Abstract

We have investigated dispersion curves of a third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility, χ(3), around the surface-plasmon resonance energy for a Ag nanocrystal–glass composite by means of z-scan and degenerate four-wave mixing measurements. Real and imaginary parts of χ(3) of the composite that contains Ag nanocrystals with an average diameter of 7 nm have been measured at room temperature. The imaginary part of χ(3) exhibits a negative peak near the surface-plasmon resonance, and the largest negative value is -(1.5±0.2)×10-10 electrostatic units (esu). The real part of χ(3) changes from -(4±2)×10-11 esu at the lower energy side of the surface-plasmon peak to +(4.4±0.5)×10-11 esu at the higher energy side. We calculated dispersion curves for the composite assuming that the real and the imaginary parts of the dielectric constant of metal nanocrystals change by optical excitations that are due to the creation of hot electrons. The obtained dispersion curves show a characteristic feature that differs from the exciton system in semiconductors.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2002 (1)

2001 (2)

Y. Hamanaka, J. Kuwabata, I. Tanahashi, S. Omi, and A. Nakamura, “Ultrafast electron relaxation via breathing vibration of gold nanocrystals embedded in a dielectric medium,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 104302 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, R. Polloni, G. Mattei, and P. Mazzoldi, “Z-scan study on the nonlinear refractive index of copper nanocluster composite silica glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3953–3955 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

J. H. Hodak, A. Henglein, and G. V. Hartland, “Photophysics of nanometer sized metal particles: electron-phonon coupling and coherent excitation of breathing vibrational modes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 9954–9965 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Debrus, J. Lafait, M. May, N. Pinçon, D. Prot, C. Sella, and J. Venturini, “Z-scan determination of the third-order optical nonlinearity of gold:silica nanocomposites,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4469–4475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

Y. Hamanaka, A. Nakamura, S. Omi, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallée, and C. Flytzanis, “Ultrafast response of nonlinear refractive index of silver nanocrystals embedded in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1712–1714 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Halté, J. Y. Bigot, B. Palpant, M. Broyer, B. Prével, and A. Pérez, “Size dependence of the energy relaxation in silver nanoparticles embedded in dielectric matrices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3799–3801 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

M. Perner, P. Bost, U. Lemmer, G. von Plessen, J. Feldman, U. Becker, M. Mennig, M. Schmitt, and H. Schmidt, “Optically induced damping of the surface plasmon resonance in gold colloids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2192–2195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. McKay, and R. G. McDuff, “Single-beam z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251–293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

T. S. Ahmadi, S. L. Logunov, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Picosecond dynamics of colloidal gold nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 8053–8056 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

K. Uchida, S. Kaneko, S. Omi, C. Hata, H. Tanji, Y. Asahara, A. J. Ikushima, T. Tokizaki, and A. Nakamura, “Optical nonlinearities of a high concentration of small metal particles dispersed in glass: copper and silver particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1236–1243 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Tokizaki, A. Nakamura, S. Kaneko, K. Uchida, S. Omi, H. Tanji, and Y. Asahara, “Subpicosecond time response of third-order optical nonlinearity of small copper particles in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 941–943 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Magruder III, R. F. Haglund, Jr., L. Yang, J. E. Wittig, and R. A. Zhur, “Physical and optical properties of Cu nanoclusters fabricated by ion implantation in fused silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 708–715 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. F. Haglund, Jr., L. Yang, R. H. Magruder III, J. E. Witting, K. Becker, and R. A. Zhur, “Picosecond nonlinear optical response of a Cu:silica nanocluster composite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 373–375 (1993).

1990 (2)

M. J. Bloemer, J. W. Haus, and P. R. Ashley, “Degenerate four-wave mixing in colloidal gold as a function of particle size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 790–795 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

T. Takagahara, “Excitonic optical nonlinearity and exciton dynamics in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 9293–9296 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Afonso, C. N.

Ahmadi, T. S.

T. S. Ahmadi, S. L. Logunov, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Picosecond dynamics of colloidal gold nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 8053–8056 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Asahara, Y.

T. Tokizaki, A. Nakamura, S. Kaneko, K. Uchida, S. Omi, H. Tanji, and Y. Asahara, “Subpicosecond time response of third-order optical nonlinearity of small copper particles in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 941–943 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Uchida, S. Kaneko, S. Omi, C. Hata, H. Tanji, Y. Asahara, A. J. Ikushima, T. Tokizaki, and A. Nakamura, “Optical nonlinearities of a high concentration of small metal particles dispersed in glass: copper and silver particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1236–1243 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ashley, P. R.

Battaglin, G.

G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, R. Polloni, G. Mattei, and P. Mazzoldi, “Z-scan study on the nonlinear refractive index of copper nanocluster composite silica glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3953–3955 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Becker, K.

R. F. Haglund, Jr., L. Yang, R. H. Magruder III, J. E. Witting, K. Becker, and R. A. Zhur, “Picosecond nonlinear optical response of a Cu:silica nanocluster composite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 373–375 (1993).

Becker, U.

M. Perner, P. Bost, U. Lemmer, G. von Plessen, J. Feldman, U. Becker, M. Mennig, M. Schmitt, and H. Schmidt, “Optically induced damping of the surface plasmon resonance in gold colloids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2192–2195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bigot, J. Y.

V. Halté, J. Y. Bigot, B. Palpant, M. Broyer, B. Prével, and A. Pérez, “Size dependence of the energy relaxation in silver nanoparticles embedded in dielectric matrices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3799–3801 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bloemer, M. J.

Bost, P.

M. Perner, P. Bost, U. Lemmer, G. von Plessen, J. Feldman, U. Becker, M. Mennig, M. Schmitt, and H. Schmidt, “Optically induced damping of the surface plasmon resonance in gold colloids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2192–2195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Broyer, M.

V. Halté, J. Y. Bigot, B. Palpant, M. Broyer, B. Prével, and A. Pérez, “Size dependence of the energy relaxation in silver nanoparticles embedded in dielectric matrices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3799–3801 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Calvelli, P.

G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, R. Polloni, G. Mattei, and P. Mazzoldi, “Z-scan study on the nonlinear refractive index of copper nanocluster composite silica glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3953–3955 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cattaruzza, E.

G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, R. Polloni, G. Mattei, and P. Mazzoldi, “Z-scan study on the nonlinear refractive index of copper nanocluster composite silica glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3953–3955 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chapple, P. B.

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. McKay, and R. G. McDuff, “Single-beam z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251–293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

de Nalda, R.

Debrus, S.

S. Debrus, J. Lafait, M. May, N. Pinçon, D. Prot, C. Sella, and J. Venturini, “Z-scan determination of the third-order optical nonlinearity of gold:silica nanocomposites,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4469–4475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

del Coso, R.

Del Fatti, N.

Y. Hamanaka, A. Nakamura, S. Omi, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallée, and C. Flytzanis, “Ultrafast response of nonlinear refractive index of silver nanocrystals embedded in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1712–1714 (1999).
[CrossRef]

El-Sayed, M. A.

T. S. Ahmadi, S. L. Logunov, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Picosecond dynamics of colloidal gold nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 8053–8056 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, J.

M. Perner, P. Bost, U. Lemmer, G. von Plessen, J. Feldman, U. Becker, M. Mennig, M. Schmitt, and H. Schmidt, “Optically induced damping of the surface plasmon resonance in gold colloids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2192–2195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Flytzanis, C.

Gonella, F.

G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, R. Polloni, G. Mattei, and P. Mazzoldi, “Z-scan study on the nonlinear refractive index of copper nanocluster composite silica glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3953–3955 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hache, F.

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Haglund Jr., R. F.

R. H. Magruder III, R. F. Haglund, Jr., L. Yang, J. E. Wittig, and R. A. Zhur, “Physical and optical properties of Cu nanoclusters fabricated by ion implantation in fused silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 708–715 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Haglund, Jr., L. Yang, R. H. Magruder III, J. E. Witting, K. Becker, and R. A. Zhur, “Picosecond nonlinear optical response of a Cu:silica nanocluster composite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 373–375 (1993).

Halté, V.

V. Halté, J. Y. Bigot, B. Palpant, M. Broyer, B. Prével, and A. Pérez, “Size dependence of the energy relaxation in silver nanoparticles embedded in dielectric matrices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3799–3801 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hamanaka, Y.

Y. Hamanaka, J. Kuwabata, I. Tanahashi, S. Omi, and A. Nakamura, “Ultrafast electron relaxation via breathing vibration of gold nanocrystals embedded in a dielectric medium,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 104302 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hamanaka, A. Nakamura, S. Omi, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallée, and C. Flytzanis, “Ultrafast response of nonlinear refractive index of silver nanocrystals embedded in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1712–1714 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hartland, G. V.

J. H. Hodak, A. Henglein, and G. V. Hartland, “Photophysics of nanometer sized metal particles: electron-phonon coupling and coherent excitation of breathing vibrational modes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 9954–9965 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hata, C.

Haus, J. W.

Henglein, A.

J. H. Hodak, A. Henglein, and G. V. Hartland, “Photophysics of nanometer sized metal particles: electron-phonon coupling and coherent excitation of breathing vibrational modes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 9954–9965 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hermann, J. A.

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. McKay, and R. G. McDuff, “Single-beam z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251–293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hodak, J. H.

J. H. Hodak, A. Henglein, and G. V. Hartland, “Photophysics of nanometer sized metal particles: electron-phonon coupling and coherent excitation of breathing vibrational modes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 9954–9965 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ikushima, A. J.

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, S.

K. Uchida, S. Kaneko, S. Omi, C. Hata, H. Tanji, Y. Asahara, A. J. Ikushima, T. Tokizaki, and A. Nakamura, “Optical nonlinearities of a high concentration of small metal particles dispersed in glass: copper and silver particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1236–1243 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Tokizaki, A. Nakamura, S. Kaneko, K. Uchida, S. Omi, H. Tanji, and Y. Asahara, “Subpicosecond time response of third-order optical nonlinearity of small copper particles in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 941–943 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kuwabata, J.

Y. Hamanaka, J. Kuwabata, I. Tanahashi, S. Omi, and A. Nakamura, “Ultrafast electron relaxation via breathing vibration of gold nanocrystals embedded in a dielectric medium,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 104302 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lafait, J.

S. Debrus, J. Lafait, M. May, N. Pinçon, D. Prot, C. Sella, and J. Venturini, “Z-scan determination of the third-order optical nonlinearity of gold:silica nanocomposites,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4469–4475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lemmer, U.

M. Perner, P. Bost, U. Lemmer, G. von Plessen, J. Feldman, U. Becker, M. Mennig, M. Schmitt, and H. Schmidt, “Optically induced damping of the surface plasmon resonance in gold colloids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2192–2195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Logunov, S. L.

T. S. Ahmadi, S. L. Logunov, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Picosecond dynamics of colloidal gold nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 8053–8056 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Magruder III, R. H.

R. H. Magruder III, R. F. Haglund, Jr., L. Yang, J. E. Wittig, and R. A. Zhur, “Physical and optical properties of Cu nanoclusters fabricated by ion implantation in fused silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 708–715 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Haglund, Jr., L. Yang, R. H. Magruder III, J. E. Witting, K. Becker, and R. A. Zhur, “Picosecond nonlinear optical response of a Cu:silica nanocluster composite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 373–375 (1993).

Mattei, G.

G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, R. Polloni, G. Mattei, and P. Mazzoldi, “Z-scan study on the nonlinear refractive index of copper nanocluster composite silica glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3953–3955 (2001).
[CrossRef]

May, M.

S. Debrus, J. Lafait, M. May, N. Pinçon, D. Prot, C. Sella, and J. Venturini, “Z-scan determination of the third-order optical nonlinearity of gold:silica nanocomposites,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4469–4475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mazzoldi, P.

G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, R. Polloni, G. Mattei, and P. Mazzoldi, “Z-scan study on the nonlinear refractive index of copper nanocluster composite silica glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3953–3955 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McDuff, R. G.

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. McKay, and R. G. McDuff, “Single-beam z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251–293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McKay, T. J.

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. McKay, and R. G. McDuff, “Single-beam z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251–293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mennig, M.

M. Perner, P. Bost, U. Lemmer, G. von Plessen, J. Feldman, U. Becker, M. Mennig, M. Schmitt, and H. Schmidt, “Optically induced damping of the surface plasmon resonance in gold colloids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2192–2195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, A.

Y. Hamanaka, J. Kuwabata, I. Tanahashi, S. Omi, and A. Nakamura, “Ultrafast electron relaxation via breathing vibration of gold nanocrystals embedded in a dielectric medium,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 104302 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hamanaka, A. Nakamura, S. Omi, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallée, and C. Flytzanis, “Ultrafast response of nonlinear refractive index of silver nanocrystals embedded in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1712–1714 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Tokizaki, A. Nakamura, S. Kaneko, K. Uchida, S. Omi, H. Tanji, and Y. Asahara, “Subpicosecond time response of third-order optical nonlinearity of small copper particles in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 941–943 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Uchida, S. Kaneko, S. Omi, C. Hata, H. Tanji, Y. Asahara, A. J. Ikushima, T. Tokizaki, and A. Nakamura, “Optical nonlinearities of a high concentration of small metal particles dispersed in glass: copper and silver particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1236–1243 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Olivares, J.

Omi, S.

Y. Hamanaka, J. Kuwabata, I. Tanahashi, S. Omi, and A. Nakamura, “Ultrafast electron relaxation via breathing vibration of gold nanocrystals embedded in a dielectric medium,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 104302 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hamanaka, A. Nakamura, S. Omi, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallée, and C. Flytzanis, “Ultrafast response of nonlinear refractive index of silver nanocrystals embedded in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1712–1714 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Tokizaki, A. Nakamura, S. Kaneko, K. Uchida, S. Omi, H. Tanji, and Y. Asahara, “Subpicosecond time response of third-order optical nonlinearity of small copper particles in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 941–943 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Uchida, S. Kaneko, S. Omi, C. Hata, H. Tanji, Y. Asahara, A. J. Ikushima, T. Tokizaki, and A. Nakamura, “Optical nonlinearities of a high concentration of small metal particles dispersed in glass: copper and silver particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1236–1243 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Palpant, B.

V. Halté, J. Y. Bigot, B. Palpant, M. Broyer, B. Prével, and A. Pérez, “Size dependence of the energy relaxation in silver nanoparticles embedded in dielectric matrices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3799–3801 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pérez, A.

V. Halté, J. Y. Bigot, B. Palpant, M. Broyer, B. Prével, and A. Pérez, “Size dependence of the energy relaxation in silver nanoparticles embedded in dielectric matrices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3799–3801 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Perner, M.

M. Perner, P. Bost, U. Lemmer, G. von Plessen, J. Feldman, U. Becker, M. Mennig, M. Schmitt, and H. Schmidt, “Optically induced damping of the surface plasmon resonance in gold colloids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2192–2195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pinçon, N.

S. Debrus, J. Lafait, M. May, N. Pinçon, D. Prot, C. Sella, and J. Venturini, “Z-scan determination of the third-order optical nonlinearity of gold:silica nanocomposites,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4469–4475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Polloni, R.

G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, R. Polloni, G. Mattei, and P. Mazzoldi, “Z-scan study on the nonlinear refractive index of copper nanocluster composite silica glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3953–3955 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Prével, B.

V. Halté, J. Y. Bigot, B. Palpant, M. Broyer, B. Prével, and A. Pérez, “Size dependence of the energy relaxation in silver nanoparticles embedded in dielectric matrices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3799–3801 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prot, D.

S. Debrus, J. Lafait, M. May, N. Pinçon, D. Prot, C. Sella, and J. Venturini, “Z-scan determination of the third-order optical nonlinearity of gold:silica nanocomposites,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4469–4475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Requejo-Isidro, J.

Ricard, D.

Rousignol, P.

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, H.

M. Perner, P. Bost, U. Lemmer, G. von Plessen, J. Feldman, U. Becker, M. Mennig, M. Schmitt, and H. Schmidt, “Optically induced damping of the surface plasmon resonance in gold colloids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2192–2195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, M.

M. Perner, P. Bost, U. Lemmer, G. von Plessen, J. Feldman, U. Becker, M. Mennig, M. Schmitt, and H. Schmidt, “Optically induced damping of the surface plasmon resonance in gold colloids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2192–2195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sella, C.

S. Debrus, J. Lafait, M. May, N. Pinçon, D. Prot, C. Sella, and J. Venturini, “Z-scan determination of the third-order optical nonlinearity of gold:silica nanocomposites,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4469–4475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Solis, J.

Staromlynska, J.

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. McKay, and R. G. McDuff, “Single-beam z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251–293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Suarez-Garcia, A.

Takagahara, T.

T. Takagahara, “Excitonic optical nonlinearity and exciton dynamics in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 9293–9296 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tanahashi, I.

Y. Hamanaka, J. Kuwabata, I. Tanahashi, S. Omi, and A. Nakamura, “Ultrafast electron relaxation via breathing vibration of gold nanocrystals embedded in a dielectric medium,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 104302 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tanji, H.

T. Tokizaki, A. Nakamura, S. Kaneko, K. Uchida, S. Omi, H. Tanji, and Y. Asahara, “Subpicosecond time response of third-order optical nonlinearity of small copper particles in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 941–943 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Uchida, S. Kaneko, S. Omi, C. Hata, H. Tanji, Y. Asahara, A. J. Ikushima, T. Tokizaki, and A. Nakamura, “Optical nonlinearities of a high concentration of small metal particles dispersed in glass: copper and silver particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1236–1243 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tokizaki, T.

K. Uchida, S. Kaneko, S. Omi, C. Hata, H. Tanji, Y. Asahara, A. J. Ikushima, T. Tokizaki, and A. Nakamura, “Optical nonlinearities of a high concentration of small metal particles dispersed in glass: copper and silver particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1236–1243 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Tokizaki, A. Nakamura, S. Kaneko, K. Uchida, S. Omi, H. Tanji, and Y. Asahara, “Subpicosecond time response of third-order optical nonlinearity of small copper particles in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 941–943 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, K.

T. Tokizaki, A. Nakamura, S. Kaneko, K. Uchida, S. Omi, H. Tanji, and Y. Asahara, “Subpicosecond time response of third-order optical nonlinearity of small copper particles in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 941–943 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Uchida, S. Kaneko, S. Omi, C. Hata, H. Tanji, Y. Asahara, A. J. Ikushima, T. Tokizaki, and A. Nakamura, “Optical nonlinearities of a high concentration of small metal particles dispersed in glass: copper and silver particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1236–1243 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vallée, F.

Y. Hamanaka, A. Nakamura, S. Omi, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallée, and C. Flytzanis, “Ultrafast response of nonlinear refractive index of silver nanocrystals embedded in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1712–1714 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Venturini, J.

S. Debrus, J. Lafait, M. May, N. Pinçon, D. Prot, C. Sella, and J. Venturini, “Z-scan determination of the third-order optical nonlinearity of gold:silica nanocomposites,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4469–4475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

von Plessen, G.

M. Perner, P. Bost, U. Lemmer, G. von Plessen, J. Feldman, U. Becker, M. Mennig, M. Schmitt, and H. Schmidt, “Optically induced damping of the surface plasmon resonance in gold colloids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2192–2195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T.-H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wittig, J. E.

R. H. Magruder III, R. F. Haglund, Jr., L. Yang, J. E. Wittig, and R. A. Zhur, “Physical and optical properties of Cu nanoclusters fabricated by ion implantation in fused silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 708–715 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Witting, J. E.

R. F. Haglund, Jr., L. Yang, R. H. Magruder III, J. E. Witting, K. Becker, and R. A. Zhur, “Picosecond nonlinear optical response of a Cu:silica nanocluster composite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 373–375 (1993).

Yang, L.

R. H. Magruder III, R. F. Haglund, Jr., L. Yang, J. E. Wittig, and R. A. Zhur, “Physical and optical properties of Cu nanoclusters fabricated by ion implantation in fused silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 708–715 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Haglund, Jr., L. Yang, R. H. Magruder III, J. E. Witting, K. Becker, and R. A. Zhur, “Picosecond nonlinear optical response of a Cu:silica nanocluster composite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 373–375 (1993).

Zhur, R. A.

R. H. Magruder III, R. F. Haglund, Jr., L. Yang, J. E. Wittig, and R. A. Zhur, “Physical and optical properties of Cu nanoclusters fabricated by ion implantation in fused silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 708–715 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Haglund, Jr., L. Yang, R. H. Magruder III, J. E. Witting, K. Becker, and R. A. Zhur, “Picosecond nonlinear optical response of a Cu:silica nanocluster composite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 373–375 (1993).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

T. Tokizaki, A. Nakamura, S. Kaneko, K. Uchida, S. Omi, H. Tanji, and Y. Asahara, “Subpicosecond time response of third-order optical nonlinearity of small copper particles in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 941–943 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. Halté, J. Y. Bigot, B. Palpant, M. Broyer, B. Prével, and A. Pérez, “Size dependence of the energy relaxation in silver nanoparticles embedded in dielectric matrices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3799–3801 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Haglund, Jr., L. Yang, R. H. Magruder III, J. E. Witting, K. Becker, and R. A. Zhur, “Picosecond nonlinear optical response of a Cu:silica nanocluster composite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 373–375 (1993).

G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, R. Polloni, G. Mattei, and P. Mazzoldi, “Z-scan study on the nonlinear refractive index of copper nanocluster composite silica glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3953–3955 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hamanaka, A. Nakamura, S. Omi, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallée, and C. Flytzanis, “Ultrafast response of nonlinear refractive index of silver nanocrystals embedded in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1712–1714 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

R. H. Magruder III, R. F. Haglund, Jr., L. Yang, J. E. Wittig, and R. A. Zhur, “Physical and optical properties of Cu nanoclusters fabricated by ion implantation in fused silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 708–715 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Debrus, J. Lafait, M. May, N. Pinçon, D. Prot, C. Sella, and J. Venturini, “Z-scan determination of the third-order optical nonlinearity of gold:silica nanocomposites,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4469–4475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. (1)

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. McKay, and R. G. McDuff, “Single-beam z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251–293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

T. S. Ahmadi, S. L. Logunov, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Picosecond dynamics of colloidal gold nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 8053–8056 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

J. H. Hodak, A. Henglein, and G. V. Hartland, “Photophysics of nanometer sized metal particles: electron-phonon coupling and coherent excitation of breathing vibrational modes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 9954–9965 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

T. Takagahara, “Excitonic optical nonlinearity and exciton dynamics in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 9293–9296 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hamanaka, J. Kuwabata, I. Tanahashi, S. Omi, and A. Nakamura, “Ultrafast electron relaxation via breathing vibration of gold nanocrystals embedded in a dielectric medium,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 104302 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Perner, P. Bost, U. Lemmer, G. von Plessen, J. Feldman, U. Becker, M. Mennig, M. Schmitt, and H. Schmidt, “Optically induced damping of the surface plasmon resonance in gold colloids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2192–2195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

U. Kreibig and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995).

M. J. Weber, CRC Handbook of Laser Science and Technology (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1986), Vol. 3.

P. N. Butcher and D. Cotter, Elements of Nonlinear Optics, Vol. 9 of Cambridge Studies in Modern Optics (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1990).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectrum and |χ(3)| values of the Ag nanocrystal–glass composite (solid curve). Filled circles, |χ(3)| values measured with the DFWM method; open squares, |χ(3)| values estimated from Re χ(3) and Im χ(3) values measured with the z-scan method.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical z-scan profiles of the Ag nanocrystal–glass composite measured by use of (a) an open aperture and (b) a small aperture (S=0.5) at the photon energy of 2.85 eV with a peak power of 9×1010 W/cm2. (c) Transmittance curve Trefr(z) reflecting a pure nonlinear refractive effect derived from the measured transmittance curves shown in (a) and (b). The solid curves in (a) and (c) indicate fitted curves.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured Im χ(3) values (filled circles) and a calculated dispersion curve of Im χ(3) (solid curve). (b) Measured Re χ(3) values (filled circles) and a calculated dispersion curve of Re χ(3) (solid curve). The vertical line represents the resonance energy of the surface plasmon, ESP(=2.96 eV). The inset in (a) indicates an example of differential absorption spectrum divided by the photon energy measured with pump and probe spectroscopy. The open circles in the inset represent Im χ(3) values.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated dispersion curves of Re χ(3) (solid curves) and Im χ(3) (dashed curves) for various values of Δεm2 and Δεm1=+0.2: (a) Δεm2=-0.2, (b) Δεm2=0, (c) Δεm2=+0.2, (d) Δεm2=+0.4. Open and filled circles plotted in (d) represent measured Im χ(3) and Re χ(3) values, respectively. The vertical line represents the resonance energy of the surface plasmon, ESP(=2.96 eV). The inset in (a) shows schematic dispersion curves of Re χ(3) (solid curve) and Im χ(3) (dashed curve) for the exciton system.

Equations (14)

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Ei=3εdεm(ω)+2εd E0=fl(ω)E0.
[εm1(ω)+2εd]2+εm2(ω)2=minimum,
χ(3)=p|fl|2fl2χm(3),
Trefr(z)=Ta(z)[Tna(z/1.25)]t,
t=S+0.67(1-S)2,
α=α0+βI=α0+240π2ωn02c2Im χ(3)I.
ε(ω)=ε1(ω)+iε2(ω)=εd(ω)+3pεdεm(ω)-εd(ω)εm(ω)+2εd(ω),
εm(ω)=εm1(ω)+iεm2(ω),
Δε1=9εd2p 4εd2Δεm1+2εd(|εm|2-|εm|2)+(εm1|εm|2-εm1|εm|2)[(εm1+2εd)2+εm22][(εm1+2εd)2+εm22],
Δε2=9εd2p 4εd2Δεm2+4εd(εm1εm2-εm1εm2)+(εm2|εm|2-εm2|εm|2)[(εm1+2εd)2+εm22][(εm1+2εd)2+εm22],
εm1=εm1+Δεm1,
εm2=εm2+Δεm2,
εm=εm+(Δεm1+iΔεm2).
Re χ(3)=Δε13π|E|2,Im χ(3)=Δε23π|E|2,

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