Abstract

We report an experimental demonstration of highly efficient single-pass second-harmonic generation from 859 nm to 429.5 nm with picosecond pulses in a thick KNbO3 crystal. Both the conversion-efficiency and quantum-noise properties of the generated blue pulses are measured at various pump intensities under a strong focusing condition. We find that the variation of the conversion efficiency of the picosecond second-harmonic generation is an oscillatory function of the input pump intensity (with a maximum efficiency of 56.5%) and is sensitive to the position of the input beam focus in the crystal. The quantum noise on the blue beam can be reduced below the shot-noise limit by 20% at low input power.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. W. Seka, S. D. Jacobs, J. E. Rizzo, R. Boni, and R. S. Craxton, “Demonstration of high efficiency third harmonic conversion of high power Nd-glass laser radiation,” Opt. Commun. 34, 469–473 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Reintijes and R. C. Eckardt, “Efficient harmonic generation from 532 to 226 nm in ADP and KD*P,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 91–93 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2000 (1)

D. Guzun, Y. Q. Li, and M. Xiao, “Blue light generation in single-pass frequency doubling of femtosecond pulses in KNbO3,” Opt. Commun. 180, 367–371 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

Y. Q. Li, D. Guzum, and M. Xiao, “Sub-shot-noise-limited optical heterodyne detection using an amplitude-squeezed local oscillator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5225–5228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Li, D. Guzun, and M. Xiao, “Quantum-noise measurements in high-efficiency single-pass second-harmonic generation with femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 24, 987–989 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

1997 (3)

1996 (2)

1995 (1)

1991 (1)

1987 (1)

D. Eimerl, “High average power harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 575–592 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

R. C. Eckardt, “Phase matching limitations of high efficiency second harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1178–1187 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

W. Seka, S. D. Jacobs, J. E. Rizzo, R. Boni, and R. S. Craxton, “Demonstration of high efficiency third harmonic conversion of high power Nd-glass laser radiation,” Opt. Commun. 34, 469–473 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

Y. A. Matveets, D. N. Nikogosyan, V. Kabelka, and A. Piskarskas, “Efficient second harmonic generation in a KDP crystal pumped with picosecond YAG:Nd3+ laser pulses of 0.5 Hz repetition frequency,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 386–388 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

J. Reintijes and R. C. Eckardt, “Efficient harmonic generation from 532 to 226 nm in ADP and KD*P,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 91–93 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

P. Franken, A. Hill, C. Peters, and G. Weinreich, “Generation of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 118–119 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Arbore, M. A.

Boni, R.

W. Seka, S. D. Jacobs, J. E. Rizzo, R. Boni, and R. S. Craxton, “Demonstration of high efficiency third harmonic conversion of high power Nd-glass laser radiation,” Opt. Commun. 34, 469–473 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Butterworth, S. D.

Choi, S.-K.

Craxton, R. S.

W. Seka, S. D. Jacobs, J. E. Rizzo, R. Boni, and R. S. Craxton, “Demonstration of high efficiency third harmonic conversion of high power Nd-glass laser radiation,” Opt. Commun. 34, 469–473 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Eckardt, R. C.

R. C. Eckardt, “Phase matching limitations of high efficiency second harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1178–1187 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Reintijes and R. C. Eckardt, “Efficient harmonic generation from 532 to 226 nm in ADP and KD*P,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 91–93 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Eimerl, D.

D. Eimerl, “High average power harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 575–592 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

Franken, P.

P. Franken, A. Hill, C. Peters, and G. Weinreich, “Generation of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 118–119 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Guzum, D.

Y. Q. Li, D. Guzum, and M. Xiao, “Sub-shot-noise-limited optical heterodyne detection using an amplitude-squeezed local oscillator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5225–5228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Guzun, D.

D. Guzun, Y. Q. Li, and M. Xiao, “Blue light generation in single-pass frequency doubling of femtosecond pulses in KNbO3,” Opt. Commun. 180, 367–371 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Li, D. Guzun, and M. Xiao, “Quantum-noise measurements in high-efficiency single-pass second-harmonic generation with femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 24, 987–989 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

Hill, A.

P. Franken, A. Hill, C. Peters, and G. Weinreich, “Generation of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 118–119 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, S. D.

W. Seka, S. D. Jacobs, J. E. Rizzo, R. Boni, and R. S. Craxton, “Demonstration of high efficiency third harmonic conversion of high power Nd-glass laser radiation,” Opt. Commun. 34, 469–473 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kabelka, V.

Y. A. Matveets, D. N. Nikogosyan, V. Kabelka, and A. Piskarskas, “Efficient second harmonic generation in a KDP crystal pumped with picosecond YAG:Nd3+ laser pulses of 0.5 Hz repetition frequency,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 386–388 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kan’an, A. M.

Kimble, H. J.

Kumar, P.

Leaird, D. E.

Li, R.-D.

Li, Y. Q.

D. Guzun, Y. Q. Li, and M. Xiao, “Blue light generation in single-pass frequency doubling of femtosecond pulses in KNbO3,” Opt. Commun. 180, 367–371 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Li, D. Guzun, and M. Xiao, “Quantum-noise measurements in high-efficiency single-pass second-harmonic generation with femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 24, 987–989 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Li, D. Guzum, and M. Xiao, “Sub-shot-noise-limited optical heterodyne detection using an amplitude-squeezed local oscillator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5225–5228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lodahl, P.

P. Lodahl, J. L. Sorensen, and E. S. Polzik, “High efficiency second harmonic generation with a low power diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 383–386 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Matveets, Y. A.

Y. A. Matveets, D. N. Nikogosyan, V. Kabelka, and A. Piskarskas, “Efficient second harmonic generation in a KDP crystal pumped with picosecond YAG:Nd3+ laser pulses of 0.5 Hz repetition frequency,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 386–388 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Nikogosyan, D. N.

Y. A. Matveets, D. N. Nikogosyan, V. Kabelka, and A. Piskarskas, “Efficient second harmonic generation in a KDP crystal pumped with picosecond YAG:Nd3+ laser pulses of 0.5 Hz repetition frequency,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 386–388 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Perlov, D.

Peters, C.

P. Franken, A. Hill, C. Peters, and G. Weinreich, “Generation of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 118–119 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Piskarskas, A.

Y. A. Matveets, D. N. Nikogosyan, V. Kabelka, and A. Piskarskas, “Efficient second harmonic generation in a KDP crystal pumped with picosecond YAG:Nd3+ laser pulses of 0.5 Hz repetition frequency,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 386–388 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Polizik, E. S.

Polzik, E. S.

P. Lodahl, J. L. Sorensen, and E. S. Polzik, “High efficiency second harmonic generation with a low power diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 383–386 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pruneri, V.

Reintijes, J.

J. Reintijes and R. C. Eckardt, “Efficient harmonic generation from 532 to 226 nm in ADP and KD*P,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 91–93 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Rizzo, J. E.

W. Seka, S. D. Jacobs, J. E. Rizzo, R. Boni, and R. S. Craxton, “Demonstration of high efficiency third harmonic conversion of high power Nd-glass laser radiation,” Opt. Commun. 34, 469–473 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Roth, M.

Seka, W.

W. Seka, S. D. Jacobs, J. E. Rizzo, R. Boni, and R. S. Craxton, “Demonstration of high efficiency third harmonic conversion of high power Nd-glass laser radiation,” Opt. Commun. 34, 469–473 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Serland, D. K.

Sorensen, J. L.

P. Lodahl, J. L. Sorensen, and E. S. Polzik, “High efficiency second harmonic generation with a low power diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 383–386 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchida, H.

Weiner, A. M.

Weinreich, G.

P. Franken, A. Hill, C. Peters, and G. Weinreich, “Generation of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 118–119 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, M.

D. Guzun, Y. Q. Li, and M. Xiao, “Blue light generation in single-pass frequency doubling of femtosecond pulses in KNbO3,” Opt. Commun. 180, 367–371 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Li, D. Guzun, and M. Xiao, “Quantum-noise measurements in high-efficiency single-pass second-harmonic generation with femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 24, 987–989 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Li, D. Guzum, and M. Xiao, “Sub-shot-noise-limited optical heterodyne detection using an amplitude-squeezed local oscillator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5225–5228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Youn, S.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

P. Lodahl, J. L. Sorensen, and E. S. Polzik, “High efficiency second harmonic generation with a low power diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 383–386 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Reintijes and R. C. Eckardt, “Efficient harmonic generation from 532 to 226 nm in ADP and KD*P,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 91–93 (1977).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

R. C. Eckardt, “Phase matching limitations of high efficiency second harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1178–1187 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. Eimerl, “High average power harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 575–592 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (2)

W. Seka, S. D. Jacobs, J. E. Rizzo, R. Boni, and R. S. Craxton, “Demonstration of high efficiency third harmonic conversion of high power Nd-glass laser radiation,” Opt. Commun. 34, 469–473 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. Guzun, Y. Q. Li, and M. Xiao, “Blue light generation in single-pass frequency doubling of femtosecond pulses in KNbO3,” Opt. Commun. 180, 367–371 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (7)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

P. Franken, A. Hill, C. Peters, and G. Weinreich, “Generation of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 118–119 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Li, D. Guzum, and M. Xiao, “Sub-shot-noise-limited optical heterodyne detection using an amplitude-squeezed local oscillator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5225–5228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. A. Matveets, D. N. Nikogosyan, V. Kabelka, and A. Piskarskas, “Efficient second harmonic generation in a KDP crystal pumped with picosecond YAG:Nd3+ laser pulses of 0.5 Hz repetition frequency,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 386–388 (1978).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Conversion efficiency of SHG in a KNbO3 crystal as the function of average input power for (a) femtosecond pump (∼120 fs), and (b) picosecond pump (∼2.0 ps).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of the conversion efficiency as a function of the input power for different values of the displacement between the center of the crystal and the beam focus of (a) Δz=0, (b) Δz=-0.25 mm, (c) Δz=-0.5 mm, and (d) Δz=-1.0 mm. The input power at which the maximum efficiency is obtained is 100 mW, 125 mW, 150 mW, and 200 mW, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of the measured Fano factor on the input power for (a) Δz=0 and (b) Δz=-0.5 mm. Squeezing on the generated blue pulses was observed at low pump power.

Equations (2)

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I2ωIω=ν2sn2ηνν4,
ν=[Δs/4+1+(Δs/4)2]-1,

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