Abstract

We propose a novel three-dimensional diffraction-limited far-off-resonance optical dipole trap (DFORT) for neutral atoms operating in the Lamb–Dicke regime. Such a microscopic DFORT is generated by the diffracted LP01 mode of a hollow-core optical fiber near the fiber facet. For 87Rb and 133Cs atoms, we estimate that with a 100-mW trap-laser power, a cigar-shaped far-off-resonance optical dipole trap provides potential depth U010 mK, radial (axial) trap frequency fr100 kHz (fz10 kHz), and trap volume Vtrap104 λ3. The DFORT has the unique feature of a tightly focused trap with a large trap volume and convenient loading and cooling of the precooled atoms, which may be useful for optical Bose–Einstein condensation. A DFORT may be also operated as an elongated one-dimensional optical trap.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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  25. H. Ito, K. Sakaki, T. Nakata, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, “Optical potential for atom guidance in a cylindrical-core hollow fiber,” Opt. Commun. 115, 57–64 (1995).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Quantum dynamics of a laser-cooled ideal gas,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 3409–3422 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. I. H. Deutsch and P. S. Jessen, “Quantum-state control in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 1972–1986 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  31. J. R. Ensher, D. S. Jin, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute gas: measurement of energy and ground-state occupation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4984–4987 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. R. Napolitano, J. De Luca, V. S. Bagnato, and G. C. Marques, “Effect of a finite number of particles in the Bose–Einstein condensation of a trapped gas,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3954–3956 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  33. N. J. van Druten and W. Ketterle, “Two-step condensation of the ideal Bose gas in highly anisotropic traps,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 549–552 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  34. A. Görlitz, J. M. Vogels, A. E. Leanhardt, C. Raman, T. L. Gustavson, J. R. Abo-Shaeer, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Gupta, S. Inouye, T. Rosenband, and W. Ketterle, “Realization of Bose–Einstein condensates in lower dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 130402 (2001).
    [Crossref]

2001 (3)

M. D. Barrett, J. A. Sauer, and M. S. Chapman, “All-optical formation of an atomic Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 010404 (2001).
[Crossref]

Y.-I. Shin, K. Kim, J. A. Kim, H. R. Noh, W. Jhe, K. Oh, and U. C. Paek, “Diffraction-limited dark laser spot produced by a hollow optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26, 119–121 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Görlitz, J. M. Vogels, A. E. Leanhardt, C. Raman, T. L. Gustavson, J. R. Abo-Shaeer, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Gupta, S. Inouye, T. Rosenband, and W. Ketterle, “Realization of Bose–Einstein condensates in lower dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 130402 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (3)

S. J. M. Kuppens, K. L. Corwin, K. W. Miller, T. E. Chupp, and C. E. Wieman, “Loading an optical dipole trap,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 013406 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and Yu. B. Ovchinnikov, “Optical dipole traps for neutral atoms,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42, 95–170 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. J. Kerman, V. Vuletić, C. Chin, and S. Chu, “Beyond optical molasses: 3D Raman sideband cooling of atomic cesium to high phase-space density,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 439–442 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

H. Katori, T. Ido, Y. Isoya, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Magneto-optical trapping and cooling of strontium atoms down to the photon recoil temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1116–1119 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. H. Yoo, C. Won, J. A. Kim, K. Kim, U. Shim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and W. Jhe, “Diffracted near field of hollow optical fibre for a novel atomic funnel,” J. Opt. B 1, 364–370 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. T. DePue, C. McCormick, S. L. Winoto, S. Oliver, and D. S. Weiss, “Unity occupation of sites in a 3D optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2262–2265 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (7)

D. M. Stamper-Kurn, M. R. Andrews, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Inouye, H.-J. Miesner, J. Stenger, and W. Ketterle, “Optical confinement of a Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2027–2030 (1998).
[Crossref]

I. H. Deutsch and P. S. Jessen, “Quantum-state control in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 1972–1986 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. Boiron, A. Michaud, J. M. Fournier, L. Simard, M. Sprenger, G. Grynberg, and C. Salomon, “Cold and dense cesium clouds in far-detuned dipole traps,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R4106–R4109 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. E. Hamann, D. L. Haycock, G. Klose, P. H. Pax, I. H. Deutsch, and P. S. Jessen, “Resolved-sideband Raman cooling to the ground state of an optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4149–4152 (1998).
[Crossref]

V. Vuletić, C. Chin, A. J. Kerman, and S. Chu, “Degenerate Raman sideband cooling of trapped cesium atoms at very high atomic densities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5768–5771 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. Friebel, C. D’Andrea, J. Walz, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, “CO2-laser optical lattice with cold rubidium atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R20–R23 (1998).
[Crossref]

Y. Castin, J. I. Cirac, and M. Lewenstein, “Reabsorption of light by trapped atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5305–5308 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (3)

G. Morigi, J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Ground-state laser cooling beyond the Lamb–Dicke limit,” Europhys. Lett. 39, 13–18 (1997).
[Crossref]

R. Napolitano, J. De Luca, V. S. Bagnato, and G. C. Marques, “Effect of a finite number of particles in the Bose–Einstein condensation of a trapped gas,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3954–3956 (1997).
[Crossref]

N. J. van Druten and W. Ketterle, “Two-step condensation of the ideal Bose gas in highly anisotropic traps,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 549–552 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (4)

J. R. Ensher, D. S. Jin, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute gas: measurement of energy and ground-state occupation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4984–4987 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ito, T. Nakata, K. Sakaki, M. Ohtsu, K. I. Lee, and W. Jhe, “Laser spectroscopy of atoms guided by evanescent waves in micron-sized hollow optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4500–4503 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Janicke and M. Wilkens, “Prospects of matter wave amplification,” Europhys. Lett. 35, 561–566 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Collective laser cooling of trapped atoms,” Europhys. Lett. 35, 647–651 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (5)

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Observation of Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor,” Science 269, 198–201 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. B. Davis, M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969–3973 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Adams, H. J. Lee, N. Davidson, M. Kasevich, and S. Chu, “Evaporative cooling in a crossed dipole trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3577–3580 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Renn, D. Montgomery, O. Vdovin, D. Z. Anderson, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Laser-guided atoms in hollow-core optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3253–3256 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ito, K. Sakaki, T. Nakata, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, “Optical potential for atom guidance in a cylindrical-core hollow fiber,” Opt. Commun. 115, 57–64 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Quantum statistics of a laser cooled ideal gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2977–2980 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Quantum dynamics of a laser-cooled ideal gas,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 3409–3422 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

J. D. Miller, R. A. Cline, and D. J. Heinzen, “Far-off-resonance optical trapping of atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 47, R4567–R4570 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

M. Kasevich and S. Chu, “Laser cooling below a photon recoil with three-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1741–1744 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

Abo-Shaeer, J. R.

A. Görlitz, J. M. Vogels, A. E. Leanhardt, C. Raman, T. L. Gustavson, J. R. Abo-Shaeer, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Gupta, S. Inouye, T. Rosenband, and W. Ketterle, “Realization of Bose–Einstein condensates in lower dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 130402 (2001).
[Crossref]

Adams, C. S.

C. S. Adams, H. J. Lee, N. Davidson, M. Kasevich, and S. Chu, “Evaporative cooling in a crossed dipole trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3577–3580 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderson, D. Z.

M. J. Renn, D. Montgomery, O. Vdovin, D. Z. Anderson, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Laser-guided atoms in hollow-core optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3253–3256 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderson, M. H.

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Observation of Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor,” Science 269, 198–201 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andrews, M. R.

D. M. Stamper-Kurn, M. R. Andrews, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Inouye, H.-J. Miesner, J. Stenger, and W. Ketterle, “Optical confinement of a Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2027–2030 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. B. Davis, M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969–3973 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bagnato, V. S.

R. Napolitano, J. De Luca, V. S. Bagnato, and G. C. Marques, “Effect of a finite number of particles in the Bose–Einstein condensation of a trapped gas,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3954–3956 (1997).
[Crossref]

Barrett, M. D.

M. D. Barrett, J. A. Sauer, and M. S. Chapman, “All-optical formation of an atomic Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 010404 (2001).
[Crossref]

Boiron, D.

D. Boiron, A. Michaud, J. M. Fournier, L. Simard, M. Sprenger, G. Grynberg, and C. Salomon, “Cold and dense cesium clouds in far-detuned dipole traps,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R4106–R4109 (1998).
[Crossref]

Castin, Y.

Y. Castin, J. I. Cirac, and M. Lewenstein, “Reabsorption of light by trapped atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5305–5308 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chapman, M. S.

M. D. Barrett, J. A. Sauer, and M. S. Chapman, “All-optical formation of an atomic Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 010404 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chikkatur, A. P.

A. Görlitz, J. M. Vogels, A. E. Leanhardt, C. Raman, T. L. Gustavson, J. R. Abo-Shaeer, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Gupta, S. Inouye, T. Rosenband, and W. Ketterle, “Realization of Bose–Einstein condensates in lower dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 130402 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. M. Stamper-Kurn, M. R. Andrews, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Inouye, H.-J. Miesner, J. Stenger, and W. Ketterle, “Optical confinement of a Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2027–2030 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chin, C.

A. J. Kerman, V. Vuletić, C. Chin, and S. Chu, “Beyond optical molasses: 3D Raman sideband cooling of atomic cesium to high phase-space density,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 439–442 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Vuletić, C. Chin, A. J. Kerman, and S. Chu, “Degenerate Raman sideband cooling of trapped cesium atoms at very high atomic densities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5768–5771 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chu, S.

A. J. Kerman, V. Vuletić, C. Chin, and S. Chu, “Beyond optical molasses: 3D Raman sideband cooling of atomic cesium to high phase-space density,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 439–442 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Vuletić, C. Chin, A. J. Kerman, and S. Chu, “Degenerate Raman sideband cooling of trapped cesium atoms at very high atomic densities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5768–5771 (1998).
[Crossref]

C. S. Adams, H. J. Lee, N. Davidson, M. Kasevich, and S. Chu, “Evaporative cooling in a crossed dipole trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3577–3580 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kasevich and S. Chu, “Laser cooling below a photon recoil with three-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1741–1744 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chupp, T. E.

S. J. M. Kuppens, K. L. Corwin, K. W. Miller, T. E. Chupp, and C. E. Wieman, “Loading an optical dipole trap,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 013406 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cirac, J. I.

Y. Castin, J. I. Cirac, and M. Lewenstein, “Reabsorption of light by trapped atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5305–5308 (1998).
[Crossref]

G. Morigi, J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Ground-state laser cooling beyond the Lamb–Dicke limit,” Europhys. Lett. 39, 13–18 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Collective laser cooling of trapped atoms,” Europhys. Lett. 35, 647–651 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Quantum dynamics of a laser-cooled ideal gas,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 3409–3422 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Quantum statistics of a laser cooled ideal gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2977–2980 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cline, R. A.

J. D. Miller, R. A. Cline, and D. J. Heinzen, “Far-off-resonance optical trapping of atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 47, R4567–R4570 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cornell, E. A.

J. R. Ensher, D. S. Jin, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute gas: measurement of energy and ground-state occupation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4984–4987 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Observation of Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor,” Science 269, 198–201 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Renn, D. Montgomery, O. Vdovin, D. Z. Anderson, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Laser-guided atoms in hollow-core optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3253–3256 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corwin, K. L.

S. J. M. Kuppens, K. L. Corwin, K. W. Miller, T. E. Chupp, and C. E. Wieman, “Loading an optical dipole trap,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 013406 (2000).
[Crossref]

D’Andrea, C.

S. Friebel, C. D’Andrea, J. Walz, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, “CO2-laser optical lattice with cold rubidium atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R20–R23 (1998).
[Crossref]

Davidson, N.

C. S. Adams, H. J. Lee, N. Davidson, M. Kasevich, and S. Chu, “Evaporative cooling in a crossed dipole trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3577–3580 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davis, K. B.

K. B. Davis, M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969–3973 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Luca, J.

R. Napolitano, J. De Luca, V. S. Bagnato, and G. C. Marques, “Effect of a finite number of particles in the Bose–Einstein condensation of a trapped gas,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3954–3956 (1997).
[Crossref]

DePue, M. T.

M. T. DePue, C. McCormick, S. L. Winoto, S. Oliver, and D. S. Weiss, “Unity occupation of sites in a 3D optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2262–2265 (1999).
[Crossref]

Deutsch, I. H.

S. E. Hamann, D. L. Haycock, G. Klose, P. H. Pax, I. H. Deutsch, and P. S. Jessen, “Resolved-sideband Raman cooling to the ground state of an optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4149–4152 (1998).
[Crossref]

I. H. Deutsch and P. S. Jessen, “Quantum-state control in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 1972–1986 (1998).
[Crossref]

Durfee, D. S.

K. B. Davis, M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969–3973 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ensher, J. R.

J. R. Ensher, D. S. Jin, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute gas: measurement of energy and ground-state occupation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4984–4987 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Observation of Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor,” Science 269, 198–201 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fournier, J. M.

D. Boiron, A. Michaud, J. M. Fournier, L. Simard, M. Sprenger, G. Grynberg, and C. Salomon, “Cold and dense cesium clouds in far-detuned dipole traps,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R4106–R4109 (1998).
[Crossref]

Friebel, S.

S. Friebel, C. D’Andrea, J. Walz, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, “CO2-laser optical lattice with cold rubidium atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R20–R23 (1998).
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A. Görlitz, J. M. Vogels, A. E. Leanhardt, C. Raman, T. L. Gustavson, J. R. Abo-Shaeer, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Gupta, S. Inouye, T. Rosenband, and W. Ketterle, “Realization of Bose–Einstein condensates in lower dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 130402 (2001).
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Grimm, R.

R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and Yu. B. Ovchinnikov, “Optical dipole traps for neutral atoms,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42, 95–170 (2000).
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Grynberg, G.

D. Boiron, A. Michaud, J. M. Fournier, L. Simard, M. Sprenger, G. Grynberg, and C. Salomon, “Cold and dense cesium clouds in far-detuned dipole traps,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R4106–R4109 (1998).
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Gupta, S.

A. Görlitz, J. M. Vogels, A. E. Leanhardt, C. Raman, T. L. Gustavson, J. R. Abo-Shaeer, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Gupta, S. Inouye, T. Rosenband, and W. Ketterle, “Realization of Bose–Einstein condensates in lower dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 130402 (2001).
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Gustavson, T. L.

A. Görlitz, J. M. Vogels, A. E. Leanhardt, C. Raman, T. L. Gustavson, J. R. Abo-Shaeer, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Gupta, S. Inouye, T. Rosenband, and W. Ketterle, “Realization of Bose–Einstein condensates in lower dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 130402 (2001).
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Hamann, S. E.

S. E. Hamann, D. L. Haycock, G. Klose, P. H. Pax, I. H. Deutsch, and P. S. Jessen, “Resolved-sideband Raman cooling to the ground state of an optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4149–4152 (1998).
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Hänsch, T. W.

S. Friebel, C. D’Andrea, J. Walz, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, “CO2-laser optical lattice with cold rubidium atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R20–R23 (1998).
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Haycock, D. L.

S. E. Hamann, D. L. Haycock, G. Klose, P. H. Pax, I. H. Deutsch, and P. S. Jessen, “Resolved-sideband Raman cooling to the ground state of an optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4149–4152 (1998).
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J. D. Miller, R. A. Cline, and D. J. Heinzen, “Far-off-resonance optical trapping of atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 47, R4567–R4570 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ido, T.

H. Katori, T. Ido, Y. Isoya, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Magneto-optical trapping and cooling of strontium atoms down to the photon recoil temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1116–1119 (1999).
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Inouye, S.

A. Görlitz, J. M. Vogels, A. E. Leanhardt, C. Raman, T. L. Gustavson, J. R. Abo-Shaeer, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Gupta, S. Inouye, T. Rosenband, and W. Ketterle, “Realization of Bose–Einstein condensates in lower dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 130402 (2001).
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D. M. Stamper-Kurn, M. R. Andrews, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Inouye, H.-J. Miesner, J. Stenger, and W. Ketterle, “Optical confinement of a Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2027–2030 (1998).
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Isoya, Y.

H. Katori, T. Ido, Y. Isoya, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Magneto-optical trapping and cooling of strontium atoms down to the photon recoil temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1116–1119 (1999).
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Ito, H.

H. Ito, T. Nakata, K. Sakaki, M. Ohtsu, K. I. Lee, and W. Jhe, “Laser spectroscopy of atoms guided by evanescent waves in micron-sized hollow optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4500–4503 (1996).
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H. Ito, K. Sakaki, T. Nakata, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, “Optical potential for atom guidance in a cylindrical-core hollow fiber,” Opt. Commun. 115, 57–64 (1995).
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U. Janicke and M. Wilkens, “Prospects of matter wave amplification,” Europhys. Lett. 35, 561–566 (1996).
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I. H. Deutsch and P. S. Jessen, “Quantum-state control in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 1972–1986 (1998).
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S. E. Hamann, D. L. Haycock, G. Klose, P. H. Pax, I. H. Deutsch, and P. S. Jessen, “Resolved-sideband Raman cooling to the ground state of an optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4149–4152 (1998).
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Jhe, W.

Y.-I. Shin, K. Kim, J. A. Kim, H. R. Noh, W. Jhe, K. Oh, and U. C. Paek, “Diffraction-limited dark laser spot produced by a hollow optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26, 119–121 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. H. Yoo, C. Won, J. A. Kim, K. Kim, U. Shim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and W. Jhe, “Diffracted near field of hollow optical fibre for a novel atomic funnel,” J. Opt. B 1, 364–370 (1999).
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H. Ito, T. Nakata, K. Sakaki, M. Ohtsu, K. I. Lee, and W. Jhe, “Laser spectroscopy of atoms guided by evanescent waves in micron-sized hollow optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4500–4503 (1996).
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H. Ito, K. Sakaki, T. Nakata, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, “Optical potential for atom guidance in a cylindrical-core hollow fiber,” Opt. Commun. 115, 57–64 (1995).
[Crossref]

Jin, D. S.

J. R. Ensher, D. S. Jin, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute gas: measurement of energy and ground-state occupation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4984–4987 (1996).
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Kasevich, M.

C. S. Adams, H. J. Lee, N. Davidson, M. Kasevich, and S. Chu, “Evaporative cooling in a crossed dipole trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3577–3580 (1995).
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M. Kasevich and S. Chu, “Laser cooling below a photon recoil with three-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1741–1744 (1992).
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Katori, H.

H. Katori, T. Ido, Y. Isoya, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Magneto-optical trapping and cooling of strontium atoms down to the photon recoil temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1116–1119 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kerman, A. J.

A. J. Kerman, V. Vuletić, C. Chin, and S. Chu, “Beyond optical molasses: 3D Raman sideband cooling of atomic cesium to high phase-space density,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 439–442 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Vuletić, C. Chin, A. J. Kerman, and S. Chu, “Degenerate Raman sideband cooling of trapped cesium atoms at very high atomic densities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5768–5771 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ketterle, W.

A. Görlitz, J. M. Vogels, A. E. Leanhardt, C. Raman, T. L. Gustavson, J. R. Abo-Shaeer, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Gupta, S. Inouye, T. Rosenband, and W. Ketterle, “Realization of Bose–Einstein condensates in lower dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 130402 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. M. Stamper-Kurn, M. R. Andrews, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Inouye, H.-J. Miesner, J. Stenger, and W. Ketterle, “Optical confinement of a Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2027–2030 (1998).
[Crossref]

N. J. van Druten and W. Ketterle, “Two-step condensation of the ideal Bose gas in highly anisotropic traps,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 549–552 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. B. Davis, M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969–3973 (1995).
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Kim, J. A.

Y.-I. Shin, K. Kim, J. A. Kim, H. R. Noh, W. Jhe, K. Oh, and U. C. Paek, “Diffraction-limited dark laser spot produced by a hollow optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26, 119–121 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. H. Yoo, C. Won, J. A. Kim, K. Kim, U. Shim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and W. Jhe, “Diffracted near field of hollow optical fibre for a novel atomic funnel,” J. Opt. B 1, 364–370 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kim, K.

Y.-I. Shin, K. Kim, J. A. Kim, H. R. Noh, W. Jhe, K. Oh, and U. C. Paek, “Diffraction-limited dark laser spot produced by a hollow optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26, 119–121 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. H. Yoo, C. Won, J. A. Kim, K. Kim, U. Shim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and W. Jhe, “Diffracted near field of hollow optical fibre for a novel atomic funnel,” J. Opt. B 1, 364–370 (1999).
[Crossref]

Klose, G.

S. E. Hamann, D. L. Haycock, G. Klose, P. H. Pax, I. H. Deutsch, and P. S. Jessen, “Resolved-sideband Raman cooling to the ground state of an optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4149–4152 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kuppens, S. J. M.

S. J. M. Kuppens, K. L. Corwin, K. W. Miller, T. E. Chupp, and C. E. Wieman, “Loading an optical dipole trap,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 013406 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kurn, D. M.

K. B. Davis, M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969–3973 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuwata-Gonokami, M.

H. Katori, T. Ido, Y. Isoya, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Magneto-optical trapping and cooling of strontium atoms down to the photon recoil temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1116–1119 (1999).
[Crossref]

Leanhardt, A. E.

A. Görlitz, J. M. Vogels, A. E. Leanhardt, C. Raman, T. L. Gustavson, J. R. Abo-Shaeer, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Gupta, S. Inouye, T. Rosenband, and W. Ketterle, “Realization of Bose–Einstein condensates in lower dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 130402 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. J.

C. S. Adams, H. J. Lee, N. Davidson, M. Kasevich, and S. Chu, “Evaporative cooling in a crossed dipole trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3577–3580 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K. I.

H. Ito, T. Nakata, K. Sakaki, M. Ohtsu, K. I. Lee, and W. Jhe, “Laser spectroscopy of atoms guided by evanescent waves in micron-sized hollow optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4500–4503 (1996).
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Y. Castin, J. I. Cirac, and M. Lewenstein, “Reabsorption of light by trapped atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5305–5308 (1998).
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G. Morigi, J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Ground-state laser cooling beyond the Lamb–Dicke limit,” Europhys. Lett. 39, 13–18 (1997).
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J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Collective laser cooling of trapped atoms,” Europhys. Lett. 35, 647–651 (1996).
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J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Quantum statistics of a laser cooled ideal gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2977–2980 (1994).
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Marques, G. C.

R. Napolitano, J. De Luca, V. S. Bagnato, and G. C. Marques, “Effect of a finite number of particles in the Bose–Einstein condensation of a trapped gas,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3954–3956 (1997).
[Crossref]

Matthews, M. R.

J. R. Ensher, D. S. Jin, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute gas: measurement of energy and ground-state occupation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4984–4987 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Observation of Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor,” Science 269, 198–201 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McCormick, C.

M. T. DePue, C. McCormick, S. L. Winoto, S. Oliver, and D. S. Weiss, “Unity occupation of sites in a 3D optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2262–2265 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mewes, M.-O.

K. B. Davis, M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969–3973 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Michaud, A.

D. Boiron, A. Michaud, J. M. Fournier, L. Simard, M. Sprenger, G. Grynberg, and C. Salomon, “Cold and dense cesium clouds in far-detuned dipole traps,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R4106–R4109 (1998).
[Crossref]

Miesner, H.-J.

D. M. Stamper-Kurn, M. R. Andrews, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Inouye, H.-J. Miesner, J. Stenger, and W. Ketterle, “Optical confinement of a Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2027–2030 (1998).
[Crossref]

Miller, J. D.

J. D. Miller, R. A. Cline, and D. J. Heinzen, “Far-off-resonance optical trapping of atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 47, R4567–R4570 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miller, K. W.

S. J. M. Kuppens, K. L. Corwin, K. W. Miller, T. E. Chupp, and C. E. Wieman, “Loading an optical dipole trap,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 013406 (2000).
[Crossref]

Montgomery, D.

M. J. Renn, D. Montgomery, O. Vdovin, D. Z. Anderson, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Laser-guided atoms in hollow-core optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3253–3256 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morigi, G.

G. Morigi, J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Ground-state laser cooling beyond the Lamb–Dicke limit,” Europhys. Lett. 39, 13–18 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nakata, T.

H. Ito, T. Nakata, K. Sakaki, M. Ohtsu, K. I. Lee, and W. Jhe, “Laser spectroscopy of atoms guided by evanescent waves in micron-sized hollow optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4500–4503 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ito, K. Sakaki, T. Nakata, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, “Optical potential for atom guidance in a cylindrical-core hollow fiber,” Opt. Commun. 115, 57–64 (1995).
[Crossref]

Napolitano, R.

R. Napolitano, J. De Luca, V. S. Bagnato, and G. C. Marques, “Effect of a finite number of particles in the Bose–Einstein condensation of a trapped gas,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3954–3956 (1997).
[Crossref]

Noh, H. R.

Oh, K.

Y.-I. Shin, K. Kim, J. A. Kim, H. R. Noh, W. Jhe, K. Oh, and U. C. Paek, “Diffraction-limited dark laser spot produced by a hollow optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26, 119–121 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. H. Yoo, C. Won, J. A. Kim, K. Kim, U. Shim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and W. Jhe, “Diffracted near field of hollow optical fibre for a novel atomic funnel,” J. Opt. B 1, 364–370 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ohtsu, M.

H. Ito, T. Nakata, K. Sakaki, M. Ohtsu, K. I. Lee, and W. Jhe, “Laser spectroscopy of atoms guided by evanescent waves in micron-sized hollow optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4500–4503 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ito, K. Sakaki, T. Nakata, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, “Optical potential for atom guidance in a cylindrical-core hollow fiber,” Opt. Commun. 115, 57–64 (1995).
[Crossref]

Oliver, S.

M. T. DePue, C. McCormick, S. L. Winoto, S. Oliver, and D. S. Weiss, “Unity occupation of sites in a 3D optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2262–2265 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ovchinnikov, Yu. B.

R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and Yu. B. Ovchinnikov, “Optical dipole traps for neutral atoms,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42, 95–170 (2000).
[Crossref]

Paek, U. C.

Y.-I. Shin, K. Kim, J. A. Kim, H. R. Noh, W. Jhe, K. Oh, and U. C. Paek, “Diffraction-limited dark laser spot produced by a hollow optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26, 119–121 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. H. Yoo, C. Won, J. A. Kim, K. Kim, U. Shim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and W. Jhe, “Diffracted near field of hollow optical fibre for a novel atomic funnel,” J. Opt. B 1, 364–370 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pax, P. H.

S. E. Hamann, D. L. Haycock, G. Klose, P. H. Pax, I. H. Deutsch, and P. S. Jessen, “Resolved-sideband Raman cooling to the ground state of an optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4149–4152 (1998).
[Crossref]

Raman, C.

A. Görlitz, J. M. Vogels, A. E. Leanhardt, C. Raman, T. L. Gustavson, J. R. Abo-Shaeer, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Gupta, S. Inouye, T. Rosenband, and W. Ketterle, “Realization of Bose–Einstein condensates in lower dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 130402 (2001).
[Crossref]

Renn, M. J.

M. J. Renn, D. Montgomery, O. Vdovin, D. Z. Anderson, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Laser-guided atoms in hollow-core optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3253–3256 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosenband, T.

A. Görlitz, J. M. Vogels, A. E. Leanhardt, C. Raman, T. L. Gustavson, J. R. Abo-Shaeer, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Gupta, S. Inouye, T. Rosenband, and W. Ketterle, “Realization of Bose–Einstein condensates in lower dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 130402 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sakaki, K.

H. Ito, T. Nakata, K. Sakaki, M. Ohtsu, K. I. Lee, and W. Jhe, “Laser spectroscopy of atoms guided by evanescent waves in micron-sized hollow optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4500–4503 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ito, K. Sakaki, T. Nakata, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, “Optical potential for atom guidance in a cylindrical-core hollow fiber,” Opt. Commun. 115, 57–64 (1995).
[Crossref]

Salomon, C.

D. Boiron, A. Michaud, J. M. Fournier, L. Simard, M. Sprenger, G. Grynberg, and C. Salomon, “Cold and dense cesium clouds in far-detuned dipole traps,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R4106–R4109 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sauer, J. A.

M. D. Barrett, J. A. Sauer, and M. S. Chapman, “All-optical formation of an atomic Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 010404 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sesko, D. W.

Shim, U.

S. H. Yoo, C. Won, J. A. Kim, K. Kim, U. Shim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and W. Jhe, “Diffracted near field of hollow optical fibre for a novel atomic funnel,” J. Opt. B 1, 364–370 (1999).
[Crossref]

Shin, Y.-I.

Simard, L.

D. Boiron, A. Michaud, J. M. Fournier, L. Simard, M. Sprenger, G. Grynberg, and C. Salomon, “Cold and dense cesium clouds in far-detuned dipole traps,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R4106–R4109 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sprenger, M.

D. Boiron, A. Michaud, J. M. Fournier, L. Simard, M. Sprenger, G. Grynberg, and C. Salomon, “Cold and dense cesium clouds in far-detuned dipole traps,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R4106–R4109 (1998).
[Crossref]

Stamper-Kurn, D. M.

D. M. Stamper-Kurn, M. R. Andrews, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Inouye, H.-J. Miesner, J. Stenger, and W. Ketterle, “Optical confinement of a Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2027–2030 (1998).
[Crossref]

Stenger, J.

D. M. Stamper-Kurn, M. R. Andrews, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Inouye, H.-J. Miesner, J. Stenger, and W. Ketterle, “Optical confinement of a Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2027–2030 (1998).
[Crossref]

van Druten, N. J.

N. J. van Druten and W. Ketterle, “Two-step condensation of the ideal Bose gas in highly anisotropic traps,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 549–552 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. B. Davis, M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969–3973 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vdovin, O.

M. J. Renn, D. Montgomery, O. Vdovin, D. Z. Anderson, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Laser-guided atoms in hollow-core optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3253–3256 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vogels, J. M.

A. Görlitz, J. M. Vogels, A. E. Leanhardt, C. Raman, T. L. Gustavson, J. R. Abo-Shaeer, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Gupta, S. Inouye, T. Rosenband, and W. Ketterle, “Realization of Bose–Einstein condensates in lower dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 130402 (2001).
[Crossref]

Vuletic, V.

A. J. Kerman, V. Vuletić, C. Chin, and S. Chu, “Beyond optical molasses: 3D Raman sideband cooling of atomic cesium to high phase-space density,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 439–442 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Vuletić, C. Chin, A. J. Kerman, and S. Chu, “Degenerate Raman sideband cooling of trapped cesium atoms at very high atomic densities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5768–5771 (1998).
[Crossref]

Walker, T. G.

Walz, J.

S. Friebel, C. D’Andrea, J. Walz, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, “CO2-laser optical lattice with cold rubidium atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R20–R23 (1998).
[Crossref]

Weidemüller, M.

R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and Yu. B. Ovchinnikov, “Optical dipole traps for neutral atoms,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42, 95–170 (2000).
[Crossref]

Weiss, D. S.

M. T. DePue, C. McCormick, S. L. Winoto, S. Oliver, and D. S. Weiss, “Unity occupation of sites in a 3D optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2262–2265 (1999).
[Crossref]

Weitz, M.

S. Friebel, C. D’Andrea, J. Walz, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, “CO2-laser optical lattice with cold rubidium atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R20–R23 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wieman, C. E.

S. J. M. Kuppens, K. L. Corwin, K. W. Miller, T. E. Chupp, and C. E. Wieman, “Loading an optical dipole trap,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 013406 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. R. Ensher, D. S. Jin, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute gas: measurement of energy and ground-state occupation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4984–4987 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Observation of Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor,” Science 269, 198–201 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Renn, D. Montgomery, O. Vdovin, D. Z. Anderson, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Laser-guided atoms in hollow-core optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3253–3256 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. W. Sesko, T. G. Walker, and C. E. Wieman, “Behavior of neutral atoms in a spontaneous force trap,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 946–958 (1991).
[Crossref]

Wilkens, M.

U. Janicke and M. Wilkens, “Prospects of matter wave amplification,” Europhys. Lett. 35, 561–566 (1996).
[Crossref]

Winoto, S. L.

M. T. DePue, C. McCormick, S. L. Winoto, S. Oliver, and D. S. Weiss, “Unity occupation of sites in a 3D optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2262–2265 (1999).
[Crossref]

Won, C.

S. H. Yoo, C. Won, J. A. Kim, K. Kim, U. Shim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and W. Jhe, “Diffracted near field of hollow optical fibre for a novel atomic funnel,” J. Opt. B 1, 364–370 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yoo, S. H.

S. H. Yoo, C. Won, J. A. Kim, K. Kim, U. Shim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and W. Jhe, “Diffracted near field of hollow optical fibre for a novel atomic funnel,” J. Opt. B 1, 364–370 (1999).
[Crossref]

Zoller, P.

G. Morigi, J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Ground-state laser cooling beyond the Lamb–Dicke limit,” Europhys. Lett. 39, 13–18 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Collective laser cooling of trapped atoms,” Europhys. Lett. 35, 647–651 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Quantum dynamics of a laser-cooled ideal gas,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 3409–3422 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Quantum statistics of a laser cooled ideal gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2977–2980 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and Yu. B. Ovchinnikov, “Optical dipole traps for neutral atoms,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42, 95–170 (2000).
[Crossref]

Europhys. Lett. (3)

U. Janicke and M. Wilkens, “Prospects of matter wave amplification,” Europhys. Lett. 35, 561–566 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Collective laser cooling of trapped atoms,” Europhys. Lett. 35, 647–651 (1996).
[Crossref]

G. Morigi, J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Ground-state laser cooling beyond the Lamb–Dicke limit,” Europhys. Lett. 39, 13–18 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. B (1)

S. H. Yoo, C. Won, J. A. Kim, K. Kim, U. Shim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and W. Jhe, “Diffracted near field of hollow optical fibre for a novel atomic funnel,” J. Opt. B 1, 364–370 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. Ito, K. Sakaki, T. Nakata, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, “Optical potential for atom guidance in a cylindrical-core hollow fiber,” Opt. Commun. 115, 57–64 (1995).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (7)

S. J. M. Kuppens, K. L. Corwin, K. W. Miller, T. E. Chupp, and C. E. Wieman, “Loading an optical dipole trap,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 013406 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Quantum dynamics of a laser-cooled ideal gas,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 3409–3422 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. H. Deutsch and P. S. Jessen, “Quantum-state control in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 1972–1986 (1998).
[Crossref]

R. Napolitano, J. De Luca, V. S. Bagnato, and G. C. Marques, “Effect of a finite number of particles in the Bose–Einstein condensation of a trapped gas,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3954–3956 (1997).
[Crossref]

D. Boiron, A. Michaud, J. M. Fournier, L. Simard, M. Sprenger, G. Grynberg, and C. Salomon, “Cold and dense cesium clouds in far-detuned dipole traps,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R4106–R4109 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. D. Miller, R. A. Cline, and D. J. Heinzen, “Far-off-resonance optical trapping of atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 47, R4567–R4570 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Friebel, C. D’Andrea, J. Walz, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, “CO2-laser optical lattice with cold rubidium atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R20–R23 (1998).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (17)

M. T. DePue, C. McCormick, S. L. Winoto, S. Oliver, and D. S. Weiss, “Unity occupation of sites in a 3D optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2262–2265 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. J. Renn, D. Montgomery, O. Vdovin, D. Z. Anderson, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Laser-guided atoms in hollow-core optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3253–3256 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ito, T. Nakata, K. Sakaki, M. Ohtsu, K. I. Lee, and W. Jhe, “Laser spectroscopy of atoms guided by evanescent waves in micron-sized hollow optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4500–4503 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Stamper-Kurn, M. R. Andrews, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Inouye, H.-J. Miesner, J. Stenger, and W. Ketterle, “Optical confinement of a Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2027–2030 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. Katori, T. Ido, Y. Isoya, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Magneto-optical trapping and cooling of strontium atoms down to the photon recoil temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1116–1119 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. D. Barrett, J. A. Sauer, and M. S. Chapman, “All-optical formation of an atomic Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 010404 (2001).
[Crossref]

Y. Castin, J. I. Cirac, and M. Lewenstein, “Reabsorption of light by trapped atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5305–5308 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. B. Davis, M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969–3973 (1995).
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M. Kasevich and S. Chu, “Laser cooling below a photon recoil with three-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1741–1744 (1992).
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S. E. Hamann, D. L. Haycock, G. Klose, P. H. Pax, I. H. Deutsch, and P. S. Jessen, “Resolved-sideband Raman cooling to the ground state of an optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4149–4152 (1998).
[Crossref]

V. Vuletić, C. Chin, A. J. Kerman, and S. Chu, “Degenerate Raman sideband cooling of trapped cesium atoms at very high atomic densities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5768–5771 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. J. Kerman, V. Vuletić, C. Chin, and S. Chu, “Beyond optical molasses: 3D Raman sideband cooling of atomic cesium to high phase-space density,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 439–442 (2000).
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C. S. Adams, H. J. Lee, N. Davidson, M. Kasevich, and S. Chu, “Evaporative cooling in a crossed dipole trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3577–3580 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. J. van Druten and W. Ketterle, “Two-step condensation of the ideal Bose gas in highly anisotropic traps,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 549–552 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Görlitz, J. M. Vogels, A. E. Leanhardt, C. Raman, T. L. Gustavson, J. R. Abo-Shaeer, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Gupta, S. Inouye, T. Rosenband, and W. Ketterle, “Realization of Bose–Einstein condensates in lower dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 130402 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Quantum statistics of a laser cooled ideal gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2977–2980 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Ensher, D. S. Jin, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute gas: measurement of energy and ground-state occupation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4984–4987 (1996).
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Science (1)

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Observation of Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor,” Science 269, 198–201 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Typical diffraction profile of the LP01 mode of a HOF when a=4λ and d=3.5λ. (b) Contour plots of the optical potential that is produced. A, Radial distribution of the DFORT at z=z0=50.9λ, B, axial distribution from z=0 to z=600λ.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Characteristic quantities of a DFORT with respect to geometric parameters a and d at laser power P: (a) I0, (b) |Irr|, (c) |Irr/Izz|.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Numerical values of U0, Γsc, fr, and fr/fz relative to laser wavelength λ for an 87Rb DFORT with a=3.2 μm, d=2.8 μm, and P=100 mW.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Numerical values of N0/N, C/NkB, and N1D/N for fr=125 kHz, fz=4.9 kHz, and N=100. Refer to the text for details.

Equations (6)

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E(x, y, z)=z2π E0(x0, y0)×1ρ-ikexp(ikρ)ρ2dx0dy0,
U(r)=γ2I(r)24Is1δ1/2+2δ3/2,
Γsc(r)=γ3I(r)24Is1δ1/22+2δ3/22.
N1D*=16225πmas21/2frfz21/2,
Rz=3Naslz4lr21/3,
Rrlr,

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