposite films,” Thin Solid Films 318, 96–99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, J. S. Fu, H. Wang, K. S. Wong, and G. K. L. Wong, “Origin of third-order optical nonlinearity in Au:SiO2 composite films on femtosecond and picosecond time scales,” Opt. Lett. 23, 388–390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, J. S. Fu, P. Yu, G. K. L. Wong, and Ping Sheng, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity in Au:SiO2 composite films near the percolation threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1–3 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Ballesteros, R. Serna, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, A. K. Petford-Long, D. H. Osborne, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Pulsed laser deposition of Cu:Al2O3 nanocrystal thin films with high third-order optical susceptibility,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2445–2447 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

I. Tanahashi, Y. Manabe, T. Tohda, S. Sasaki, and A. Nakamura, “Optical nonlinearities of Au/SiO2 composite thin films prepared by a sputtering method,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1244–1249 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. De, L. Tapfer, M. Catalano, G. Battaglin, F. Caccavale, F. Gonella, P. Mazzoldi, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Formation of copper and silver nanometer dimension clusters in silica by the solgel process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3820–3822 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Ando, K. Kadono, M. Haruta, T. Sakaguchi, and M. Miya, “Large third-order optical nonlinearities in transition-metal oxides,” Nature 374, 625–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

1993 (2)

Y. Takeda, T. Hioki, T. Motohiro, and S. Noda, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity of tin microcrystallite-doped silica glass formed by ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3420–3422 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Haglund, Jr., L. Yang, R. H. Magruder III, J. E. Wittig, K. Becker, and R. A. Zuhr, “Picosecond nonlinear optical response of a Cu:silica nanocluster composite,” Opt. Lett. 18, 373–375 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

J. E. Sipe and R. W. Boyd, “Nonlinear susceptibility of composite optical materials in the Maxwell Garnett model,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 1614–1629 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, and T. J. McKay, “Single-beam z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251–293 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

Afonso, C. N.

R. Serna, C. N. Afonso, J. M. Ballesteros, A. Naudon, D. Babonneau, and A. K. Petford-Long, “Size, shape anisotropy, and distribution of Cu nanocrystals prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 138–139, 1–5 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Serna, J. M. Ballesteros, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, Jr., and A. K. Petford-Long, “Laser-induced modification of the nonlinear optical response of laser-deposited Cu:Al2O3 nanocomposite films,” Thin Solid Films 318, 96–99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Ballesteros, R. Serna, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, A. K. Petford-Long, D. H. Osborne, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Pulsed laser deposition of Cu:Al2O3 nanocrystal thin films with high third-order optical susceptibility,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2445–2447 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ando, M.

M. Ando, K. Kadono, M. Haruta, T. Sakaguchi, and M. Miya, “Large third-order optical nonlinearities in transition-metal oxides,” Nature 374, 625–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Araiza, L. C.

W. De La Cruz and L. C. Araiza, “Pulsed laser deposition of crystalline Fe nanoparticles on Al2O3 substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi B 220, 569–573 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Asahara, Y.

Babonneau, D.

R. Serna, C. N. Afonso, J. M. Ballesteros, A. Naudon, D. Babonneau, and A. K. Petford-Long, “Size, shape anisotropy, and distribution of Cu nanocrystals prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 138–139, 1–5 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ballesteros, J. M.

R. Serna, C. N. Afonso, J. M. Ballesteros, A. Naudon, D. Babonneau, and A. K. Petford-Long, “Size, shape anisotropy, and distribution of Cu nanocrystals prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 138–139, 1–5 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Serna, J. M. Ballesteros, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, Jr., and A. K. Petford-Long, “Laser-induced modification of the nonlinear optical response of laser-deposited Cu:Al2O3 nanocomposite films,” Thin Solid Films 318, 96–99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Ballesteros, R. Serna, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, A. K. Petford-Long, D. H. Osborne, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Pulsed laser deposition of Cu:Al2O3 nanocrystal thin films with high third-order optical susceptibility,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2445–2447 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Battaglin, G.

G. De, L. Tapfer, M. Catalano, G. Battaglin, F. Caccavale, F. Gonella, P. Mazzoldi, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Formation of copper and silver nanometer dimension clusters in silica by the solgel process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3820–3822 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Becker, K.

Boyd, R. W.

J. E. Sipe and R. W. Boyd, “Nonlinear susceptibility of composite optical materials in the Maxwell Garnett model,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 1614–1629 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caccavale, F.

G. De, L. Tapfer, M. Catalano, G. Battaglin, F. Caccavale, F. Gonella, P. Mazzoldi, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Formation of copper and silver nanometer dimension clusters in silica by the solgel process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3820–3822 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Catalano, M.

G. De, L. Tapfer, M. Catalano, G. Battaglin, F. Caccavale, F. Gonella, P. Mazzoldi, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Formation of copper and silver nanometer dimension clusters in silica by the solgel process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3820–3822 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chapple, P. B.

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, and T. J. McKay, “Single-beam z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251–293 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z. H.

W. S. Shi, Z. H. Chen, N. N. Liu, H. B. Lu, Y. L. Zhou, D. F. Cui, and G. Z. Yang, “Nonlinear optical properties of self-organized complex oxide Ce:BaTiO3 quantum dots grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1547–1549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cui, D. F.

W. S. Shi, Z. H. Chen, N. N. Liu, H. B. Lu, Y. L. Zhou, D. F. Cui, and G. Z. Yang, “Nonlinear optical properties of self-organized complex oxide Ce:BaTiO3 quantum dots grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1547–1549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

De, G.

G. De, L. Tapfer, M. Catalano, G. Battaglin, F. Caccavale, F. Gonella, P. Mazzoldi, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Formation of copper and silver nanometer dimension clusters in silica by the solgel process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3820–3822 (1996).
[CrossRef]

De La Cruz, W.

W. De La Cruz and L. C. Araiza, “Pulsed laser deposition of crystalline Fe nanoparticles on Al2O3 substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi B 220, 569–573 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fu, J. S.

H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, J. S. Fu, H. Wang, K. S. Wong, and G. K. L. Wong, “Origin of third-order optical nonlinearity in Au:SiO2 composite films on femtosecond and picosecond time scales,” Opt. Lett. 23, 388–390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, J. S. Fu, P. Yu, G. K. L. Wong, and Ping Sheng, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity in Au:SiO2 composite films near the percolation threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1–3 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gonella, F.

G. De, L. Tapfer, M. Catalano, G. Battaglin, F. Caccavale, F. Gonella, P. Mazzoldi, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Formation of copper and silver nanometer dimension clusters in silica by the solgel process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3820–3822 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Haglund Jr., R. F.

R. Serna, J. M. Ballesteros, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, Jr., and A. K. Petford-Long, “Laser-induced modification of the nonlinear optical response of laser-deposited Cu:Al2O3 nanocomposite films,” Thin Solid Films 318, 96–99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Ballesteros, R. Serna, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, A. K. Petford-Long, D. H. Osborne, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Pulsed laser deposition of Cu:Al2O3 nanocrystal thin films with high third-order optical susceptibility,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2445–2447 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. De, L. Tapfer, M. Catalano, G. Battaglin, F. Caccavale, F. Gonella, P. Mazzoldi, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Formation of copper and silver nanometer dimension clusters in silica by the solgel process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3820–3822 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Haglund, Jr., L. Yang, R. H. Magruder III, J. E. Wittig, K. Becker, and R. A. Zuhr, “Picosecond nonlinear optical response of a Cu:silica nanocluster composite,” Opt. Lett. 18, 373–375 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haruta, M.

M. Ando, K. Kadono, M. Haruta, T. Sakaguchi, and M. Miya, “Large third-order optical nonlinearities in transition-metal oxides,” Nature 374, 625–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hata, C.

Hermann, J. A.

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, and T. J. McKay, “Single-beam z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251–293 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hioki, T.

Y. Takeda, T. Hioki, T. Motohiro, and S. Noda, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity of tin microcrystallite-doped silica glass formed by ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3420–3422 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ikushima, A. J.

Kadono, K.

M. Ando, K. Kadono, M. Haruta, T. Sakaguchi, and M. Miya, “Large third-order optical nonlinearities in transition-metal oxides,” Nature 374, 625–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, S.

Liao, H. B.

H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, J. S. Fu, H. Wang, K. S. Wong, and G. K. L. Wong, “Origin of third-order optical nonlinearity in Au:SiO2 composite films on femtosecond and picosecond time scales,” Opt. Lett. 23, 388–390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, J. S. Fu, P. Yu, G. K. L. Wong, and Ping Sheng, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity in Au:SiO2 composite films near the percolation threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1–3 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liu, N. N.

W. S. Shi, Z. H. Chen, N. N. Liu, H. B. Lu, Y. L. Zhou, D. F. Cui, and G. Z. Yang, “Nonlinear optical properties of self-organized complex oxide Ce:BaTiO3 quantum dots grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1547–1549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H. B.

W. S. Shi, Z. H. Chen, N. N. Liu, H. B. Lu, Y. L. Zhou, D. F. Cui, and G. Z. Yang, “Nonlinear optical properties of self-organized complex oxide Ce:BaTiO3 quantum dots grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1547–1549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Magruder III, R. H.

Manabe, Y.

I. Tanahashi, Y. Manabe, T. Tohda, S. Sasaki, and A. Nakamura, “Optical nonlinearities of Au/SiO2 composite thin films prepared by a sputtering method,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1244–1249 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mazzoldi, P.

G. De, L. Tapfer, M. Catalano, G. Battaglin, F. Caccavale, F. Gonella, P. Mazzoldi, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Formation of copper and silver nanometer dimension clusters in silica by the solgel process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3820–3822 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McKay, T. J.

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, and T. J. McKay, “Single-beam z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251–293 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Miya, M.

M. Ando, K. Kadono, M. Haruta, T. Sakaguchi, and M. Miya, “Large third-order optical nonlinearities in transition-metal oxides,” Nature 374, 625–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Motohiro, T.

Y. Takeda, T. Hioki, T. Motohiro, and S. Noda, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity of tin microcrystallite-doped silica glass formed by ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3420–3422 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, A.

Naudon, A.

R. Serna, C. N. Afonso, J. M. Ballesteros, A. Naudon, D. Babonneau, and A. K. Petford-Long, “Size, shape anisotropy, and distribution of Cu nanocrystals prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 138–139, 1–5 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

Y. Takeda, T. Hioki, T. Motohiro, and S. Noda, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity of tin microcrystallite-doped silica glass formed by ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3420–3422 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, D. D.

D. D. Nolte, “Optical scattering and absorption by metal nanoclusters in GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 3740–3745 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Omi, S.

Osborne, D. H.

R. Serna, J. M. Ballesteros, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, Jr., and A. K. Petford-Long, “Laser-induced modification of the nonlinear optical response of laser-deposited Cu:Al2O3 nanocomposite films,” Thin Solid Films 318, 96–99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Ballesteros, R. Serna, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, A. K. Petford-Long, D. H. Osborne, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Pulsed laser deposition of Cu:Al2O3 nanocrystal thin films with high third-order optical susceptibility,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2445–2447 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Petford-Long, A. K.

R. Serna, C. N. Afonso, J. M. Ballesteros, A. Naudon, D. Babonneau, and A. K. Petford-Long, “Size, shape anisotropy, and distribution of Cu nanocrystals prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 138–139, 1–5 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Serna, J. M. Ballesteros, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, Jr., and A. K. Petford-Long, “Laser-induced modification of the nonlinear optical response of laser-deposited Cu:Al2O3 nanocomposite films,” Thin Solid Films 318, 96–99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Ballesteros, R. Serna, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, A. K. Petford-Long, D. H. Osborne, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Pulsed laser deposition of Cu:Al2O3 nanocrystal thin films with high third-order optical susceptibility,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2445–2447 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, “High-sensitivity, single-beam n2 measurements,” Opt. Lett. 14, 955–957 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakaguchi, T.

M. Ando, K. Kadono, M. Haruta, T. Sakaguchi, and M. Miya, “Large third-order optical nonlinearities in transition-metal oxides,” Nature 374, 625–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, S.

I. Tanahashi, Y. Manabe, T. Tohda, S. Sasaki, and A. Nakamura, “Optical nonlinearities of Au/SiO2 composite thin films prepared by a sputtering method,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1244–1249 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Serna, R.

R. Serna, C. N. Afonso, J. M. Ballesteros, A. Naudon, D. Babonneau, and A. K. Petford-Long, “Size, shape anisotropy, and distribution of Cu nanocrystals prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 138–139, 1–5 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Serna, J. M. Ballesteros, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, Jr., and A. K. Petford-Long, “Laser-induced modification of the nonlinear optical response of laser-deposited Cu:Al2O3 nanocomposite films,” Thin Solid Films 318, 96–99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Ballesteros, R. Serna, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, A. K. Petford-Long, D. H. Osborne, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Pulsed laser deposition of Cu:Al2O3 nanocrystal thin films with high third-order optical susceptibility,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2445–2447 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, “High-sensitivity, single-beam n2 measurements,” Opt. Lett. 14, 955–957 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheng, Ping

H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, J. S. Fu, P. Yu, G. K. L. Wong, and Ping Sheng, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity in Au:SiO2 composite films near the percolation threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1–3 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shi, W. S.

W. S. Shi, Z. H. Chen, N. N. Liu, H. B. Lu, Y. L. Zhou, D. F. Cui, and G. Z. Yang, “Nonlinear optical properties of self-organized complex oxide Ce:BaTiO3 quantum dots grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1547–1549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

J. E. Sipe and R. W. Boyd, “Nonlinear susceptibility of composite optical materials in the Maxwell Garnett model,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 1614–1629 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solis, J.

R. Serna, J. M. Ballesteros, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, Jr., and A. K. Petford-Long, “Laser-induced modification of the nonlinear optical response of laser-deposited Cu:Al2O3 nanocomposite films,” Thin Solid Films 318, 96–99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Ballesteros, R. Serna, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, A. K. Petford-Long, D. H. Osborne, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Pulsed laser deposition of Cu:Al2O3 nanocrystal thin films with high third-order optical susceptibility,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2445–2447 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Staromlynska, J.

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, and T. J. McKay, “Single-beam z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251–293 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, Y.

Y. Takeda, T. Hioki, T. Motohiro, and S. Noda, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity of tin microcrystallite-doped silica glass formed by ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3420–3422 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tanahashi, I.

I. Tanahashi, Y. Manabe, T. Tohda, S. Sasaki, and A. Nakamura, “Optical nonlinearities of Au/SiO2 composite thin films prepared by a sputtering method,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1244–1249 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tanji, H.

Tapfer, L.

G. De, L. Tapfer, M. Catalano, G. Battaglin, F. Caccavale, F. Gonella, P. Mazzoldi, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Formation of copper and silver nanometer dimension clusters in silica by the solgel process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3820–3822 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tohda, T.

I. Tanahashi, Y. Manabe, T. Tohda, S. Sasaki, and A. Nakamura, “Optical nonlinearities of Au/SiO2 composite thin films prepared by a sputtering method,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1244–1249 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tokizaki, T.

Uchida, K.

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, “High-sensitivity, single-beam n2 measurements,” Opt. Lett. 14, 955–957 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wittig, J. E.

Wong, G. K. L.

H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, J. S. Fu, H. Wang, K. S. Wong, and G. K. L. Wong, “Origin of third-order optical nonlinearity in Au:SiO2 composite films on femtosecond and picosecond time scales,” Opt. Lett. 23, 388–390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, J. S. Fu, P. Yu, G. K. L. Wong, and Ping Sheng, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity in Au:SiO2 composite films near the percolation threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1–3 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wong, K. S.

Xiao, R. F.

H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, J. S. Fu, H. Wang, K. S. Wong, and G. K. L. Wong, “Origin of third-order optical nonlinearity in Au:SiO2 composite films on femtosecond and picosecond time scales,” Opt. Lett. 23, 388–390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, J. S. Fu, P. Yu, G. K. L. Wong, and Ping Sheng, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity in Au:SiO2 composite films near the percolation threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1–3 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G. Z.

W. S. Shi, Z. H. Chen, N. N. Liu, H. B. Lu, Y. L. Zhou, D. F. Cui, and G. Z. Yang, “Nonlinear optical properties of self-organized complex oxide Ce:BaTiO3 quantum dots grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1547–1549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

Yu, P.

H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, J. S. Fu, P. Yu, G. K. L. Wong, and Ping Sheng, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity in Au:SiO2 composite films near the percolation threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1–3 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y. L.

W. S. Shi, Z. H. Chen, N. N. Liu, H. B. Lu, Y. L. Zhou, D. F. Cui, and G. Z. Yang, “Nonlinear optical properties of self-organized complex oxide Ce:BaTiO3 quantum dots grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1547–1549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zuhr, R. A.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, J. S. Fu, P. Yu, G. K. L. Wong, and Ping Sheng, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity in Au:SiO2 composite films near the percolation threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1–3 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Ballesteros, R. Serna, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, A. K. Petford-Long, D. H. Osborne, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Pulsed laser deposition of Cu:Al2O3 nanocrystal thin films with high third-order optical susceptibility,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2445–2447 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. De, L. Tapfer, M. Catalano, G. Battaglin, F. Caccavale, F. Gonella, P. Mazzoldi, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Formation of copper and silver nanometer dimension clusters in silica by the solgel process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3820–3822 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takeda, T. Hioki, T. Motohiro, and S. Noda, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity of tin microcrystallite-doped silica glass formed by ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3420–3422 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Shi, Z. H. Chen, N. N. Liu, H. B. Lu, Y. L. Zhou, D. F. Cui, and G. Z. Yang, “Nonlinear optical properties of self-organized complex oxide Ce:BaTiO3 quantum dots grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1547–1549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

R. Serna, C. N. Afonso, J. M. Ballesteros, A. Naudon, D. Babonneau, and A. K. Petford-Long, “Size, shape anisotropy, and distribution of Cu nanocrystals prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 138–139, 1–5 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

D. D. Nolte, “Optical scattering and absorption by metal nanoclusters in GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 3740–3745 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. Tanahashi, Y. Manabe, T. Tohda, S. Sasaki, and A. Nakamura, “Optical nonlinearities of Au/SiO2 composite thin films prepared by a sputtering method,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1244–1249 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. (1)

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, and T. J. McKay, “Single-beam z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251–293 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (1)

M. Ando, K. Kadono, M. Haruta, T. Sakaguchi, and M. Miya, “Large third-order optical nonlinearities in transition-metal oxides,” Nature 374, 625–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

J. E. Sipe and R. W. Boyd, “Nonlinear susceptibility of composite optical materials in the Maxwell Garnett model,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 1614–1629 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

W. De La Cruz and L. C. Araiza, “Pulsed laser deposition of crystalline Fe nanoparticles on Al2O3 substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi B 220, 569–573 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

R. Serna, J. M. Ballesteros, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, Jr., and A. K. Petford-Long, “Laser-induced modification of the nonlinear optical response of laser-deposited Cu:Al2O3 nanocomposite films,” Thin Solid Films 318, 96–99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fe 2p XPS spectra of sample 3 being etched by an Ar+-ion beam (2.5 kV, 20 μA) for (a) 10 min, (b) 20 min, and (c) 30 min.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption spectra of (a) BaTiO3, (b) sample 1, (c) sample 2, and (d) sample 3.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Closed-aperture (CA) and (b) open-aperture (OA) Z scans from sample 1 at a maximum intensity of 6.72×107 W cm-2. The solid curves are the theoretical fits to the data.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Open-aperture (OA) Z-scan data of BaTiO3 thin films at a maximum intensity of 5.31×107 W cm-2. The solid curve is the theoretical fit to the data.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Sample Name, Experimental Synthesis Conditions, Fe Areal Density per Layer, and Total Thickness of the Fe/BaTiO3 Composite Films

Tables Icon

Table 2 Nonlinear Optical Response of Fe/BaTiO3 (Sample 1) and Undoped BaTiO3 Films

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T(z, s=1)=m=0[-q0(z)]m(m+1)3/2,

Metrics