Abstract

The spectroscopic properties of erbium-doped silicon dioxide, bismuth oxide, and sodium oxide glasses are investigated based on Judd–Ofelt analysis for absorption spectra, bandwidth analysis for emission spectra, and lifetime measurements of the 4I13/2 level of Er3+. The effects of bismuth oxide on these three optical parameters are discussed in terms of the local basic nature of the glass, of variations in ligand fields about Er3+ sites, and of the phonon energy and the refractive index of the glass host, respectively. The data obtained suggest that bismuth oxide does not have a promising composition for use with a broadband erbium-doped fiber amplifier.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. G. Atkins, J. F. Massicott, J. P. Armitage, R. Wyatt, B. J. Ainslie, and S. P. Craig-Ryan, “High-gain, broad spectral bandwidth erbium-doped fiber amplifier pumped near 1.5 μm,” Electron. Lett. 25, 910–911 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. F. Massicott, J. R. Armitage, R. Wyatt, B. J. Ainslie, and S. P. Craig-Ryan, “High gain, broadband, 1.6-μm Er3+ doped silica fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1645–1646 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Ohishi, A. Mori, M. Yamada, H. Ono, Y. Nishida, and K. Oikawa, “Gain characteristics of tellurite-based erbium-doped fiber amplifiers for 1.5-μm broadband amplification,” Opt. Lett. 23, 274–276 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Nilsson, P. Scheer, and B. Jaskorzynska, “Modeling and optimization of short Yb3+-sensitized Er3+-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 383–385 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Buxens, H. N. Poulsen, A. T. Clausen, and P. Jeppesen, “Gain flattened L-band EDFA based on upgraded C-band EDFA using forward ASE pumping in an EDF section,” Electron. Lett. 36, 821–823 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. B. Lu and P. L. Chu, “Gain flattening by using dual-core fiber in erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1616–1617 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. A. Mahdi, F. R. Mahamd, P. Poopalan, S. Selvakennedy, and H. Ahmad, “High-gain bi-directional Er3+-doped fiber amplifier for conventional- and long-wavelength bands,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1468–1470 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Jiang, T. Luo, B.-C. Hwang, F. Smekatala, K. Seneschal, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Er3+-doped phosphate glasses for fiber amplifiers with high gain per unit length,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263&264, 364–368 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B.-C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, G. Sorbello, M. Morrell, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Performance of high-concentration Er3+-doped phosphate fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 197–199 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. H. Takebe, Y. Nageno, and K. Morinaga, “Compositional dependence of Judd–Ofelt parameters in silicate, borate, and phosphate glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 1161–1168 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. E. McCumber, “Theory of phonon-terminated optical masers,” Phys. Rev. A 134, A299–A306 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  24. W. J. Miniscalco and R. S. Quimby, “General procedure for the analysis of Er3+ cross section,” Opt. Lett. 16, 258–260 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. F. Auzel, D. Meichenin, A. Mendorioz, R. Balda, and J. Fernandex, “Determination of the quantum efficiency of Er3+ in glasses: indirect and direct methods,” J. Lumin. 72–74, 152–154 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S. Tanabe, “Optical transitions of rare earth ions for amplifiers: how the local structure works in glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 259, 1–9 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. J. Weber, “Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of Er3+ in LaF3,” Phys. Rev. 157, 262–272 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  28. S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, S. Todoroki, T. Hanada, and N. Soga, “Relation between the Ω6 intensity parameter of Er3+ ions and the 151Eu isomer shift in oxide glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8451–8454 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  30. G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Fossi, M. Brenci, A. A. Lipovskii, E. V. Kolobkova, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Characterization of Er-doped sodium-niobium phosphate glasses,” in Rare-Earth-Doped Materials and Devices V, S. Jiang, ed. Proc. SPIE 4282, 210–215 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  31. M. J. Weber, J. D. Myers, and D. H. Blackbum, “Optical properties of Nd3+ in tellurite and phosphotellurite glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 2944–2949 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  32. S. Shen, M. Naftaly, and A. Jha, “Tm3+- and Er3+-doped tellurite glass fibers for a broadband amplifier at 1430–1600 nm,” in Infrared Optical Fibers and Their Applications, J. A. Harrington M. Saad, eds., Proc. SPIE 3849, 103–110 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  33. W. J. Miniscalco, “Erbium-doped glasses for fiber amplifiers at 1500 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 234–250 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  34. R. Reisfeld and C. K. Jorgensen, Laser and Excited States of Rare Earths (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1997).
  35. L. Petit, T. Cardinal, J. J. Videau, G. L. Flem, Y. Guyot, G. Boulon, M. Couzi, and T. Buffeteau, “Effect of the introduction of Na2B4O7 on erbium luminescence in tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 298, 76–88 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2002

L. Petit, T. Cardinal, J. J. Videau, G. L. Flem, Y. Guyot, G. Boulon, M. Couzi, and T. Buffeteau, “Effect of the introduction of Na2B4O7 on erbium luminescence in tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 298, 76–88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

H. Lin, E. Y. B. Pun, S. Q. Man, and X. R. Liu, “Optical transitions and frequency upconversion of Er3+ ions in Na2O⋅Ca3Al2Ge3O12 glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 602–609 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Fossi, M. Brenci, A. A. Lipovskii, E. V. Kolobkova, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Characterization of Er-doped sodium-niobium phosphate glasses,” in Rare-Earth-Doped Materials and Devices V, S. Jiang, ed. Proc. SPIE 4282, 210–215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B.-C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, G. Sorbello, M. Morrell, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Performance of high-concentration Er3+-doped phosphate fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 197–199 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Feng, S. Tanabe, and T. Hanada, “Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of Er3+-doped germanotellurite glasses for broadband fiber amplifiers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 84, 165–171 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Rolli, A. Chiasera, M. Montagna, E. Moser, S. Ronchin, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, A. Jha, V. K. Tikhomirov, S. A. Tikhomirova, C. Duverger, P. Galinetto, and M. Ferrari, “Rare-earth-activated fluoride and tellurite glasses: optical and spectroscopic properties,” in Rare-Earth-Doped Materials and Devices V, S. Jiang, ed., Proc. SPIE 4282, 109–122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

S. Tanabe, N. Sugimoto, S. Ito, and T. Hanada, “Broadband 1.5 μm emission of Er3+ ions in bismuth-based oxide glasses for a potential WDM amplifier,” J. Lumin. 87&89, 670–672 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Soga, H. Inoue, and A. Makishima, “Calculation and simulation of spectroscopic properties for rare earth ions in chloro-fluorozirconate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 274, 69–74 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Buxens, H. N. Poulsen, A. T. Clausen, and P. Jeppesen, “Gain flattened L-band EDFA based on upgraded C-band EDFA using forward ASE pumping in an EDF section,” Electron. Lett. 36, 821–823 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Lu and P. L. Chu, “Gain flattening by using dual-core fiber in erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1616–1617 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Mahdi, F. R. Mahamd, P. Poopalan, S. Selvakennedy, and H. Ahmad, “High-gain bi-directional Er3+-doped fiber amplifier for conventional- and long-wavelength bands,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1468–1470 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Jiang, T. Luo, B.-C. Hwang, F. Smekatala, K. Seneschal, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Er3+-doped phosphate glasses for fiber amplifiers with high gain per unit length,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263&264, 364–368 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

S. Shen, M. Naftaly, and A. Jha, “Tm3+- and Er3+-doped tellurite glass fibers for a broadband amplifier at 1430–1600 nm,” in Infrared Optical Fibers and Their Applications, J. A. Harrington M. Saad, eds., Proc. SPIE 3849, 103–110 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, “Optical transitions of rare earth ions for amplifiers: how the local structure works in glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 259, 1–9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

Y. Ohishi, A. Mori, M. Yamada, H. Ono, Y. Nishida, and K. Oikawa, “Gain characteristics of tellurite-based erbium-doped fiber amplifiers for 1.5-μm broadband amplification,” Opt. Lett. 23, 274–276 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, and M. Yamada, “Low noise broadband tellurite-based Er3+-doped fiber amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 34, 887–888 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Nii, K. Ozaki, M. Ferren, and M. Mortia, “Upconversion fluorescence of Er3+- and Yb3+-doped TeO2-based oxide glass and single crystals,” J. Lumin. 76&77, 116–119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

F. Auzel, D. Meichenin, A. Mendorioz, R. Balda, and J. Fernandex, “Determination of the quantum efficiency of Er3+ in glasses: indirect and direct methods,” J. Lumin. 72–74, 152–154 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

H. Takebe, Y. Nageno, and K. Morinaga, “Compositional dependence of Judd–Ofelt parameters in silicate, borate, and phosphate glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 1161–1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. Nilsson, P. Scheer, and B. Jaskorzynska, “Modeling and optimization of short Yb3+-sensitized Er3+-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 383–385 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

X. Zou and T. Izumitani, “Spectroscopic properties and mechanisms of excited state absorption and energy transfer upconversion for Er3+-doped glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 162, 68–80 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

S. Tanabe, S. Yoshii, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, “Upconversion properties, multiphonon relaxation, and local environment of rare-earth ions in fluorophosphates glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 4620–4625 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, N. Soga, and T. Hanada, “Compositional dependence of Judd–Ofelt parameters of Er3+ ions in alkali-metal borate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 3305–3310 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

W. J. Miniscalco, “Erbium-doped glasses for fiber amplifiers at 1500 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 234–250 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Miniscalco and R. S. Quimby, “General procedure for the analysis of Er3+ cross section,” Opt. Lett. 16, 258–260 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

J. F. Massicott, J. R. Armitage, R. Wyatt, B. J. Ainslie, and S. P. Craig-Ryan, “High gain, broadband, 1.6-μm Er3+ doped silica fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1645–1646 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

C. G. Atkins, J. F. Massicott, J. P. Armitage, R. Wyatt, B. J. Ainslie, and S. P. Craig-Ryan, “High-gain, broad spectral bandwidth erbium-doped fiber amplifier pumped near 1.5 μm,” Electron. Lett. 25, 910–911 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1981

M. J. Weber, J. D. Myers, and D. H. Blackbum, “Optical properties of Nd3+ in tellurite and phosphotellurite glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 2944–2949 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1967

M. J. Weber, “Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of Er3+ in LaF3,” Phys. Rev. 157, 262–272 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1964

D. E. McCumber, “Theory of phonon-terminated optical masers,” Phys. Rev. A 134, A299–A306 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1962

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, H.

M. A. Mahdi, F. R. Mahamd, P. Poopalan, S. Selvakennedy, and H. Ahmad, “High-gain bi-directional Er3+-doped fiber amplifier for conventional- and long-wavelength bands,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1468–1470 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ainslie, B. J.

J. F. Massicott, J. R. Armitage, R. Wyatt, B. J. Ainslie, and S. P. Craig-Ryan, “High gain, broadband, 1.6-μm Er3+ doped silica fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1645–1646 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Atkins, J. F. Massicott, J. P. Armitage, R. Wyatt, B. J. Ainslie, and S. P. Craig-Ryan, “High-gain, broad spectral bandwidth erbium-doped fiber amplifier pumped near 1.5 μm,” Electron. Lett. 25, 910–911 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Armitage, J. P.

C. G. Atkins, J. F. Massicott, J. P. Armitage, R. Wyatt, B. J. Ainslie, and S. P. Craig-Ryan, “High-gain, broad spectral bandwidth erbium-doped fiber amplifier pumped near 1.5 μm,” Electron. Lett. 25, 910–911 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Armitage, J. R.

J. F. Massicott, J. R. Armitage, R. Wyatt, B. J. Ainslie, and S. P. Craig-Ryan, “High gain, broadband, 1.6-μm Er3+ doped silica fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1645–1646 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Atkins, C. G.

C. G. Atkins, J. F. Massicott, J. P. Armitage, R. Wyatt, B. J. Ainslie, and S. P. Craig-Ryan, “High-gain, broad spectral bandwidth erbium-doped fiber amplifier pumped near 1.5 μm,” Electron. Lett. 25, 910–911 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Auzel, F.

F. Auzel, D. Meichenin, A. Mendorioz, R. Balda, and J. Fernandex, “Determination of the quantum efficiency of Er3+ in glasses: indirect and direct methods,” J. Lumin. 72–74, 152–154 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Balda, R.

F. Auzel, D. Meichenin, A. Mendorioz, R. Balda, and J. Fernandex, “Determination of the quantum efficiency of Er3+ in glasses: indirect and direct methods,” J. Lumin. 72–74, 152–154 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bettinelli, M.

G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Fossi, M. Brenci, A. A. Lipovskii, E. V. Kolobkova, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Characterization of Er-doped sodium-niobium phosphate glasses,” in Rare-Earth-Doped Materials and Devices V, S. Jiang, ed. Proc. SPIE 4282, 210–215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Blackbum, D. H.

M. J. Weber, J. D. Myers, and D. H. Blackbum, “Optical properties of Nd3+ in tellurite and phosphotellurite glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 2944–2949 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Boulon, G.

L. Petit, T. Cardinal, J. J. Videau, G. L. Flem, Y. Guyot, G. Boulon, M. Couzi, and T. Buffeteau, “Effect of the introduction of Na2B4O7 on erbium luminescence in tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 298, 76–88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brenci, M.

G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Fossi, M. Brenci, A. A. Lipovskii, E. V. Kolobkova, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Characterization of Er-doped sodium-niobium phosphate glasses,” in Rare-Earth-Doped Materials and Devices V, S. Jiang, ed. Proc. SPIE 4282, 210–215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Buffeteau, T.

L. Petit, T. Cardinal, J. J. Videau, G. L. Flem, Y. Guyot, G. Boulon, M. Couzi, and T. Buffeteau, “Effect of the introduction of Na2B4O7 on erbium luminescence in tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 298, 76–88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Buxens, A.

A. Buxens, H. N. Poulsen, A. T. Clausen, and P. Jeppesen, “Gain flattened L-band EDFA based on upgraded C-band EDFA using forward ASE pumping in an EDF section,” Electron. Lett. 36, 821–823 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cardinal, T.

L. Petit, T. Cardinal, J. J. Videau, G. L. Flem, Y. Guyot, G. Boulon, M. Couzi, and T. Buffeteau, “Effect of the introduction of Na2B4O7 on erbium luminescence in tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 298, 76–88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chiasera, A.

R. Rolli, A. Chiasera, M. Montagna, E. Moser, S. Ronchin, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, A. Jha, V. K. Tikhomirov, S. A. Tikhomirova, C. Duverger, P. Galinetto, and M. Ferrari, “Rare-earth-activated fluoride and tellurite glasses: optical and spectroscopic properties,” in Rare-Earth-Doped Materials and Devices V, S. Jiang, ed., Proc. SPIE 4282, 109–122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chu, P. L.

Y. B. Lu and P. L. Chu, “Gain flattening by using dual-core fiber in erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1616–1617 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Clausen, A. T.

A. Buxens, H. N. Poulsen, A. T. Clausen, and P. Jeppesen, “Gain flattened L-band EDFA based on upgraded C-band EDFA using forward ASE pumping in an EDF section,” Electron. Lett. 36, 821–823 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Couzi, M.

L. Petit, T. Cardinal, J. J. Videau, G. L. Flem, Y. Guyot, G. Boulon, M. Couzi, and T. Buffeteau, “Effect of the introduction of Na2B4O7 on erbium luminescence in tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 298, 76–88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Craig-Ryan, S. P.

J. F. Massicott, J. R. Armitage, R. Wyatt, B. J. Ainslie, and S. P. Craig-Ryan, “High gain, broadband, 1.6-μm Er3+ doped silica fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1645–1646 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Atkins, J. F. Massicott, J. P. Armitage, R. Wyatt, B. J. Ainslie, and S. P. Craig-Ryan, “High-gain, broad spectral bandwidth erbium-doped fiber amplifier pumped near 1.5 μm,” Electron. Lett. 25, 910–911 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Duverger, C.

R. Rolli, A. Chiasera, M. Montagna, E. Moser, S. Ronchin, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, A. Jha, V. K. Tikhomirov, S. A. Tikhomirova, C. Duverger, P. Galinetto, and M. Ferrari, “Rare-earth-activated fluoride and tellurite glasses: optical and spectroscopic properties,” in Rare-Earth-Doped Materials and Devices V, S. Jiang, ed., Proc. SPIE 4282, 109–122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X.

X. Feng, S. Tanabe, and T. Hanada, “Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of Er3+-doped germanotellurite glasses for broadband fiber amplifiers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 84, 165–171 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fernandex, J.

F. Auzel, D. Meichenin, A. Mendorioz, R. Balda, and J. Fernandex, “Determination of the quantum efficiency of Er3+ in glasses: indirect and direct methods,” J. Lumin. 72–74, 152–154 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, M.

R. Rolli, A. Chiasera, M. Montagna, E. Moser, S. Ronchin, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, A. Jha, V. K. Tikhomirov, S. A. Tikhomirova, C. Duverger, P. Galinetto, and M. Ferrari, “Rare-earth-activated fluoride and tellurite glasses: optical and spectroscopic properties,” in Rare-Earth-Doped Materials and Devices V, S. Jiang, ed., Proc. SPIE 4282, 109–122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ferren, M.

H. Nii, K. Ozaki, M. Ferren, and M. Mortia, “Upconversion fluorescence of Er3+- and Yb3+-doped TeO2-based oxide glass and single crystals,” J. Lumin. 76&77, 116–119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Flem, G. L.

L. Petit, T. Cardinal, J. J. Videau, G. L. Flem, Y. Guyot, G. Boulon, M. Couzi, and T. Buffeteau, “Effect of the introduction of Na2B4O7 on erbium luminescence in tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 298, 76–88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fossi, M.

G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Fossi, M. Brenci, A. A. Lipovskii, E. V. Kolobkova, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Characterization of Er-doped sodium-niobium phosphate glasses,” in Rare-Earth-Doped Materials and Devices V, S. Jiang, ed. Proc. SPIE 4282, 210–215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Galinetto, P.

R. Rolli, A. Chiasera, M. Montagna, E. Moser, S. Ronchin, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, A. Jha, V. K. Tikhomirov, S. A. Tikhomirova, C. Duverger, P. Galinetto, and M. Ferrari, “Rare-earth-activated fluoride and tellurite glasses: optical and spectroscopic properties,” in Rare-Earth-Doped Materials and Devices V, S. Jiang, ed., Proc. SPIE 4282, 109–122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Guyot, Y.

L. Petit, T. Cardinal, J. J. Videau, G. L. Flem, Y. Guyot, G. Boulon, M. Couzi, and T. Buffeteau, “Effect of the introduction of Na2B4O7 on erbium luminescence in tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 298, 76–88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hanada, T.

X. Feng, S. Tanabe, and T. Hanada, “Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of Er3+-doped germanotellurite glasses for broadband fiber amplifiers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 84, 165–171 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, N. Sugimoto, S. Ito, and T. Hanada, “Broadband 1.5 μm emission of Er3+ ions in bismuth-based oxide glasses for a potential WDM amplifier,” J. Lumin. 87&89, 670–672 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, N. Soga, and T. Hanada, “Compositional dependence of Judd–Ofelt parameters of Er3+ ions in alkali-metal borate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 3305–3310 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

S. Tanabe, S. Yoshii, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, “Upconversion properties, multiphonon relaxation, and local environment of rare-earth ions in fluorophosphates glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 4620–4625 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Honkanen, S.

B.-C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, G. Sorbello, M. Morrell, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Performance of high-concentration Er3+-doped phosphate fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 197–199 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, B.-C.

B.-C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, G. Sorbello, M. Morrell, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Performance of high-concentration Er3+-doped phosphate fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 197–199 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Jiang, T. Luo, B.-C. Hwang, F. Smekatala, K. Seneschal, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Er3+-doped phosphate glasses for fiber amplifiers with high gain per unit length,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263&264, 364–368 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, H.

K. Soga, H. Inoue, and A. Makishima, “Calculation and simulation of spectroscopic properties for rare earth ions in chloro-fluorozirconate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 274, 69–74 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ito, S.

S. Tanabe, N. Sugimoto, S. Ito, and T. Hanada, “Broadband 1.5 μm emission of Er3+ ions in bismuth-based oxide glasses for a potential WDM amplifier,” J. Lumin. 87&89, 670–672 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Izumitani, T.

X. Zou and T. Izumitani, “Spectroscopic properties and mechanisms of excited state absorption and energy transfer upconversion for Er3+-doped glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 162, 68–80 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jaskorzynska, B.

J. Nilsson, P. Scheer, and B. Jaskorzynska, “Modeling and optimization of short Yb3+-sensitized Er3+-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 383–385 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jeppesen, P.

A. Buxens, H. N. Poulsen, A. T. Clausen, and P. Jeppesen, “Gain flattened L-band EDFA based on upgraded C-band EDFA using forward ASE pumping in an EDF section,” Electron. Lett. 36, 821–823 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jha, A.

R. Rolli, A. Chiasera, M. Montagna, E. Moser, S. Ronchin, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, A. Jha, V. K. Tikhomirov, S. A. Tikhomirova, C. Duverger, P. Galinetto, and M. Ferrari, “Rare-earth-activated fluoride and tellurite glasses: optical and spectroscopic properties,” in Rare-Earth-Doped Materials and Devices V, S. Jiang, ed., Proc. SPIE 4282, 109–122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Shen, M. Naftaly, and A. Jha, “Tm3+- and Er3+-doped tellurite glass fibers for a broadband amplifier at 1430–1600 nm,” in Infrared Optical Fibers and Their Applications, J. A. Harrington M. Saad, eds., Proc. SPIE 3849, 103–110 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S.

B.-C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, G. Sorbello, M. Morrell, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Performance of high-concentration Er3+-doped phosphate fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 197–199 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Jiang, T. Luo, B.-C. Hwang, F. Smekatala, K. Seneschal, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Er3+-doped phosphate glasses for fiber amplifiers with high gain per unit length,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263&264, 364–368 (2000).
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B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, K.

A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, and M. Yamada, “Low noise broadband tellurite-based Er3+-doped fiber amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 34, 887–888 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kolobkova, E. V.

G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Fossi, M. Brenci, A. A. Lipovskii, E. V. Kolobkova, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Characterization of Er-doped sodium-niobium phosphate glasses,” in Rare-Earth-Doped Materials and Devices V, S. Jiang, ed. Proc. SPIE 4282, 210–215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.

Lipovskii, A. A.

G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Fossi, M. Brenci, A. A. Lipovskii, E. V. Kolobkova, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Characterization of Er-doped sodium-niobium phosphate glasses,” in Rare-Earth-Doped Materials and Devices V, S. Jiang, ed. Proc. SPIE 4282, 210–215 (2001).
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Liu, X. R.

Lu, Y. B.

Y. B. Lu and P. L. Chu, “Gain flattening by using dual-core fiber in erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1616–1617 (2000).
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Lucas, J.

B.-C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, G. Sorbello, M. Morrell, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Performance of high-concentration Er3+-doped phosphate fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 197–199 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Jiang, T. Luo, B.-C. Hwang, F. Smekatala, K. Seneschal, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Er3+-doped phosphate glasses for fiber amplifiers with high gain per unit length,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263&264, 364–368 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Luo, T.

B.-C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, G. Sorbello, M. Morrell, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Performance of high-concentration Er3+-doped phosphate fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 197–199 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Jiang, T. Luo, B.-C. Hwang, F. Smekatala, K. Seneschal, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Er3+-doped phosphate glasses for fiber amplifiers with high gain per unit length,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263&264, 364–368 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mahamd, F. R.

M. A. Mahdi, F. R. Mahamd, P. Poopalan, S. Selvakennedy, and H. Ahmad, “High-gain bi-directional Er3+-doped fiber amplifier for conventional- and long-wavelength bands,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1468–1470 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mahdi, M. A.

M. A. Mahdi, F. R. Mahamd, P. Poopalan, S. Selvakennedy, and H. Ahmad, “High-gain bi-directional Er3+-doped fiber amplifier for conventional- and long-wavelength bands,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1468–1470 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Makishima, A.

K. Soga, H. Inoue, and A. Makishima, “Calculation and simulation of spectroscopic properties for rare earth ions in chloro-fluorozirconate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 274, 69–74 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Man, S. Q.

Massicott, J. F.

J. F. Massicott, J. R. Armitage, R. Wyatt, B. J. Ainslie, and S. P. Craig-Ryan, “High gain, broadband, 1.6-μm Er3+ doped silica fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1645–1646 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Atkins, J. F. Massicott, J. P. Armitage, R. Wyatt, B. J. Ainslie, and S. P. Craig-Ryan, “High-gain, broad spectral bandwidth erbium-doped fiber amplifier pumped near 1.5 μm,” Electron. Lett. 25, 910–911 (1989).
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D. E. McCumber, “Theory of phonon-terminated optical masers,” Phys. Rev. A 134, A299–A306 (1964).
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Meichenin, D.

F. Auzel, D. Meichenin, A. Mendorioz, R. Balda, and J. Fernandex, “Determination of the quantum efficiency of Er3+ in glasses: indirect and direct methods,” J. Lumin. 72–74, 152–154 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mendorioz, A.

F. Auzel, D. Meichenin, A. Mendorioz, R. Balda, and J. Fernandex, “Determination of the quantum efficiency of Er3+ in glasses: indirect and direct methods,” J. Lumin. 72–74, 152–154 (1997).
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Miniscalco, W. J.

W. J. Miniscalco, “Erbium-doped glasses for fiber amplifiers at 1500 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 234–250 (1991).
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W. J. Miniscalco and R. S. Quimby, “General procedure for the analysis of Er3+ cross section,” Opt. Lett. 16, 258–260 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Montagna, M.

R. Rolli, A. Chiasera, M. Montagna, E. Moser, S. Ronchin, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, A. Jha, V. K. Tikhomirov, S. A. Tikhomirova, C. Duverger, P. Galinetto, and M. Ferrari, “Rare-earth-activated fluoride and tellurite glasses: optical and spectroscopic properties,” in Rare-Earth-Doped Materials and Devices V, S. Jiang, ed., Proc. SPIE 4282, 109–122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mori, A.

Morinaga, K.

H. Takebe, Y. Nageno, and K. Morinaga, “Compositional dependence of Judd–Ofelt parameters in silicate, borate, and phosphate glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 1161–1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Morrell, M.

B.-C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, G. Sorbello, M. Morrell, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Performance of high-concentration Er3+-doped phosphate fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 197–199 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mortia, M.

H. Nii, K. Ozaki, M. Ferren, and M. Mortia, “Upconversion fluorescence of Er3+- and Yb3+-doped TeO2-based oxide glass and single crystals,” J. Lumin. 76&77, 116–119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moser, E.

R. Rolli, A. Chiasera, M. Montagna, E. Moser, S. Ronchin, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, A. Jha, V. K. Tikhomirov, S. A. Tikhomirova, C. Duverger, P. Galinetto, and M. Ferrari, “Rare-earth-activated fluoride and tellurite glasses: optical and spectroscopic properties,” in Rare-Earth-Doped Materials and Devices V, S. Jiang, ed., Proc. SPIE 4282, 109–122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Myers, J. D.

M. J. Weber, J. D. Myers, and D. H. Blackbum, “Optical properties of Nd3+ in tellurite and phosphotellurite glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 2944–2949 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Naftaly, M.

S. Shen, M. Naftaly, and A. Jha, “Tm3+- and Er3+-doped tellurite glass fibers for a broadband amplifier at 1430–1600 nm,” in Infrared Optical Fibers and Their Applications, J. A. Harrington M. Saad, eds., Proc. SPIE 3849, 103–110 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nageno, Y.

H. Takebe, Y. Nageno, and K. Morinaga, “Compositional dependence of Judd–Ofelt parameters in silicate, borate, and phosphate glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 1161–1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nii, H.

H. Nii, K. Ozaki, M. Ferren, and M. Mortia, “Upconversion fluorescence of Er3+- and Yb3+-doped TeO2-based oxide glass and single crystals,” J. Lumin. 76&77, 116–119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, J.

J. Nilsson, P. Scheer, and B. Jaskorzynska, “Modeling and optimization of short Yb3+-sensitized Er3+-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 383–385 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, Y.

Ofelt, G. S.

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Ohishi, Y.

Ohyagi, T.

S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, N. Soga, and T. Hanada, “Compositional dependence of Judd–Ofelt parameters of Er3+ ions in alkali-metal borate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 3305–3310 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Oikawa, K.

Ono, H.

Ozaki, K.

H. Nii, K. Ozaki, M. Ferren, and M. Mortia, “Upconversion fluorescence of Er3+- and Yb3+-doped TeO2-based oxide glass and single crystals,” J. Lumin. 76&77, 116–119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pelli, S.

G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Fossi, M. Brenci, A. A. Lipovskii, E. V. Kolobkova, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Characterization of Er-doped sodium-niobium phosphate glasses,” in Rare-Earth-Doped Materials and Devices V, S. Jiang, ed. Proc. SPIE 4282, 210–215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Rolli, A. Chiasera, M. Montagna, E. Moser, S. Ronchin, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, A. Jha, V. K. Tikhomirov, S. A. Tikhomirova, C. Duverger, P. Galinetto, and M. Ferrari, “Rare-earth-activated fluoride and tellurite glasses: optical and spectroscopic properties,” in Rare-Earth-Doped Materials and Devices V, S. Jiang, ed., Proc. SPIE 4282, 109–122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Petit, L.

L. Petit, T. Cardinal, J. J. Videau, G. L. Flem, Y. Guyot, G. Boulon, M. Couzi, and T. Buffeteau, “Effect of the introduction of Na2B4O7 on erbium luminescence in tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 298, 76–88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

B.-C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, G. Sorbello, M. Morrell, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Performance of high-concentration Er3+-doped phosphate fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 197–199 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Jiang, T. Luo, B.-C. Hwang, F. Smekatala, K. Seneschal, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Er3+-doped phosphate glasses for fiber amplifiers with high gain per unit length,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263&264, 364–368 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Poopalan, P.

M. A. Mahdi, F. R. Mahamd, P. Poopalan, S. Selvakennedy, and H. Ahmad, “High-gain bi-directional Er3+-doped fiber amplifier for conventional- and long-wavelength bands,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1468–1470 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Poulsen, H. N.

A. Buxens, H. N. Poulsen, A. T. Clausen, and P. Jeppesen, “Gain flattened L-band EDFA based on upgraded C-band EDFA using forward ASE pumping in an EDF section,” Electron. Lett. 36, 821–823 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pun, E. Y. B.

Quimby, R. S.

Righini, G. C.

G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Fossi, M. Brenci, A. A. Lipovskii, E. V. Kolobkova, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Characterization of Er-doped sodium-niobium phosphate glasses,” in Rare-Earth-Doped Materials and Devices V, S. Jiang, ed. Proc. SPIE 4282, 210–215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Rolli, A. Chiasera, M. Montagna, E. Moser, S. Ronchin, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, A. Jha, V. K. Tikhomirov, S. A. Tikhomirova, C. Duverger, P. Galinetto, and M. Ferrari, “Rare-earth-activated fluoride and tellurite glasses: optical and spectroscopic properties,” in Rare-Earth-Doped Materials and Devices V, S. Jiang, ed., Proc. SPIE 4282, 109–122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rolli, R.

R. Rolli, A. Chiasera, M. Montagna, E. Moser, S. Ronchin, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, A. Jha, V. K. Tikhomirov, S. A. Tikhomirova, C. Duverger, P. Galinetto, and M. Ferrari, “Rare-earth-activated fluoride and tellurite glasses: optical and spectroscopic properties,” in Rare-Earth-Doped Materials and Devices V, S. Jiang, ed., Proc. SPIE 4282, 109–122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ronchin, S.

R. Rolli, A. Chiasera, M. Montagna, E. Moser, S. Ronchin, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, A. Jha, V. K. Tikhomirov, S. A. Tikhomirova, C. Duverger, P. Galinetto, and M. Ferrari, “Rare-earth-activated fluoride and tellurite glasses: optical and spectroscopic properties,” in Rare-Earth-Doped Materials and Devices V, S. Jiang, ed., Proc. SPIE 4282, 109–122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Scheer, P.

J. Nilsson, P. Scheer, and B. Jaskorzynska, “Modeling and optimization of short Yb3+-sensitized Er3+-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 383–385 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Selvakennedy, S.

M. A. Mahdi, F. R. Mahamd, P. Poopalan, S. Selvakennedy, and H. Ahmad, “High-gain bi-directional Er3+-doped fiber amplifier for conventional- and long-wavelength bands,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1468–1470 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Seneschal, K.

B.-C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, G. Sorbello, M. Morrell, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Performance of high-concentration Er3+-doped phosphate fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 197–199 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Jiang, T. Luo, B.-C. Hwang, F. Smekatala, K. Seneschal, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Er3+-doped phosphate glasses for fiber amplifiers with high gain per unit length,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263&264, 364–368 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shen, S.

S. Shen, M. Naftaly, and A. Jha, “Tm3+- and Er3+-doped tellurite glass fibers for a broadband amplifier at 1430–1600 nm,” in Infrared Optical Fibers and Their Applications, J. A. Harrington M. Saad, eds., Proc. SPIE 3849, 103–110 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smekatala, F.

S. Jiang, T. Luo, B.-C. Hwang, F. Smekatala, K. Seneschal, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Er3+-doped phosphate glasses for fiber amplifiers with high gain per unit length,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263&264, 364–368 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Smektala, F.

B.-C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, G. Sorbello, M. Morrell, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Performance of high-concentration Er3+-doped phosphate fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 197–199 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Soga, K.

K. Soga, H. Inoue, and A. Makishima, “Calculation and simulation of spectroscopic properties for rare earth ions in chloro-fluorozirconate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 274, 69–74 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Soga, N.

S. Tanabe, S. Yoshii, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, “Upconversion properties, multiphonon relaxation, and local environment of rare-earth ions in fluorophosphates glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 4620–4625 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, N. Soga, and T. Hanada, “Compositional dependence of Judd–Ofelt parameters of Er3+ ions in alkali-metal borate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 3305–3310 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sorbello, G.

B.-C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, G. Sorbello, M. Morrell, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Performance of high-concentration Er3+-doped phosphate fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 197–199 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Speghini, A.

G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Fossi, M. Brenci, A. A. Lipovskii, E. V. Kolobkova, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Characterization of Er-doped sodium-niobium phosphate glasses,” in Rare-Earth-Doped Materials and Devices V, S. Jiang, ed. Proc. SPIE 4282, 210–215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

S. Tanabe, N. Sugimoto, S. Ito, and T. Hanada, “Broadband 1.5 μm emission of Er3+ ions in bismuth-based oxide glasses for a potential WDM amplifier,” J. Lumin. 87&89, 670–672 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Takebe, H.

H. Takebe, Y. Nageno, and K. Morinaga, “Compositional dependence of Judd–Ofelt parameters in silicate, borate, and phosphate glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 1161–1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tanabe, S.

X. Feng, S. Tanabe, and T. Hanada, “Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of Er3+-doped germanotellurite glasses for broadband fiber amplifiers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 84, 165–171 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, N. Sugimoto, S. Ito, and T. Hanada, “Broadband 1.5 μm emission of Er3+ ions in bismuth-based oxide glasses for a potential WDM amplifier,” J. Lumin. 87&89, 670–672 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, “Optical transitions of rare earth ions for amplifiers: how the local structure works in glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 259, 1–9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, S. Yoshii, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, “Upconversion properties, multiphonon relaxation, and local environment of rare-earth ions in fluorophosphates glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 4620–4625 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, N. Soga, and T. Hanada, “Compositional dependence of Judd–Ofelt parameters of Er3+ ions in alkali-metal borate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 3305–3310 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tikhomirov, V. K.

R. Rolli, A. Chiasera, M. Montagna, E. Moser, S. Ronchin, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, A. Jha, V. K. Tikhomirov, S. A. Tikhomirova, C. Duverger, P. Galinetto, and M. Ferrari, “Rare-earth-activated fluoride and tellurite glasses: optical and spectroscopic properties,” in Rare-Earth-Doped Materials and Devices V, S. Jiang, ed., Proc. SPIE 4282, 109–122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tikhomirova, S. A.

R. Rolli, A. Chiasera, M. Montagna, E. Moser, S. Ronchin, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, A. Jha, V. K. Tikhomirov, S. A. Tikhomirova, C. Duverger, P. Galinetto, and M. Ferrari, “Rare-earth-activated fluoride and tellurite glasses: optical and spectroscopic properties,” in Rare-Earth-Doped Materials and Devices V, S. Jiang, ed., Proc. SPIE 4282, 109–122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Videau, J. J.

L. Petit, T. Cardinal, J. J. Videau, G. L. Flem, Y. Guyot, G. Boulon, M. Couzi, and T. Buffeteau, “Effect of the introduction of Na2B4O7 on erbium luminescence in tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 298, 76–88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber, J. D. Myers, and D. H. Blackbum, “Optical properties of Nd3+ in tellurite and phosphotellurite glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 2944–2949 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Weber, “Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of Er3+ in LaF3,” Phys. Rev. 157, 262–272 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Wyatt, R.

J. F. Massicott, J. R. Armitage, R. Wyatt, B. J. Ainslie, and S. P. Craig-Ryan, “High gain, broadband, 1.6-μm Er3+ doped silica fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1645–1646 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Atkins, J. F. Massicott, J. P. Armitage, R. Wyatt, B. J. Ainslie, and S. P. Craig-Ryan, “High-gain, broad spectral bandwidth erbium-doped fiber amplifier pumped near 1.5 μm,” Electron. Lett. 25, 910–911 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, M.

Yoshii, S.

S. Tanabe, S. Yoshii, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, “Upconversion properties, multiphonon relaxation, and local environment of rare-earth ions in fluorophosphates glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 4620–4625 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zou, X.

X. Zou and T. Izumitani, “Spectroscopic properties and mechanisms of excited state absorption and energy transfer upconversion for Er3+-doped glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 162, 68–80 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

A. Buxens, H. N. Poulsen, A. T. Clausen, and P. Jeppesen, “Gain flattened L-band EDFA based on upgraded C-band EDFA using forward ASE pumping in an EDF section,” Electron. Lett. 36, 821–823 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, and M. Yamada, “Low noise broadband tellurite-based Er3+-doped fiber amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 34, 887–888 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Atkins, J. F. Massicott, J. P. Armitage, R. Wyatt, B. J. Ainslie, and S. P. Craig-Ryan, “High-gain, broad spectral bandwidth erbium-doped fiber amplifier pumped near 1.5 μm,” Electron. Lett. 25, 910–911 (1989).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectra of Er3+-doped SB2 (x=25), SB4 (x=35), SB6 (x=45), and SB8 (x=55) glasses.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence on composition of intensity parameters Ωt (t=2, 4, 6) of Er3+ in bismuth silicate glasses.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Emission spectra of Er3+-doped bismuth silicate glasses under 970-nm excitation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence on composition of emission cross section and FWHM of the 4I13/24I15/2 transition of Er3+-doped bismuth silicate glasses.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Lifetimes of the 4I13/2 level and quantum efficiency of the 4I13/24I15/2 transition of Er3+ in bismuth silicate glasses.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Refractive Indices, Densities, and Er3+ Concentrations of the Glass Samples

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparisons of Parameters Ωt (t=2, 4, 6) (×10- cm2) of Er3+ in Some Glasses

Tables Icon

Table 3 Comparisons of σepeak and FWHM of Er3+ in Several Glass Hosts

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σe(λ)=σa(λ)exp[(ε-hν)/kT],
Sed=t=2,4,6 Ωt|(S, L)JU(t)(S, L)J|2,
Smd=14m2c2 |(S, L)JL+2S(S, L)J|2,
Sed(4I13/24I15/2)=0.0188Ω2+0.1176Ω4+1.4617Ω6.
η=τmea/τrad,

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