Abstract

Ho:Ho upconversion rates are predicted with a quantum-mechanical model and measured with a Q-switched Co:MgF2 laser to directly excite the Ho 5I7 manifold. If Ho:Ho upconversion is low compared with spontaneous decay, Q-switched, Ho-only lasers can store energy efficiently over long time intervals. In this case, Ho-only lasers, when pumped by long-pulse-length Tm-only lasers, have great potential. Ho-only lasers have proven to be efficient, and, when long pump pulses are used, fewer laser diodes are required. To assess the Ho laser potential, Ho:Ho upconversion parameters are calculated and measured for several Ho laser materials including Ho:YAG and Ho:YLF. The effects of both nonuniform pump energy deposition and diffusion of the excited Ho distribution are analyzed.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, and B. Di Bartolo, “Branching ratios, cross sections, and radiative lifetimes of rare earth ions in solids: application to Tm3+ and Ho3+ ions in LiYF4,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2772–2787 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+,Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  3. N. P. Barnes, W. J. Rodriguez, and B. M. Walsh , “Ho:Tm:YLF laser amplifier performance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2872–2882 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  4. U. N. Singh, J. Yu, M. Petros, N. P. Barnes, J. A. Williams-Byrd, G. E. Lockard, and E. A. Modlin, “Injection-seeded, room-temperature, diode-pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser with output energy of 600 mJ at 10 Hz,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg and M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of 1998 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 194–196.
  5. C. D. Nabors, J. Ochoa, T. Y. Fan, A. Sanchez, H. K. Choi, and G. W. Turner, “Ho:YAG laser pumped by 1.9 μm diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1603–1605 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  6. R. C. Stoneman and L. Esterowitz, “Intracavity-pumped 2.09-μm Ho:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 17, 736–738 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. D. W. Hart, M. Jani, and N. P. Barnes, “Room-temperature lasing of end-pumped Ho:Lu3Al5O12,” Opt. Lett. 21, 728–730 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. T. J. Kane and T. S. Kubo, “Diode-pumped single-frequency and Q-switched lasers using Tm:YAG and Ho:Tm:YAG,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, H. P. Jenssen and G. Dube, eds., Vol. 6 of 1990 OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 133–135.
  9. R. C. Stoneman, L. Esterowitz, and G. Rosenblatt, “Diode-pumped Q-switched room-temperature 2-μm Tm3+:YAGlaser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1989 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper TUE1.
  10. R. C. Stoneman and L. Esterowitz, “Efficient broadly tunable laser-pumped Tm:YAG and Tm:YSGG cw lasers,” Opt. Lett. 15, 486–488 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. N. P. Barnes, M. G. Jani, and R. L. Hutcheson, “Diode-pumped room-temperature, Tm:LuAG laser,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4290–4294 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, and S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG CW diode-pumped solid-state laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. R. Pollock and W. R. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of 1997 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 307–309.
  13. P. A. Ketteridge, P. A. Budni, M. Knights, and E. Chicklis, “An all solid-state 7 watt, CW, tunable, Tm:YLF laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. R. Pollock and W. R. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of 1997 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 197–201.
  14. J. D. Kmetec, T. S. Kubo, and T. J. Kane, “Laser performance of diode-pumped thulium-doped Y3Al5O12,(Y,Lu)3Al5O12, and Lu3Al5O12 crystals,” Opt. Lett. 19, 186–188 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  15. L. Fornasiero, N. Berner, B. M. Dicks, E. Mix, V. Peters, K. Peterman, and G. Huber, “Broadly tunable laser emission from Tm:Y2O3and Tm:Sc2O3at 2.0 μm,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M. M. Fejer, H. Injeyan, and U. Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of 1999 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 450–453.
  16. R. A. Hayward, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, N. P. Barnes, J. Nilsson, A. B. Grudinen, and D. C. Hanna, “High power double-clad Tm–doped fibre laser with >12 W single-mode output at 2.0 μm,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Postconference Digest, Vol. 39 of 2000 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper CFH2.
  17. T. Forster, “Experimentalle und theoretische untersuchung des zwischenmolerkularen ubergangs von elektronenregungsenergie,” Z. Naturforsch. A 4, 321–327 (1947).
  18. D. L. Dexter, “A theory of sensitizer luminescence in solids,” J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836–850 (1953).
    [Crossref]
  19. N. P. Barnes, E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison, and C. J. Lee, “Ho:Tm laser. I: Modeling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 92–103 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  20. C. J. Lee, G. Han, and N. P. Barnes, “Ho:Tm lasers. II: Experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 104–111 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  21. T. T. Basiev, Yu V. Orlowskii, K. K. Pukhov, V. B. Sigachev, M. E. Doroshenko, and I. N. Borob’ev, “Multiphonon relaxation in the rare earth ions doped laser crystal,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, S. A. Payne and C. R. Pollock, eds., Vol. 1 of 1996 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 575–581.
  22. L. A. Riseberg and H. W. Moos, “Multiphonon orbit-lattice relaxation of excited states of rare earth ions in crystals,” Phys. Rev. 174, 429–438 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  23. B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, and B. Di Bartolo, “The temperature dependence of energy transfer between the Tm  3F4 and Ho  5I7 manifolds of Tm sensitized Ho luminescence in YAG and YLF,” J. Lumin. 90, 39–48 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  24. S. R. Bowman, J. E. Tucker, and S. Kirkpartick, “Progress in the modeling of migration-limited energy transfer in laser materials,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg and M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of 1998 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 519–523.
  25. N. P. Barnes, “A review of tuning and performance of Ho lasers,” in Recent Res. Devel. Appl. Opt. 1, 47–58 (1996).

2000 (1)

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, and B. Di Bartolo, “The temperature dependence of energy transfer between the Tm  3F4 and Ho  5I7 manifolds of Tm sensitized Ho luminescence in YAG and YLF,” J. Lumin. 90, 39–48 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, and B. Di Bartolo, “Branching ratios, cross sections, and radiative lifetimes of rare earth ions in solids: application to Tm3+ and Ho3+ ions in LiYF4,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2772–2787 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (5)

N. P. Barnes, “A review of tuning and performance of Ho lasers,” in Recent Res. Devel. Appl. Opt. 1, 47–58 (1996).

N. P. Barnes, E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison, and C. J. Lee, “Ho:Tm laser. I: Modeling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 92–103 (1996).
[Crossref]

C. J. Lee, G. Han, and N. P. Barnes, “Ho:Tm lasers. II: Experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 104–111 (1996).
[Crossref]

N. P. Barnes, W. J. Rodriguez, and B. M. Walsh , “Ho:Tm:YLF laser amplifier performance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2872–2882 (1996).
[Crossref]

D. W. Hart, M. Jani, and N. P. Barnes, “Room-temperature lasing of end-pumped Ho:Lu3Al5O12,” Opt. Lett. 21, 728–730 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

N. P. Barnes, M. G. Jani, and R. L. Hutcheson, “Diode-pumped room-temperature, Tm:LuAG laser,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4290–4294 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D. Nabors, J. Ochoa, T. Y. Fan, A. Sanchez, H. K. Choi, and G. W. Turner, “Ho:YAG laser pumped by 1.9 μm diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1603–1605 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

1992 (2)

R. C. Stoneman and L. Esterowitz, “Intracavity-pumped 2.09-μm Ho:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 17, 736–738 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+,Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

1968 (1)

L. A. Riseberg and H. W. Moos, “Multiphonon orbit-lattice relaxation of excited states of rare earth ions in crystals,” Phys. Rev. 174, 429–438 (1968).
[Crossref]

1953 (1)

D. L. Dexter, “A theory of sensitizer luminescence in solids,” J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836–850 (1953).
[Crossref]

1947 (1)

T. Forster, “Experimentalle und theoretische untersuchung des zwischenmolerkularen ubergangs von elektronenregungsenergie,” Z. Naturforsch. A 4, 321–327 (1947).

Barnes, N. P.

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, and B. Di Bartolo, “The temperature dependence of energy transfer between the Tm  3F4 and Ho  5I7 manifolds of Tm sensitized Ho luminescence in YAG and YLF,” J. Lumin. 90, 39–48 (2000).
[Crossref]

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, and B. Di Bartolo, “Branching ratios, cross sections, and radiative lifetimes of rare earth ions in solids: application to Tm3+ and Ho3+ ions in LiYF4,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2772–2787 (1998).
[Crossref]

N. P. Barnes, “A review of tuning and performance of Ho lasers,” in Recent Res. Devel. Appl. Opt. 1, 47–58 (1996).

N. P. Barnes, E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison, and C. J. Lee, “Ho:Tm laser. I: Modeling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 92–103 (1996).
[Crossref]

C. J. Lee, G. Han, and N. P. Barnes, “Ho:Tm lasers. II: Experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 104–111 (1996).
[Crossref]

N. P. Barnes, W. J. Rodriguez, and B. M. Walsh , “Ho:Tm:YLF laser amplifier performance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2872–2882 (1996).
[Crossref]

D. W. Hart, M. Jani, and N. P. Barnes, “Room-temperature lasing of end-pumped Ho:Lu3Al5O12,” Opt. Lett. 21, 728–730 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. P. Barnes, M. G. Jani, and R. L. Hutcheson, “Diode-pumped room-temperature, Tm:LuAG laser,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4290–4294 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Hayward, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, N. P. Barnes, J. Nilsson, A. B. Grudinen, and D. C. Hanna, “High power double-clad Tm–doped fibre laser with >12 W single-mode output at 2.0 μm,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Postconference Digest, Vol. 39 of 2000 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper CFH2.

U. N. Singh, J. Yu, M. Petros, N. P. Barnes, J. A. Williams-Byrd, G. E. Lockard, and E. A. Modlin, “Injection-seeded, room-temperature, diode-pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser with output energy of 600 mJ at 10 Hz,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg and M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of 1998 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 194–196.

Basiev, T. T.

T. T. Basiev, Yu V. Orlowskii, K. K. Pukhov, V. B. Sigachev, M. E. Doroshenko, and I. N. Borob’ev, “Multiphonon relaxation in the rare earth ions doped laser crystal,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, S. A. Payne and C. R. Pollock, eds., Vol. 1 of 1996 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 575–581.

Beach, R. J.

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, and S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG CW diode-pumped solid-state laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. R. Pollock and W. R. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of 1997 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 307–309.

Berner, N.

L. Fornasiero, N. Berner, B. M. Dicks, E. Mix, V. Peters, K. Peterman, and G. Huber, “Broadly tunable laser emission from Tm:Y2O3and Tm:Sc2O3at 2.0 μm,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M. M. Fejer, H. Injeyan, and U. Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of 1999 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 450–453.

Borob’ev, I. N.

T. T. Basiev, Yu V. Orlowskii, K. K. Pukhov, V. B. Sigachev, M. E. Doroshenko, and I. N. Borob’ev, “Multiphonon relaxation in the rare earth ions doped laser crystal,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, S. A. Payne and C. R. Pollock, eds., Vol. 1 of 1996 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 575–581.

Bowman, S. R.

S. R. Bowman, J. E. Tucker, and S. Kirkpartick, “Progress in the modeling of migration-limited energy transfer in laser materials,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg and M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of 1998 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 519–523.

Budni, P. A.

P. A. Ketteridge, P. A. Budni, M. Knights, and E. Chicklis, “An all solid-state 7 watt, CW, tunable, Tm:YLF laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. R. Pollock and W. R. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of 1997 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 197–201.

Chase, L. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+,Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[Crossref]

Chicklis, E.

P. A. Ketteridge, P. A. Budni, M. Knights, and E. Chicklis, “An all solid-state 7 watt, CW, tunable, Tm:YLF laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. R. Pollock and W. R. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of 1997 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 197–201.

Choi, H. K.

C. D. Nabors, J. Ochoa, T. Y. Fan, A. Sanchez, H. K. Choi, and G. W. Turner, “Ho:YAG laser pumped by 1.9 μm diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1603–1605 (1995).
[Crossref]

Clarkson, W. A.

R. A. Hayward, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, N. P. Barnes, J. Nilsson, A. B. Grudinen, and D. C. Hanna, “High power double-clad Tm–doped fibre laser with >12 W single-mode output at 2.0 μm,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Postconference Digest, Vol. 39 of 2000 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper CFH2.

Dexter, D. L.

D. L. Dexter, “A theory of sensitizer luminescence in solids,” J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836–850 (1953).
[Crossref]

Di Bartolo, B.

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, and B. Di Bartolo, “The temperature dependence of energy transfer between the Tm  3F4 and Ho  5I7 manifolds of Tm sensitized Ho luminescence in YAG and YLF,” J. Lumin. 90, 39–48 (2000).
[Crossref]

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, and B. Di Bartolo, “Branching ratios, cross sections, and radiative lifetimes of rare earth ions in solids: application to Tm3+ and Ho3+ ions in LiYF4,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2772–2787 (1998).
[Crossref]

Dicks, B. M.

L. Fornasiero, N. Berner, B. M. Dicks, E. Mix, V. Peters, K. Peterman, and G. Huber, “Broadly tunable laser emission from Tm:Y2O3and Tm:Sc2O3at 2.0 μm,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M. M. Fejer, H. Injeyan, and U. Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of 1999 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 450–453.

Doroshenko, M. E.

T. T. Basiev, Yu V. Orlowskii, K. K. Pukhov, V. B. Sigachev, M. E. Doroshenko, and I. N. Borob’ev, “Multiphonon relaxation in the rare earth ions doped laser crystal,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, S. A. Payne and C. R. Pollock, eds., Vol. 1 of 1996 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 575–581.

Emanuel, M. A.

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, and S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG CW diode-pumped solid-state laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. R. Pollock and W. R. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of 1997 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 307–309.

Esterowitz, L.

R. C. Stoneman and L. Esterowitz, “Intracavity-pumped 2.09-μm Ho:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 17, 736–738 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. C. Stoneman and L. Esterowitz, “Efficient broadly tunable laser-pumped Tm:YAG and Tm:YSGG cw lasers,” Opt. Lett. 15, 486–488 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. C. Stoneman, L. Esterowitz, and G. Rosenblatt, “Diode-pumped Q-switched room-temperature 2-μm Tm3+:YAGlaser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1989 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper TUE1.

Fan, T. Y.

C. D. Nabors, J. Ochoa, T. Y. Fan, A. Sanchez, H. K. Choi, and G. W. Turner, “Ho:YAG laser pumped by 1.9 μm diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1603–1605 (1995).
[Crossref]

Filer, E. D.

N. P. Barnes, E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison, and C. J. Lee, “Ho:Tm laser. I: Modeling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 92–103 (1996).
[Crossref]

Fornasiero, L.

L. Fornasiero, N. Berner, B. M. Dicks, E. Mix, V. Peters, K. Peterman, and G. Huber, “Broadly tunable laser emission from Tm:Y2O3and Tm:Sc2O3at 2.0 μm,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M. M. Fejer, H. Injeyan, and U. Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of 1999 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 450–453.

Forster, T.

T. Forster, “Experimentalle und theoretische untersuchung des zwischenmolerkularen ubergangs von elektronenregungsenergie,” Z. Naturforsch. A 4, 321–327 (1947).

Grudinen, A. B.

R. A. Hayward, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, N. P. Barnes, J. Nilsson, A. B. Grudinen, and D. C. Hanna, “High power double-clad Tm–doped fibre laser with >12 W single-mode output at 2.0 μm,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Postconference Digest, Vol. 39 of 2000 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper CFH2.

Han, G.

C. J. Lee, G. Han, and N. P. Barnes, “Ho:Tm lasers. II: Experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 104–111 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hanna, D. C.

R. A. Hayward, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, N. P. Barnes, J. Nilsson, A. B. Grudinen, and D. C. Hanna, “High power double-clad Tm–doped fibre laser with >12 W single-mode output at 2.0 μm,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Postconference Digest, Vol. 39 of 2000 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper CFH2.

Hart, D. W.

Hayward, R. A.

R. A. Hayward, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, N. P. Barnes, J. Nilsson, A. B. Grudinen, and D. C. Hanna, “High power double-clad Tm–doped fibre laser with >12 W single-mode output at 2.0 μm,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Postconference Digest, Vol. 39 of 2000 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper CFH2.

Honea, E. C.

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, and S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG CW diode-pumped solid-state laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. R. Pollock and W. R. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of 1997 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 307–309.

Huber, G.

L. Fornasiero, N. Berner, B. M. Dicks, E. Mix, V. Peters, K. Peterman, and G. Huber, “Broadly tunable laser emission from Tm:Y2O3and Tm:Sc2O3at 2.0 μm,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M. M. Fejer, H. Injeyan, and U. Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of 1999 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 450–453.

Hutcheson, R. L.

Jani, M.

Jani, M. G.

Kane, T. J.

J. D. Kmetec, T. S. Kubo, and T. J. Kane, “Laser performance of diode-pumped thulium-doped Y3Al5O12,(Y,Lu)3Al5O12, and Lu3Al5O12 crystals,” Opt. Lett. 19, 186–188 (1994).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kane and T. S. Kubo, “Diode-pumped single-frequency and Q-switched lasers using Tm:YAG and Ho:Tm:YAG,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, H. P. Jenssen and G. Dube, eds., Vol. 6 of 1990 OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 133–135.

Ketteridge, P. A.

P. A. Ketteridge, P. A. Budni, M. Knights, and E. Chicklis, “An all solid-state 7 watt, CW, tunable, Tm:YLF laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. R. Pollock and W. R. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of 1997 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 197–201.

Kirkpartick, S.

S. R. Bowman, J. E. Tucker, and S. Kirkpartick, “Progress in the modeling of migration-limited energy transfer in laser materials,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg and M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of 1998 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 519–523.

Kmetec, J. D.

Knights, M.

P. A. Ketteridge, P. A. Budni, M. Knights, and E. Chicklis, “An all solid-state 7 watt, CW, tunable, Tm:YLF laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. R. Pollock and W. R. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of 1997 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 197–201.

Krupke, W. F.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+,Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kubo, T. S.

J. D. Kmetec, T. S. Kubo, and T. J. Kane, “Laser performance of diode-pumped thulium-doped Y3Al5O12,(Y,Lu)3Al5O12, and Lu3Al5O12 crystals,” Opt. Lett. 19, 186–188 (1994).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kane and T. S. Kubo, “Diode-pumped single-frequency and Q-switched lasers using Tm:YAG and Ho:Tm:YAG,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, H. P. Jenssen and G. Dube, eds., Vol. 6 of 1990 OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 133–135.

Kway, W. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+,Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[Crossref]

Lee, C. J.

N. P. Barnes, E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison, and C. J. Lee, “Ho:Tm laser. I: Modeling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 92–103 (1996).
[Crossref]

C. J. Lee, G. Han, and N. P. Barnes, “Ho:Tm lasers. II: Experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 104–111 (1996).
[Crossref]

Lockard, G. E.

U. N. Singh, J. Yu, M. Petros, N. P. Barnes, J. A. Williams-Byrd, G. E. Lockard, and E. A. Modlin, “Injection-seeded, room-temperature, diode-pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser with output energy of 600 mJ at 10 Hz,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg and M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of 1998 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 194–196.

Mitchell, S. C.

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, and S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG CW diode-pumped solid-state laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. R. Pollock and W. R. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of 1997 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 307–309.

Mix, E.

L. Fornasiero, N. Berner, B. M. Dicks, E. Mix, V. Peters, K. Peterman, and G. Huber, “Broadly tunable laser emission from Tm:Y2O3and Tm:Sc2O3at 2.0 μm,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M. M. Fejer, H. Injeyan, and U. Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of 1999 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 450–453.

Modlin, E. A.

U. N. Singh, J. Yu, M. Petros, N. P. Barnes, J. A. Williams-Byrd, G. E. Lockard, and E. A. Modlin, “Injection-seeded, room-temperature, diode-pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser with output energy of 600 mJ at 10 Hz,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg and M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of 1998 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 194–196.

Moos, H. W.

L. A. Riseberg and H. W. Moos, “Multiphonon orbit-lattice relaxation of excited states of rare earth ions in crystals,” Phys. Rev. 174, 429–438 (1968).
[Crossref]

Morrison, C. A.

N. P. Barnes, E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison, and C. J. Lee, “Ho:Tm laser. I: Modeling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 92–103 (1996).
[Crossref]

Nabors, C. D.

C. D. Nabors, J. Ochoa, T. Y. Fan, A. Sanchez, H. K. Choi, and G. W. Turner, “Ho:YAG laser pumped by 1.9 μm diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1603–1605 (1995).
[Crossref]

Nilsson, J.

R. A. Hayward, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, N. P. Barnes, J. Nilsson, A. B. Grudinen, and D. C. Hanna, “High power double-clad Tm–doped fibre laser with >12 W single-mode output at 2.0 μm,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Postconference Digest, Vol. 39 of 2000 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper CFH2.

Ochoa, J.

C. D. Nabors, J. Ochoa, T. Y. Fan, A. Sanchez, H. K. Choi, and G. W. Turner, “Ho:YAG laser pumped by 1.9 μm diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1603–1605 (1995).
[Crossref]

Orlowskii, Yu V.

T. T. Basiev, Yu V. Orlowskii, K. K. Pukhov, V. B. Sigachev, M. E. Doroshenko, and I. N. Borob’ev, “Multiphonon relaxation in the rare earth ions doped laser crystal,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, S. A. Payne and C. R. Pollock, eds., Vol. 1 of 1996 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 575–581.

Payne, S. A.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+,Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[Crossref]

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, and S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG CW diode-pumped solid-state laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. R. Pollock and W. R. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of 1997 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 307–309.

Peterman, K.

L. Fornasiero, N. Berner, B. M. Dicks, E. Mix, V. Peters, K. Peterman, and G. Huber, “Broadly tunable laser emission from Tm:Y2O3and Tm:Sc2O3at 2.0 μm,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M. M. Fejer, H. Injeyan, and U. Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of 1999 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 450–453.

Peters, V.

L. Fornasiero, N. Berner, B. M. Dicks, E. Mix, V. Peters, K. Peterman, and G. Huber, “Broadly tunable laser emission from Tm:Y2O3and Tm:Sc2O3at 2.0 μm,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M. M. Fejer, H. Injeyan, and U. Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of 1999 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 450–453.

Petros, M.

U. N. Singh, J. Yu, M. Petros, N. P. Barnes, J. A. Williams-Byrd, G. E. Lockard, and E. A. Modlin, “Injection-seeded, room-temperature, diode-pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser with output energy of 600 mJ at 10 Hz,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg and M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of 1998 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 194–196.

Pukhov, K. K.

T. T. Basiev, Yu V. Orlowskii, K. K. Pukhov, V. B. Sigachev, M. E. Doroshenko, and I. N. Borob’ev, “Multiphonon relaxation in the rare earth ions doped laser crystal,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, S. A. Payne and C. R. Pollock, eds., Vol. 1 of 1996 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 575–581.

Riseberg, L. A.

L. A. Riseberg and H. W. Moos, “Multiphonon orbit-lattice relaxation of excited states of rare earth ions in crystals,” Phys. Rev. 174, 429–438 (1968).
[Crossref]

Rodriguez, W. J.

Rosenblatt, G.

R. C. Stoneman, L. Esterowitz, and G. Rosenblatt, “Diode-pumped Q-switched room-temperature 2-μm Tm3+:YAGlaser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1989 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper TUE1.

Sanchez, A.

C. D. Nabors, J. Ochoa, T. Y. Fan, A. Sanchez, H. K. Choi, and G. W. Turner, “Ho:YAG laser pumped by 1.9 μm diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1603–1605 (1995).
[Crossref]

Sigachev, V. B.

T. T. Basiev, Yu V. Orlowskii, K. K. Pukhov, V. B. Sigachev, M. E. Doroshenko, and I. N. Borob’ev, “Multiphonon relaxation in the rare earth ions doped laser crystal,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, S. A. Payne and C. R. Pollock, eds., Vol. 1 of 1996 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 575–581.

Singh, U. N.

U. N. Singh, J. Yu, M. Petros, N. P. Barnes, J. A. Williams-Byrd, G. E. Lockard, and E. A. Modlin, “Injection-seeded, room-temperature, diode-pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser with output energy of 600 mJ at 10 Hz,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg and M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of 1998 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 194–196.

Skidmore, J. A.

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, and S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG CW diode-pumped solid-state laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. R. Pollock and W. R. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of 1997 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 307–309.

Smith, L. K.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+,Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[Crossref]

Speth, J. A.

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, and S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG CW diode-pumped solid-state laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. R. Pollock and W. R. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of 1997 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 307–309.

Stoneman, R. C.

R. C. Stoneman and L. Esterowitz, “Intracavity-pumped 2.09-μm Ho:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 17, 736–738 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. C. Stoneman and L. Esterowitz, “Efficient broadly tunable laser-pumped Tm:YAG and Tm:YSGG cw lasers,” Opt. Lett. 15, 486–488 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. C. Stoneman, L. Esterowitz, and G. Rosenblatt, “Diode-pumped Q-switched room-temperature 2-μm Tm3+:YAGlaser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1989 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper TUE1.

Sutton, S. B.

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, and S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG CW diode-pumped solid-state laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. R. Pollock and W. R. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of 1997 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 307–309.

Tucker, J. E.

S. R. Bowman, J. E. Tucker, and S. Kirkpartick, “Progress in the modeling of migration-limited energy transfer in laser materials,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg and M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of 1998 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 519–523.

Turner, G. W.

C. D. Nabors, J. Ochoa, T. Y. Fan, A. Sanchez, H. K. Choi, and G. W. Turner, “Ho:YAG laser pumped by 1.9 μm diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1603–1605 (1995).
[Crossref]

Turner, P. W.

R. A. Hayward, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, N. P. Barnes, J. Nilsson, A. B. Grudinen, and D. C. Hanna, “High power double-clad Tm–doped fibre laser with >12 W single-mode output at 2.0 μm,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Postconference Digest, Vol. 39 of 2000 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper CFH2.

Walsh, B. M.

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, and B. Di Bartolo, “The temperature dependence of energy transfer between the Tm  3F4 and Ho  5I7 manifolds of Tm sensitized Ho luminescence in YAG and YLF,” J. Lumin. 90, 39–48 (2000).
[Crossref]

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, and B. Di Bartolo, “Branching ratios, cross sections, and radiative lifetimes of rare earth ions in solids: application to Tm3+ and Ho3+ ions in LiYF4,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2772–2787 (1998).
[Crossref]

N. P. Barnes, W. J. Rodriguez, and B. M. Walsh , “Ho:Tm:YLF laser amplifier performance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2872–2882 (1996).
[Crossref]

Williams-Byrd, J. A.

U. N. Singh, J. Yu, M. Petros, N. P. Barnes, J. A. Williams-Byrd, G. E. Lockard, and E. A. Modlin, “Injection-seeded, room-temperature, diode-pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser with output energy of 600 mJ at 10 Hz,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg and M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of 1998 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 194–196.

Yu, J.

U. N. Singh, J. Yu, M. Petros, N. P. Barnes, J. A. Williams-Byrd, G. E. Lockard, and E. A. Modlin, “Injection-seeded, room-temperature, diode-pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser with output energy of 600 mJ at 10 Hz,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg and M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of 1998 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 194–196.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

N. P. Barnes, E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison, and C. J. Lee, “Ho:Tm laser. I: Modeling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 92–103 (1996).
[Crossref]

C. J. Lee, G. Han, and N. P. Barnes, “Ho:Tm lasers. II: Experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 104–111 (1996).
[Crossref]

C. D. Nabors, J. Ochoa, T. Y. Fan, A. Sanchez, H. K. Choi, and G. W. Turner, “Ho:YAG laser pumped by 1.9 μm diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1603–1605 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+,Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, and B. Di Bartolo, “Branching ratios, cross sections, and radiative lifetimes of rare earth ions in solids: application to Tm3+ and Ho3+ ions in LiYF4,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2772–2787 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

D. L. Dexter, “A theory of sensitizer luminescence in solids,” J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836–850 (1953).
[Crossref]

J. Lumin. (1)

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, and B. Di Bartolo, “The temperature dependence of energy transfer between the Tm  3F4 and Ho  5I7 manifolds of Tm sensitized Ho luminescence in YAG and YLF,” J. Lumin. 90, 39–48 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. (1)

L. A. Riseberg and H. W. Moos, “Multiphonon orbit-lattice relaxation of excited states of rare earth ions in crystals,” Phys. Rev. 174, 429–438 (1968).
[Crossref]

Recent Res. Devel. Appl. Opt. (1)

N. P. Barnes, “A review of tuning and performance of Ho lasers,” in Recent Res. Devel. Appl. Opt. 1, 47–58 (1996).

Z. Naturforsch. A (1)

T. Forster, “Experimentalle und theoretische untersuchung des zwischenmolerkularen ubergangs von elektronenregungsenergie,” Z. Naturforsch. A 4, 321–327 (1947).

Other (9)

T. T. Basiev, Yu V. Orlowskii, K. K. Pukhov, V. B. Sigachev, M. E. Doroshenko, and I. N. Borob’ev, “Multiphonon relaxation in the rare earth ions doped laser crystal,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, S. A. Payne and C. R. Pollock, eds., Vol. 1 of 1996 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 575–581.

L. Fornasiero, N. Berner, B. M. Dicks, E. Mix, V. Peters, K. Peterman, and G. Huber, “Broadly tunable laser emission from Tm:Y2O3and Tm:Sc2O3at 2.0 μm,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M. M. Fejer, H. Injeyan, and U. Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of 1999 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 450–453.

R. A. Hayward, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, N. P. Barnes, J. Nilsson, A. B. Grudinen, and D. C. Hanna, “High power double-clad Tm–doped fibre laser with >12 W single-mode output at 2.0 μm,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Postconference Digest, Vol. 39 of 2000 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper CFH2.

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, and S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG CW diode-pumped solid-state laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. R. Pollock and W. R. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of 1997 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 307–309.

P. A. Ketteridge, P. A. Budni, M. Knights, and E. Chicklis, “An all solid-state 7 watt, CW, tunable, Tm:YLF laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. R. Pollock and W. R. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of 1997 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 197–201.

T. J. Kane and T. S. Kubo, “Diode-pumped single-frequency and Q-switched lasers using Tm:YAG and Ho:Tm:YAG,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, H. P. Jenssen and G. Dube, eds., Vol. 6 of 1990 OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 133–135.

R. C. Stoneman, L. Esterowitz, and G. Rosenblatt, “Diode-pumped Q-switched room-temperature 2-μm Tm3+:YAGlaser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1989 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper TUE1.

U. N. Singh, J. Yu, M. Petros, N. P. Barnes, J. A. Williams-Byrd, G. E. Lockard, and E. A. Modlin, “Injection-seeded, room-temperature, diode-pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser with output energy of 600 mJ at 10 Hz,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg and M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of 1998 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 194–196.

S. R. Bowman, J. E. Tucker, and S. Kirkpartick, “Progress in the modeling of migration-limited energy transfer in laser materials,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg and M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of 1998 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 519–523.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy-level diagram of the four lowest Ho manifolds.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Ho:YAG upconversion coefficient versus absorbed energy for a Ho concentration of 0.01, 10 mm thick.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ho:YAG upconversion coefficient versus absorbed energy for a Ho concentration of 0.02, 10 mm thick.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ho:YAG upconversion coefficient versus absorbed energy for a Ho concentration of 0.04, 10 mm thick.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Ho:LuAG upconversion coefficient versus absorbed energy for a Ho concentration of 0.02, 10 mm thick.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Ho:LuAG upconversion coefficient versus absorbed energy for a Ho concentration of 0.05, 5 mm thick.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Ho:YLF upconversion coefficient versus absorbed energy for a Ho concentration of 0.02, 10 mm thick.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Calculated Upconversion and Diffusion Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 2 Measured and Calculated Energy-Transfer Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 3 Comparison of Laser Parameters

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dN5dt=-N5τ5+P77N72-P58N5N8+R5,
dN7dt=-N7τ7+η57N5τ5-2P77N72+2P58N5N8+R7,
N5+N7+N8=CHNS.
N5P77N72τ5,
dN7dt=-N7τ7-P77N72+R7,
N7+N8CHNS.
N7=N70exp(-t/τ7)/{1+P77τ7N70[1-exp(-t/τ7)]}.
N70=βa(2EPλP/πwP2hc)exp(-βaz-2ρ2/wP2)=N700exp(-βaz-2ρ2/wP2).
S=0l0N72πρdρdz,
S=(πwP2/2P77τ7)exp(-t/τ7)/[1-exp(-t/τ7)]=0lln{1+P77τ7N700[1-exp(-t/τ7)]exp(-βaz)}dz.
S(EPλP/hc)[1-exp(-βal)]exp(-t/τ7){1-(P77τ7N700/4)[1+exp(βal)][1-exp(-t/τ7)]}.
Psafs(E)Fa(E)/E4dE,
Psa|rsra-3(raR)(rsR)|2/R6,
V=V1exp(-t/τ7)/{1+a1[1-exp(-t/τ7)]}+V2exp(-t/τ7)/{1+a2[1-exp(-t/τ7)]},
V=V0exp(-t/τ7)/{1+a0[1-exp(-t/τ7)]},
V=V1exp(-t/τ7)/{1+a1[1-exp(-t/τ7)]}+V2exp(-t/τ7).
ai=P77τ7N700.

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