Abstract

We propose to fabricate a toroidal dielectric cavity from a periodically poled χ(2) nonlinear material (e.g., LiNbO3) to achieve efficient interaction among high-Q whispering-gallery modes. We show that the periodic poling allows for suppression of both material and cavity dispersion. Such a cavity might be a basic element of a family of efficient nonlinear devices operating at a broad range of optical wavelengths.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Quality-factor and nonlinear properties of optical whispering gallery modes,” Phys. Lett. A 137, 393–397 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. J. Campillo, J. D. Eversole, and H. B. Lin, “Cavity quantum electrodynamic enhancement of stimulated emission in microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 437–440 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. V. S. Ilchenko, X. S. Yao, and L. Malcki, “Microsphere integration in active and passive photonics devices,” in Laser Resonators III, A. V. Kudryashov and A. H. Paxton, eds., Proc. SPIE 3930, 154–162 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. S. Ilchenko and L. Maleki, “Novel whispering-gallery resonators for lasers, modulators, and sensors,” in Laser Resonators IV, A. V. Kudryashov and A. H. Paxton, eds., Proc. SPIE 4270, 120–130 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. A. Cohen and A. F. J. Levi, “Microphotonic millimetre-wave receiver architecture,” Electron. Lett. 37, 37–38 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. A. Cohen, M. Hossein-Zadeh, and A. F. J. Levi, “Microphotonic modulator for microwave receiver,” Electron. Lett. 37, 300–301 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Sub-microWatt photonic microwave receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1602–1604 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Whispering gallery mode electro-optic modulator and photonic microwave receiver,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 333–342 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, W. R. Bosenberg, and J. W. Pierce, “Quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillators in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2102–2116 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. C. Lam, P. T. Leung, and K. Young, “Explicit asymptotic formulas for the positions, widths, and strengths of resonances in Mie scattering,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1585–1592 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Tunability and synthetic lineshapes in high-Q optical whispering gallery modes,” in Laser Resonators and Beam Control VI, A. V. Kudryashov, ed., Proc. SPIE 4969 (to be published).
  12. H. M. Lai, P. T. Leung, K. Young, P. W. Barber, and S. C. Hill, “Time-independent perturbation for leaking electromagnetic modes in open system with application to resonances in microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 5187–5198 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. E. Crenshaw and C. M. Bowden, “On quantization of the field in dielectrics,” J. Mod. Opt. 49, 511–517 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. E. Crenshaw and C. M. Bowden, “Quantum optics of two-level atoms in a dielectric: comparison of macroscopic and microscopic quantizations of the dielectric,” Opt. Commun. 203, 115–124 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Martinelli, K. S. Zhang, T. Coudreau, A. Maitre, and C. Fabre, “Ultra-low threshold cw triply resonant OPO in the near infrared using periodically poled lithium niobate,” J. Opt. A 3, 300–303 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. K. Serkland, R. C. Eckardt, and R. L. Byer, “Continuous-wave total-internal-reflection optical parametric oscillator pumped at 1064 nm,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1046–1048 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. C. Alferness, S. K. Korotky, and E. A. J. Marcatili, “Velocity matching techniques for integrated optic traveling wave switch/modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE20, 301–309 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Murata, K. Kinoshita, G. Miyaji, A. Morimoto, and T. Kobayashi, “Quasi-velocity-matched LiTaO3 guided-wave optical phase modulator for integrated ultrashort optical pulse generators,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1459–1460 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. Murata, A. Morimoto, T. Kobayashi, and S. Yamamoto, “Optical pulse generation by using quasi-velocity-matched guided-wave electrooptic phase modulator,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 785–794 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Q. Lu, M. Xiao, and G. J. Salamo, “Wide-bandwidth high-frequency electro-optic modulator based on periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1035–1037 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  21. K. W. Chang, A. C. Chiang, T. C. Lin, B. C. Wong, Y. H. Chen, and Y. C. Huang, “Simultaneous wavelength conversion and amplitude modulation in a monolithic periodically-poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Commun. 203, 163–168 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, R. Le Targat, A. A. Savchenkov, and L. Maleki, “Parametric optics with whispering-gallery modes,” in Laser Resonators and Beam Control, A. V. Kudryashov, ed., Proc. SPIE 4969 (to be published).

2003 (1)

2002 (4)

M. E. Crenshaw and C. M. Bowden, “On quantization of the field in dielectrics,” J. Mod. Opt. 49, 511–517 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Crenshaw and C. M. Bowden, “Quantum optics of two-level atoms in a dielectric: comparison of macroscopic and microscopic quantizations of the dielectric,” Opt. Commun. 203, 115–124 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Sub-microWatt photonic microwave receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1602–1604 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Chang, A. C. Chiang, T. C. Lin, B. C. Wong, Y. H. Chen, and Y. C. Huang, “Simultaneous wavelength conversion and amplitude modulation in a monolithic periodically-poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Commun. 203, 163–168 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (6)

H. Murata, A. Morimoto, T. Kobayashi, and S. Yamamoto, “Optical pulse generation by using quasi-velocity-matched guided-wave electrooptic phase modulator,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 785–794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Lu, M. Xiao, and G. J. Salamo, “Wide-bandwidth high-frequency electro-optic modulator based on periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1035–1037 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Martinelli, K. S. Zhang, T. Coudreau, A. Maitre, and C. Fabre, “Ultra-low threshold cw triply resonant OPO in the near infrared using periodically poled lithium niobate,” J. Opt. A 3, 300–303 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko and L. Maleki, “Novel whispering-gallery resonators for lasers, modulators, and sensors,” in Laser Resonators IV, A. V. Kudryashov and A. H. Paxton, eds., Proc. SPIE 4270, 120–130 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Cohen and A. F. J. Levi, “Microphotonic millimetre-wave receiver architecture,” Electron. Lett. 37, 37–38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Cohen, M. Hossein-Zadeh, and A. F. J. Levi, “Microphotonic modulator for microwave receiver,” Electron. Lett. 37, 300–301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

V. S. Ilchenko, X. S. Yao, and L. Malcki, “Microsphere integration in active and passive photonics devices,” in Laser Resonators III, A. V. Kudryashov and A. H. Paxton, eds., Proc. SPIE 3930, 154–162 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Murata, K. Kinoshita, G. Miyaji, A. Morimoto, and T. Kobayashi, “Quasi-velocity-matched LiTaO3 guided-wave optical phase modulator for integrated ultrashort optical pulse generators,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1459–1460 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

A. J. Campillo, J. D. Eversole, and H. B. Lin, “Cavity quantum electrodynamic enhancement of stimulated emission in microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 437–440 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

H. M. Lai, P. T. Leung, K. Young, P. W. Barber, and S. C. Hill, “Time-independent perturbation for leaking electromagnetic modes in open system with application to resonances in microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 5187–5198 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Quality-factor and nonlinear properties of optical whispering gallery modes,” Phys. Lett. A 137, 393–397 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

R. C. Alferness, S. K. Korotky, and E. A. J. Marcatili, “Velocity matching techniques for integrated optic traveling wave switch/modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE20, 301–309 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Alferness, R. C.

R. C. Alferness, S. K. Korotky, and E. A. J. Marcatili, “Velocity matching techniques for integrated optic traveling wave switch/modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE20, 301–309 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Barber, P. W.

H. M. Lai, P. T. Leung, K. Young, P. W. Barber, and S. C. Hill, “Time-independent perturbation for leaking electromagnetic modes in open system with application to resonances in microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 5187–5198 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bosenberg, W. R.

Bowden, C. M.

M. E. Crenshaw and C. M. Bowden, “On quantization of the field in dielectrics,” J. Mod. Opt. 49, 511–517 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Crenshaw and C. M. Bowden, “Quantum optics of two-level atoms in a dielectric: comparison of macroscopic and microscopic quantizations of the dielectric,” Opt. Commun. 203, 115–124 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Braginsky, V. B.

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Quality-factor and nonlinear properties of optical whispering gallery modes,” Phys. Lett. A 137, 393–397 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

Campillo, A. J.

A. J. Campillo, J. D. Eversole, and H. B. Lin, “Cavity quantum electrodynamic enhancement of stimulated emission in microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 437–440 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, K. W.

K. W. Chang, A. C. Chiang, T. C. Lin, B. C. Wong, Y. H. Chen, and Y. C. Huang, “Simultaneous wavelength conversion and amplitude modulation in a monolithic periodically-poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Commun. 203, 163–168 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. H.

K. W. Chang, A. C. Chiang, T. C. Lin, B. C. Wong, Y. H. Chen, and Y. C. Huang, “Simultaneous wavelength conversion and amplitude modulation in a monolithic periodically-poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Commun. 203, 163–168 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, A. C.

K. W. Chang, A. C. Chiang, T. C. Lin, B. C. Wong, Y. H. Chen, and Y. C. Huang, “Simultaneous wavelength conversion and amplitude modulation in a monolithic periodically-poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Commun. 203, 163–168 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, D. A.

D. A. Cohen, M. Hossein-Zadeh, and A. F. J. Levi, “Microphotonic modulator for microwave receiver,” Electron. Lett. 37, 300–301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Cohen and A. F. J. Levi, “Microphotonic millimetre-wave receiver architecture,” Electron. Lett. 37, 37–38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Coudreau, T.

M. Martinelli, K. S. Zhang, T. Coudreau, A. Maitre, and C. Fabre, “Ultra-low threshold cw triply resonant OPO in the near infrared using periodically poled lithium niobate,” J. Opt. A 3, 300–303 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Crenshaw, M. E.

M. E. Crenshaw and C. M. Bowden, “On quantization of the field in dielectrics,” J. Mod. Opt. 49, 511–517 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Crenshaw and C. M. Bowden, “Quantum optics of two-level atoms in a dielectric: comparison of macroscopic and microscopic quantizations of the dielectric,” Opt. Commun. 203, 115–124 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eckardt, R. C.

Eversole, J. D.

A. J. Campillo, J. D. Eversole, and H. B. Lin, “Cavity quantum electrodynamic enhancement of stimulated emission in microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 437–440 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fabre, C.

M. Martinelli, K. S. Zhang, T. Coudreau, A. Maitre, and C. Fabre, “Ultra-low threshold cw triply resonant OPO in the near infrared using periodically poled lithium niobate,” J. Opt. A 3, 300–303 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

Gorodetsky, M. L.

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Quality-factor and nonlinear properties of optical whispering gallery modes,” Phys. Lett. A 137, 393–397 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hill, S. C.

H. M. Lai, P. T. Leung, K. Young, P. W. Barber, and S. C. Hill, “Time-independent perturbation for leaking electromagnetic modes in open system with application to resonances in microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 5187–5198 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hossein-Zadeh, M.

D. A. Cohen, M. Hossein-Zadeh, and A. F. J. Levi, “Microphotonic modulator for microwave receiver,” Electron. Lett. 37, 300–301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. C.

K. W. Chang, A. C. Chiang, T. C. Lin, B. C. Wong, Y. H. Chen, and Y. C. Huang, “Simultaneous wavelength conversion and amplitude modulation in a monolithic periodically-poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Commun. 203, 163–168 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V. S.

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Whispering gallery mode electro-optic modulator and photonic microwave receiver,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 333–342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Sub-microWatt photonic microwave receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1602–1604 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko and L. Maleki, “Novel whispering-gallery resonators for lasers, modulators, and sensors,” in Laser Resonators IV, A. V. Kudryashov and A. H. Paxton, eds., Proc. SPIE 4270, 120–130 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko, X. S. Yao, and L. Malcki, “Microsphere integration in active and passive photonics devices,” in Laser Resonators III, A. V. Kudryashov and A. H. Paxton, eds., Proc. SPIE 3930, 154–162 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Quality-factor and nonlinear properties of optical whispering gallery modes,” Phys. Lett. A 137, 393–397 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kinoshita, K.

H. Murata, K. Kinoshita, G. Miyaji, A. Morimoto, and T. Kobayashi, “Quasi-velocity-matched LiTaO3 guided-wave optical phase modulator for integrated ultrashort optical pulse generators,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1459–1460 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

H. Murata, A. Morimoto, T. Kobayashi, and S. Yamamoto, “Optical pulse generation by using quasi-velocity-matched guided-wave electrooptic phase modulator,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 785–794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Murata, K. Kinoshita, G. Miyaji, A. Morimoto, and T. Kobayashi, “Quasi-velocity-matched LiTaO3 guided-wave optical phase modulator for integrated ultrashort optical pulse generators,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1459–1460 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Korotky, S. K.

R. C. Alferness, S. K. Korotky, and E. A. J. Marcatili, “Velocity matching techniques for integrated optic traveling wave switch/modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE20, 301–309 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lai, H. M.

H. M. Lai, P. T. Leung, K. Young, P. W. Barber, and S. C. Hill, “Time-independent perturbation for leaking electromagnetic modes in open system with application to resonances in microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 5187–5198 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lam, C. C.

Leung, P. T.

C. C. Lam, P. T. Leung, and K. Young, “Explicit asymptotic formulas for the positions, widths, and strengths of resonances in Mie scattering,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1585–1592 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Lai, P. T. Leung, K. Young, P. W. Barber, and S. C. Hill, “Time-independent perturbation for leaking electromagnetic modes in open system with application to resonances in microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 5187–5198 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levi, A. F. J.

D. A. Cohen, M. Hossein-Zadeh, and A. F. J. Levi, “Microphotonic modulator for microwave receiver,” Electron. Lett. 37, 300–301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Cohen and A. F. J. Levi, “Microphotonic millimetre-wave receiver architecture,” Electron. Lett. 37, 37–38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H. B.

A. J. Campillo, J. D. Eversole, and H. B. Lin, “Cavity quantum electrodynamic enhancement of stimulated emission in microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 437–440 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, T. C.

K. W. Chang, A. C. Chiang, T. C. Lin, B. C. Wong, Y. H. Chen, and Y. C. Huang, “Simultaneous wavelength conversion and amplitude modulation in a monolithic periodically-poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Commun. 203, 163–168 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. Q.

Y. Q. Lu, M. Xiao, and G. J. Salamo, “Wide-bandwidth high-frequency electro-optic modulator based on periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1035–1037 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maitre, A.

M. Martinelli, K. S. Zhang, T. Coudreau, A. Maitre, and C. Fabre, “Ultra-low threshold cw triply resonant OPO in the near infrared using periodically poled lithium niobate,” J. Opt. A 3, 300–303 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Malcki, L.

V. S. Ilchenko, X. S. Yao, and L. Malcki, “Microsphere integration in active and passive photonics devices,” in Laser Resonators III, A. V. Kudryashov and A. H. Paxton, eds., Proc. SPIE 3930, 154–162 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maleki, L.

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Whispering gallery mode electro-optic modulator and photonic microwave receiver,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 333–342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Sub-microWatt photonic microwave receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1602–1604 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko and L. Maleki, “Novel whispering-gallery resonators for lasers, modulators, and sensors,” in Laser Resonators IV, A. V. Kudryashov and A. H. Paxton, eds., Proc. SPIE 4270, 120–130 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marcatili, E. A. J.

R. C. Alferness, S. K. Korotky, and E. A. J. Marcatili, “Velocity matching techniques for integrated optic traveling wave switch/modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE20, 301–309 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Martinelli, M.

M. Martinelli, K. S. Zhang, T. Coudreau, A. Maitre, and C. Fabre, “Ultra-low threshold cw triply resonant OPO in the near infrared using periodically poled lithium niobate,” J. Opt. A 3, 300–303 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Matsko, A. B.

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Whispering gallery mode electro-optic modulator and photonic microwave receiver,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 333–342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Sub-microWatt photonic microwave receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1602–1604 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miyaji, G.

H. Murata, K. Kinoshita, G. Miyaji, A. Morimoto, and T. Kobayashi, “Quasi-velocity-matched LiTaO3 guided-wave optical phase modulator for integrated ultrashort optical pulse generators,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1459–1460 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morimoto, A.

H. Murata, A. Morimoto, T. Kobayashi, and S. Yamamoto, “Optical pulse generation by using quasi-velocity-matched guided-wave electrooptic phase modulator,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 785–794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Murata, K. Kinoshita, G. Miyaji, A. Morimoto, and T. Kobayashi, “Quasi-velocity-matched LiTaO3 guided-wave optical phase modulator for integrated ultrashort optical pulse generators,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1459–1460 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Murata, H.

H. Murata, A. Morimoto, T. Kobayashi, and S. Yamamoto, “Optical pulse generation by using quasi-velocity-matched guided-wave electrooptic phase modulator,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 785–794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Murata, K. Kinoshita, G. Miyaji, A. Morimoto, and T. Kobayashi, “Quasi-velocity-matched LiTaO3 guided-wave optical phase modulator for integrated ultrashort optical pulse generators,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1459–1460 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Myers, L. E.

Pierce, J. W.

Salamo, G. J.

Y. Q. Lu, M. Xiao, and G. J. Salamo, “Wide-bandwidth high-frequency electro-optic modulator based on periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1035–1037 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Savchenkov, A. A.

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Whispering gallery mode electro-optic modulator and photonic microwave receiver,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 333–342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Sub-microWatt photonic microwave receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1602–1604 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Serkland, D. K.

Wong, B. C.

K. W. Chang, A. C. Chiang, T. C. Lin, B. C. Wong, Y. H. Chen, and Y. C. Huang, “Simultaneous wavelength conversion and amplitude modulation in a monolithic periodically-poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Commun. 203, 163–168 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, M.

Y. Q. Lu, M. Xiao, and G. J. Salamo, “Wide-bandwidth high-frequency electro-optic modulator based on periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1035–1037 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, S.

H. Murata, A. Morimoto, T. Kobayashi, and S. Yamamoto, “Optical pulse generation by using quasi-velocity-matched guided-wave electrooptic phase modulator,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 785–794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yao, X. S.

V. S. Ilchenko, X. S. Yao, and L. Malcki, “Microsphere integration in active and passive photonics devices,” in Laser Resonators III, A. V. Kudryashov and A. H. Paxton, eds., Proc. SPIE 3930, 154–162 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Young, K.

C. C. Lam, P. T. Leung, and K. Young, “Explicit asymptotic formulas for the positions, widths, and strengths of resonances in Mie scattering,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1585–1592 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Lai, P. T. Leung, K. Young, P. W. Barber, and S. C. Hill, “Time-independent perturbation for leaking electromagnetic modes in open system with application to resonances in microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 5187–5198 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, K. S.

M. Martinelli, K. S. Zhang, T. Coudreau, A. Maitre, and C. Fabre, “Ultra-low threshold cw triply resonant OPO in the near infrared using periodically poled lithium niobate,” J. Opt. A 3, 300–303 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Q. Lu, M. Xiao, and G. J. Salamo, “Wide-bandwidth high-frequency electro-optic modulator based on periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1035–1037 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (3)

H. Murata, K. Kinoshita, G. Miyaji, A. Morimoto, and T. Kobayashi, “Quasi-velocity-matched LiTaO3 guided-wave optical phase modulator for integrated ultrashort optical pulse generators,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1459–1460 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Cohen and A. F. J. Levi, “Microphotonic millimetre-wave receiver architecture,” Electron. Lett. 37, 37–38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Cohen, M. Hossein-Zadeh, and A. F. J. Levi, “Microphotonic modulator for microwave receiver,” Electron. Lett. 37, 300–301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. C. Alferness, S. K. Korotky, and E. A. J. Marcatili, “Velocity matching techniques for integrated optic traveling wave switch/modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE20, 301–309 (1984).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Sub-microWatt photonic microwave receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1602–1604 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

M. E. Crenshaw and C. M. Bowden, “On quantization of the field in dielectrics,” J. Mod. Opt. 49, 511–517 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

M. Martinelli, K. S. Zhang, T. Coudreau, A. Maitre, and C. Fabre, “Ultra-low threshold cw triply resonant OPO in the near infrared using periodically poled lithium niobate,” J. Opt. A 3, 300–303 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Opt. Commun. (2)

M. E. Crenshaw and C. M. Bowden, “Quantum optics of two-level atoms in a dielectric: comparison of macroscopic and microscopic quantizations of the dielectric,” Opt. Commun. 203, 115–124 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dependence of poling period Λ on cavity radius. It is easy to see that for a large cavity radius the period coincides with the period in a bulk medium, whereas for a smaller radius the period decreases.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Average detuning of the signal frequency from the nearest WGM of a dielectric cavity versus cavity radius. The pump field (λp=1.064 μm) is resonant with a mode of the LiNbO3 cavity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Profiles of the field distribution inside a dielectric cavity. Zero coordinate corresponds to the cavity boundary. In our model we neglect the evanescent field outside the cavity, which is a reasonable approximation for high-Q WGMs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Examples of material poling to achieve phase matching for WGMs: (a) poling symmetric with respect to the cavity center, (b) stripelike poling.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Envelope function for the amplitudes of Fourier coefficients for the poling shown in Fig. 4(a).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Envelope function for the amplitudes of Fourier coefficients for the poling shown in Fig. 4(b).

Equations (14)

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2πRλ(λ)+(λ)(λ)-11/2
=ν+αqν21/3+3αq2202ν1/3+O(ν-2/3),
kp-ks-ki-2πΛ=0,
Λ=λpp-s31.67 μm.
Δγs=ωpω˜s-2Qs,
V=Vχ(2)EpEs2dV,
Ep=2πωppVp1/2Ψp(r)exp(iνpϕ)apexp(-iωpt)+adjoint,
Es=2πωssVs1/2Ψs(r)exp(iνsϕ)asexp(-iωst)+adjoint,
H=g[(as)2ap+apas2],
g=2πωsχ˜(2)sVpssVs2πωppVp1/2,
a˙p=-γpap-igas2+Fp,
a˙s=-γsas-2igasap+Fs,
|as|2=γpγs2g22gγsγp |Fp|-1,
Wpps2512π3[χ˜(2)]2VsVpss2ωpVpQs2Qp.

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