Abstract

We propose a novel three-dimensional diffraction-limited far-off-resonance optical dipole trap (DFORT) for neutral atoms operating in the Lamb–Dicke regime. Such a microscopic DFORT is generated by the diffracted LP01 mode of a hollow-core optical fiber near the fiber facet. For 87Rb and 133Cs atoms, we estimate that with a 100-mW trap-laser power, a cigar-shaped far-off-resonance optical dipole trap provides potential depth U0≃10 mK, radial (axial) trap frequency fr≃100 kHz (fz≃10 kHz), and trap volume Vtrap≃104 λ3. The DFORT has the unique feature of a tightly focused trap with a large trap volume and convenient loading and cooling of the precooled atoms, which may be useful for optical Bose–Einstein condensation. A DFORT may be also operated as an elongated one-dimensional optical trap.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  30. I. H. Deutsch and P. S. Jessen, “Quantum-state control in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 1972–1986 (1998).
  31. J. R. Ensher, D. S. Jin, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute gas: measurement of energy and ground-state occupation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4984–4987 (1996).
  32. R. Napolitano, J. De Luca, V. S. Bagnato, and G. C. Marques, “Effect of a finite number of particles in the Bose–Einstein condensation of a trapped gas,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3954–3956 (1997).
  33. N. J. van Druten and W. Ketterle, “Two-step condensation of the ideal Bose gas in highly anisotropic traps,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 549–552 (1997).
  34. A. Görlitz, J. M. Vogels, A. E. Leanhardt, C. Raman, T. L. Gustavson, J. R. Abo-Shaeer, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Gupta, S. Inouye, T. Rosenband, and W. Ketterle, “Realization of Bose–Einstein condensates in lower dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 130402 (2001).

2001 (3)

M. D. Barrett, J. A. Sauer, and M. S. Chapman, “All-optical formation of an atomic Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 010404 (2001).

A. Görlitz, J. M. Vogels, A. E. Leanhardt, C. Raman, T. L. Gustavson, J. R. Abo-Shaeer, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Gupta, S. Inouye, T. Rosenband, and W. Ketterle, “Realization of Bose–Einstein condensates in lower dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 130402 (2001).

Y.-I. Shin, K. Kim, J. A. Kim, H. R. Noh, W. Jhe, K. Oh, and U. C. Paek, “Diffraction-limited dark laser spot produced by a hollow optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26, 119–121 (2001).

2000 (3)

S. J. M. Kuppens, K. L. Corwin, K. W. Miller, T. E. Chupp, and C. E. Wieman, “Loading an optical dipole trap,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 013406 (2000).

R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and Yu. B. Ovchinnikov, “Optical dipole traps for neutral atoms,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42, 95–170 (2000).

A. J. Kerman, V. Vuletić, C. Chin, and S. Chu, “Beyond optical molasses: 3D Raman sideband cooling of atomic cesium to high phase-space density,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 439–442 (2000).

1999 (3)

H. Katori, T. Ido, Y. Isoya, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Magneto-optical trapping and cooling of strontium atoms down to the photon recoil temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1116–1119 (1999).

M. T. DePue, C. McCormick, S. L. Winoto, S. Oliver, and D. S. Weiss, “Unity occupation of sites in a 3D optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2262–2265 (1999).

S. H. Yoo, C. Won, J. A. Kim, K. Kim, U. Shim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and W. Jhe, “Diffracted near field of hollow optical fibre for a novel atomic funnel,” J. Opt. B 1, 364–370 (1999).

1998 (7)

D. M. Stamper-Kurn, M. R. Andrews, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Inouye, H.-J. Miesner, J. Stenger, and W. Ketterle, “Optical confinement of a Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2027–2030 (1998).

I. H. Deutsch and P. S. Jessen, “Quantum-state control in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 1972–1986 (1998).

D. Boiron, A. Michaud, J. M. Fournier, L. Simard, M. Sprenger, G. Grynberg, and C. Salomon, “Cold and dense cesium clouds in far-detuned dipole traps,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R4106–R4109 (1998).

S. E. Hamann, D. L. Haycock, G. Klose, P. H. Pax, I. H. Deutsch, and P. S. Jessen, “Resolved-sideband Raman cooling to the ground state of an optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4149–4152 (1998).

V. Vuletić, C. Chin, A. J. Kerman, and S. Chu, “Degenerate Raman sideband cooling of trapped cesium atoms at very high atomic densities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5768–5771 (1998).

S. Friebel, C. D’Andrea, J. Walz, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, “CO2-laser optical lattice with cold rubidium atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R20–R23 (1998).

Y. Castin, J. I. Cirac, and M. Lewenstein, “Reabsorption of light by trapped atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5305–5308 (1998).

1997 (3)

G. Morigi, J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Ground-state laser cooling beyond the Lamb–Dicke limit,” Europhys. Lett. 39, 13–18 (1997).

R. Napolitano, J. De Luca, V. S. Bagnato, and G. C. Marques, “Effect of a finite number of particles in the Bose–Einstein condensation of a trapped gas,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3954–3956 (1997).

N. J. van Druten and W. Ketterle, “Two-step condensation of the ideal Bose gas in highly anisotropic traps,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 549–552 (1997).

1996 (4)

J. R. Ensher, D. S. Jin, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute gas: measurement of energy and ground-state occupation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4984–4987 (1996).

H. Ito, T. Nakata, K. Sakaki, M. Ohtsu, K. I. Lee, and W. Jhe, “Laser spectroscopy of atoms guided by evanescent waves in micron-sized hollow optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4500–4503 (1996).

U. Janicke and M. Wilkens, “Prospects of matter wave amplification,” Europhys. Lett. 35, 561–566 (1996).

J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Collective laser cooling of trapped atoms,” Europhys. Lett. 35, 647–651 (1996).

1995 (5)

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Observation of Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor,” Science 269, 198–201 (1995).

K. B. Davis, M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969–3973 (1995).

C. S. Adams, H. J. Lee, N. Davidson, M. Kasevich, and S. Chu, “Evaporative cooling in a crossed dipole trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3577–3580 (1995).

M. J. Renn, D. Montgomery, O. Vdovin, D. Z. Anderson, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Laser-guided atoms in hollow-core optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3253–3256 (1995).

H. Ito, K. Sakaki, T. Nakata, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, “Optical potential for atom guidance in a cylindrical-core hollow fiber,” Opt. Commun. 115, 57–64 (1995).

1994 (2)

J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Quantum statistics of a laser cooled ideal gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2977–2980 (1994).

J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Quantum dynamics of a laser-cooled ideal gas,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 3409–3422 (1994).

1993 (1)

J. D. Miller, R. A. Cline, and D. J. Heinzen, “Far-off-resonance optical trapping of atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 47, R4567–R4570 (1993).

1992 (1)

M. Kasevich and S. Chu, “Laser cooling below a photon recoil with three-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1741–1744 (1992).

1991 (1)

Abo-Shaeer, J. R.

A. Görlitz, J. M. Vogels, A. E. Leanhardt, C. Raman, T. L. Gustavson, J. R. Abo-Shaeer, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Gupta, S. Inouye, T. Rosenband, and W. Ketterle, “Realization of Bose–Einstein condensates in lower dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 130402 (2001).

Adams, C. S.

C. S. Adams, H. J. Lee, N. Davidson, M. Kasevich, and S. Chu, “Evaporative cooling in a crossed dipole trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3577–3580 (1995).

Anderson, D. Z.

M. J. Renn, D. Montgomery, O. Vdovin, D. Z. Anderson, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Laser-guided atoms in hollow-core optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3253–3256 (1995).

Anderson, M. H.

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Observation of Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor,” Science 269, 198–201 (1995).

Andrews, M. R.

D. M. Stamper-Kurn, M. R. Andrews, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Inouye, H.-J. Miesner, J. Stenger, and W. Ketterle, “Optical confinement of a Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2027–2030 (1998).

K. B. Davis, M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969–3973 (1995).

Bagnato, V. S.

R. Napolitano, J. De Luca, V. S. Bagnato, and G. C. Marques, “Effect of a finite number of particles in the Bose–Einstein condensation of a trapped gas,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3954–3956 (1997).

Barrett, M. D.

M. D. Barrett, J. A. Sauer, and M. S. Chapman, “All-optical formation of an atomic Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 010404 (2001).

Boiron, D.

D. Boiron, A. Michaud, J. M. Fournier, L. Simard, M. Sprenger, G. Grynberg, and C. Salomon, “Cold and dense cesium clouds in far-detuned dipole traps,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R4106–R4109 (1998).

Castin, Y.

Y. Castin, J. I. Cirac, and M. Lewenstein, “Reabsorption of light by trapped atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5305–5308 (1998).

Chapman, M. S.

M. D. Barrett, J. A. Sauer, and M. S. Chapman, “All-optical formation of an atomic Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 010404 (2001).

Chikkatur, A. P.

A. Görlitz, J. M. Vogels, A. E. Leanhardt, C. Raman, T. L. Gustavson, J. R. Abo-Shaeer, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Gupta, S. Inouye, T. Rosenband, and W. Ketterle, “Realization of Bose–Einstein condensates in lower dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 130402 (2001).

D. M. Stamper-Kurn, M. R. Andrews, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Inouye, H.-J. Miesner, J. Stenger, and W. Ketterle, “Optical confinement of a Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2027–2030 (1998).

Chin, C.

A. J. Kerman, V. Vuletić, C. Chin, and S. Chu, “Beyond optical molasses: 3D Raman sideband cooling of atomic cesium to high phase-space density,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 439–442 (2000).

V. Vuletić, C. Chin, A. J. Kerman, and S. Chu, “Degenerate Raman sideband cooling of trapped cesium atoms at very high atomic densities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5768–5771 (1998).

Chu, S.

A. J. Kerman, V. Vuletić, C. Chin, and S. Chu, “Beyond optical molasses: 3D Raman sideband cooling of atomic cesium to high phase-space density,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 439–442 (2000).

V. Vuletić, C. Chin, A. J. Kerman, and S. Chu, “Degenerate Raman sideband cooling of trapped cesium atoms at very high atomic densities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5768–5771 (1998).

C. S. Adams, H. J. Lee, N. Davidson, M. Kasevich, and S. Chu, “Evaporative cooling in a crossed dipole trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3577–3580 (1995).

M. Kasevich and S. Chu, “Laser cooling below a photon recoil with three-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1741–1744 (1992).

Chupp, T. E.

S. J. M. Kuppens, K. L. Corwin, K. W. Miller, T. E. Chupp, and C. E. Wieman, “Loading an optical dipole trap,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 013406 (2000).

Cirac, J. I.

Y. Castin, J. I. Cirac, and M. Lewenstein, “Reabsorption of light by trapped atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5305–5308 (1998).

G. Morigi, J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Ground-state laser cooling beyond the Lamb–Dicke limit,” Europhys. Lett. 39, 13–18 (1997).

J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Collective laser cooling of trapped atoms,” Europhys. Lett. 35, 647–651 (1996).

J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Quantum statistics of a laser cooled ideal gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2977–2980 (1994).

J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Quantum dynamics of a laser-cooled ideal gas,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 3409–3422 (1994).

Cline, R. A.

J. D. Miller, R. A. Cline, and D. J. Heinzen, “Far-off-resonance optical trapping of atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 47, R4567–R4570 (1993).

Cornell, E. A.

J. R. Ensher, D. S. Jin, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute gas: measurement of energy and ground-state occupation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4984–4987 (1996).

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Observation of Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor,” Science 269, 198–201 (1995).

M. J. Renn, D. Montgomery, O. Vdovin, D. Z. Anderson, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Laser-guided atoms in hollow-core optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3253–3256 (1995).

Corwin, K. L.

S. J. M. Kuppens, K. L. Corwin, K. W. Miller, T. E. Chupp, and C. E. Wieman, “Loading an optical dipole trap,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 013406 (2000).

D’Andrea, C.

S. Friebel, C. D’Andrea, J. Walz, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, “CO2-laser optical lattice with cold rubidium atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R20–R23 (1998).

Davidson, N.

C. S. Adams, H. J. Lee, N. Davidson, M. Kasevich, and S. Chu, “Evaporative cooling in a crossed dipole trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3577–3580 (1995).

Davis, K. B.

K. B. Davis, M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969–3973 (1995).

De Luca, J.

R. Napolitano, J. De Luca, V. S. Bagnato, and G. C. Marques, “Effect of a finite number of particles in the Bose–Einstein condensation of a trapped gas,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3954–3956 (1997).

DePue, M. T.

M. T. DePue, C. McCormick, S. L. Winoto, S. Oliver, and D. S. Weiss, “Unity occupation of sites in a 3D optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2262–2265 (1999).

Deutsch, I. H.

I. H. Deutsch and P. S. Jessen, “Quantum-state control in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 1972–1986 (1998).

S. E. Hamann, D. L. Haycock, G. Klose, P. H. Pax, I. H. Deutsch, and P. S. Jessen, “Resolved-sideband Raman cooling to the ground state of an optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4149–4152 (1998).

Durfee, D. S.

K. B. Davis, M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969–3973 (1995).

Ensher, J. R.

J. R. Ensher, D. S. Jin, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute gas: measurement of energy and ground-state occupation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4984–4987 (1996).

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Observation of Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor,” Science 269, 198–201 (1995).

Fournier, J. M.

D. Boiron, A. Michaud, J. M. Fournier, L. Simard, M. Sprenger, G. Grynberg, and C. Salomon, “Cold and dense cesium clouds in far-detuned dipole traps,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R4106–R4109 (1998).

Friebel, S.

S. Friebel, C. D’Andrea, J. Walz, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, “CO2-laser optical lattice with cold rubidium atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R20–R23 (1998).

Görlitz, A.

A. Görlitz, J. M. Vogels, A. E. Leanhardt, C. Raman, T. L. Gustavson, J. R. Abo-Shaeer, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Gupta, S. Inouye, T. Rosenband, and W. Ketterle, “Realization of Bose–Einstein condensates in lower dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 130402 (2001).

Grimm, R.

R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and Yu. B. Ovchinnikov, “Optical dipole traps for neutral atoms,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42, 95–170 (2000).

Grynberg, G.

D. Boiron, A. Michaud, J. M. Fournier, L. Simard, M. Sprenger, G. Grynberg, and C. Salomon, “Cold and dense cesium clouds in far-detuned dipole traps,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R4106–R4109 (1998).

Gupta, S.

A. Görlitz, J. M. Vogels, A. E. Leanhardt, C. Raman, T. L. Gustavson, J. R. Abo-Shaeer, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Gupta, S. Inouye, T. Rosenband, and W. Ketterle, “Realization of Bose–Einstein condensates in lower dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 130402 (2001).

Gustavson, T. L.

A. Görlitz, J. M. Vogels, A. E. Leanhardt, C. Raman, T. L. Gustavson, J. R. Abo-Shaeer, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Gupta, S. Inouye, T. Rosenband, and W. Ketterle, “Realization of Bose–Einstein condensates in lower dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 130402 (2001).

Hamann, S. E.

S. E. Hamann, D. L. Haycock, G. Klose, P. H. Pax, I. H. Deutsch, and P. S. Jessen, “Resolved-sideband Raman cooling to the ground state of an optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4149–4152 (1998).

Hänsch, T. W.

S. Friebel, C. D’Andrea, J. Walz, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, “CO2-laser optical lattice with cold rubidium atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R20–R23 (1998).

Haycock, D. L.

S. E. Hamann, D. L. Haycock, G. Klose, P. H. Pax, I. H. Deutsch, and P. S. Jessen, “Resolved-sideband Raman cooling to the ground state of an optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4149–4152 (1998).

Heinzen, D. J.

J. D. Miller, R. A. Cline, and D. J. Heinzen, “Far-off-resonance optical trapping of atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 47, R4567–R4570 (1993).

Ido, T.

H. Katori, T. Ido, Y. Isoya, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Magneto-optical trapping and cooling of strontium atoms down to the photon recoil temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1116–1119 (1999).

Inouye, S.

A. Görlitz, J. M. Vogels, A. E. Leanhardt, C. Raman, T. L. Gustavson, J. R. Abo-Shaeer, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Gupta, S. Inouye, T. Rosenband, and W. Ketterle, “Realization of Bose–Einstein condensates in lower dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 130402 (2001).

D. M. Stamper-Kurn, M. R. Andrews, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Inouye, H.-J. Miesner, J. Stenger, and W. Ketterle, “Optical confinement of a Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2027–2030 (1998).

Isoya, Y.

H. Katori, T. Ido, Y. Isoya, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Magneto-optical trapping and cooling of strontium atoms down to the photon recoil temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1116–1119 (1999).

Ito, H.

H. Ito, T. Nakata, K. Sakaki, M. Ohtsu, K. I. Lee, and W. Jhe, “Laser spectroscopy of atoms guided by evanescent waves in micron-sized hollow optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4500–4503 (1996).

H. Ito, K. Sakaki, T. Nakata, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, “Optical potential for atom guidance in a cylindrical-core hollow fiber,” Opt. Commun. 115, 57–64 (1995).

Janicke, U.

U. Janicke and M. Wilkens, “Prospects of matter wave amplification,” Europhys. Lett. 35, 561–566 (1996).

Jessen, P. S.

S. E. Hamann, D. L. Haycock, G. Klose, P. H. Pax, I. H. Deutsch, and P. S. Jessen, “Resolved-sideband Raman cooling to the ground state of an optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4149–4152 (1998).

I. H. Deutsch and P. S. Jessen, “Quantum-state control in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 1972–1986 (1998).

Jhe, W.

Y.-I. Shin, K. Kim, J. A. Kim, H. R. Noh, W. Jhe, K. Oh, and U. C. Paek, “Diffraction-limited dark laser spot produced by a hollow optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26, 119–121 (2001).

S. H. Yoo, C. Won, J. A. Kim, K. Kim, U. Shim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and W. Jhe, “Diffracted near field of hollow optical fibre for a novel atomic funnel,” J. Opt. B 1, 364–370 (1999).

H. Ito, T. Nakata, K. Sakaki, M. Ohtsu, K. I. Lee, and W. Jhe, “Laser spectroscopy of atoms guided by evanescent waves in micron-sized hollow optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4500–4503 (1996).

H. Ito, K. Sakaki, T. Nakata, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, “Optical potential for atom guidance in a cylindrical-core hollow fiber,” Opt. Commun. 115, 57–64 (1995).

Jin, D. S.

J. R. Ensher, D. S. Jin, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute gas: measurement of energy and ground-state occupation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4984–4987 (1996).

Kasevich, M.

C. S. Adams, H. J. Lee, N. Davidson, M. Kasevich, and S. Chu, “Evaporative cooling in a crossed dipole trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3577–3580 (1995).

M. Kasevich and S. Chu, “Laser cooling below a photon recoil with three-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1741–1744 (1992).

Katori, H.

H. Katori, T. Ido, Y. Isoya, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Magneto-optical trapping and cooling of strontium atoms down to the photon recoil temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1116–1119 (1999).

Kerman, A. J.

A. J. Kerman, V. Vuletić, C. Chin, and S. Chu, “Beyond optical molasses: 3D Raman sideband cooling of atomic cesium to high phase-space density,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 439–442 (2000).

V. Vuletić, C. Chin, A. J. Kerman, and S. Chu, “Degenerate Raman sideband cooling of trapped cesium atoms at very high atomic densities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5768–5771 (1998).

Ketterle, W.

A. Görlitz, J. M. Vogels, A. E. Leanhardt, C. Raman, T. L. Gustavson, J. R. Abo-Shaeer, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Gupta, S. Inouye, T. Rosenband, and W. Ketterle, “Realization of Bose–Einstein condensates in lower dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 130402 (2001).

D. M. Stamper-Kurn, M. R. Andrews, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Inouye, H.-J. Miesner, J. Stenger, and W. Ketterle, “Optical confinement of a Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2027–2030 (1998).

N. J. van Druten and W. Ketterle, “Two-step condensation of the ideal Bose gas in highly anisotropic traps,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 549–552 (1997).

K. B. Davis, M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969–3973 (1995).

Kim, J. A.

Y.-I. Shin, K. Kim, J. A. Kim, H. R. Noh, W. Jhe, K. Oh, and U. C. Paek, “Diffraction-limited dark laser spot produced by a hollow optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26, 119–121 (2001).

S. H. Yoo, C. Won, J. A. Kim, K. Kim, U. Shim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and W. Jhe, “Diffracted near field of hollow optical fibre for a novel atomic funnel,” J. Opt. B 1, 364–370 (1999).

Kim, K.

Y.-I. Shin, K. Kim, J. A. Kim, H. R. Noh, W. Jhe, K. Oh, and U. C. Paek, “Diffraction-limited dark laser spot produced by a hollow optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26, 119–121 (2001).

S. H. Yoo, C. Won, J. A. Kim, K. Kim, U. Shim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and W. Jhe, “Diffracted near field of hollow optical fibre for a novel atomic funnel,” J. Opt. B 1, 364–370 (1999).

Klose, G.

S. E. Hamann, D. L. Haycock, G. Klose, P. H. Pax, I. H. Deutsch, and P. S. Jessen, “Resolved-sideband Raman cooling to the ground state of an optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4149–4152 (1998).

Kuppens, S. J. M.

S. J. M. Kuppens, K. L. Corwin, K. W. Miller, T. E. Chupp, and C. E. Wieman, “Loading an optical dipole trap,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 013406 (2000).

Kurn, D. M.

K. B. Davis, M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969–3973 (1995).

Kuwata-Gonokami, M.

H. Katori, T. Ido, Y. Isoya, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Magneto-optical trapping and cooling of strontium atoms down to the photon recoil temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1116–1119 (1999).

Leanhardt, A. E.

A. Görlitz, J. M. Vogels, A. E. Leanhardt, C. Raman, T. L. Gustavson, J. R. Abo-Shaeer, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Gupta, S. Inouye, T. Rosenband, and W. Ketterle, “Realization of Bose–Einstein condensates in lower dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 130402 (2001).

Lee, H. J.

C. S. Adams, H. J. Lee, N. Davidson, M. Kasevich, and S. Chu, “Evaporative cooling in a crossed dipole trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3577–3580 (1995).

Lee, K. I.

H. Ito, T. Nakata, K. Sakaki, M. Ohtsu, K. I. Lee, and W. Jhe, “Laser spectroscopy of atoms guided by evanescent waves in micron-sized hollow optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4500–4503 (1996).

Lewenstein, M.

Y. Castin, J. I. Cirac, and M. Lewenstein, “Reabsorption of light by trapped atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5305–5308 (1998).

G. Morigi, J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Ground-state laser cooling beyond the Lamb–Dicke limit,” Europhys. Lett. 39, 13–18 (1997).

J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Collective laser cooling of trapped atoms,” Europhys. Lett. 35, 647–651 (1996).

J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Quantum statistics of a laser cooled ideal gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2977–2980 (1994).

J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Quantum dynamics of a laser-cooled ideal gas,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 3409–3422 (1994).

Marques, G. C.

R. Napolitano, J. De Luca, V. S. Bagnato, and G. C. Marques, “Effect of a finite number of particles in the Bose–Einstein condensation of a trapped gas,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3954–3956 (1997).

Matthews, M. R.

J. R. Ensher, D. S. Jin, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute gas: measurement of energy and ground-state occupation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4984–4987 (1996).

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Observation of Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor,” Science 269, 198–201 (1995).

McCormick, C.

M. T. DePue, C. McCormick, S. L. Winoto, S. Oliver, and D. S. Weiss, “Unity occupation of sites in a 3D optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2262–2265 (1999).

Mewes, M.-O.

K. B. Davis, M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969–3973 (1995).

Michaud, A.

D. Boiron, A. Michaud, J. M. Fournier, L. Simard, M. Sprenger, G. Grynberg, and C. Salomon, “Cold and dense cesium clouds in far-detuned dipole traps,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R4106–R4109 (1998).

Miesner, H.-J.

D. M. Stamper-Kurn, M. R. Andrews, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Inouye, H.-J. Miesner, J. Stenger, and W. Ketterle, “Optical confinement of a Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2027–2030 (1998).

Miller, J. D.

J. D. Miller, R. A. Cline, and D. J. Heinzen, “Far-off-resonance optical trapping of atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 47, R4567–R4570 (1993).

Miller, K. W.

S. J. M. Kuppens, K. L. Corwin, K. W. Miller, T. E. Chupp, and C. E. Wieman, “Loading an optical dipole trap,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 013406 (2000).

Montgomery, D.

M. J. Renn, D. Montgomery, O. Vdovin, D. Z. Anderson, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Laser-guided atoms in hollow-core optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3253–3256 (1995).

Morigi, G.

G. Morigi, J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Ground-state laser cooling beyond the Lamb–Dicke limit,” Europhys. Lett. 39, 13–18 (1997).

Nakata, T.

H. Ito, T. Nakata, K. Sakaki, M. Ohtsu, K. I. Lee, and W. Jhe, “Laser spectroscopy of atoms guided by evanescent waves in micron-sized hollow optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4500–4503 (1996).

H. Ito, K. Sakaki, T. Nakata, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, “Optical potential for atom guidance in a cylindrical-core hollow fiber,” Opt. Commun. 115, 57–64 (1995).

Napolitano, R.

R. Napolitano, J. De Luca, V. S. Bagnato, and G. C. Marques, “Effect of a finite number of particles in the Bose–Einstein condensation of a trapped gas,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3954–3956 (1997).

Noh, H. R.

Oh, K.

Y.-I. Shin, K. Kim, J. A. Kim, H. R. Noh, W. Jhe, K. Oh, and U. C. Paek, “Diffraction-limited dark laser spot produced by a hollow optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26, 119–121 (2001).

S. H. Yoo, C. Won, J. A. Kim, K. Kim, U. Shim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and W. Jhe, “Diffracted near field of hollow optical fibre for a novel atomic funnel,” J. Opt. B 1, 364–370 (1999).

Ohtsu, M.

H. Ito, T. Nakata, K. Sakaki, M. Ohtsu, K. I. Lee, and W. Jhe, “Laser spectroscopy of atoms guided by evanescent waves in micron-sized hollow optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4500–4503 (1996).

H. Ito, K. Sakaki, T. Nakata, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, “Optical potential for atom guidance in a cylindrical-core hollow fiber,” Opt. Commun. 115, 57–64 (1995).

Oliver, S.

M. T. DePue, C. McCormick, S. L. Winoto, S. Oliver, and D. S. Weiss, “Unity occupation of sites in a 3D optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2262–2265 (1999).

Ovchinnikov, Yu. B.

R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and Yu. B. Ovchinnikov, “Optical dipole traps for neutral atoms,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42, 95–170 (2000).

Paek, U. C.

Y.-I. Shin, K. Kim, J. A. Kim, H. R. Noh, W. Jhe, K. Oh, and U. C. Paek, “Diffraction-limited dark laser spot produced by a hollow optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26, 119–121 (2001).

S. H. Yoo, C. Won, J. A. Kim, K. Kim, U. Shim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and W. Jhe, “Diffracted near field of hollow optical fibre for a novel atomic funnel,” J. Opt. B 1, 364–370 (1999).

Pax, P. H.

S. E. Hamann, D. L. Haycock, G. Klose, P. H. Pax, I. H. Deutsch, and P. S. Jessen, “Resolved-sideband Raman cooling to the ground state of an optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4149–4152 (1998).

Raman, C.

A. Görlitz, J. M. Vogels, A. E. Leanhardt, C. Raman, T. L. Gustavson, J. R. Abo-Shaeer, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Gupta, S. Inouye, T. Rosenband, and W. Ketterle, “Realization of Bose–Einstein condensates in lower dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 130402 (2001).

Renn, M. J.

M. J. Renn, D. Montgomery, O. Vdovin, D. Z. Anderson, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Laser-guided atoms in hollow-core optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3253–3256 (1995).

Rosenband, T.

A. Görlitz, J. M. Vogels, A. E. Leanhardt, C. Raman, T. L. Gustavson, J. R. Abo-Shaeer, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Gupta, S. Inouye, T. Rosenband, and W. Ketterle, “Realization of Bose–Einstein condensates in lower dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 130402 (2001).

Sakaki, K.

H. Ito, T. Nakata, K. Sakaki, M. Ohtsu, K. I. Lee, and W. Jhe, “Laser spectroscopy of atoms guided by evanescent waves in micron-sized hollow optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4500–4503 (1996).

H. Ito, K. Sakaki, T. Nakata, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, “Optical potential for atom guidance in a cylindrical-core hollow fiber,” Opt. Commun. 115, 57–64 (1995).

Salomon, C.

D. Boiron, A. Michaud, J. M. Fournier, L. Simard, M. Sprenger, G. Grynberg, and C. Salomon, “Cold and dense cesium clouds in far-detuned dipole traps,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R4106–R4109 (1998).

Sauer, J. A.

M. D. Barrett, J. A. Sauer, and M. S. Chapman, “All-optical formation of an atomic Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 010404 (2001).

Sesko, D. W.

Shim, U.

S. H. Yoo, C. Won, J. A. Kim, K. Kim, U. Shim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and W. Jhe, “Diffracted near field of hollow optical fibre for a novel atomic funnel,” J. Opt. B 1, 364–370 (1999).

Shin, Y.-I.

Simard, L.

D. Boiron, A. Michaud, J. M. Fournier, L. Simard, M. Sprenger, G. Grynberg, and C. Salomon, “Cold and dense cesium clouds in far-detuned dipole traps,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R4106–R4109 (1998).

Sprenger, M.

D. Boiron, A. Michaud, J. M. Fournier, L. Simard, M. Sprenger, G. Grynberg, and C. Salomon, “Cold and dense cesium clouds in far-detuned dipole traps,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R4106–R4109 (1998).

Stamper-Kurn, D. M.

D. M. Stamper-Kurn, M. R. Andrews, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Inouye, H.-J. Miesner, J. Stenger, and W. Ketterle, “Optical confinement of a Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2027–2030 (1998).

Stenger, J.

D. M. Stamper-Kurn, M. R. Andrews, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Inouye, H.-J. Miesner, J. Stenger, and W. Ketterle, “Optical confinement of a Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2027–2030 (1998).

van Druten, N. J.

N. J. van Druten and W. Ketterle, “Two-step condensation of the ideal Bose gas in highly anisotropic traps,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 549–552 (1997).

K. B. Davis, M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969–3973 (1995).

Vdovin, O.

M. J. Renn, D. Montgomery, O. Vdovin, D. Z. Anderson, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Laser-guided atoms in hollow-core optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3253–3256 (1995).

Vogels, J. M.

A. Görlitz, J. M. Vogels, A. E. Leanhardt, C. Raman, T. L. Gustavson, J. R. Abo-Shaeer, A. P. Chikkatur, S. Gupta, S. Inouye, T. Rosenband, and W. Ketterle, “Realization of Bose–Einstein condensates in lower dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 130402 (2001).

Vuletic, V.

A. J. Kerman, V. Vuletić, C. Chin, and S. Chu, “Beyond optical molasses: 3D Raman sideband cooling of atomic cesium to high phase-space density,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 439–442 (2000).

V. Vuletić, C. Chin, A. J. Kerman, and S. Chu, “Degenerate Raman sideband cooling of trapped cesium atoms at very high atomic densities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5768–5771 (1998).

Walker, T. G.

Walz, J.

S. Friebel, C. D’Andrea, J. Walz, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, “CO2-laser optical lattice with cold rubidium atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R20–R23 (1998).

Weidemüller, M.

R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and Yu. B. Ovchinnikov, “Optical dipole traps for neutral atoms,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42, 95–170 (2000).

Weiss, D. S.

M. T. DePue, C. McCormick, S. L. Winoto, S. Oliver, and D. S. Weiss, “Unity occupation of sites in a 3D optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2262–2265 (1999).

Weitz, M.

S. Friebel, C. D’Andrea, J. Walz, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, “CO2-laser optical lattice with cold rubidium atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R20–R23 (1998).

Wieman, C. E.

S. J. M. Kuppens, K. L. Corwin, K. W. Miller, T. E. Chupp, and C. E. Wieman, “Loading an optical dipole trap,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 013406 (2000).

J. R. Ensher, D. S. Jin, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute gas: measurement of energy and ground-state occupation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4984–4987 (1996).

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Observation of Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor,” Science 269, 198–201 (1995).

M. J. Renn, D. Montgomery, O. Vdovin, D. Z. Anderson, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Laser-guided atoms in hollow-core optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3253–3256 (1995).

D. W. Sesko, T. G. Walker, and C. E. Wieman, “Behavior of neutral atoms in a spontaneous force trap,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 946–958 (1991).

Wilkens, M.

U. Janicke and M. Wilkens, “Prospects of matter wave amplification,” Europhys. Lett. 35, 561–566 (1996).

Winoto, S. L.

M. T. DePue, C. McCormick, S. L. Winoto, S. Oliver, and D. S. Weiss, “Unity occupation of sites in a 3D optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2262–2265 (1999).

Won, C.

S. H. Yoo, C. Won, J. A. Kim, K. Kim, U. Shim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and W. Jhe, “Diffracted near field of hollow optical fibre for a novel atomic funnel,” J. Opt. B 1, 364–370 (1999).

Yoo, S. H.

S. H. Yoo, C. Won, J. A. Kim, K. Kim, U. Shim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and W. Jhe, “Diffracted near field of hollow optical fibre for a novel atomic funnel,” J. Opt. B 1, 364–370 (1999).

Zoller, P.

G. Morigi, J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Ground-state laser cooling beyond the Lamb–Dicke limit,” Europhys. Lett. 39, 13–18 (1997).

J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Collective laser cooling of trapped atoms,” Europhys. Lett. 35, 647–651 (1996).

J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Quantum statistics of a laser cooled ideal gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2977–2980 (1994).

J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Quantum dynamics of a laser-cooled ideal gas,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 3409–3422 (1994).

Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and Yu. B. Ovchinnikov, “Optical dipole traps for neutral atoms,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42, 95–170 (2000).

Europhys. Lett. (3)

U. Janicke and M. Wilkens, “Prospects of matter wave amplification,” Europhys. Lett. 35, 561–566 (1996).

J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Collective laser cooling of trapped atoms,” Europhys. Lett. 35, 647–651 (1996).

G. Morigi, J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Ground-state laser cooling beyond the Lamb–Dicke limit,” Europhys. Lett. 39, 13–18 (1997).

J. Opt. B (1)

S. H. Yoo, C. Won, J. A. Kim, K. Kim, U. Shim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and W. Jhe, “Diffracted near field of hollow optical fibre for a novel atomic funnel,” J. Opt. B 1, 364–370 (1999).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. Ito, K. Sakaki, T. Nakata, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, “Optical potential for atom guidance in a cylindrical-core hollow fiber,” Opt. Commun. 115, 57–64 (1995).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (7)

S. J. M. Kuppens, K. L. Corwin, K. W. Miller, T. E. Chupp, and C. E. Wieman, “Loading an optical dipole trap,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 013406 (2000).

J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Quantum dynamics of a laser-cooled ideal gas,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 3409–3422 (1994).

I. H. Deutsch and P. S. Jessen, “Quantum-state control in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 1972–1986 (1998).

R. Napolitano, J. De Luca, V. S. Bagnato, and G. C. Marques, “Effect of a finite number of particles in the Bose–Einstein condensation of a trapped gas,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3954–3956 (1997).

J. D. Miller, R. A. Cline, and D. J. Heinzen, “Far-off-resonance optical trapping of atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 47, R4567–R4570 (1993).

S. Friebel, C. D’Andrea, J. Walz, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, “CO2-laser optical lattice with cold rubidium atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R20–R23 (1998).

D. Boiron, A. Michaud, J. M. Fournier, L. Simard, M. Sprenger, G. Grynberg, and C. Salomon, “Cold and dense cesium clouds in far-detuned dipole traps,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R4106–R4109 (1998).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (17)

H. Katori, T. Ido, Y. Isoya, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Magneto-optical trapping and cooling of strontium atoms down to the photon recoil temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1116–1119 (1999).

M. D. Barrett, J. A. Sauer, and M. S. Chapman, “All-optical formation of an atomic Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 010404 (2001).

Y. Castin, J. I. Cirac, and M. Lewenstein, “Reabsorption of light by trapped atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5305–5308 (1998).

K. B. Davis, M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969–3973 (1995).

M. Kasevich and S. Chu, “Laser cooling below a photon recoil with three-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1741–1744 (1992).

S. E. Hamann, D. L. Haycock, G. Klose, P. H. Pax, I. H. Deutsch, and P. S. Jessen, “Resolved-sideband Raman cooling to the ground state of an optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4149–4152 (1998).

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