Abstract

Inelastic scattering rates for magnetically trapped atomic chromium are determined for temperatures of 2 mK and higher. It is found that the rate is very large (2×10-9 cm3/s at 4 mK) and has a strong dependence on temperature. The origin of this structure in the inelastic rate remains for theoretical explanation. These experiments show that, even with bad inelastic rates, the efficacy of buffer-gas loading in producing large numbers of cold atoms is quite good.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. L. Migdall, J. V. Prodan, and W. D. Phillips, “First observation of magnetically trapped neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 2596–2599 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. F. Hess, “Evaporative cooling of magnetically trapped and compressed spin-polarized hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 3476–3479 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Observation of Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor,” Science 269, 198–201 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. B. Davis, M. O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969–3973 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. C. Bradley, C. A. Sackett, and R. G. Hulet, “Bose–Einstein condensation of lithium: observation of limited condensate number,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 985–989 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Goral, K. Rza̧żewski, and T. Pfau, “Bose–Einstein condensation with magnetic dipole–dipole forces,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 051601 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. DeMille, “Quantum computation with trapped polar molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 067901 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. A. Baranov, M. S. Mar’enko, V. S. Rychkov, and G. V. Shlyapnikov, “Superfluid pairing in a polarized dipolar Fermi gas,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 013606 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Goral, L. Santos, and M. Lewenstein, “Quantum phases of dipolar bosons in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 170406 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. M. Doyle, B. Friedrich, J. Kim, and D. Patterson, “Buffer-gas loading of atoms and molecules into a magnetic trap,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R2515–R2518 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, J. Kim, D. Patterson, B. Friedrich, and J. M. Doyle, “Magnetic trapping of atomic chromium,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R3173–R3175 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Kim, B. Friedrich, D. P. Katz, D. Patterson, J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, and J. M. Doyle, “Buffer-gas loading and magnetic trapping of atomic europium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3665–3668 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. C. Bradley, J. J. McClelland, W. R. Anderson, and R. J. Celotta, “Magneto-optical trapping of chromium atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 053407 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Stuhler, P. O. Schmidt, S. Hensler, J. Werner, J. Mlynek, and T. Pfau, “Continuous loading of a magnetic trap,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 031405(R) (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. O. Schmidt, S. Hensler, J. Werner, T. Binhammer, A. Gorlitz, and T. Pfau, “Continuous loading of cold atoms into an Ioffe–Pritchard magnetic trap,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 960–967 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. T. C. Stoof, J. M. V. A. Koelman, and B. J. Verhaar, “Spin-exchange and dipole relaxation rates in atomic hydrogen: rigorous and simplified calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 4688–4697 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  20. J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, C. I. Hancox, and J. M. Doyle, “Evaporative cooling of atomic chromium,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 021604 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. M. Doyle, “Energy distribution measurements of magnetically trapped spin polarized atomic hydrogen: evaporative cooling and surface sticking,” Ph.D. dissertation (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., 1991).

2003

2002

J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, C. I. Hancox, and J. M. Doyle, “Evaporative cooling of atomic chromium,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 021604 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. DeMille, “Quantum computation with trapped polar molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 067901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Baranov, M. S. Mar’enko, V. S. Rychkov, and G. V. Shlyapnikov, “Superfluid pairing in a polarized dipolar Fermi gas,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 013606 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Goral, L. Santos, and M. Lewenstein, “Quantum phases of dipolar bosons in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 170406 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

J. Stuhler, P. O. Schmidt, S. Hensler, J. Werner, J. Mlynek, and T. Pfau, “Continuous loading of a magnetic trap,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 031405(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

C. C. Bradley, J. J. McClelland, W. R. Anderson, and R. J. Celotta, “Magneto-optical trapping of chromium atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 053407 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Goral, K. Rza̧żewski, and T. Pfau, “Bose–Einstein condensation with magnetic dipole–dipole forces,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 051601 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, J. Kim, D. Patterson, B. Friedrich, and J. M. Doyle, “Magnetic trapping of atomic chromium,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R3173–R3175 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

J. Kim, B. Friedrich, D. P. Katz, D. Patterson, J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, and J. M. Doyle, “Buffer-gas loading and magnetic trapping of atomic europium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3665–3668 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Bradley, C. A. Sackett, and R. G. Hulet, “Bose–Einstein condensation of lithium: observation of limited condensate number,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 985–989 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

W. Ketterle and N. V. Druten, “Evaporative cooling of trapped atoms,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 37, 181–236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. M. Doyle, B. Friedrich, J. Kim, and D. Patterson, “Buffer-gas loading of atoms and molecules into a magnetic trap,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R2515–R2518 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Observation of Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor,” Science 269, 198–201 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Davis, M. O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969–3973 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

H. T. C. Stoof, J. M. V. A. Koelman, and B. J. Verhaar, “Spin-exchange and dipole relaxation rates in atomic hydrogen: rigorous and simplified calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 4688–4697 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986

H. F. Hess, “Evaporative cooling of magnetically trapped and compressed spin-polarized hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 3476–3479 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

A. L. Migdall, J. V. Prodan, and W. D. Phillips, “First observation of magnetically trapped neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 2596–2599 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, M. H.

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Observation of Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor,” Science 269, 198–201 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, W. R.

C. C. Bradley, J. J. McClelland, W. R. Anderson, and R. J. Celotta, “Magneto-optical trapping of chromium atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 053407 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, M. R.

K. B. Davis, M. O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969–3973 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baranov, M. A.

M. A. Baranov, M. S. Mar’enko, V. S. Rychkov, and G. V. Shlyapnikov, “Superfluid pairing in a polarized dipolar Fermi gas,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 013606 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Binhammer, T.

Bradley, C. C.

C. C. Bradley, J. J. McClelland, W. R. Anderson, and R. J. Celotta, “Magneto-optical trapping of chromium atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 053407 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Bradley, C. A. Sackett, and R. G. Hulet, “Bose–Einstein condensation of lithium: observation of limited condensate number,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 985–989 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Celotta, R. J.

C. C. Bradley, J. J. McClelland, W. R. Anderson, and R. J. Celotta, “Magneto-optical trapping of chromium atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 053407 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cornell, E. A.

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Observation of Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor,” Science 269, 198–201 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, K. B.

K. B. Davis, M. O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969–3973 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

deCarvalho, R.

J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, C. I. Hancox, and J. M. Doyle, “Evaporative cooling of atomic chromium,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 021604 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, J. Kim, D. Patterson, B. Friedrich, and J. M. Doyle, “Magnetic trapping of atomic chromium,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R3173–R3175 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, B. Friedrich, D. P. Katz, D. Patterson, J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, and J. M. Doyle, “Buffer-gas loading and magnetic trapping of atomic europium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3665–3668 (1997).
[CrossRef]

DeMille, D.

D. DeMille, “Quantum computation with trapped polar molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 067901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doyle, J. M.

J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, C. I. Hancox, and J. M. Doyle, “Evaporative cooling of atomic chromium,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 021604 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, J. Kim, D. Patterson, B. Friedrich, and J. M. Doyle, “Magnetic trapping of atomic chromium,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R3173–R3175 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, B. Friedrich, D. P. Katz, D. Patterson, J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, and J. M. Doyle, “Buffer-gas loading and magnetic trapping of atomic europium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3665–3668 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Doyle, B. Friedrich, J. Kim, and D. Patterson, “Buffer-gas loading of atoms and molecules into a magnetic trap,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R2515–R2518 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Druten, N. V.

W. Ketterle and N. V. Druten, “Evaporative cooling of trapped atoms,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 37, 181–236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Durfee, D. S.

K. B. Davis, M. O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969–3973 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ensher, J. R.

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Observation of Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor,” Science 269, 198–201 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friedrich, B.

J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, J. Kim, D. Patterson, B. Friedrich, and J. M. Doyle, “Magnetic trapping of atomic chromium,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R3173–R3175 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, B. Friedrich, D. P. Katz, D. Patterson, J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, and J. M. Doyle, “Buffer-gas loading and magnetic trapping of atomic europium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3665–3668 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Doyle, B. Friedrich, J. Kim, and D. Patterson, “Buffer-gas loading of atoms and molecules into a magnetic trap,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R2515–R2518 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goral, K.

K. Goral, L. Santos, and M. Lewenstein, “Quantum phases of dipolar bosons in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 170406 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Goral, K. Rza̧żewski, and T. Pfau, “Bose–Einstein condensation with magnetic dipole–dipole forces,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 051601 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gorlitz, A.

Hancox, C. I.

J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, C. I. Hancox, and J. M. Doyle, “Evaporative cooling of atomic chromium,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 021604 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hensler, S.

P. O. Schmidt, S. Hensler, J. Werner, T. Binhammer, A. Gorlitz, and T. Pfau, “Continuous loading of cold atoms into an Ioffe–Pritchard magnetic trap,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 960–967 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Stuhler, P. O. Schmidt, S. Hensler, J. Werner, J. Mlynek, and T. Pfau, “Continuous loading of a magnetic trap,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 031405(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hess, H. F.

H. F. Hess, “Evaporative cooling of magnetically trapped and compressed spin-polarized hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 3476–3479 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hulet, R. G.

C. C. Bradley, C. A. Sackett, and R. G. Hulet, “Bose–Einstein condensation of lithium: observation of limited condensate number,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 985–989 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Katz, D. P.

J. Kim, B. Friedrich, D. P. Katz, D. Patterson, J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, and J. M. Doyle, “Buffer-gas loading and magnetic trapping of atomic europium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3665–3668 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ketterle, W.

W. Ketterle and N. V. Druten, “Evaporative cooling of trapped atoms,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 37, 181–236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Davis, M. O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969–3973 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, J. Kim, D. Patterson, B. Friedrich, and J. M. Doyle, “Magnetic trapping of atomic chromium,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R3173–R3175 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, B. Friedrich, D. P. Katz, D. Patterson, J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, and J. M. Doyle, “Buffer-gas loading and magnetic trapping of atomic europium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3665–3668 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Doyle, B. Friedrich, J. Kim, and D. Patterson, “Buffer-gas loading of atoms and molecules into a magnetic trap,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R2515–R2518 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koelman, J. M. V. A.

H. T. C. Stoof, J. M. V. A. Koelman, and B. J. Verhaar, “Spin-exchange and dipole relaxation rates in atomic hydrogen: rigorous and simplified calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 4688–4697 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kurn, D. M.

K. B. Davis, M. O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969–3973 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewenstein, M.

K. Goral, L. Santos, and M. Lewenstein, “Quantum phases of dipolar bosons in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 170406 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mar’enko, M. S.

M. A. Baranov, M. S. Mar’enko, V. S. Rychkov, and G. V. Shlyapnikov, “Superfluid pairing in a polarized dipolar Fermi gas,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 013606 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Matthews, M. R.

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Observation of Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor,” Science 269, 198–201 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McClelland, J. J.

C. C. Bradley, J. J. McClelland, W. R. Anderson, and R. J. Celotta, “Magneto-optical trapping of chromium atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 053407 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mewes, M. O.

K. B. Davis, M. O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969–3973 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Migdall, A. L.

A. L. Migdall, J. V. Prodan, and W. D. Phillips, “First observation of magnetically trapped neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 2596–2599 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mlynek, J.

J. Stuhler, P. O. Schmidt, S. Hensler, J. Werner, J. Mlynek, and T. Pfau, “Continuous loading of a magnetic trap,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 031405(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, D.

J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, J. Kim, D. Patterson, B. Friedrich, and J. M. Doyle, “Magnetic trapping of atomic chromium,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R3173–R3175 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, B. Friedrich, D. P. Katz, D. Patterson, J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, and J. M. Doyle, “Buffer-gas loading and magnetic trapping of atomic europium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3665–3668 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Doyle, B. Friedrich, J. Kim, and D. Patterson, “Buffer-gas loading of atoms and molecules into a magnetic trap,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R2515–R2518 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfau, T.

P. O. Schmidt, S. Hensler, J. Werner, T. Binhammer, A. Gorlitz, and T. Pfau, “Continuous loading of cold atoms into an Ioffe–Pritchard magnetic trap,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 960–967 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Stuhler, P. O. Schmidt, S. Hensler, J. Werner, J. Mlynek, and T. Pfau, “Continuous loading of a magnetic trap,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 031405(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Goral, K. Rza̧żewski, and T. Pfau, “Bose–Einstein condensation with magnetic dipole–dipole forces,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 051601 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, W. D.

A. L. Migdall, J. V. Prodan, and W. D. Phillips, “First observation of magnetically trapped neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 2596–2599 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prodan, J. V.

A. L. Migdall, J. V. Prodan, and W. D. Phillips, “First observation of magnetically trapped neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 2596–2599 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rychkov, V. S.

M. A. Baranov, M. S. Mar’enko, V. S. Rychkov, and G. V. Shlyapnikov, “Superfluid pairing in a polarized dipolar Fermi gas,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 013606 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rza¸zewski, K.

K. Goral, K. Rza̧żewski, and T. Pfau, “Bose–Einstein condensation with magnetic dipole–dipole forces,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 051601 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sackett, C. A.

C. C. Bradley, C. A. Sackett, and R. G. Hulet, “Bose–Einstein condensation of lithium: observation of limited condensate number,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 985–989 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Santos, L.

K. Goral, L. Santos, and M. Lewenstein, “Quantum phases of dipolar bosons in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 170406 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, P. O.

P. O. Schmidt, S. Hensler, J. Werner, T. Binhammer, A. Gorlitz, and T. Pfau, “Continuous loading of cold atoms into an Ioffe–Pritchard magnetic trap,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 960–967 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Stuhler, P. O. Schmidt, S. Hensler, J. Werner, J. Mlynek, and T. Pfau, “Continuous loading of a magnetic trap,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 031405(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shlyapnikov, G. V.

M. A. Baranov, M. S. Mar’enko, V. S. Rychkov, and G. V. Shlyapnikov, “Superfluid pairing in a polarized dipolar Fermi gas,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 013606 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stoof, H. T. C.

H. T. C. Stoof, J. M. V. A. Koelman, and B. J. Verhaar, “Spin-exchange and dipole relaxation rates in atomic hydrogen: rigorous and simplified calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 4688–4697 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Stuhler, J.

J. Stuhler, P. O. Schmidt, S. Hensler, J. Werner, J. Mlynek, and T. Pfau, “Continuous loading of a magnetic trap,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 031405(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

van Druten, N. J.

K. B. Davis, M. O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969–3973 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verhaar, B. J.

H. T. C. Stoof, J. M. V. A. Koelman, and B. J. Verhaar, “Spin-exchange and dipole relaxation rates in atomic hydrogen: rigorous and simplified calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 4688–4697 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Weinstein, J. D.

J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, C. I. Hancox, and J. M. Doyle, “Evaporative cooling of atomic chromium,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 021604 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, J. Kim, D. Patterson, B. Friedrich, and J. M. Doyle, “Magnetic trapping of atomic chromium,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R3173–R3175 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, B. Friedrich, D. P. Katz, D. Patterson, J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, and J. M. Doyle, “Buffer-gas loading and magnetic trapping of atomic europium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3665–3668 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Werner, J.

P. O. Schmidt, S. Hensler, J. Werner, T. Binhammer, A. Gorlitz, and T. Pfau, “Continuous loading of cold atoms into an Ioffe–Pritchard magnetic trap,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 960–967 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Stuhler, P. O. Schmidt, S. Hensler, J. Werner, J. Mlynek, and T. Pfau, “Continuous loading of a magnetic trap,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 031405(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wieman, C. E.

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Observation of Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor,” Science 269, 198–201 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.

W. Ketterle and N. V. Druten, “Evaporative cooling of trapped atoms,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 37, 181–236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Phys. Rev. A

J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, C. I. Hancox, and J. M. Doyle, “Evaporative cooling of atomic chromium,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 021604 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Doyle, B. Friedrich, J. Kim, and D. Patterson, “Buffer-gas loading of atoms and molecules into a magnetic trap,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R2515–R2518 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, J. Kim, D. Patterson, B. Friedrich, and J. M. Doyle, “Magnetic trapping of atomic chromium,” Phys. Rev. A 57, R3173–R3175 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Bradley, J. J. McClelland, W. R. Anderson, and R. J. Celotta, “Magneto-optical trapping of chromium atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 053407 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Stuhler, P. O. Schmidt, S. Hensler, J. Werner, J. Mlynek, and T. Pfau, “Continuous loading of a magnetic trap,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 031405(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Goral, K. Rza̧żewski, and T. Pfau, “Bose–Einstein condensation with magnetic dipole–dipole forces,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 051601 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Baranov, M. S. Mar’enko, V. S. Rychkov, and G. V. Shlyapnikov, “Superfluid pairing in a polarized dipolar Fermi gas,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 013606 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. Kim, B. Friedrich, D. P. Katz, D. Patterson, J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, and J. M. Doyle, “Buffer-gas loading and magnetic trapping of atomic europium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3665–3668 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Davis, M. O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose–Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969–3973 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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Science

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Other

J. M. Doyle, “Energy distribution measurements of magnetically trapped spin polarized atomic hydrogen: evaporative cooling and surface sticking,” Ph.D. dissertation (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., 1991).

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F. Pobell, Matter and Methods at Low Temperatures (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of the double-walled plastic trapping cell. The space between the concentric walls is filled with superfluid helium to create an electrically insulating but thermally conductive jacket. The cell is thermally anchored to the mixing chamber of a dilution refrigerator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a, Typical spectrum of trapped chromium. The measured spectrum is shown by filled circles. The solid curve is a fit by a simulation of our trapped ensemble. This spectrum was taken at a trap depth of 18 mK. This spectrum was fitted to a peak density of 7.5×108 cm-3 and a temperature of 6.4 mK. b, Time profile of trap density. The points in this plot are the measured values for the integrated area under the spectrum as a function of time for the same data as shown in the spectrum. The solid curve is a fit to the solution of the two-body decay equation for our trap, dn/dt=(1/8)ginn2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Summary plot of measured 52Cr52Cr collision rates. Triangles, previously unreported measurements of the inelastic scattering rate coefficient. Circles, previously reported values of the elastic (open circles) and the inelastic (filled circles) collision rate coefficients measured at higher temperatures.20

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