Abstract

In recent years several groups of researchers have succeeded in making samples of cold molecules, at temperatures below 1 K, and of ultracold molecules, at temperatures below 1 mK. We concentrate on the formation of Cs2 dimers. Starting with laser-cooled atoms, photoassociation forms molecules in an excited electronic state. Various mechanisms are presented for stabilizing these molecules by spontaneous emission into a bound level of the ground electronic state. The design of new formation schemes requires precise knowledge of molecular potential curves that is well beyond the accuracy of ab initio calculations. We show that analytical long-range potentials can be fitted on photoassociation spectra and yield, through the determination of the C3 long-range coefficient, a value of the radiative lifetime of the 6P3/2 cesium level with an unprecedented accuracy. For short-range potentials it is possible to avoid explicit calculations by using asymptotic methods that generalize to long-range molecules the quantum-defect concepts developed for Rydberg atoms. Considering two coupled channels, we show how generalized Lu–Fano plots can extract precise information from experimental spectra.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Higgins, C. Callegari, J. Reho, F. Stienkemeier, W. E. Ernst, M. Gutowski, and G. Scoles, “Helium cluster isolation spectroscopy of alkali dimers in the triplet manifold,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 4952–4965 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. J. Hudson, B. E. Sauer, M. R. Tarbutt, and E. A. Hinds, “Measurement of the electron electric dipole moment using YbF molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 023003, 1–4 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, T. Guillet, B. Friedrich, and J. M. Doyle, “Magnetic trapping of calcium monohydride molecules at millikelvin temperatures,” Nature 395, 148–150 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. M. Doyle and B. Friedrich, “Molecules are cool,” Nature 401, 749–751 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, and G. Meijer, “Decelerating neutral dipolar molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1558–1561 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, A. J. A. van Roij, F. M. H. Crompvoets, and G. Meijer, “Trapping neutral molecules in a traveling potential well,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5744–5747 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, F. M. H. Crompvoets, R. T. Jongma, A. J. A. van Roij, and G. Meijer, “Electrostatic trapping of ammonia molecules,” Nature 406, 491–494 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, F. M. H. Crompvoets, R. T. Jongma, S. Y. T. van de Meerakker, and G. Meijer, “Deceleration and trapping of ammonia using time-varying electric fields,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 053416, 1–20 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. M. H. Crompvoets, H. L. Bethlem, R. T. Jongma, and G. Meijer, “A prototype storage ring for neutral molecules,” Nature 411, 174–176 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, A. Crubellier, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Formation of Cs2 cold molecules through photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4402–4405 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. N. Nikolov, E. E. Eyler, X. T. Wang, J. Li, H. Wang, W. C. Stwalley, and P. L. Gould, “Observation of ultracold ground state potassium molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 703–706 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. N. Nikolov, J. R. Enscher, E. E. Eyler, H. Wang, W. C. Stwalley, and P. L. Gould, “Efficient production of ground state potassium molecules at sub-mK temperatures by two-step photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 246–249 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. Gabbanini, A. Fioretti, A. Lucchesini, S. Gozzini, and M. Mazzoni, “Cold rubidium molecules formed in a magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2814–2817 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. R. Thorsheim, J. Weiner, and P. S. Julienne, “Laser-induced photoassociation of ultracold sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2420–2423 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, C. Drag, C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Photoassociative spectroscopy of the Cs2 0g long-range state,” Eur. J. Phys. D 5, 389–403 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. M. Dion, C. Drag, O. Dulieu, B. Laburthe Tolra, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Resonant coupling in the formation of ultracold ground state molecules via photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2253–2256 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. Co⁁té and A. Dalgarno, “Photoassociation intensities and radiative trap loss in lithium,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 498–508 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. M. Dion, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat, W. de Souza Melo, N. Vanhaecke, P. Pillet, R. Beuc, S. Milošević, and G. Pichler, “Photoionization and detection of ultracold Cs2 molecules through diffuse bands,” Eur. J. Phys. D 18, 365–370 (2002).
  19. C. Drag, B. Laburthe Tolra, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat, M. Vatasescu, S. Boussen, S. Guibal, A. Crubellier, and P. Pillet, “Experimental versus theoretical rates for photoassociation and for formation of ultracold molecules,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1378 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Vala, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and R. Kosloff, “Coherent control of cold molecule formation through photoassociation using a chirped pulsed laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 013412, 1–12 (2001).
  21. N. Vanhaecke, W. de Souza Melo, B. Laburthe Tolra, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Accumulation of cold cesium molecules via photoassociation in a mixed atomic and molecular trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 063001, 1–4 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. Tiesinga, C. J. Williams, and P. S. Julienne, “Photoassociative spectroscopy of highly excited vibrational levels of alkali dimers: Green’s function approach for eigenvalue solvers,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4257–4267 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. V. Kokoouline, O. Dulieu, R. Kosloff, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Mapped Fourier methods for long-range molecules: application to perturbations in the Rb2(0u+) photoassociation spectrum,” J. Chem. Phys. 110, 9865–9876 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  24. V. Kokoouline, O. Dulieu, R. Kosloff, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Theoretical treatment of channel mixing in excited Rb2 and Cs2 ultracold molecules. II. Determination of predissociation lifetimes with coordinate mapping,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 032716, 1–10 (2000).
  25. N. Spiess, “Ab initio calculations for Cs2,” Ph.D dissertation (Universität Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern, Germany, 1989).
  26. M. Foucrault, Ph. Millié, and J. P. Daudey, “Non-perturbative method for corevalence correlation in pseudopotential calculations: application to the Rb2 and Cs2 molecules,” J. Chem. Phys. 96, 1257–1264 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. Allouche, M. Korek, K. Fakherddin, A. Chaalan, M. Dagher, F. Taher, and M. Aubert-Frécon, “Theoretical electronic structure of RbCs revisited,” J. Phys. B 33, 2307–2316 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. Marinescu and A. Dalgarno, “Analytical interaction potentials of the long range alkali-metal dimers,” Z. Phys. D 36, 239–258 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  29. C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, R. F. Gutterres, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Determination of the Cs2 0g(P3/2) potential curve and Cs 6p1/2, 3/2 radiative lifetimes from photoassociation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 052506, 1–9 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  30. L. Young, W. T. Hill III, S. J. Sibener, S. D. Price, C. E. Tanner, C. E. Wieman, and S. R. Leone, “Precision lifetime measurements of Cs 6p 2P1/2 and Cs 6p 2P3/2 levels by single-photon counting,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 2174–2181 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. R. J. Rafac, C. E. Tanner, A. E. Livingston, K. W. Kukla, H. G. Berry, and C. A. Kurtz, “Fast-beam laser lifetime measurements of the cesium 6p2 P1/2, 3/2 states,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 3648–3662 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  32. A. Derevianko and S. G. Porsev, “Determination of lifetimes of 6PJ levels and ground-state polarizability of Cs from van der Waals coefficient C6,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 053403 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  33. C. Drag, B. Laburthe Tolra, B. T’Jampens, D. Comparat, M. Allegrini, A. Crubellier, and P. Pillet, “Photoassociative spectroscopy as a self-sufficient tool for the determination of the Cs triplet scattering length,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1408–1411 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. P. J. Leo, C. J. Williams, and P. S. Julienne, “Collision properties of ultracold 133Cs atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2721–2724 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. E. I. Dashevskaya, A. I. Voronin, and E. E. Nikitin, “Theory of excitation transfer in collisions between alkali atoms. I. Identical partners,” Can. J. Phys. 47, 1237–1246 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  36. E. I. Dashevskaya and E. E. Nikitin, “Polarization transfer and relaxation induced in collisions of excited alkali atoms,” Can. J. Phys. 54, 709–719 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  37. P. S. Julienne and J. Vigué, “Cold collisions of ground and excited state alkali-metal atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 4464–4485 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, and J. Vergès, “Resolution of the apparent disorder of the Rb2 A 1Σu+(0u+) and b 3Πu(0u+) spectra: a case of fully coupled electronic states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2316–2319 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  39. R. J. Le Roy and R. B. Bernstein, “Dissociation energy and long-range potential of diatomic molecules from vibrational spacings of higher levels,” J. Chem. Phys. 52, 3869–3874 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  40. V. N. Ostrovsky, V. Kokoouline, E. Luc-Koenig, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Lu–Fano plots for potentials with non-Coulomb tails: application to vibrational spectra of long-range diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. B 34, L27–L38 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  41. K. T. Lu and U. Fano, “Graphic analysis of perturbed Rydberg Series,” Phys. Rev. A 2, 81–86 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  42. V. Kokoouline, C. Drag, P. Pillet, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Lu–Fano plots for interpretation of the photoassociation spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 062710, 1–10 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  43. A. Fioretti, E. Arimondo, and A. Crubellier, “Flux enhancement model for cold cesium fine-structure changing collisions,” Eur. J. Phys. D 12, 219–225 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  44. M. Lintz and M. A. Bouchiat, “Dimer destruction in a Cs vapor by a laser close to atomic resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2570–2573 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  45. P. Pellegrini, O. Dulieu, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Formation of Cs2 molecules via Feshbach resonances stabilized by spontaneous emission: theoretical treatment with the Fourier grid method,” Eur. J. Phys. 20, 77–86 (2002).

2002 (8)

J. J. Hudson, B. E. Sauer, M. R. Tarbutt, and E. A. Hinds, “Measurement of the electron electric dipole moment using YbF molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 023003, 1–4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, F. M. H. Crompvoets, R. T. Jongma, S. Y. T. van de Meerakker, and G. Meijer, “Deceleration and trapping of ammonia using time-varying electric fields,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 053416, 1–20 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Dion, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat, W. de Souza Melo, N. Vanhaecke, P. Pillet, R. Beuc, S. Milošević, and G. Pichler, “Photoionization and detection of ultracold Cs2 molecules through diffuse bands,” Eur. J. Phys. D 18, 365–370 (2002).

N. Vanhaecke, W. de Souza Melo, B. Laburthe Tolra, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Accumulation of cold cesium molecules via photoassociation in a mixed atomic and molecular trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 063001, 1–4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, R. F. Gutterres, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Determination of the Cs2 0g(P3/2) potential curve and Cs 6p1/2, 3/2 radiative lifetimes from photoassociation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 052506, 1–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Derevianko and S. G. Porsev, “Determination of lifetimes of 6PJ levels and ground-state polarizability of Cs from van der Waals coefficient C6,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 053403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Kokoouline, C. Drag, P. Pillet, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Lu–Fano plots for interpretation of the photoassociation spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 062710, 1–10 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Pellegrini, O. Dulieu, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Formation of Cs2 molecules via Feshbach resonances stabilized by spontaneous emission: theoretical treatment with the Fourier grid method,” Eur. J. Phys. 20, 77–86 (2002).

2001 (4)

V. N. Ostrovsky, V. Kokoouline, E. Luc-Koenig, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Lu–Fano plots for potentials with non-Coulomb tails: application to vibrational spectra of long-range diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. B 34, L27–L38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Vala, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and R. Kosloff, “Coherent control of cold molecule formation through photoassociation using a chirped pulsed laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 013412, 1–12 (2001).

C. M. Dion, C. Drag, O. Dulieu, B. Laburthe Tolra, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Resonant coupling in the formation of ultracold ground state molecules via photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2253–2256 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. M. H. Crompvoets, H. L. Bethlem, R. T. Jongma, and G. Meijer, “A prototype storage ring for neutral molecules,” Nature 411, 174–176 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (10)

H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, A. J. A. van Roij, F. M. H. Crompvoets, and G. Meijer, “Trapping neutral molecules in a traveling potential well,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5744–5747 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, F. M. H. Crompvoets, R. T. Jongma, A. J. A. van Roij, and G. Meijer, “Electrostatic trapping of ammonia molecules,” Nature 406, 491–494 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Drag, B. Laburthe Tolra, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat, M. Vatasescu, S. Boussen, S. Guibal, A. Crubellier, and P. Pillet, “Experimental versus theoretical rates for photoassociation and for formation of ultracold molecules,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1378 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Nikolov, J. R. Enscher, E. E. Eyler, H. Wang, W. C. Stwalley, and P. L. Gould, “Efficient production of ground state potassium molecules at sub-mK temperatures by two-step photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 246–249 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gabbanini, A. Fioretti, A. Lucchesini, S. Gozzini, and M. Mazzoni, “Cold rubidium molecules formed in a magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2814–2817 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Kokoouline, O. Dulieu, R. Kosloff, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Theoretical treatment of channel mixing in excited Rb2 and Cs2 ultracold molecules. II. Determination of predissociation lifetimes with coordinate mapping,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 032716, 1–10 (2000).

A. Allouche, M. Korek, K. Fakherddin, A. Chaalan, M. Dagher, F. Taher, and M. Aubert-Frécon, “Theoretical electronic structure of RbCs revisited,” J. Phys. B 33, 2307–2316 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Drag, B. Laburthe Tolra, B. T’Jampens, D. Comparat, M. Allegrini, A. Crubellier, and P. Pillet, “Photoassociative spectroscopy as a self-sufficient tool for the determination of the Cs triplet scattering length,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1408–1411 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Leo, C. J. Williams, and P. S. Julienne, “Collision properties of ultracold 133Cs atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2721–2724 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Fioretti, E. Arimondo, and A. Crubellier, “Flux enhancement model for cold cesium fine-structure changing collisions,” Eur. J. Phys. D 12, 219–225 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (7)

C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, and J. Vergès, “Resolution of the apparent disorder of the Rb2 A 1Σu+(0u+) and b 3Πu(0u+) spectra: a case of fully coupled electronic states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2316–2319 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Kokoouline, O. Dulieu, R. Kosloff, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Mapped Fourier methods for long-range molecules: application to perturbations in the Rb2(0u+) photoassociation spectrum,” J. Chem. Phys. 110, 9865–9876 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Rafac, C. E. Tanner, A. E. Livingston, K. W. Kukla, H. G. Berry, and C. A. Kurtz, “Fast-beam laser lifetime measurements of the cesium 6p2 P1/2, 3/2 states,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 3648–3662 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, C. Drag, C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Photoassociative spectroscopy of the Cs2 0g long-range state,” Eur. J. Phys. D 5, 389–403 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Nikolov, E. E. Eyler, X. T. Wang, J. Li, H. Wang, W. C. Stwalley, and P. L. Gould, “Observation of ultracold ground state potassium molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 703–706 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Doyle and B. Friedrich, “Molecules are cool,” Nature 401, 749–751 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, and G. Meijer, “Decelerating neutral dipolar molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1558–1561 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (6)

J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, T. Guillet, B. Friedrich, and J. M. Doyle, “Magnetic trapping of calcium monohydride molecules at millikelvin temperatures,” Nature 395, 148–150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, A. Crubellier, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Formation of Cs2 cold molecules through photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4402–4405 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Higgins, C. Callegari, J. Reho, F. Stienkemeier, W. E. Ernst, M. Gutowski, and G. Scoles, “Helium cluster isolation spectroscopy of alkali dimers in the triplet manifold,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 4952–4965 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Co⁁té and A. Dalgarno, “Photoassociation intensities and radiative trap loss in lithium,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 498–508 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Tiesinga, C. J. Williams, and P. S. Julienne, “Photoassociative spectroscopy of highly excited vibrational levels of alkali dimers: Green’s function approach for eigenvalue solvers,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4257–4267 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Lintz and M. A. Bouchiat, “Dimer destruction in a Cs vapor by a laser close to atomic resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2570–2573 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Marinescu and A. Dalgarno, “Analytical interaction potentials of the long range alkali-metal dimers,” Z. Phys. D 36, 239–258 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

L. Young, W. T. Hill III, S. J. Sibener, S. D. Price, C. E. Tanner, C. E. Wieman, and S. R. Leone, “Precision lifetime measurements of Cs 6p 2P1/2 and Cs 6p 2P3/2 levels by single-photon counting,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 2174–2181 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

M. Foucrault, Ph. Millié, and J. P. Daudey, “Non-perturbative method for corevalence correlation in pseudopotential calculations: application to the Rb2 and Cs2 molecules,” J. Chem. Phys. 96, 1257–1264 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

P. S. Julienne and J. Vigué, “Cold collisions of ground and excited state alkali-metal atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 4464–4485 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

H. R. Thorsheim, J. Weiner, and P. S. Julienne, “Laser-induced photoassociation of ultracold sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2420–2423 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

E. I. Dashevskaya and E. E. Nikitin, “Polarization transfer and relaxation induced in collisions of excited alkali atoms,” Can. J. Phys. 54, 709–719 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1970 (2)

R. J. Le Roy and R. B. Bernstein, “Dissociation energy and long-range potential of diatomic molecules from vibrational spacings of higher levels,” J. Chem. Phys. 52, 3869–3874 (1970).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Lu and U. Fano, “Graphic analysis of perturbed Rydberg Series,” Phys. Rev. A 2, 81–86 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

E. I. Dashevskaya, A. I. Voronin, and E. E. Nikitin, “Theory of excitation transfer in collisions between alkali atoms. I. Identical partners,” Can. J. Phys. 47, 1237–1246 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Allegrini, M.

C. Drag, B. Laburthe Tolra, B. T’Jampens, D. Comparat, M. Allegrini, A. Crubellier, and P. Pillet, “Photoassociative spectroscopy as a self-sufficient tool for the determination of the Cs triplet scattering length,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1408–1411 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allouche, A.

A. Allouche, M. Korek, K. Fakherddin, A. Chaalan, M. Dagher, F. Taher, and M. Aubert-Frécon, “Theoretical electronic structure of RbCs revisited,” J. Phys. B 33, 2307–2316 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Amiot, C.

C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, R. F. Gutterres, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Determination of the Cs2 0g(P3/2) potential curve and Cs 6p1/2, 3/2 radiative lifetimes from photoassociation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 052506, 1–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, C. Drag, C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Photoassociative spectroscopy of the Cs2 0g long-range state,” Eur. J. Phys. D 5, 389–403 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, and J. Vergès, “Resolution of the apparent disorder of the Rb2 A 1Σu+(0u+) and b 3Πu(0u+) spectra: a case of fully coupled electronic states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2316–2319 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Arimondo, E.

A. Fioretti, E. Arimondo, and A. Crubellier, “Flux enhancement model for cold cesium fine-structure changing collisions,” Eur. J. Phys. D 12, 219–225 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Aubert-Frécon, M.

A. Allouche, M. Korek, K. Fakherddin, A. Chaalan, M. Dagher, F. Taher, and M. Aubert-Frécon, “Theoretical electronic structure of RbCs revisited,” J. Phys. B 33, 2307–2316 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Berden, G.

H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, F. M. H. Crompvoets, R. T. Jongma, S. Y. T. van de Meerakker, and G. Meijer, “Deceleration and trapping of ammonia using time-varying electric fields,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 053416, 1–20 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, A. J. A. van Roij, F. M. H. Crompvoets, and G. Meijer, “Trapping neutral molecules in a traveling potential well,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5744–5747 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, F. M. H. Crompvoets, R. T. Jongma, A. J. A. van Roij, and G. Meijer, “Electrostatic trapping of ammonia molecules,” Nature 406, 491–494 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, and G. Meijer, “Decelerating neutral dipolar molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1558–1561 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bernstein, R. B.

R. J. Le Roy and R. B. Bernstein, “Dissociation energy and long-range potential of diatomic molecules from vibrational spacings of higher levels,” J. Chem. Phys. 52, 3869–3874 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Berry, H. G.

R. J. Rafac, C. E. Tanner, A. E. Livingston, K. W. Kukla, H. G. Berry, and C. A. Kurtz, “Fast-beam laser lifetime measurements of the cesium 6p2 P1/2, 3/2 states,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 3648–3662 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bethlem, H. L.

H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, F. M. H. Crompvoets, R. T. Jongma, S. Y. T. van de Meerakker, and G. Meijer, “Deceleration and trapping of ammonia using time-varying electric fields,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 053416, 1–20 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. M. H. Crompvoets, H. L. Bethlem, R. T. Jongma, and G. Meijer, “A prototype storage ring for neutral molecules,” Nature 411, 174–176 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, A. J. A. van Roij, F. M. H. Crompvoets, and G. Meijer, “Trapping neutral molecules in a traveling potential well,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5744–5747 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. M. Dion, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat, W. de Souza Melo, N. Vanhaecke, P. Pillet, R. Beuc, S. Milošević, and G. Pichler, “Photoionization and detection of ultracold Cs2 molecules through diffuse bands,” Eur. J. Phys. D 18, 365–370 (2002).

C. Drag, B. Laburthe Tolra, B. T’Jampens, D. Comparat, M. Allegrini, A. Crubellier, and P. Pillet, “Photoassociative spectroscopy as a self-sufficient tool for the determination of the Cs triplet scattering length,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1408–1411 (2000).
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C. Drag, B. Laburthe Tolra, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat, M. Vatasescu, S. Boussen, S. Guibal, A. Crubellier, and P. Pillet, “Experimental versus theoretical rates for photoassociation and for formation of ultracold molecules,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1378 (2000).
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A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, C. Drag, C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Photoassociative spectroscopy of the Cs2 0g long-range state,” Eur. J. Phys. D 5, 389–403 (1999).
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A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, A. Crubellier, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Formation of Cs2 cold molecules through photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4402–4405 (1998).
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H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, F. M. H. Crompvoets, R. T. Jongma, S. Y. T. van de Meerakker, and G. Meijer, “Deceleration and trapping of ammonia using time-varying electric fields,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 053416, 1–20 (2002).
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F. M. H. Crompvoets, H. L. Bethlem, R. T. Jongma, and G. Meijer, “A prototype storage ring for neutral molecules,” Nature 411, 174–176 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, A. J. A. van Roij, F. M. H. Crompvoets, and G. Meijer, “Trapping neutral molecules in a traveling potential well,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5744–5747 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, F. M. H. Crompvoets, R. T. Jongma, A. J. A. van Roij, and G. Meijer, “Electrostatic trapping of ammonia molecules,” Nature 406, 491–494 (2000).
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A. Fioretti, E. Arimondo, and A. Crubellier, “Flux enhancement model for cold cesium fine-structure changing collisions,” Eur. J. Phys. D 12, 219–225 (2000).
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C. Drag, B. Laburthe Tolra, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat, M. Vatasescu, S. Boussen, S. Guibal, A. Crubellier, and P. Pillet, “Experimental versus theoretical rates for photoassociation and for formation of ultracold molecules,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1378 (2000).
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C. Drag, B. Laburthe Tolra, B. T’Jampens, D. Comparat, M. Allegrini, A. Crubellier, and P. Pillet, “Photoassociative spectroscopy as a self-sufficient tool for the determination of the Cs triplet scattering length,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1408–1411 (2000).
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A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, A. Crubellier, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Formation of Cs2 cold molecules through photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4402–4405 (1998).
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A. Allouche, M. Korek, K. Fakherddin, A. Chaalan, M. Dagher, F. Taher, and M. Aubert-Frécon, “Theoretical electronic structure of RbCs revisited,” J. Phys. B 33, 2307–2316 (2000).
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R. Co⁁té and A. Dalgarno, “Photoassociation intensities and radiative trap loss in lithium,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 498–508 (1998).
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C. M. Dion, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat, W. de Souza Melo, N. Vanhaecke, P. Pillet, R. Beuc, S. Milošević, and G. Pichler, “Photoionization and detection of ultracold Cs2 molecules through diffuse bands,” Eur. J. Phys. D 18, 365–370 (2002).

N. Vanhaecke, W. de Souza Melo, B. Laburthe Tolra, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Accumulation of cold cesium molecules via photoassociation in a mixed atomic and molecular trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 063001, 1–4 (2002).
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J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, T. Guillet, B. Friedrich, and J. M. Doyle, “Magnetic trapping of calcium monohydride molecules at millikelvin temperatures,” Nature 395, 148–150 (1998).
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C. M. Dion, C. Drag, O. Dulieu, B. Laburthe Tolra, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Resonant coupling in the formation of ultracold ground state molecules via photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2253–2256 (2001).
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J. M. Doyle and B. Friedrich, “Molecules are cool,” Nature 401, 749–751 (1999).
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V. Kokoouline, C. Drag, P. Pillet, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Lu–Fano plots for interpretation of the photoassociation spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 062710, 1–10 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Dion, C. Drag, O. Dulieu, B. Laburthe Tolra, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Resonant coupling in the formation of ultracold ground state molecules via photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2253–2256 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Drag, B. Laburthe Tolra, B. T’Jampens, D. Comparat, M. Allegrini, A. Crubellier, and P. Pillet, “Photoassociative spectroscopy as a self-sufficient tool for the determination of the Cs triplet scattering length,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1408–1411 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Drag, B. Laburthe Tolra, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat, M. Vatasescu, S. Boussen, S. Guibal, A. Crubellier, and P. Pillet, “Experimental versus theoretical rates for photoassociation and for formation of ultracold molecules,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1378 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, C. Drag, C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Photoassociative spectroscopy of the Cs2 0g long-range state,” Eur. J. Phys. D 5, 389–403 (1999).
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Dulieu, O.

C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, R. F. Gutterres, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Determination of the Cs2 0g(P3/2) potential curve and Cs 6p1/2, 3/2 radiative lifetimes from photoassociation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 052506, 1–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Dion, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat, W. de Souza Melo, N. Vanhaecke, P. Pillet, R. Beuc, S. Milošević, and G. Pichler, “Photoionization and detection of ultracold Cs2 molecules through diffuse bands,” Eur. J. Phys. D 18, 365–370 (2002).

P. Pellegrini, O. Dulieu, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Formation of Cs2 molecules via Feshbach resonances stabilized by spontaneous emission: theoretical treatment with the Fourier grid method,” Eur. J. Phys. 20, 77–86 (2002).

C. M. Dion, C. Drag, O. Dulieu, B. Laburthe Tolra, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Resonant coupling in the formation of ultracold ground state molecules via photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2253–2256 (2001).
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J. Vala, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and R. Kosloff, “Coherent control of cold molecule formation through photoassociation using a chirped pulsed laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 013412, 1–12 (2001).

V. Kokoouline, O. Dulieu, R. Kosloff, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Theoretical treatment of channel mixing in excited Rb2 and Cs2 ultracold molecules. II. Determination of predissociation lifetimes with coordinate mapping,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 032716, 1–10 (2000).

C. Drag, B. Laburthe Tolra, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat, M. Vatasescu, S. Boussen, S. Guibal, A. Crubellier, and P. Pillet, “Experimental versus theoretical rates for photoassociation and for formation of ultracold molecules,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1378 (2000).
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C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, and J. Vergès, “Resolution of the apparent disorder of the Rb2 A 1Σu+(0u+) and b 3Πu(0u+) spectra: a case of fully coupled electronic states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2316–2319 (1999).
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A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, C. Drag, C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Photoassociative spectroscopy of the Cs2 0g long-range state,” Eur. J. Phys. D 5, 389–403 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Kokoouline, O. Dulieu, R. Kosloff, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Mapped Fourier methods for long-range molecules: application to perturbations in the Rb2(0u+) photoassociation spectrum,” J. Chem. Phys. 110, 9865–9876 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, A. Crubellier, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Formation of Cs2 cold molecules through photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4402–4405 (1998).
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A. N. Nikolov, J. R. Enscher, E. E. Eyler, H. Wang, W. C. Stwalley, and P. L. Gould, “Efficient production of ground state potassium molecules at sub-mK temperatures by two-step photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 246–249 (2000).
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J. Higgins, C. Callegari, J. Reho, F. Stienkemeier, W. E. Ernst, M. Gutowski, and G. Scoles, “Helium cluster isolation spectroscopy of alkali dimers in the triplet manifold,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 4952–4965 (1998).
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A. N. Nikolov, J. R. Enscher, E. E. Eyler, H. Wang, W. C. Stwalley, and P. L. Gould, “Efficient production of ground state potassium molecules at sub-mK temperatures by two-step photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 246–249 (2000).
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A. N. Nikolov, E. E. Eyler, X. T. Wang, J. Li, H. Wang, W. C. Stwalley, and P. L. Gould, “Observation of ultracold ground state potassium molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 703–706 (1999).
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A. Allouche, M. Korek, K. Fakherddin, A. Chaalan, M. Dagher, F. Taher, and M. Aubert-Frécon, “Theoretical electronic structure of RbCs revisited,” J. Phys. B 33, 2307–2316 (2000).
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A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, C. Drag, C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Photoassociative spectroscopy of the Cs2 0g long-range state,” Eur. J. Phys. D 5, 389–403 (1999).
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A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, A. Crubellier, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Formation of Cs2 cold molecules through photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4402–4405 (1998).
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M. Foucrault, Ph. Millié, and J. P. Daudey, “Non-perturbative method for corevalence correlation in pseudopotential calculations: application to the Rb2 and Cs2 molecules,” J. Chem. Phys. 96, 1257–1264 (1992).
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Friedrich, B.

J. M. Doyle and B. Friedrich, “Molecules are cool,” Nature 401, 749–751 (1999).
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J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, T. Guillet, B. Friedrich, and J. M. Doyle, “Magnetic trapping of calcium monohydride molecules at millikelvin temperatures,” Nature 395, 148–150 (1998).
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C. Gabbanini, A. Fioretti, A. Lucchesini, S. Gozzini, and M. Mazzoni, “Cold rubidium molecules formed in a magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2814–2817 (2000).
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A. N. Nikolov, J. R. Enscher, E. E. Eyler, H. Wang, W. C. Stwalley, and P. L. Gould, “Efficient production of ground state potassium molecules at sub-mK temperatures by two-step photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 246–249 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Nikolov, E. E. Eyler, X. T. Wang, J. Li, H. Wang, W. C. Stwalley, and P. L. Gould, “Observation of ultracold ground state potassium molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 703–706 (1999).
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C. Gabbanini, A. Fioretti, A. Lucchesini, S. Gozzini, and M. Mazzoni, “Cold rubidium molecules formed in a magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2814–2817 (2000).
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C. Drag, B. Laburthe Tolra, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat, M. Vatasescu, S. Boussen, S. Guibal, A. Crubellier, and P. Pillet, “Experimental versus theoretical rates for photoassociation and for formation of ultracold molecules,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1378 (2000).
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J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, T. Guillet, B. Friedrich, and J. M. Doyle, “Magnetic trapping of calcium monohydride molecules at millikelvin temperatures,” Nature 395, 148–150 (1998).
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J. Higgins, C. Callegari, J. Reho, F. Stienkemeier, W. E. Ernst, M. Gutowski, and G. Scoles, “Helium cluster isolation spectroscopy of alkali dimers in the triplet manifold,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 4952–4965 (1998).
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C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, R. F. Gutterres, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Determination of the Cs2 0g(P3/2) potential curve and Cs 6p1/2, 3/2 radiative lifetimes from photoassociation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 052506, 1–9 (2002).
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J. Higgins, C. Callegari, J. Reho, F. Stienkemeier, W. E. Ernst, M. Gutowski, and G. Scoles, “Helium cluster isolation spectroscopy of alkali dimers in the triplet manifold,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 4952–4965 (1998).
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F. M. H. Crompvoets, H. L. Bethlem, R. T. Jongma, and G. Meijer, “A prototype storage ring for neutral molecules,” Nature 411, 174–176 (2001).
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H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, F. M. H. Crompvoets, R. T. Jongma, A. J. A. van Roij, and G. Meijer, “Electrostatic trapping of ammonia molecules,” Nature 406, 491–494 (2000).
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V. Kokoouline, C. Drag, P. Pillet, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Lu–Fano plots for interpretation of the photoassociation spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 062710, 1–10 (2002).
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V. Kokoouline, O. Dulieu, R. Kosloff, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Mapped Fourier methods for long-range molecules: application to perturbations in the Rb2(0u+) photoassociation spectrum,” J. Chem. Phys. 110, 9865–9876 (1999).
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A. Allouche, M. Korek, K. Fakherddin, A. Chaalan, M. Dagher, F. Taher, and M. Aubert-Frécon, “Theoretical electronic structure of RbCs revisited,” J. Phys. B 33, 2307–2316 (2000).
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J. Vala, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and R. Kosloff, “Coherent control of cold molecule formation through photoassociation using a chirped pulsed laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 013412, 1–12 (2001).

V. Kokoouline, O. Dulieu, R. Kosloff, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Theoretical treatment of channel mixing in excited Rb2 and Cs2 ultracold molecules. II. Determination of predissociation lifetimes with coordinate mapping,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 032716, 1–10 (2000).

V. Kokoouline, O. Dulieu, R. Kosloff, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Mapped Fourier methods for long-range molecules: application to perturbations in the Rb2(0u+) photoassociation spectrum,” J. Chem. Phys. 110, 9865–9876 (1999).
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N. Vanhaecke, W. de Souza Melo, B. Laburthe Tolra, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Accumulation of cold cesium molecules via photoassociation in a mixed atomic and molecular trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 063001, 1–4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Drag, B. Laburthe Tolra, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat, M. Vatasescu, S. Boussen, S. Guibal, A. Crubellier, and P. Pillet, “Experimental versus theoretical rates for photoassociation and for formation of ultracold molecules,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1378 (2000).
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L. Young, W. T. Hill III, S. J. Sibener, S. D. Price, C. E. Tanner, C. E. Wieman, and S. R. Leone, “Precision lifetime measurements of Cs 6p 2P1/2 and Cs 6p 2P3/2 levels by single-photon counting,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 2174–2181 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

A. N. Nikolov, E. E. Eyler, X. T. Wang, J. Li, H. Wang, W. C. Stwalley, and P. L. Gould, “Observation of ultracold ground state potassium molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 703–706 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lintz, M.

M. Lintz and M. A. Bouchiat, “Dimer destruction in a Cs vapor by a laser close to atomic resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2570–2573 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Livingston, A. E.

R. J. Rafac, C. E. Tanner, A. E. Livingston, K. W. Kukla, H. G. Berry, and C. A. Kurtz, “Fast-beam laser lifetime measurements of the cesium 6p2 P1/2, 3/2 states,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 3648–3662 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lu, K. T.

K. T. Lu and U. Fano, “Graphic analysis of perturbed Rydberg Series,” Phys. Rev. A 2, 81–86 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Lucchesini, A.

C. Gabbanini, A. Fioretti, A. Lucchesini, S. Gozzini, and M. Mazzoni, “Cold rubidium molecules formed in a magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2814–2817 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luc-Koenig, E.

V. N. Ostrovsky, V. Kokoouline, E. Luc-Koenig, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Lu–Fano plots for potentials with non-Coulomb tails: application to vibrational spectra of long-range diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. B 34, L27–L38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marinescu, M.

M. Marinescu and A. Dalgarno, “Analytical interaction potentials of the long range alkali-metal dimers,” Z. Phys. D 36, 239–258 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Masnou-Seeuws, F.

C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, R. F. Gutterres, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Determination of the Cs2 0g(P3/2) potential curve and Cs 6p1/2, 3/2 radiative lifetimes from photoassociation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 052506, 1–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Kokoouline, C. Drag, P. Pillet, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Lu–Fano plots for interpretation of the photoassociation spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 062710, 1–10 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Pellegrini, O. Dulieu, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Formation of Cs2 molecules via Feshbach resonances stabilized by spontaneous emission: theoretical treatment with the Fourier grid method,” Eur. J. Phys. 20, 77–86 (2002).

C. M. Dion, C. Drag, O. Dulieu, B. Laburthe Tolra, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Resonant coupling in the formation of ultracold ground state molecules via photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2253–2256 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vala, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and R. Kosloff, “Coherent control of cold molecule formation through photoassociation using a chirped pulsed laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 013412, 1–12 (2001).

V. N. Ostrovsky, V. Kokoouline, E. Luc-Koenig, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Lu–Fano plots for potentials with non-Coulomb tails: application to vibrational spectra of long-range diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. B 34, L27–L38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Kokoouline, O. Dulieu, R. Kosloff, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Theoretical treatment of channel mixing in excited Rb2 and Cs2 ultracold molecules. II. Determination of predissociation lifetimes with coordinate mapping,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 032716, 1–10 (2000).

V. Kokoouline, O. Dulieu, R. Kosloff, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Mapped Fourier methods for long-range molecules: application to perturbations in the Rb2(0u+) photoassociation spectrum,” J. Chem. Phys. 110, 9865–9876 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, C. Drag, C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Photoassociative spectroscopy of the Cs2 0g long-range state,” Eur. J. Phys. D 5, 389–403 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, A. Crubellier, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Formation of Cs2 cold molecules through photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4402–4405 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mazzoni, M.

C. Gabbanini, A. Fioretti, A. Lucchesini, S. Gozzini, and M. Mazzoni, “Cold rubidium molecules formed in a magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2814–2817 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meijer, G.

H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, F. M. H. Crompvoets, R. T. Jongma, S. Y. T. van de Meerakker, and G. Meijer, “Deceleration and trapping of ammonia using time-varying electric fields,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 053416, 1–20 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. M. H. Crompvoets, H. L. Bethlem, R. T. Jongma, and G. Meijer, “A prototype storage ring for neutral molecules,” Nature 411, 174–176 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, A. J. A. van Roij, F. M. H. Crompvoets, and G. Meijer, “Trapping neutral molecules in a traveling potential well,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5744–5747 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, F. M. H. Crompvoets, R. T. Jongma, A. J. A. van Roij, and G. Meijer, “Electrostatic trapping of ammonia molecules,” Nature 406, 491–494 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, and G. Meijer, “Decelerating neutral dipolar molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1558–1561 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Millié, Ph.

M. Foucrault, Ph. Millié, and J. P. Daudey, “Non-perturbative method for corevalence correlation in pseudopotential calculations: application to the Rb2 and Cs2 molecules,” J. Chem. Phys. 96, 1257–1264 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Miloševic, S.

C. M. Dion, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat, W. de Souza Melo, N. Vanhaecke, P. Pillet, R. Beuc, S. Milošević, and G. Pichler, “Photoionization and detection of ultracold Cs2 molecules through diffuse bands,” Eur. J. Phys. D 18, 365–370 (2002).

Nikitin, E. E.

E. I. Dashevskaya and E. E. Nikitin, “Polarization transfer and relaxation induced in collisions of excited alkali atoms,” Can. J. Phys. 54, 709–719 (1976).
[CrossRef]

E. I. Dashevskaya, A. I. Voronin, and E. E. Nikitin, “Theory of excitation transfer in collisions between alkali atoms. I. Identical partners,” Can. J. Phys. 47, 1237–1246 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Nikolov, A. N.

A. N. Nikolov, J. R. Enscher, E. E. Eyler, H. Wang, W. C. Stwalley, and P. L. Gould, “Efficient production of ground state potassium molecules at sub-mK temperatures by two-step photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 246–249 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Nikolov, E. E. Eyler, X. T. Wang, J. Li, H. Wang, W. C. Stwalley, and P. L. Gould, “Observation of ultracold ground state potassium molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 703–706 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ostrovsky, V. N.

V. N. Ostrovsky, V. Kokoouline, E. Luc-Koenig, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Lu–Fano plots for potentials with non-Coulomb tails: application to vibrational spectra of long-range diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. B 34, L27–L38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pellegrini, P.

P. Pellegrini, O. Dulieu, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Formation of Cs2 molecules via Feshbach resonances stabilized by spontaneous emission: theoretical treatment with the Fourier grid method,” Eur. J. Phys. 20, 77–86 (2002).

Pichler, G.

C. M. Dion, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat, W. de Souza Melo, N. Vanhaecke, P. Pillet, R. Beuc, S. Milošević, and G. Pichler, “Photoionization and detection of ultracold Cs2 molecules through diffuse bands,” Eur. J. Phys. D 18, 365–370 (2002).

Pillet, P.

C. M. Dion, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat, W. de Souza Melo, N. Vanhaecke, P. Pillet, R. Beuc, S. Milošević, and G. Pichler, “Photoionization and detection of ultracold Cs2 molecules through diffuse bands,” Eur. J. Phys. D 18, 365–370 (2002).

V. Kokoouline, C. Drag, P. Pillet, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Lu–Fano plots for interpretation of the photoassociation spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 062710, 1–10 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Vanhaecke, W. de Souza Melo, B. Laburthe Tolra, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Accumulation of cold cesium molecules via photoassociation in a mixed atomic and molecular trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 063001, 1–4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Dion, C. Drag, O. Dulieu, B. Laburthe Tolra, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Resonant coupling in the formation of ultracold ground state molecules via photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2253–2256 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Drag, B. Laburthe Tolra, B. T’Jampens, D. Comparat, M. Allegrini, A. Crubellier, and P. Pillet, “Photoassociative spectroscopy as a self-sufficient tool for the determination of the Cs triplet scattering length,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1408–1411 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Drag, B. Laburthe Tolra, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat, M. Vatasescu, S. Boussen, S. Guibal, A. Crubellier, and P. Pillet, “Experimental versus theoretical rates for photoassociation and for formation of ultracold molecules,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1378 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, C. Drag, C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Photoassociative spectroscopy of the Cs2 0g long-range state,” Eur. J. Phys. D 5, 389–403 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, A. Crubellier, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Formation of Cs2 cold molecules through photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4402–4405 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Porsev, S. G.

A. Derevianko and S. G. Porsev, “Determination of lifetimes of 6PJ levels and ground-state polarizability of Cs from van der Waals coefficient C6,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 053403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Price, S. D.

L. Young, W. T. Hill III, S. J. Sibener, S. D. Price, C. E. Tanner, C. E. Wieman, and S. R. Leone, “Precision lifetime measurements of Cs 6p 2P1/2 and Cs 6p 2P3/2 levels by single-photon counting,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 2174–2181 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rafac, R. J.

R. J. Rafac, C. E. Tanner, A. E. Livingston, K. W. Kukla, H. G. Berry, and C. A. Kurtz, “Fast-beam laser lifetime measurements of the cesium 6p2 P1/2, 3/2 states,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 3648–3662 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Reho, J.

J. Higgins, C. Callegari, J. Reho, F. Stienkemeier, W. E. Ernst, M. Gutowski, and G. Scoles, “Helium cluster isolation spectroscopy of alkali dimers in the triplet manifold,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 4952–4965 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sauer, B. E.

J. J. Hudson, B. E. Sauer, M. R. Tarbutt, and E. A. Hinds, “Measurement of the electron electric dipole moment using YbF molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 023003, 1–4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scoles, G.

J. Higgins, C. Callegari, J. Reho, F. Stienkemeier, W. E. Ernst, M. Gutowski, and G. Scoles, “Helium cluster isolation spectroscopy of alkali dimers in the triplet manifold,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 4952–4965 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sibener, S. J.

L. Young, W. T. Hill III, S. J. Sibener, S. D. Price, C. E. Tanner, C. E. Wieman, and S. R. Leone, “Precision lifetime measurements of Cs 6p 2P1/2 and Cs 6p 2P3/2 levels by single-photon counting,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 2174–2181 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stienkemeier, F.

J. Higgins, C. Callegari, J. Reho, F. Stienkemeier, W. E. Ernst, M. Gutowski, and G. Scoles, “Helium cluster isolation spectroscopy of alkali dimers in the triplet manifold,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 4952–4965 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stwalley, W. C.

A. N. Nikolov, J. R. Enscher, E. E. Eyler, H. Wang, W. C. Stwalley, and P. L. Gould, “Efficient production of ground state potassium molecules at sub-mK temperatures by two-step photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 246–249 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Nikolov, E. E. Eyler, X. T. Wang, J. Li, H. Wang, W. C. Stwalley, and P. L. Gould, “Observation of ultracold ground state potassium molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 703–706 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T’Jampens, B.

C. Drag, B. Laburthe Tolra, B. T’Jampens, D. Comparat, M. Allegrini, A. Crubellier, and P. Pillet, “Photoassociative spectroscopy as a self-sufficient tool for the determination of the Cs triplet scattering length,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1408–1411 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taher, F.

A. Allouche, M. Korek, K. Fakherddin, A. Chaalan, M. Dagher, F. Taher, and M. Aubert-Frécon, “Theoretical electronic structure of RbCs revisited,” J. Phys. B 33, 2307–2316 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tanner, C. E.

R. J. Rafac, C. E. Tanner, A. E. Livingston, K. W. Kukla, H. G. Berry, and C. A. Kurtz, “Fast-beam laser lifetime measurements of the cesium 6p2 P1/2, 3/2 states,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 3648–3662 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Young, W. T. Hill III, S. J. Sibener, S. D. Price, C. E. Tanner, C. E. Wieman, and S. R. Leone, “Precision lifetime measurements of Cs 6p 2P1/2 and Cs 6p 2P3/2 levels by single-photon counting,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 2174–2181 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tarbutt, M. R.

J. J. Hudson, B. E. Sauer, M. R. Tarbutt, and E. A. Hinds, “Measurement of the electron electric dipole moment using YbF molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 023003, 1–4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thorsheim, H. R.

H. R. Thorsheim, J. Weiner, and P. S. Julienne, “Laser-induced photoassociation of ultracold sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2420–2423 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tiesinga, E.

E. Tiesinga, C. J. Williams, and P. S. Julienne, “Photoassociative spectroscopy of highly excited vibrational levels of alkali dimers: Green’s function approach for eigenvalue solvers,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4257–4267 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vala, J.

J. Vala, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and R. Kosloff, “Coherent control of cold molecule formation through photoassociation using a chirped pulsed laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 013412, 1–12 (2001).

van de Meerakker, S. Y. T.

H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, F. M. H. Crompvoets, R. T. Jongma, S. Y. T. van de Meerakker, and G. Meijer, “Deceleration and trapping of ammonia using time-varying electric fields,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 053416, 1–20 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van Roij, A. J. A.

H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, A. J. A. van Roij, F. M. H. Crompvoets, and G. Meijer, “Trapping neutral molecules in a traveling potential well,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5744–5747 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, F. M. H. Crompvoets, R. T. Jongma, A. J. A. van Roij, and G. Meijer, “Electrostatic trapping of ammonia molecules,” Nature 406, 491–494 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vanhaecke, N.

N. Vanhaecke, W. de Souza Melo, B. Laburthe Tolra, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Accumulation of cold cesium molecules via photoassociation in a mixed atomic and molecular trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 063001, 1–4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Dion, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat, W. de Souza Melo, N. Vanhaecke, P. Pillet, R. Beuc, S. Milošević, and G. Pichler, “Photoionization and detection of ultracold Cs2 molecules through diffuse bands,” Eur. J. Phys. D 18, 365–370 (2002).

Vatasescu, M.

C. Drag, B. Laburthe Tolra, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat, M. Vatasescu, S. Boussen, S. Guibal, A. Crubellier, and P. Pillet, “Experimental versus theoretical rates for photoassociation and for formation of ultracold molecules,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1378 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vergès, J.

C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, and J. Vergès, “Resolution of the apparent disorder of the Rb2 A 1Σu+(0u+) and b 3Πu(0u+) spectra: a case of fully coupled electronic states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2316–2319 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vigué, J.

P. S. Julienne and J. Vigué, “Cold collisions of ground and excited state alkali-metal atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 4464–4485 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voronin, A. I.

E. I. Dashevskaya, A. I. Voronin, and E. E. Nikitin, “Theory of excitation transfer in collisions between alkali atoms. I. Identical partners,” Can. J. Phys. 47, 1237–1246 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

A. N. Nikolov, J. R. Enscher, E. E. Eyler, H. Wang, W. C. Stwalley, and P. L. Gould, “Efficient production of ground state potassium molecules at sub-mK temperatures by two-step photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 246–249 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Nikolov, E. E. Eyler, X. T. Wang, J. Li, H. Wang, W. C. Stwalley, and P. L. Gould, “Observation of ultracold ground state potassium molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 703–706 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. T.

A. N. Nikolov, E. E. Eyler, X. T. Wang, J. Li, H. Wang, W. C. Stwalley, and P. L. Gould, “Observation of ultracold ground state potassium molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 703–706 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, J.

H. R. Thorsheim, J. Weiner, and P. S. Julienne, “Laser-induced photoassociation of ultracold sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2420–2423 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinstein, J. D.

J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, T. Guillet, B. Friedrich, and J. M. Doyle, “Magnetic trapping of calcium monohydride molecules at millikelvin temperatures,” Nature 395, 148–150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wieman, C. E.

L. Young, W. T. Hill III, S. J. Sibener, S. D. Price, C. E. Tanner, C. E. Wieman, and S. R. Leone, “Precision lifetime measurements of Cs 6p 2P1/2 and Cs 6p 2P3/2 levels by single-photon counting,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 2174–2181 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, C. J.

P. J. Leo, C. J. Williams, and P. S. Julienne, “Collision properties of ultracold 133Cs atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2721–2724 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Tiesinga, C. J. Williams, and P. S. Julienne, “Photoassociative spectroscopy of highly excited vibrational levels of alkali dimers: Green’s function approach for eigenvalue solvers,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4257–4267 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Young, L.

L. Young, W. T. Hill III, S. J. Sibener, S. D. Price, C. E. Tanner, C. E. Wieman, and S. R. Leone, “Precision lifetime measurements of Cs 6p 2P1/2 and Cs 6p 2P3/2 levels by single-photon counting,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 2174–2181 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Can. J. Phys. (2)

E. I. Dashevskaya, A. I. Voronin, and E. E. Nikitin, “Theory of excitation transfer in collisions between alkali atoms. I. Identical partners,” Can. J. Phys. 47, 1237–1246 (1969).
[CrossRef]

E. I. Dashevskaya and E. E. Nikitin, “Polarization transfer and relaxation induced in collisions of excited alkali atoms,” Can. J. Phys. 54, 709–719 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Eur. J. Phys. (1)

P. Pellegrini, O. Dulieu, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Formation of Cs2 molecules via Feshbach resonances stabilized by spontaneous emission: theoretical treatment with the Fourier grid method,” Eur. J. Phys. 20, 77–86 (2002).

Eur. J. Phys. D (3)

A. Fioretti, E. Arimondo, and A. Crubellier, “Flux enhancement model for cold cesium fine-structure changing collisions,” Eur. J. Phys. D 12, 219–225 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, C. Drag, C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Photoassociative spectroscopy of the Cs2 0g long-range state,” Eur. J. Phys. D 5, 389–403 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Dion, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat, W. de Souza Melo, N. Vanhaecke, P. Pillet, R. Beuc, S. Milošević, and G. Pichler, “Photoionization and detection of ultracold Cs2 molecules through diffuse bands,” Eur. J. Phys. D 18, 365–370 (2002).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Drag, B. Laburthe Tolra, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat, M. Vatasescu, S. Boussen, S. Guibal, A. Crubellier, and P. Pillet, “Experimental versus theoretical rates for photoassociation and for formation of ultracold molecules,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1378 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (3)

V. Kokoouline, O. Dulieu, R. Kosloff, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Mapped Fourier methods for long-range molecules: application to perturbations in the Rb2(0u+) photoassociation spectrum,” J. Chem. Phys. 110, 9865–9876 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Foucrault, Ph. Millié, and J. P. Daudey, “Non-perturbative method for corevalence correlation in pseudopotential calculations: application to the Rb2 and Cs2 molecules,” J. Chem. Phys. 96, 1257–1264 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Le Roy and R. B. Bernstein, “Dissociation energy and long-range potential of diatomic molecules from vibrational spacings of higher levels,” J. Chem. Phys. 52, 3869–3874 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (2)

V. N. Ostrovsky, V. Kokoouline, E. Luc-Koenig, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Lu–Fano plots for potentials with non-Coulomb tails: application to vibrational spectra of long-range diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. B 34, L27–L38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Allouche, M. Korek, K. Fakherddin, A. Chaalan, M. Dagher, F. Taher, and M. Aubert-Frécon, “Theoretical electronic structure of RbCs revisited,” J. Phys. B 33, 2307–2316 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. A (1)

J. Higgins, C. Callegari, J. Reho, F. Stienkemeier, W. E. Ernst, M. Gutowski, and G. Scoles, “Helium cluster isolation spectroscopy of alkali dimers in the triplet manifold,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 4952–4965 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nature (4)

H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, F. M. H. Crompvoets, R. T. Jongma, A. J. A. van Roij, and G. Meijer, “Electrostatic trapping of ammonia molecules,” Nature 406, 491–494 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, T. Guillet, B. Friedrich, and J. M. Doyle, “Magnetic trapping of calcium monohydride molecules at millikelvin temperatures,” Nature 395, 148–150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Doyle and B. Friedrich, “Molecules are cool,” Nature 401, 749–751 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. M. H. Crompvoets, H. L. Bethlem, R. T. Jongma, and G. Meijer, “A prototype storage ring for neutral molecules,” Nature 411, 174–176 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (12)

J. Vala, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and R. Kosloff, “Coherent control of cold molecule formation through photoassociation using a chirped pulsed laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 013412, 1–12 (2001).

H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, F. M. H. Crompvoets, R. T. Jongma, S. Y. T. van de Meerakker, and G. Meijer, “Deceleration and trapping of ammonia using time-varying electric fields,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 053416, 1–20 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Kokoouline, O. Dulieu, R. Kosloff, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Theoretical treatment of channel mixing in excited Rb2 and Cs2 ultracold molecules. II. Determination of predissociation lifetimes with coordinate mapping,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 032716, 1–10 (2000).

R. Co⁁té and A. Dalgarno, “Photoassociation intensities and radiative trap loss in lithium,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 498–508 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Tiesinga, C. J. Williams, and P. S. Julienne, “Photoassociative spectroscopy of highly excited vibrational levels of alkali dimers: Green’s function approach for eigenvalue solvers,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4257–4267 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Julienne and J. Vigué, “Cold collisions of ground and excited state alkali-metal atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 4464–4485 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Z. Phys. D (1)

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Other (1)

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Formation of a Cs2 molecule through photoassociation of two cold ground-state cesium atoms by use of a laser of frequency λPA that is red detuned relative to the D2 resonance line. Long-range curves are shown for 0u+, 1g, 0g-, and 1u excited molecular states. Decay of the short-lived photoassociated molecule by spontaneous emission yields (i) dissociation, observed for all symmetries; (ii) stabilization into a bound level of the X 1Σg+ ground state, observed for photoassociation into a 1u level; and (iii) stabilization into a bound level of the a 3Σu+ lowest triplet state, observed for photoassociation into a 0g- level.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Various schemes for ultracold alkali atom photoassociation and stabilization by spontaneous emission into ultracold molecules. (a) Photoassociation [arrow (1)] towards double-well potential in Cs2 and spontaneous emission toward the lowest triplet state [arrow (2)]10 (b) Photoassociation [arrow (1)] toward states interacting through resonant coupling in Cs2 and spontaneous emission toward the ground state [arrow (2)],16 described in Section 4. (c) Two-photon photoassociation with transfer of population to a Rydberg state of K2 [arrows (1) and (2)]12 and spontaneous emission toward the ground state [arrow (2)]. Besides the potential curves, the squared moduli of scattering and vibrational wave functions are also represented.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Detection of ultracold molecules formed in the lowest triplet state by resonant two-photon ionization by a pulsed laser. The molecular ions produced are analyzed by time-of-flight spectroscopy. Molecules formed in the ground electronic state can be detected similarly.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cs2+ ion signal (lower trace in each figure) and trap fluorescence yield (upper trace) versus detuning of the photoassociation laser. Lines assigned to selected vibrational levels of the 0g-(6S+62P3/2) external well are indicated. The broad structures labeled 1u correspond to levels of the 1u(6S+62P3/2) external well shown in Fig. 1. An enlargement of a typical rotational structure is also given.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Potential curve of the 0g-(6S+62P3/2) external well, obtained from an asymptotic analysis29 (solid curve) and from the previous Rydberg–Klein–Rees analysis15 (open circles). The curve deduced from quantum chemistry calculations25 is recalled (filled circles). Insets emphasize differences among these various determinations (a) at large distances, (b) near the equilibrium distance, and (c) in the region of the barrier. The deviation of the Rydberg–Klein–Rees curve from the expected R-3 long-range behavior is clearly visible in inset (a).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Adiabatic potential curves for the Cs2 0u+(6S+62P1/2,3/2) states obtained from quantum-chemistry calculations.26 The Rb2 curves have qualitatively the same behavior. Avoidance of crossing of the curves is responsible for the fine-structure transition in Cs(62P3/2)+Cs(6S) or Rb(52P3/2)+Rb(5S) collisions and is important for trap-loss experiments.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Examples of perturbation in the rotational constants (expectation value of the inertia momentum) for the vibrational levels of the 87Rb2 0u+ states close to the 5S+52P1/2 dissociation limit. The computed values23 are given for two uncoupled states (triangles and squares) and two coupled states (circles). In the first case, as the 0u+(5S+52P3/2) curve is narrower than the 0u+(5S+52P1/2) curve (see Fig. 6), both the spacing of the levels and the rotational constant are larger. In the coupled-channel calculations, the rotational constant oscillates as a function of energy between values identical to the 0u+(5S+52P1/2) single-channel results (see, for instance, the downward-pointing arrows) and larger values at resonance (see, for instance, the diagonal upward-pointing arrow).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Squared modulus of radial wave functions of the 0u+ coupled states in 87Rb2, at resonance and off resonance, for the coupled-channel calculations presented in Fig. 7. The off-resonance case corresponds to the energy indicated by the downward-pointing arrows in Fig. 7. The vibrational motion occurs purely in the broad 0u+(5S+52P1/2) potential. At resonance, for an energy indicated by the diagonal upward-pointing arrow in Fig. 7, the molecule is vibrating in both potentials.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Formation of cold Cs2 molecules after photoassociation below the (6S+62P1/2) dissociation limit. Diamonds, number of cold molecules detected by two-photon ionization, as computed including the resonant coupling mechanism. Vertical lines, experimental molecular ion signal. Circles, no molecular ion detected when resonant coupling is not included in the model.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Le Roy–Bernstein law for vibrational levels of Cs2 [0u+(6S+62P3/2)] for single-channel calculations; the last computed level (v=528) is bound only by 10-10 cm-1.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Lu–Fano plot of the Cs2 0u+(6S+62P1/2,3/2) series. The two-coupled-channel calculations (circles) yield dissociation energies that are transformed into two effective vibrational quantum numbers, v(P3/2) and v(P1/2), by inversion of the Le Roy–Bernstein law in the 0u+(6S+62P3/2) and the 0u+(6S+62P1/2) channels, respectively. Solid curves, three-parameter fits from the Lu–Fano formula [see Eq. (9)].

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Lu–Fano plot for the Rb2 0u+(5S+52P1/2,3/2) series. The strong isotopic effect is due to the sensitivity of the model to the accumulated phase. The coupling parameter in the Lu–Fano formula increases when one goes from Cs2 to 87Rb2 and to 85Rb2.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Fit by a Lu–Fano plot (dashed curve) of the experimental photoassociation spectrum below the 6S+62P1/2 asymptote42 (filled circles). The three parameters in Eq. (9) can be extrapolated to predict predissociation lifetimes and fine-structure transition cross sections.42

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Schematic of formation of cold molecules through Feshbach resonance in an excited electronic state.45 An atom from a pair of ultracold atoms is excited [arrow (1)]. The energy of the resultant pair of atoms (dashed lines) coincides with the energy of a bound level in another potential curve, inducing a Feshbach resonance, which is stabilized by spontaneous emission at short distances toward the ground state [arrow (2)].

Equations (13)

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H=VΠ(R)-ΔΠΠ(R)29M2R3+ΔΣΠ(R)29M2R3+ΔΣΠ(R)VΣ(R).
VΣ/Π=n=3,6,8-CnΣ/ΠRn×fΣ/Π+Vex.
C3Π=-C3Σ2=-M23.
ΔΠΠ(R)=ΔEFS3tanh(AΠΠ×R),
ΔΠΣ(R)=2ΔEFS3tanh(AΠΣ×R),
Ev=D-[H3(vD-v)]6,
(D-Ev)1/6=H3(vD-v),
v*=(vD-v)=(D-Ev)1/6/H3.
tan[π(n1*+μ1)]=R1,22tan[π(n2*+μ2)],
Cs2*[3Σu+(6s+6p), E, J]
Cs2*[C 1Πu(6s+5d), v, J]
Cs2*[C 1Πu(6s+5d), v, J]
Cs2[X 1Σg+(6s+6s), v, J]+hν.

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