Abstract

A magneto-optical trap for francium radioactive atoms has been set up at the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Legnaro laboratories, and its characterization and optimization are under way. The main features of the Fr+ beam line, of the target, and of the magneto-optical trap are described in detail. Measurements of the Fr-ion production rate as a function of the target temperature, the primary beam intensity, and energy have been made. Preliminary tests with other stable alkali atoms aimed at an improvement of the magneto-optical trap collection efficiency are reported. Fast and efficient trap loading of rubidium has been obtained through the light-induced atomic desorption from an organic coating. A larger number of sodium atoms, as compared with a monochromatic trapping laser, has been trapped by use of a broadband laser.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  3. Z.-T. Lu, C. T. Bowers, S. J. Freedman, B. K. Fujikawa, J. L. Mortara, S.-Q. Shang, K. P. Coulter, and L. Young, “Laser trapping of short-lived radioactive isotopes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3791–3794 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. Gwinner, J. A. Behr, S. B. Cahn, A. Ghosh, L. A. Orozco, G. D. Sprouse, and F. Xu, “Magneto-optic trapping of radioactive 79Rb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3795–3798 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. Guckert, X. Zhao, S. G. Crane, A. Hime, W. A. Taylor, D. Tupa, D. J. Vieira, and H. Wollnik, “Magneto-optical trapping of radioactive 82Rb atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R1637–R1640 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Z.-T. Lu, K. L. Corwin, K. R. Vogel, C. E. Wieman, T. P. Dinneen, J. Maddi, and H. Gould, “Efficient collection of 221Fr into a vapor cell magneto-optic trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 994–997 (1997).
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  8. J. S. Grossman, L. A. Orozco, M. R. Pearson, J. E. Simsarian, G. D. Sprouse, and W. Z. Zhao, “Hyperfine anomaly measurements in francium isotopes and the radial distribution of neutrons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 935–938 (1999).
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  11. H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, A. C. Mueller, R. Neugart, E. W. Otten, B. Peuse, J. Pinard, H. H. Stroke, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “First observation of the blue optical lines of francium,” Europhys. Lett. 3, 175–182 (1987).
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  13. A. Coc, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, J. Pinard, J. Lerme’, J. L. Vialle, S. Buttgenbach, A. C. Mueller, A. Pesnelle, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “Hyperfine structure and isotope shifts of 207–213, 220–228Fr: possible evidence of octupolar deformation,” Phys. Lett. B 163, 66–70 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
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  20. A. Gozzini, F. Mango, J. H. Xu, G. Alzetta, F. Maccarrone, and R. A. Bernheim, “Light induced ejection of alkali atoms in polysiloxane coated cells,” Nuovo Cimento D 15, 709–716 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Meucci, E. Mariotti, P. Bicchi, C. Marinelli, and L. Moi, “Light-induced atom desorption,” Europhys. Lett. 25, 639–643 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Rossi, V. Biancalana, B. Mai, and L. Tomassetti, “Long-term drift laser frequency stabilization using purely optical reference,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2544–2548 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  23. C. Marinelli, K. A. Nasyrov, S. Bocci, B. Pieragnoli, A. Burchianti, V. Biancalana, E. Mariotti, S. N. Atutov, and L. Moi, “A new class of photo-induced phenomena in siloxane films,” Eur. Phys. J. D 13, 231–235 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  24. E. Mariotti, M. Meucci, P. Bicchi, C. Marinelli, and L. Moi, “An efficient photo-atom source,” Opt. Commun. 134, 121–126 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. N. Atutov, R. Calabrese, V. Guidi, B. Mai, A. G. Rudavets, E. Scansani, L. Tomassetti, V. Biancalana, A. Burchianti, C. Marinelli, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, and S. Veronesi, Phys. Rev. A (to be published).
  26. C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, and C. Wieman, “Very cold trapped atoms in a vapor cell,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571–1574 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. J. Fortagh, A. Grossmann, T. W. Hansch, and C. Zimmermann, “Fast loading of a magneto-optical trap from a pulsed thermal source,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6499–6502 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  28. B. P. Anderson and A. Kasevich, “Loading a vapor-cell magneto-optic trap using light induced atom desorption,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 023404 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  29. L. Moi, “Application of a very long cavity laser to atom slowing down and optical pumping,” Opt. Commun. 50, 349–351 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  30. S. N. Atutov, F. Bonazzi, R. Calabrese, V. Guidi, P. Lenisa, S. Petruio, E. Mariotti, and L. Moi, “Generation of a frequency comb with a sharp edge of adjustable intensity and frequency,” Opt. Commun. 132, 269–274 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  31. B. P. Anderson and M. A. Kasevich, “Enhanced loading of a magneto-optic trap from an atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. A 50, R3581–R3583 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. S. N. Atutov, R. Calabrese, R. Grimm, V. Guidi, I. Lauer, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, A. Peters, U. Schramm, D. Schwalm, and M. Stossel, “White-light laser cooling of a stored ion beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2129–2132 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (2)

A. Rossi, V. Biancalana, B. Mai, and L. Tomassetti, “Long-term drift laser frequency stabilization using purely optical reference,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2544–2548 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Lipski and M. R. Pearson, “Development of thick gold targets for the production of radioactive beams of francium,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 480, 156–161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

C. Marinelli, K. A. Nasyrov, S. Bocci, B. Pieragnoli, A. Burchianti, V. Biancalana, E. Mariotti, S. N. Atutov, and L. Moi, “A new class of photo-induced phenomena in siloxane films,” Eur. Phys. J. D 13, 231–235 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Anderson and A. Kasevich, “Loading a vapor-cell magneto-optic trap using light induced atom desorption,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 023404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. S. Grossman, L. A. Orozco, M. R. Pearson, J. E. Simsarian, G. D. Sprouse, and W. Z. Zhao, “Hyperfine anomaly measurements in francium isotopes and the radial distribution of neutrons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 935–938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

R. Guckert, X. Zhao, S. G. Crane, A. Hime, W. A. Taylor, D. Tupa, D. J. Vieira, and H. Wollnik, “Magneto-optical trapping of radioactive 82Rb atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R1637–R1640 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Atutov, R. Calabrese, R. Grimm, V. Guidi, I. Lauer, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, A. Peters, U. Schramm, D. Schwalm, and M. Stossel, “White-light laser cooling of a stored ion beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2129–2132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Fortagh, A. Grossmann, T. W. Hansch, and C. Zimmermann, “Fast loading of a magneto-optical trap from a pulsed thermal source,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6499–6502 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (5)

E. Mariotti, M. Meucci, P. Bicchi, C. Marinelli, and L. Moi, “An efficient photo-atom source,” Opt. Commun. 134, 121–126 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Sprouse and L. A. Orozco, “Laser trapping of radioactive atoms,” Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 47, 429–461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Behr, A. Gorelov, T. Swanson, O. Hausser, K. P. Jackson, M. Trinczek, U. Giesen, J. M. D’Auria, R. Hardy, T. Wilson, P. Choboter, F. Leblond, L. Buchmann, M. Dombsky, C. D. P. Levy, G. Roy, B. A. Brown, and J. Dilling, “Magneto-optic trapping of β-decaying 38K, 37K from an on-line isotopes separator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z.-T. Lu, K. L. Corwin, K. R. Vogel, C. E. Wieman, T. P. Dinneen, J. Maddi, and H. Gould, “Efficient collection of 221Fr into a vapor cell magneto-optic trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 994–997 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Bouchiat and C. Bouchiat, “Parity violations in atoms,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 1351–1396 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

J. E. Simsarian, A. Ghosh, G. Gwinner, L. A. Orozco, G. D. Sprouse, and P. A. Voytas, “Magneto-optic trapping of 210Fr,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3522–3525 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. N. Atutov, F. Bonazzi, R. Calabrese, V. Guidi, P. Lenisa, S. Petruio, E. Mariotti, and L. Moi, “Generation of a frequency comb with a sharp edge of adjustable intensity and frequency,” Opt. Commun. 132, 269–274 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, and O. P. Sushkov, “Calculation of energy levels, E1 transition amplitudes and parity violation in francium,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 3454–3461 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (5)

Z.-T. Lu, C. T. Bowers, S. J. Freedman, B. K. Fujikawa, J. L. Mortara, S.-Q. Shang, K. P. Coulter, and L. Young, “Laser trapping of short-lived radioactive isotopes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3791–3794 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gwinner, J. A. Behr, S. B. Cahn, A. Ghosh, L. A. Orozco, G. D. Sprouse, and F. Xu, “Magneto-optic trapping of radioactive 79Rb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3795–3798 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. P. Anderson and M. A. Kasevich, “Enhanced loading of a magneto-optic trap from an atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. A 50, R3581–R3583 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Moi, “Application of a very long cavity laser to atom slowing down and optical pumping,” Opt. Commun. 50, 349–351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Meucci, E. Mariotti, P. Bicchi, C. Marinelli, and L. Moi, “Light-induced atom desorption,” Europhys. Lett. 25, 639–643 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

A. Gozzini, F. Mango, J. H. Xu, G. Alzetta, F. Maccarrone, and R. A. Bernheim, “Light induced ejection of alkali atoms in polysiloxane coated cells,” Nuovo Cimento D 15, 709–716 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, and C. Wieman, “Very cold trapped atoms in a vapor cell,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571–1574 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Arnold, W. Borchers, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, J. Lerme’, P. Lievens, W. Neu, R. Neugart, M. Pellarin, J. Pinard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “Optical laser spectroscopy and hyperfine structure investigation of the 102S, 112S, 82D and 92D excited levels in francium,” J. Phys. B 23, 3511–3520 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, A. C. Mueller, R. Neugart, E. W. Otten, B. Peuse, J. Pinard, H. H. Stroke, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “First observation of the blue optical lines of francium,” Europhys. Lett. 3, 175–182 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Andreev, V. S. Letokhov, and V. I. Mishin, “Laser resonance photoionization spectroscopy of Rydberg levels in Fr,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1274–1276 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

A. Coc, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, J. Pinard, J. Lerme’, J. L. Vialle, S. Buttgenbach, A. C. Mueller, A. Pesnelle, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “Hyperfine structure and isotope shifts of 207–213, 220–228Fr: possible evidence of octupolar deformation,” Phys. Lett. B 163, 66–70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

S. Liberman, J. Pinard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, J. L. Vialle, P. Jacquinot, G. Huber, F. Touchard, S. Buttgenbach, A. Pesnelle, C. Thibault, R. Klapish, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “First evidence of an optical transition in Fr atoms,” C. R. Acad. Sci., Ser. B 286, 253–255 (1978).

1939 (1)

M. Perey, “Sur un element 87, derive de l’Actinium,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 208, 97–99 (1939).

Alzetta, G.

A. Gozzini, F. Mango, J. H. Xu, G. Alzetta, F. Maccarrone, and R. A. Bernheim, “Light induced ejection of alkali atoms in polysiloxane coated cells,” Nuovo Cimento D 15, 709–716 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, B. P.

B. P. Anderson and A. Kasevich, “Loading a vapor-cell magneto-optic trap using light induced atom desorption,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 023404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Anderson and M. A. Kasevich, “Enhanced loading of a magneto-optic trap from an atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. A 50, R3581–R3583 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andreev, S. V.

S. V. Andreev, V. S. Letokhov, and V. I. Mishin, “Laser resonance photoionization spectroscopy of Rydberg levels in Fr,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1274–1276 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnold, E.

E. Arnold, W. Borchers, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, J. Lerme’, P. Lievens, W. Neu, R. Neugart, M. Pellarin, J. Pinard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “Optical laser spectroscopy and hyperfine structure investigation of the 102S, 112S, 82D and 92D excited levels in francium,” J. Phys. B 23, 3511–3520 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Atutov, S. N.

C. Marinelli, K. A. Nasyrov, S. Bocci, B. Pieragnoli, A. Burchianti, V. Biancalana, E. Mariotti, S. N. Atutov, and L. Moi, “A new class of photo-induced phenomena in siloxane films,” Eur. Phys. J. D 13, 231–235 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Atutov, R. Calabrese, R. Grimm, V. Guidi, I. Lauer, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, A. Peters, U. Schramm, D. Schwalm, and M. Stossel, “White-light laser cooling of a stored ion beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2129–2132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Atutov, F. Bonazzi, R. Calabrese, V. Guidi, P. Lenisa, S. Petruio, E. Mariotti, and L. Moi, “Generation of a frequency comb with a sharp edge of adjustable intensity and frequency,” Opt. Commun. 132, 269–274 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Behr, J. A.

J. A. Behr, A. Gorelov, T. Swanson, O. Hausser, K. P. Jackson, M. Trinczek, U. Giesen, J. M. D’Auria, R. Hardy, T. Wilson, P. Choboter, F. Leblond, L. Buchmann, M. Dombsky, C. D. P. Levy, G. Roy, B. A. Brown, and J. Dilling, “Magneto-optic trapping of β-decaying 38K, 37K from an on-line isotopes separator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Gwinner, J. A. Behr, S. B. Cahn, A. Ghosh, L. A. Orozco, G. D. Sprouse, and F. Xu, “Magneto-optic trapping of radioactive 79Rb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3795–3798 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernheim, R. A.

A. Gozzini, F. Mango, J. H. Xu, G. Alzetta, F. Maccarrone, and R. A. Bernheim, “Light induced ejection of alkali atoms in polysiloxane coated cells,” Nuovo Cimento D 15, 709–716 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Biancalana, V.

A. Rossi, V. Biancalana, B. Mai, and L. Tomassetti, “Long-term drift laser frequency stabilization using purely optical reference,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2544–2548 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Marinelli, K. A. Nasyrov, S. Bocci, B. Pieragnoli, A. Burchianti, V. Biancalana, E. Mariotti, S. N. Atutov, and L. Moi, “A new class of photo-induced phenomena in siloxane films,” Eur. Phys. J. D 13, 231–235 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bicchi, P.

E. Mariotti, M. Meucci, P. Bicchi, C. Marinelli, and L. Moi, “An efficient photo-atom source,” Opt. Commun. 134, 121–126 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Meucci, E. Mariotti, P. Bicchi, C. Marinelli, and L. Moi, “Light-induced atom desorption,” Europhys. Lett. 25, 639–643 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bocci, S.

C. Marinelli, K. A. Nasyrov, S. Bocci, B. Pieragnoli, A. Burchianti, V. Biancalana, E. Mariotti, S. N. Atutov, and L. Moi, “A new class of photo-induced phenomena in siloxane films,” Eur. Phys. J. D 13, 231–235 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bonazzi, F.

S. N. Atutov, F. Bonazzi, R. Calabrese, V. Guidi, P. Lenisa, S. Petruio, E. Mariotti, and L. Moi, “Generation of a frequency comb with a sharp edge of adjustable intensity and frequency,” Opt. Commun. 132, 269–274 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Borchers, W.

E. Arnold, W. Borchers, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, J. Lerme’, P. Lievens, W. Neu, R. Neugart, M. Pellarin, J. Pinard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “Optical laser spectroscopy and hyperfine structure investigation of the 102S, 112S, 82D and 92D excited levels in francium,” J. Phys. B 23, 3511–3520 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bouchiat, C.

M. A. Bouchiat and C. Bouchiat, “Parity violations in atoms,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 1351–1396 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bouchiat, M. A.

M. A. Bouchiat and C. Bouchiat, “Parity violations in atoms,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 1351–1396 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, C. T.

Z.-T. Lu, C. T. Bowers, S. J. Freedman, B. K. Fujikawa, J. L. Mortara, S.-Q. Shang, K. P. Coulter, and L. Young, “Laser trapping of short-lived radioactive isotopes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3791–3794 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, B. A.

J. A. Behr, A. Gorelov, T. Swanson, O. Hausser, K. P. Jackson, M. Trinczek, U. Giesen, J. M. D’Auria, R. Hardy, T. Wilson, P. Choboter, F. Leblond, L. Buchmann, M. Dombsky, C. D. P. Levy, G. Roy, B. A. Brown, and J. Dilling, “Magneto-optic trapping of β-decaying 38K, 37K from an on-line isotopes separator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Buchmann, L.

J. A. Behr, A. Gorelov, T. Swanson, O. Hausser, K. P. Jackson, M. Trinczek, U. Giesen, J. M. D’Auria, R. Hardy, T. Wilson, P. Choboter, F. Leblond, L. Buchmann, M. Dombsky, C. D. P. Levy, G. Roy, B. A. Brown, and J. Dilling, “Magneto-optic trapping of β-decaying 38K, 37K from an on-line isotopes separator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Burchianti, A.

C. Marinelli, K. A. Nasyrov, S. Bocci, B. Pieragnoli, A. Burchianti, V. Biancalana, E. Mariotti, S. N. Atutov, and L. Moi, “A new class of photo-induced phenomena in siloxane films,” Eur. Phys. J. D 13, 231–235 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Buttgenbach, S.

A. Coc, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, J. Pinard, J. Lerme’, J. L. Vialle, S. Buttgenbach, A. C. Mueller, A. Pesnelle, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “Hyperfine structure and isotope shifts of 207–213, 220–228Fr: possible evidence of octupolar deformation,” Phys. Lett. B 163, 66–70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Liberman, J. Pinard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, J. L. Vialle, P. Jacquinot, G. Huber, F. Touchard, S. Buttgenbach, A. Pesnelle, C. Thibault, R. Klapish, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “First evidence of an optical transition in Fr atoms,” C. R. Acad. Sci., Ser. B 286, 253–255 (1978).

Cahn, S. B.

G. Gwinner, J. A. Behr, S. B. Cahn, A. Ghosh, L. A. Orozco, G. D. Sprouse, and F. Xu, “Magneto-optic trapping of radioactive 79Rb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3795–3798 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calabrese, R.

S. N. Atutov, R. Calabrese, R. Grimm, V. Guidi, I. Lauer, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, A. Peters, U. Schramm, D. Schwalm, and M. Stossel, “White-light laser cooling of a stored ion beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2129–2132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Atutov, F. Bonazzi, R. Calabrese, V. Guidi, P. Lenisa, S. Petruio, E. Mariotti, and L. Moi, “Generation of a frequency comb with a sharp edge of adjustable intensity and frequency,” Opt. Commun. 132, 269–274 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Choboter, P.

J. A. Behr, A. Gorelov, T. Swanson, O. Hausser, K. P. Jackson, M. Trinczek, U. Giesen, J. M. D’Auria, R. Hardy, T. Wilson, P. Choboter, F. Leblond, L. Buchmann, M. Dombsky, C. D. P. Levy, G. Roy, B. A. Brown, and J. Dilling, “Magneto-optic trapping of β-decaying 38K, 37K from an on-line isotopes separator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Coc, A.

A. Coc, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, J. Pinard, J. Lerme’, J. L. Vialle, S. Buttgenbach, A. C. Mueller, A. Pesnelle, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “Hyperfine structure and isotope shifts of 207–213, 220–228Fr: possible evidence of octupolar deformation,” Phys. Lett. B 163, 66–70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Corwin, K. L.

Z.-T. Lu, K. L. Corwin, K. R. Vogel, C. E. Wieman, T. P. Dinneen, J. Maddi, and H. Gould, “Efficient collection of 221Fr into a vapor cell magneto-optic trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 994–997 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Coulter, K. P.

Z.-T. Lu, C. T. Bowers, S. J. Freedman, B. K. Fujikawa, J. L. Mortara, S.-Q. Shang, K. P. Coulter, and L. Young, “Laser trapping of short-lived radioactive isotopes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3791–3794 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crane, S. G.

R. Guckert, X. Zhao, S. G. Crane, A. Hime, W. A. Taylor, D. Tupa, D. J. Vieira, and H. Wollnik, “Magneto-optical trapping of radioactive 82Rb atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R1637–R1640 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D’Auria, J. M.

J. A. Behr, A. Gorelov, T. Swanson, O. Hausser, K. P. Jackson, M. Trinczek, U. Giesen, J. M. D’Auria, R. Hardy, T. Wilson, P. Choboter, F. Leblond, L. Buchmann, M. Dombsky, C. D. P. Levy, G. Roy, B. A. Brown, and J. Dilling, “Magneto-optic trapping of β-decaying 38K, 37K from an on-line isotopes separator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dilling, J.

J. A. Behr, A. Gorelov, T. Swanson, O. Hausser, K. P. Jackson, M. Trinczek, U. Giesen, J. M. D’Auria, R. Hardy, T. Wilson, P. Choboter, F. Leblond, L. Buchmann, M. Dombsky, C. D. P. Levy, G. Roy, B. A. Brown, and J. Dilling, “Magneto-optic trapping of β-decaying 38K, 37K from an on-line isotopes separator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dinneen, T. P.

Z.-T. Lu, K. L. Corwin, K. R. Vogel, C. E. Wieman, T. P. Dinneen, J. Maddi, and H. Gould, “Efficient collection of 221Fr into a vapor cell magneto-optic trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 994–997 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dombsky, M.

J. A. Behr, A. Gorelov, T. Swanson, O. Hausser, K. P. Jackson, M. Trinczek, U. Giesen, J. M. D’Auria, R. Hardy, T. Wilson, P. Choboter, F. Leblond, L. Buchmann, M. Dombsky, C. D. P. Levy, G. Roy, B. A. Brown, and J. Dilling, “Magneto-optic trapping of β-decaying 38K, 37K from an on-line isotopes separator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Duong, H. T.

E. Arnold, W. Borchers, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, J. Lerme’, P. Lievens, W. Neu, R. Neugart, M. Pellarin, J. Pinard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “Optical laser spectroscopy and hyperfine structure investigation of the 102S, 112S, 82D and 92D excited levels in francium,” J. Phys. B 23, 3511–3520 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, A. C. Mueller, R. Neugart, E. W. Otten, B. Peuse, J. Pinard, H. H. Stroke, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “First observation of the blue optical lines of francium,” Europhys. Lett. 3, 175–182 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Coc, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, J. Pinard, J. Lerme’, J. L. Vialle, S. Buttgenbach, A. C. Mueller, A. Pesnelle, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “Hyperfine structure and isotope shifts of 207–213, 220–228Fr: possible evidence of octupolar deformation,” Phys. Lett. B 163, 66–70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Liberman, J. Pinard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, J. L. Vialle, P. Jacquinot, G. Huber, F. Touchard, S. Buttgenbach, A. Pesnelle, C. Thibault, R. Klapish, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “First evidence of an optical transition in Fr atoms,” C. R. Acad. Sci., Ser. B 286, 253–255 (1978).

Dzuba, V. A.

V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, and O. P. Sushkov, “Calculation of energy levels, E1 transition amplitudes and parity violation in francium,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 3454–3461 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flambaum, V. V.

V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, and O. P. Sushkov, “Calculation of energy levels, E1 transition amplitudes and parity violation in francium,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 3454–3461 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fortagh, J.

J. Fortagh, A. Grossmann, T. W. Hansch, and C. Zimmermann, “Fast loading of a magneto-optical trap from a pulsed thermal source,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6499–6502 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Freedman, S. J.

Z.-T. Lu, C. T. Bowers, S. J. Freedman, B. K. Fujikawa, J. L. Mortara, S.-Q. Shang, K. P. Coulter, and L. Young, “Laser trapping of short-lived radioactive isotopes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3791–3794 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujikawa, B. K.

Z.-T. Lu, C. T. Bowers, S. J. Freedman, B. K. Fujikawa, J. L. Mortara, S.-Q. Shang, K. P. Coulter, and L. Young, “Laser trapping of short-lived radioactive isotopes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3791–3794 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghosh, A.

J. E. Simsarian, A. Ghosh, G. Gwinner, L. A. Orozco, G. D. Sprouse, and P. A. Voytas, “Magneto-optic trapping of 210Fr,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3522–3525 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gwinner, J. A. Behr, S. B. Cahn, A. Ghosh, L. A. Orozco, G. D. Sprouse, and F. Xu, “Magneto-optic trapping of radioactive 79Rb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3795–3798 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giesen, U.

J. A. Behr, A. Gorelov, T. Swanson, O. Hausser, K. P. Jackson, M. Trinczek, U. Giesen, J. M. D’Auria, R. Hardy, T. Wilson, P. Choboter, F. Leblond, L. Buchmann, M. Dombsky, C. D. P. Levy, G. Roy, B. A. Brown, and J. Dilling, “Magneto-optic trapping of β-decaying 38K, 37K from an on-line isotopes separator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gorelov, A.

J. A. Behr, A. Gorelov, T. Swanson, O. Hausser, K. P. Jackson, M. Trinczek, U. Giesen, J. M. D’Auria, R. Hardy, T. Wilson, P. Choboter, F. Leblond, L. Buchmann, M. Dombsky, C. D. P. Levy, G. Roy, B. A. Brown, and J. Dilling, “Magneto-optic trapping of β-decaying 38K, 37K from an on-line isotopes separator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gould, H.

Z.-T. Lu, K. L. Corwin, K. R. Vogel, C. E. Wieman, T. P. Dinneen, J. Maddi, and H. Gould, “Efficient collection of 221Fr into a vapor cell magneto-optic trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 994–997 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gozzini, A.

A. Gozzini, F. Mango, J. H. Xu, G. Alzetta, F. Maccarrone, and R. A. Bernheim, “Light induced ejection of alkali atoms in polysiloxane coated cells,” Nuovo Cimento D 15, 709–716 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Grimm, R.

S. N. Atutov, R. Calabrese, R. Grimm, V. Guidi, I. Lauer, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, A. Peters, U. Schramm, D. Schwalm, and M. Stossel, “White-light laser cooling of a stored ion beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2129–2132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grossman, J. S.

J. S. Grossman, L. A. Orozco, M. R. Pearson, J. E. Simsarian, G. D. Sprouse, and W. Z. Zhao, “Hyperfine anomaly measurements in francium isotopes and the radial distribution of neutrons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 935–938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grossmann, A.

J. Fortagh, A. Grossmann, T. W. Hansch, and C. Zimmermann, “Fast loading of a magneto-optical trap from a pulsed thermal source,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6499–6502 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guckert, R.

R. Guckert, X. Zhao, S. G. Crane, A. Hime, W. A. Taylor, D. Tupa, D. J. Vieira, and H. Wollnik, “Magneto-optical trapping of radioactive 82Rb atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R1637–R1640 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guidi, V.

S. N. Atutov, R. Calabrese, R. Grimm, V. Guidi, I. Lauer, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, A. Peters, U. Schramm, D. Schwalm, and M. Stossel, “White-light laser cooling of a stored ion beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2129–2132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Atutov, F. Bonazzi, R. Calabrese, V. Guidi, P. Lenisa, S. Petruio, E. Mariotti, and L. Moi, “Generation of a frequency comb with a sharp edge of adjustable intensity and frequency,” Opt. Commun. 132, 269–274 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gwinner, G.

J. E. Simsarian, A. Ghosh, G. Gwinner, L. A. Orozco, G. D. Sprouse, and P. A. Voytas, “Magneto-optic trapping of 210Fr,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3522–3525 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gwinner, J. A. Behr, S. B. Cahn, A. Ghosh, L. A. Orozco, G. D. Sprouse, and F. Xu, “Magneto-optic trapping of radioactive 79Rb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3795–3798 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansch, T. W.

J. Fortagh, A. Grossmann, T. W. Hansch, and C. Zimmermann, “Fast loading of a magneto-optical trap from a pulsed thermal source,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6499–6502 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hardy, R.

J. A. Behr, A. Gorelov, T. Swanson, O. Hausser, K. P. Jackson, M. Trinczek, U. Giesen, J. M. D’Auria, R. Hardy, T. Wilson, P. Choboter, F. Leblond, L. Buchmann, M. Dombsky, C. D. P. Levy, G. Roy, B. A. Brown, and J. Dilling, “Magneto-optic trapping of β-decaying 38K, 37K from an on-line isotopes separator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hausser, O.

J. A. Behr, A. Gorelov, T. Swanson, O. Hausser, K. P. Jackson, M. Trinczek, U. Giesen, J. M. D’Auria, R. Hardy, T. Wilson, P. Choboter, F. Leblond, L. Buchmann, M. Dombsky, C. D. P. Levy, G. Roy, B. A. Brown, and J. Dilling, “Magneto-optic trapping of β-decaying 38K, 37K from an on-line isotopes separator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hime, A.

R. Guckert, X. Zhao, S. G. Crane, A. Hime, W. A. Taylor, D. Tupa, D. J. Vieira, and H. Wollnik, “Magneto-optical trapping of radioactive 82Rb atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R1637–R1640 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

S. Liberman, J. Pinard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, J. L. Vialle, P. Jacquinot, G. Huber, F. Touchard, S. Buttgenbach, A. Pesnelle, C. Thibault, R. Klapish, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “First evidence of an optical transition in Fr atoms,” C. R. Acad. Sci., Ser. B 286, 253–255 (1978).

Jackson, K. P.

J. A. Behr, A. Gorelov, T. Swanson, O. Hausser, K. P. Jackson, M. Trinczek, U. Giesen, J. M. D’Auria, R. Hardy, T. Wilson, P. Choboter, F. Leblond, L. Buchmann, M. Dombsky, C. D. P. Levy, G. Roy, B. A. Brown, and J. Dilling, “Magneto-optic trapping of β-decaying 38K, 37K from an on-line isotopes separator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jacquinot, P.

S. Liberman, J. Pinard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, J. L. Vialle, P. Jacquinot, G. Huber, F. Touchard, S. Buttgenbach, A. Pesnelle, C. Thibault, R. Klapish, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “First evidence of an optical transition in Fr atoms,” C. R. Acad. Sci., Ser. B 286, 253–255 (1978).

Juncar, P.

E. Arnold, W. Borchers, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, J. Lerme’, P. Lievens, W. Neu, R. Neugart, M. Pellarin, J. Pinard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “Optical laser spectroscopy and hyperfine structure investigation of the 102S, 112S, 82D and 92D excited levels in francium,” J. Phys. B 23, 3511–3520 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, A. C. Mueller, R. Neugart, E. W. Otten, B. Peuse, J. Pinard, H. H. Stroke, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “First observation of the blue optical lines of francium,” Europhys. Lett. 3, 175–182 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Coc, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, J. Pinard, J. Lerme’, J. L. Vialle, S. Buttgenbach, A. C. Mueller, A. Pesnelle, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “Hyperfine structure and isotope shifts of 207–213, 220–228Fr: possible evidence of octupolar deformation,” Phys. Lett. B 163, 66–70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Liberman, J. Pinard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, J. L. Vialle, P. Jacquinot, G. Huber, F. Touchard, S. Buttgenbach, A. Pesnelle, C. Thibault, R. Klapish, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “First evidence of an optical transition in Fr atoms,” C. R. Acad. Sci., Ser. B 286, 253–255 (1978).

Kasevich, A.

B. P. Anderson and A. Kasevich, “Loading a vapor-cell magneto-optic trap using light induced atom desorption,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 023404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kasevich, M. A.

B. P. Anderson and M. A. Kasevich, “Enhanced loading of a magneto-optic trap from an atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. A 50, R3581–R3583 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klapish, R.

S. Liberman, J. Pinard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, J. L. Vialle, P. Jacquinot, G. Huber, F. Touchard, S. Buttgenbach, A. Pesnelle, C. Thibault, R. Klapish, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “First evidence of an optical transition in Fr atoms,” C. R. Acad. Sci., Ser. B 286, 253–255 (1978).

Lauer, I.

S. N. Atutov, R. Calabrese, R. Grimm, V. Guidi, I. Lauer, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, A. Peters, U. Schramm, D. Schwalm, and M. Stossel, “White-light laser cooling of a stored ion beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2129–2132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leblond, F.

J. A. Behr, A. Gorelov, T. Swanson, O. Hausser, K. P. Jackson, M. Trinczek, U. Giesen, J. M. D’Auria, R. Hardy, T. Wilson, P. Choboter, F. Leblond, L. Buchmann, M. Dombsky, C. D. P. Levy, G. Roy, B. A. Brown, and J. Dilling, “Magneto-optic trapping of β-decaying 38K, 37K from an on-line isotopes separator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lenisa, P.

S. N. Atutov, R. Calabrese, R. Grimm, V. Guidi, I. Lauer, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, A. Peters, U. Schramm, D. Schwalm, and M. Stossel, “White-light laser cooling of a stored ion beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2129–2132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Atutov, F. Bonazzi, R. Calabrese, V. Guidi, P. Lenisa, S. Petruio, E. Mariotti, and L. Moi, “Generation of a frequency comb with a sharp edge of adjustable intensity and frequency,” Opt. Commun. 132, 269–274 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lerme’, J.

E. Arnold, W. Borchers, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, J. Lerme’, P. Lievens, W. Neu, R. Neugart, M. Pellarin, J. Pinard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “Optical laser spectroscopy and hyperfine structure investigation of the 102S, 112S, 82D and 92D excited levels in francium,” J. Phys. B 23, 3511–3520 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Coc, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, J. Pinard, J. Lerme’, J. L. Vialle, S. Buttgenbach, A. C. Mueller, A. Pesnelle, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “Hyperfine structure and isotope shifts of 207–213, 220–228Fr: possible evidence of octupolar deformation,” Phys. Lett. B 163, 66–70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Letokhov, V. S.

S. V. Andreev, V. S. Letokhov, and V. I. Mishin, “Laser resonance photoionization spectroscopy of Rydberg levels in Fr,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1274–1276 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levy, C. D. P.

J. A. Behr, A. Gorelov, T. Swanson, O. Hausser, K. P. Jackson, M. Trinczek, U. Giesen, J. M. D’Auria, R. Hardy, T. Wilson, P. Choboter, F. Leblond, L. Buchmann, M. Dombsky, C. D. P. Levy, G. Roy, B. A. Brown, and J. Dilling, “Magneto-optic trapping of β-decaying 38K, 37K from an on-line isotopes separator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liberman, S.

H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, A. C. Mueller, R. Neugart, E. W. Otten, B. Peuse, J. Pinard, H. H. Stroke, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “First observation of the blue optical lines of francium,” Europhys. Lett. 3, 175–182 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Coc, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, J. Pinard, J. Lerme’, J. L. Vialle, S. Buttgenbach, A. C. Mueller, A. Pesnelle, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “Hyperfine structure and isotope shifts of 207–213, 220–228Fr: possible evidence of octupolar deformation,” Phys. Lett. B 163, 66–70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Liberman, J. Pinard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, J. L. Vialle, P. Jacquinot, G. Huber, F. Touchard, S. Buttgenbach, A. Pesnelle, C. Thibault, R. Klapish, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “First evidence of an optical transition in Fr atoms,” C. R. Acad. Sci., Ser. B 286, 253–255 (1978).

Lievens, P.

E. Arnold, W. Borchers, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, J. Lerme’, P. Lievens, W. Neu, R. Neugart, M. Pellarin, J. Pinard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “Optical laser spectroscopy and hyperfine structure investigation of the 102S, 112S, 82D and 92D excited levels in francium,” J. Phys. B 23, 3511–3520 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lipski, A. R.

A. R. Lipski and M. R. Pearson, “Development of thick gold targets for the production of radioactive beams of francium,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 480, 156–161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Z.-T.

Z.-T. Lu, K. L. Corwin, K. R. Vogel, C. E. Wieman, T. P. Dinneen, J. Maddi, and H. Gould, “Efficient collection of 221Fr into a vapor cell magneto-optic trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 994–997 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z.-T. Lu, C. T. Bowers, S. J. Freedman, B. K. Fujikawa, J. L. Mortara, S.-Q. Shang, K. P. Coulter, and L. Young, “Laser trapping of short-lived radioactive isotopes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3791–3794 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luger, V.

S. N. Atutov, R. Calabrese, R. Grimm, V. Guidi, I. Lauer, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, A. Peters, U. Schramm, D. Schwalm, and M. Stossel, “White-light laser cooling of a stored ion beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2129–2132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Maccarrone, F.

A. Gozzini, F. Mango, J. H. Xu, G. Alzetta, F. Maccarrone, and R. A. Bernheim, “Light induced ejection of alkali atoms in polysiloxane coated cells,” Nuovo Cimento D 15, 709–716 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Maddi, J.

Z.-T. Lu, K. L. Corwin, K. R. Vogel, C. E. Wieman, T. P. Dinneen, J. Maddi, and H. Gould, “Efficient collection of 221Fr into a vapor cell magneto-optic trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 994–997 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mai, B.

A. Rossi, V. Biancalana, B. Mai, and L. Tomassetti, “Long-term drift laser frequency stabilization using purely optical reference,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2544–2548 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mango, F.

A. Gozzini, F. Mango, J. H. Xu, G. Alzetta, F. Maccarrone, and R. A. Bernheim, “Light induced ejection of alkali atoms in polysiloxane coated cells,” Nuovo Cimento D 15, 709–716 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Marinelli, C.

C. Marinelli, K. A. Nasyrov, S. Bocci, B. Pieragnoli, A. Burchianti, V. Biancalana, E. Mariotti, S. N. Atutov, and L. Moi, “A new class of photo-induced phenomena in siloxane films,” Eur. Phys. J. D 13, 231–235 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Mariotti, M. Meucci, P. Bicchi, C. Marinelli, and L. Moi, “An efficient photo-atom source,” Opt. Commun. 134, 121–126 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Meucci, E. Mariotti, P. Bicchi, C. Marinelli, and L. Moi, “Light-induced atom desorption,” Europhys. Lett. 25, 639–643 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mariotti, E.

C. Marinelli, K. A. Nasyrov, S. Bocci, B. Pieragnoli, A. Burchianti, V. Biancalana, E. Mariotti, S. N. Atutov, and L. Moi, “A new class of photo-induced phenomena in siloxane films,” Eur. Phys. J. D 13, 231–235 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Atutov, R. Calabrese, R. Grimm, V. Guidi, I. Lauer, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, A. Peters, U. Schramm, D. Schwalm, and M. Stossel, “White-light laser cooling of a stored ion beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2129–2132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Mariotti, M. Meucci, P. Bicchi, C. Marinelli, and L. Moi, “An efficient photo-atom source,” Opt. Commun. 134, 121–126 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Atutov, F. Bonazzi, R. Calabrese, V. Guidi, P. Lenisa, S. Petruio, E. Mariotti, and L. Moi, “Generation of a frequency comb with a sharp edge of adjustable intensity and frequency,” Opt. Commun. 132, 269–274 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Meucci, E. Mariotti, P. Bicchi, C. Marinelli, and L. Moi, “Light-induced atom desorption,” Europhys. Lett. 25, 639–643 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Meucci, M.

E. Mariotti, M. Meucci, P. Bicchi, C. Marinelli, and L. Moi, “An efficient photo-atom source,” Opt. Commun. 134, 121–126 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Meucci, E. Mariotti, P. Bicchi, C. Marinelli, and L. Moi, “Light-induced atom desorption,” Europhys. Lett. 25, 639–643 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mishin, V. I.

S. V. Andreev, V. S. Letokhov, and V. I. Mishin, “Laser resonance photoionization spectroscopy of Rydberg levels in Fr,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1274–1276 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moi, L.

C. Marinelli, K. A. Nasyrov, S. Bocci, B. Pieragnoli, A. Burchianti, V. Biancalana, E. Mariotti, S. N. Atutov, and L. Moi, “A new class of photo-induced phenomena in siloxane films,” Eur. Phys. J. D 13, 231–235 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Atutov, R. Calabrese, R. Grimm, V. Guidi, I. Lauer, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, A. Peters, U. Schramm, D. Schwalm, and M. Stossel, “White-light laser cooling of a stored ion beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2129–2132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Mariotti, M. Meucci, P. Bicchi, C. Marinelli, and L. Moi, “An efficient photo-atom source,” Opt. Commun. 134, 121–126 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Atutov, F. Bonazzi, R. Calabrese, V. Guidi, P. Lenisa, S. Petruio, E. Mariotti, and L. Moi, “Generation of a frequency comb with a sharp edge of adjustable intensity and frequency,” Opt. Commun. 132, 269–274 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Moi, “Application of a very long cavity laser to atom slowing down and optical pumping,” Opt. Commun. 50, 349–351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Meucci, E. Mariotti, P. Bicchi, C. Marinelli, and L. Moi, “Light-induced atom desorption,” Europhys. Lett. 25, 639–643 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Monroe, C.

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, and C. Wieman, “Very cold trapped atoms in a vapor cell,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571–1574 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mortara, J. L.

Z.-T. Lu, C. T. Bowers, S. J. Freedman, B. K. Fujikawa, J. L. Mortara, S.-Q. Shang, K. P. Coulter, and L. Young, “Laser trapping of short-lived radioactive isotopes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3791–3794 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mueller, A. C.

H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, A. C. Mueller, R. Neugart, E. W. Otten, B. Peuse, J. Pinard, H. H. Stroke, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “First observation of the blue optical lines of francium,” Europhys. Lett. 3, 175–182 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Coc, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, J. Pinard, J. Lerme’, J. L. Vialle, S. Buttgenbach, A. C. Mueller, A. Pesnelle, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “Hyperfine structure and isotope shifts of 207–213, 220–228Fr: possible evidence of octupolar deformation,” Phys. Lett. B 163, 66–70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Nasyrov, K. A.

C. Marinelli, K. A. Nasyrov, S. Bocci, B. Pieragnoli, A. Burchianti, V. Biancalana, E. Mariotti, S. N. Atutov, and L. Moi, “A new class of photo-induced phenomena in siloxane films,” Eur. Phys. J. D 13, 231–235 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Neu, W.

E. Arnold, W. Borchers, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, J. Lerme’, P. Lievens, W. Neu, R. Neugart, M. Pellarin, J. Pinard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “Optical laser spectroscopy and hyperfine structure investigation of the 102S, 112S, 82D and 92D excited levels in francium,” J. Phys. B 23, 3511–3520 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Neugart, R.

E. Arnold, W. Borchers, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, J. Lerme’, P. Lievens, W. Neu, R. Neugart, M. Pellarin, J. Pinard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “Optical laser spectroscopy and hyperfine structure investigation of the 102S, 112S, 82D and 92D excited levels in francium,” J. Phys. B 23, 3511–3520 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, A. C. Mueller, R. Neugart, E. W. Otten, B. Peuse, J. Pinard, H. H. Stroke, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “First observation of the blue optical lines of francium,” Europhys. Lett. 3, 175–182 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Orozco, L. A.

J. S. Grossman, L. A. Orozco, M. R. Pearson, J. E. Simsarian, G. D. Sprouse, and W. Z. Zhao, “Hyperfine anomaly measurements in francium isotopes and the radial distribution of neutrons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 935–938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Sprouse and L. A. Orozco, “Laser trapping of radioactive atoms,” Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 47, 429–461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Simsarian, A. Ghosh, G. Gwinner, L. A. Orozco, G. D. Sprouse, and P. A. Voytas, “Magneto-optic trapping of 210Fr,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3522–3525 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gwinner, J. A. Behr, S. B. Cahn, A. Ghosh, L. A. Orozco, G. D. Sprouse, and F. Xu, “Magneto-optic trapping of radioactive 79Rb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3795–3798 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Otten, E. W.

H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, A. C. Mueller, R. Neugart, E. W. Otten, B. Peuse, J. Pinard, H. H. Stroke, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “First observation of the blue optical lines of francium,” Europhys. Lett. 3, 175–182 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, M. R.

A. R. Lipski and M. R. Pearson, “Development of thick gold targets for the production of radioactive beams of francium,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 480, 156–161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Grossman, L. A. Orozco, M. R. Pearson, J. E. Simsarian, G. D. Sprouse, and W. Z. Zhao, “Hyperfine anomaly measurements in francium isotopes and the radial distribution of neutrons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 935–938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pellarin, M.

E. Arnold, W. Borchers, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, J. Lerme’, P. Lievens, W. Neu, R. Neugart, M. Pellarin, J. Pinard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “Optical laser spectroscopy and hyperfine structure investigation of the 102S, 112S, 82D and 92D excited levels in francium,” J. Phys. B 23, 3511–3520 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Perey, M.

M. Perey, “Sur un element 87, derive de l’Actinium,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 208, 97–99 (1939).

Pesnelle, A.

A. Coc, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, J. Pinard, J. Lerme’, J. L. Vialle, S. Buttgenbach, A. C. Mueller, A. Pesnelle, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “Hyperfine structure and isotope shifts of 207–213, 220–228Fr: possible evidence of octupolar deformation,” Phys. Lett. B 163, 66–70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Liberman, J. Pinard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, J. L. Vialle, P. Jacquinot, G. Huber, F. Touchard, S. Buttgenbach, A. Pesnelle, C. Thibault, R. Klapish, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “First evidence of an optical transition in Fr atoms,” C. R. Acad. Sci., Ser. B 286, 253–255 (1978).

Peters, A.

S. N. Atutov, R. Calabrese, R. Grimm, V. Guidi, I. Lauer, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, A. Peters, U. Schramm, D. Schwalm, and M. Stossel, “White-light laser cooling of a stored ion beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2129–2132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Petruio, S.

S. N. Atutov, F. Bonazzi, R. Calabrese, V. Guidi, P. Lenisa, S. Petruio, E. Mariotti, and L. Moi, “Generation of a frequency comb with a sharp edge of adjustable intensity and frequency,” Opt. Commun. 132, 269–274 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Peuse, B.

H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, A. C. Mueller, R. Neugart, E. W. Otten, B. Peuse, J. Pinard, H. H. Stroke, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “First observation of the blue optical lines of francium,” Europhys. Lett. 3, 175–182 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pieragnoli, B.

C. Marinelli, K. A. Nasyrov, S. Bocci, B. Pieragnoli, A. Burchianti, V. Biancalana, E. Mariotti, S. N. Atutov, and L. Moi, “A new class of photo-induced phenomena in siloxane films,” Eur. Phys. J. D 13, 231–235 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pinard, J.

E. Arnold, W. Borchers, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, J. Lerme’, P. Lievens, W. Neu, R. Neugart, M. Pellarin, J. Pinard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “Optical laser spectroscopy and hyperfine structure investigation of the 102S, 112S, 82D and 92D excited levels in francium,” J. Phys. B 23, 3511–3520 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, A. C. Mueller, R. Neugart, E. W. Otten, B. Peuse, J. Pinard, H. H. Stroke, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “First observation of the blue optical lines of francium,” Europhys. Lett. 3, 175–182 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Coc, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, J. Pinard, J. Lerme’, J. L. Vialle, S. Buttgenbach, A. C. Mueller, A. Pesnelle, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “Hyperfine structure and isotope shifts of 207–213, 220–228Fr: possible evidence of octupolar deformation,” Phys. Lett. B 163, 66–70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Liberman, J. Pinard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, J. L. Vialle, P. Jacquinot, G. Huber, F. Touchard, S. Buttgenbach, A. Pesnelle, C. Thibault, R. Klapish, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “First evidence of an optical transition in Fr atoms,” C. R. Acad. Sci., Ser. B 286, 253–255 (1978).

Robinson, H.

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, and C. Wieman, “Very cold trapped atoms in a vapor cell,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571–1574 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rossi, A.

A. Rossi, V. Biancalana, B. Mai, and L. Tomassetti, “Long-term drift laser frequency stabilization using purely optical reference,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2544–2548 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roy, G.

J. A. Behr, A. Gorelov, T. Swanson, O. Hausser, K. P. Jackson, M. Trinczek, U. Giesen, J. M. D’Auria, R. Hardy, T. Wilson, P. Choboter, F. Leblond, L. Buchmann, M. Dombsky, C. D. P. Levy, G. Roy, B. A. Brown, and J. Dilling, “Magneto-optic trapping of β-decaying 38K, 37K from an on-line isotopes separator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schramm, U.

S. N. Atutov, R. Calabrese, R. Grimm, V. Guidi, I. Lauer, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, A. Peters, U. Schramm, D. Schwalm, and M. Stossel, “White-light laser cooling of a stored ion beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2129–2132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schwalm, D.

S. N. Atutov, R. Calabrese, R. Grimm, V. Guidi, I. Lauer, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, A. Peters, U. Schramm, D. Schwalm, and M. Stossel, “White-light laser cooling of a stored ion beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2129–2132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shang, S.-Q.

Z.-T. Lu, C. T. Bowers, S. J. Freedman, B. K. Fujikawa, J. L. Mortara, S.-Q. Shang, K. P. Coulter, and L. Young, “Laser trapping of short-lived radioactive isotopes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3791–3794 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simsarian, J. E.

J. S. Grossman, L. A. Orozco, M. R. Pearson, J. E. Simsarian, G. D. Sprouse, and W. Z. Zhao, “Hyperfine anomaly measurements in francium isotopes and the radial distribution of neutrons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 935–938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Simsarian, A. Ghosh, G. Gwinner, L. A. Orozco, G. D. Sprouse, and P. A. Voytas, “Magneto-optic trapping of 210Fr,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3522–3525 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sprouse, G. D.

J. S. Grossman, L. A. Orozco, M. R. Pearson, J. E. Simsarian, G. D. Sprouse, and W. Z. Zhao, “Hyperfine anomaly measurements in francium isotopes and the radial distribution of neutrons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 935–938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Sprouse and L. A. Orozco, “Laser trapping of radioactive atoms,” Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 47, 429–461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Simsarian, A. Ghosh, G. Gwinner, L. A. Orozco, G. D. Sprouse, and P. A. Voytas, “Magneto-optic trapping of 210Fr,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3522–3525 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gwinner, J. A. Behr, S. B. Cahn, A. Ghosh, L. A. Orozco, G. D. Sprouse, and F. Xu, “Magneto-optic trapping of radioactive 79Rb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3795–3798 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stossel, M.

S. N. Atutov, R. Calabrese, R. Grimm, V. Guidi, I. Lauer, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, A. Peters, U. Schramm, D. Schwalm, and M. Stossel, “White-light laser cooling of a stored ion beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2129–2132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stroke, H. H.

H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, A. C. Mueller, R. Neugart, E. W. Otten, B. Peuse, J. Pinard, H. H. Stroke, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “First observation of the blue optical lines of francium,” Europhys. Lett. 3, 175–182 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sushkov, O. P.

V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, and O. P. Sushkov, “Calculation of energy levels, E1 transition amplitudes and parity violation in francium,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 3454–3461 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swann, W.

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, and C. Wieman, “Very cold trapped atoms in a vapor cell,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571–1574 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, T.

J. A. Behr, A. Gorelov, T. Swanson, O. Hausser, K. P. Jackson, M. Trinczek, U. Giesen, J. M. D’Auria, R. Hardy, T. Wilson, P. Choboter, F. Leblond, L. Buchmann, M. Dombsky, C. D. P. Levy, G. Roy, B. A. Brown, and J. Dilling, “Magneto-optic trapping of β-decaying 38K, 37K from an on-line isotopes separator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, W. A.

R. Guckert, X. Zhao, S. G. Crane, A. Hime, W. A. Taylor, D. Tupa, D. J. Vieira, and H. Wollnik, “Magneto-optical trapping of radioactive 82Rb atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R1637–R1640 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thibault, C.

H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, A. C. Mueller, R. Neugart, E. W. Otten, B. Peuse, J. Pinard, H. H. Stroke, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “First observation of the blue optical lines of francium,” Europhys. Lett. 3, 175–182 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Coc, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, J. Pinard, J. Lerme’, J. L. Vialle, S. Buttgenbach, A. C. Mueller, A. Pesnelle, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “Hyperfine structure and isotope shifts of 207–213, 220–228Fr: possible evidence of octupolar deformation,” Phys. Lett. B 163, 66–70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Liberman, J. Pinard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, J. L. Vialle, P. Jacquinot, G. Huber, F. Touchard, S. Buttgenbach, A. Pesnelle, C. Thibault, R. Klapish, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “First evidence of an optical transition in Fr atoms,” C. R. Acad. Sci., Ser. B 286, 253–255 (1978).

Tomassetti, L.

A. Rossi, V. Biancalana, B. Mai, and L. Tomassetti, “Long-term drift laser frequency stabilization using purely optical reference,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2544–2548 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Touchard, F.

H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, A. C. Mueller, R. Neugart, E. W. Otten, B. Peuse, J. Pinard, H. H. Stroke, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “First observation of the blue optical lines of francium,” Europhys. Lett. 3, 175–182 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Coc, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, J. Pinard, J. Lerme’, J. L. Vialle, S. Buttgenbach, A. C. Mueller, A. Pesnelle, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “Hyperfine structure and isotope shifts of 207–213, 220–228Fr: possible evidence of octupolar deformation,” Phys. Lett. B 163, 66–70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Liberman, J. Pinard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, J. L. Vialle, P. Jacquinot, G. Huber, F. Touchard, S. Buttgenbach, A. Pesnelle, C. Thibault, R. Klapish, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “First evidence of an optical transition in Fr atoms,” C. R. Acad. Sci., Ser. B 286, 253–255 (1978).

Trinczek, M.

J. A. Behr, A. Gorelov, T. Swanson, O. Hausser, K. P. Jackson, M. Trinczek, U. Giesen, J. M. D’Auria, R. Hardy, T. Wilson, P. Choboter, F. Leblond, L. Buchmann, M. Dombsky, C. D. P. Levy, G. Roy, B. A. Brown, and J. Dilling, “Magneto-optic trapping of β-decaying 38K, 37K from an on-line isotopes separator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tupa, D.

R. Guckert, X. Zhao, S. G. Crane, A. Hime, W. A. Taylor, D. Tupa, D. J. Vieira, and H. Wollnik, “Magneto-optical trapping of radioactive 82Rb atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R1637–R1640 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vialle, J. L.

E. Arnold, W. Borchers, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, J. Lerme’, P. Lievens, W. Neu, R. Neugart, M. Pellarin, J. Pinard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “Optical laser spectroscopy and hyperfine structure investigation of the 102S, 112S, 82D and 92D excited levels in francium,” J. Phys. B 23, 3511–3520 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, A. C. Mueller, R. Neugart, E. W. Otten, B. Peuse, J. Pinard, H. H. Stroke, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “First observation of the blue optical lines of francium,” Europhys. Lett. 3, 175–182 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Coc, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, J. Pinard, J. Lerme’, J. L. Vialle, S. Buttgenbach, A. C. Mueller, A. Pesnelle, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “Hyperfine structure and isotope shifts of 207–213, 220–228Fr: possible evidence of octupolar deformation,” Phys. Lett. B 163, 66–70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Liberman, J. Pinard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, J. L. Vialle, P. Jacquinot, G. Huber, F. Touchard, S. Buttgenbach, A. Pesnelle, C. Thibault, R. Klapish, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “First evidence of an optical transition in Fr atoms,” C. R. Acad. Sci., Ser. B 286, 253–255 (1978).

Vieira, D. J.

R. Guckert, X. Zhao, S. G. Crane, A. Hime, W. A. Taylor, D. Tupa, D. J. Vieira, and H. Wollnik, “Magneto-optical trapping of radioactive 82Rb atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R1637–R1640 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, K. R.

Z.-T. Lu, K. L. Corwin, K. R. Vogel, C. E. Wieman, T. P. Dinneen, J. Maddi, and H. Gould, “Efficient collection of 221Fr into a vapor cell magneto-optic trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 994–997 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Voytas, P. A.

J. E. Simsarian, A. Ghosh, G. Gwinner, L. A. Orozco, G. D. Sprouse, and P. A. Voytas, “Magneto-optic trapping of 210Fr,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3522–3525 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wendt, K.

E. Arnold, W. Borchers, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, J. Lerme’, P. Lievens, W. Neu, R. Neugart, M. Pellarin, J. Pinard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “Optical laser spectroscopy and hyperfine structure investigation of the 102S, 112S, 82D and 92D excited levels in francium,” J. Phys. B 23, 3511–3520 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, A. C. Mueller, R. Neugart, E. W. Otten, B. Peuse, J. Pinard, H. H. Stroke, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “First observation of the blue optical lines of francium,” Europhys. Lett. 3, 175–182 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wieman, C.

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, and C. Wieman, “Very cold trapped atoms in a vapor cell,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571–1574 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wieman, C. E.

Z.-T. Lu, K. L. Corwin, K. R. Vogel, C. E. Wieman, T. P. Dinneen, J. Maddi, and H. Gould, “Efficient collection of 221Fr into a vapor cell magneto-optic trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 994–997 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, T.

J. A. Behr, A. Gorelov, T. Swanson, O. Hausser, K. P. Jackson, M. Trinczek, U. Giesen, J. M. D’Auria, R. Hardy, T. Wilson, P. Choboter, F. Leblond, L. Buchmann, M. Dombsky, C. D. P. Levy, G. Roy, B. A. Brown, and J. Dilling, “Magneto-optic trapping of β-decaying 38K, 37K from an on-line isotopes separator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wollnik, H.

R. Guckert, X. Zhao, S. G. Crane, A. Hime, W. A. Taylor, D. Tupa, D. J. Vieira, and H. Wollnik, “Magneto-optical trapping of radioactive 82Rb atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R1637–R1640 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xu, F.

G. Gwinner, J. A. Behr, S. B. Cahn, A. Ghosh, L. A. Orozco, G. D. Sprouse, and F. Xu, “Magneto-optic trapping of radioactive 79Rb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3795–3798 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, J. H.

A. Gozzini, F. Mango, J. H. Xu, G. Alzetta, F. Maccarrone, and R. A. Bernheim, “Light induced ejection of alkali atoms in polysiloxane coated cells,” Nuovo Cimento D 15, 709–716 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Young, L.

Z.-T. Lu, C. T. Bowers, S. J. Freedman, B. K. Fujikawa, J. L. Mortara, S.-Q. Shang, K. P. Coulter, and L. Young, “Laser trapping of short-lived radioactive isotopes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3791–3794 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, W. Z.

J. S. Grossman, L. A. Orozco, M. R. Pearson, J. E. Simsarian, G. D. Sprouse, and W. Z. Zhao, “Hyperfine anomaly measurements in francium isotopes and the radial distribution of neutrons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 935–938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, X.

R. Guckert, X. Zhao, S. G. Crane, A. Hime, W. A. Taylor, D. Tupa, D. J. Vieira, and H. Wollnik, “Magneto-optical trapping of radioactive 82Rb atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R1637–R1640 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, C.

J. Fortagh, A. Grossmann, T. W. Hansch, and C. Zimmermann, “Fast loading of a magneto-optical trap from a pulsed thermal source,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6499–6502 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. (1)

G. D. Sprouse and L. A. Orozco, “Laser trapping of radioactive atoms,” Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 47, 429–461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Acad. Sci. (1)

M. Perey, “Sur un element 87, derive de l’Actinium,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 208, 97–99 (1939).

C. R. Acad. Sci., Ser. B (1)

S. Liberman, J. Pinard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, J. L. Vialle, P. Jacquinot, G. Huber, F. Touchard, S. Buttgenbach, A. Pesnelle, C. Thibault, R. Klapish, and the ISOLDE collaboration, “First evidence of an optical transition in Fr atoms,” C. R. Acad. Sci., Ser. B 286, 253–255 (1978).

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

C. Marinelli, K. A. Nasyrov, S. Bocci, B. Pieragnoli, A. Burchianti, V. Biancalana, E. Mariotti, S. N. Atutov, and L. Moi, “A new class of photo-induced phenomena in siloxane films,” Eur. Phys. J. D 13, 231–235 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (2)

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Other (3)

S. N. Atutov, R. Calabrese, V. Guidi, B. Mai, A. G. Rudavets, E. Scansani, L. Tomassetti, V. Biancalana, A. Burchianti, C. Marinelli, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, and S. Veronesi, Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sketch of the experimental apparatus.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simion simulation of ion trajectories.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated beam profile. The full scale of the horizontal (upper curve) and vertical (lower curve) beam-radius plots is 20 mm. The three triplets are labeled T1, T2, and T3, whereas BEND represents the deflector.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical energy spectrum of α particles obtained with a SSBD detector and a multichannel analyzer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Francium SSBD detection rate as a function of the oxygen beam current. The target temperature is T=1188 K.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simplified scheme of the francium levels involved in the trapping process.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Sketch of the stabilization system and signals from the Fabry–Perot interferometer, where the frequency distances a and b are kept constant by stabilization.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Number of trapped atoms versus time with LIAD using a low-pass filter; the spike at t=0 has been removed from the curve; (b) Number of trapped atoms versus time for standard loading (no LIAD); (c) Fit of curve (a) through integration of trap-time evolution taking into account the effect of the filter; (d) number of trapped atoms versus time if no filter was present.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Temporal behavior of the fluorescence signal from the trapped Na atoms in the four-mode and single-mode periodic excitation. The solid curve represents the background level (no trap), and the dashed line represents the single-mode trap level.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Main Features of the Francium Isotopes Produced in Our Reaction

Equations (2)

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18O+197Au215-xFr+xn,
Nmax14vcvth4Aσ;

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