Abstract

For experiments with fast charged particles in storage rings, techniques for beam cooling have been developed for more than two decades. Stochastic cooling is most powerful for hot beams. Great progress has been made in its application to antiprotons. It will also be crucial for fast accumulation of rare isotope beams. Electron cooling, which is most beneficial for highly charged ions, is a reliable technique for lower energies. It can produce beams of exceptional phase space density, even entering the regime of ordering phenomena. Laser cooling is useful when a beam has to be cooled to its ultimate longitudinal temperature but suffers from the unavailability of direct transverse cooling. An introduction and a description of recent advances in the cooling of fast particles are given.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  43. I. Lauer, U. Eisenbarth, M. Grieser, R. Grimm, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, T. Schätz, U. Schramm, D. Schwalm, and M. Weidemüller, “Transverse laser cooling of a fast stored ion beam through dispersive coupling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2052–2055 (1998).
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2002 (1)

H. Danared, A. Källberg, K.-G. Rensfelt, and A. Simonsson, “Model and observations of Schottky-noise suppression in a cold heavy-ion beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 174801–174801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

M. Steck, L. Groening, K. Blasche, B. Franczak, B. Franzke, T. Winkler, and V. V. Parkhomchuk, “Beam accumulation with the SIS electron cooler,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 441, 175–182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Nagaitsev, A. Burov, A. C. Crawford, T. Kroc, J. MacLachlan, G. Saewert, C. W. Schmidt, A. Shemyakin, and A. Warner, “FNAL R&D in medium energy electron cooling,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 441, 241–245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

U. Eisenbart, M. Mudrich, B. Eike, M. Grieser, R. Grimm, V. Luger, T. Schätz, U. Schramm, D. Schwalm, and M. Weidemüller, “Anomalous behaviour of laser-cooled fast ion beams,” Hyperfine Interactions 127, 223–235 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. W. Hasse, “Theoretical verification of Coulomb order of ions in a storage ring,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3430–3433 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

I. Lauer, U. Eisenbarth, M. Grieser, R. Grimm, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, T. Schätz, U. Schramm, D. Schwalm, and M. Weidemüller, “Transverse laser cooling of a fast stored ion beam through dispersive coupling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2052–2055 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

H. Gao, R. Schuch, W. Zong, E. Justiniano, D. R. DeWitt, H. Lebius, and W. Spies, “Energy and charge dependence of the rate of electron-ion recombination in cold magnetized plasmas,” J. Phys. B 30, L499–L506 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Steck, “Methods to detect the properties of cooled heavy ion beams in storage rings,” Nucl. Phys. A 626, 473C–483C (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Nolden, D. Böhne, W. Bourgeois, B. Franzke, M. Steck, and A. Schwinn, “ESR stochastic precooling,” Nucl. Phys. A 626, 491C–494C (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

M. Steck, K. Beckert, H. Eickhoff, B. Franzke, F. Nolden, H. Reich, B. Schlitt, and T. Winkler, “Anomalous temperature reduction in cooled heavy ion beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3803–3806 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-J. Miesner, R. Grimm, M. Grieser, D. Habs, D. Schwalm, B. Wanner, and A. Wolf, “Efficient indirect transverse laser cooling of a fast stored ion beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 623–626 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

S. Baird, J. Bosser, C. Carli, M. Chanel, P. Lefèvre, R. Ley, R. Maccaferri, I. Meshkov, D. Möhl, G. Molinary, F. Motsch, G. Tranquille, and F. Varenne, “Measurement of the lifetime of Pb52+, Pb53+, Pb54+ beams at 4.2 MeV per nucleon subject to electron cooling,” Phys. Lett. B 361, 184–186 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Habs and R. Grimm, “Crystalline ion beams,” Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 45, 391–428 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

I. Meshkov, “Electron cooling: status and perspectives,” Phys. Part. Nucl. 25, 631–661 (1994).

H. Danared, G. Andler, L. Bagge, C. J. Herrlander, J. Hilke, J. Jeansson, A. Källberg, A. Nilsson, A. Paál, K.-G. Rensfelt, A. Rosengard, J. Starker, and M. aF Ugglas, “Electron cooling with an ultracold electron beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3775–3778 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

R. Giannini, P. Lefèvre, and D. Möhl, “SuperLEAR, conceptual machine design,” Nucl. Phys. A 558, 519C–536C (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

R. E. Pollock, “Storage rings for nuclear physics,” Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 1991.41, 357–388 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Hangst, M. Kristensen, J. S. Nielsen, O. Poulsen, J. P. Schiffer, and P. Shi, “Laser cooling of a stored ion beam to 1 mK,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1238–1241 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

S. Schröder, R. Klein, N. Boos, M. Gerhard, R. Grieser, G. Huber, A. Karafillidis, M. Krieg, N. Schmidt, T. Kühl, R. Neumann, V. Balykin, M. Grieser, D. Habs, E. Jaeschke, D. Krämer, M. Kristensen, M. Music, W. Petrich, D. Schwalm, P. Sigray, M. Steck, B. Wanner, and A. Wolf, “First laser cooling of relativistic ions in a storage ring,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2901–2904 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

H. F. Beyer, D. Liesen, and O. Guzman, “On the total recombination between cooling electrons and heavy ions,” Part. Accel. 24, 163–175 (1989).

1981 (2)

M. Bell, J. Chaney, S. Cittolin, H. Herr, H. Koziol, F. Krienen, G. Lebee, P. Moller Petersen, G. Petrucci, H. Poth, T. Sherwood, G. Stefanini, C. Taylor, L. Tecchio, C. Rubbia, S. van der Meer, and T. Wikberg, “Electron cooling experiment at CERN,” Phys. Lett. 87, 275–280 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. Forster, T. Hardek, D. E. Johnson, W. Kelles, V. Kerner, H. Lai, A. J. Lennox, F. Mills, Y. Miyahara, L. Oleksiuk, R. Peters, T. Rhoades, D. Young, and P. M. McIntyre, “Electron cooling experiments at Fermilab,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-28, 2386–2388 (1981).

1980 (1)

E. N. Dementev, N. S. Dikansky, A. S. Medvedko, V. V. Parkhomchuk, and D. V. Pestrikov, “Measurement of the thermal noise of a proton beam in the NAP-M storage ring,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 25, 1001–1004 (1980).

1979 (1)

G. Carron, H. Herr, G. Lebee, H. Koziol, F. Krienen, D. Möhl, G. Petrucci, C. Rubbia, F. Sacherer, B. Sadoulet, G. Stefanini, L. Thorndahl, S. van der Meer, and T. Wikberg, “Experiments on stochastic cooling in ICE (initial cooling experiment),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-26, 3456–3461 (1979).

1976 (1)

G. I. Budker, N. S. Dikansky, V. I. Kudelainen, I. N. Meshkov, V. V. Parkhomchuk, D. V. Pestrikov, A. N. Skrinsky, and B. N. Sukhina, “Experimental studies of electron cooling,” Part. Accel. 7, 197–211 (1976).

Andler, G.

H. Danared, G. Andler, L. Bagge, C. J. Herrlander, J. Hilke, J. Jeansson, A. Källberg, A. Nilsson, A. Paál, K.-G. Rensfelt, A. Rosengard, J. Starker, and M. aF Ugglas, “Electron cooling with an ultracold electron beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3775–3778 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bagge, L.

H. Danared, G. Andler, L. Bagge, C. J. Herrlander, J. Hilke, J. Jeansson, A. Källberg, A. Nilsson, A. Paál, K.-G. Rensfelt, A. Rosengard, J. Starker, and M. aF Ugglas, “Electron cooling with an ultracold electron beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3775–3778 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baird, S.

S. Baird, J. Bosser, C. Carli, M. Chanel, P. Lefèvre, R. Ley, R. Maccaferri, I. Meshkov, D. Möhl, G. Molinary, F. Motsch, G. Tranquille, and F. Varenne, “Measurement of the lifetime of Pb52+, Pb53+, Pb54+ beams at 4.2 MeV per nucleon subject to electron cooling,” Phys. Lett. B 361, 184–186 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Balykin, V.

S. Schröder, R. Klein, N. Boos, M. Gerhard, R. Grieser, G. Huber, A. Karafillidis, M. Krieg, N. Schmidt, T. Kühl, R. Neumann, V. Balykin, M. Grieser, D. Habs, E. Jaeschke, D. Krämer, M. Kristensen, M. Music, W. Petrich, D. Schwalm, P. Sigray, M. Steck, B. Wanner, and A. Wolf, “First laser cooling of relativistic ions in a storage ring,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2901–2904 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beckert, K.

M. Steck, K. Beckert, H. Eickhoff, B. Franzke, F. Nolden, H. Reich, B. Schlitt, and T. Winkler, “Anomalous temperature reduction in cooled heavy ion beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3803–3806 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bell, M.

M. Bell, J. Chaney, S. Cittolin, H. Herr, H. Koziol, F. Krienen, G. Lebee, P. Moller Petersen, G. Petrucci, H. Poth, T. Sherwood, G. Stefanini, C. Taylor, L. Tecchio, C. Rubbia, S. van der Meer, and T. Wikberg, “Electron cooling experiment at CERN,” Phys. Lett. 87, 275–280 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Beyer, H. F.

H. F. Beyer, D. Liesen, and O. Guzman, “On the total recombination between cooling electrons and heavy ions,” Part. Accel. 24, 163–175 (1989).

Blasche, K.

M. Steck, L. Groening, K. Blasche, B. Franczak, B. Franzke, T. Winkler, and V. V. Parkhomchuk, “Beam accumulation with the SIS electron cooler,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 441, 175–182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Böhne, D.

F. Nolden, D. Böhne, W. Bourgeois, B. Franzke, M. Steck, and A. Schwinn, “ESR stochastic precooling,” Nucl. Phys. A 626, 491C–494C (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boos, N.

S. Schröder, R. Klein, N. Boos, M. Gerhard, R. Grieser, G. Huber, A. Karafillidis, M. Krieg, N. Schmidt, T. Kühl, R. Neumann, V. Balykin, M. Grieser, D. Habs, E. Jaeschke, D. Krämer, M. Kristensen, M. Music, W. Petrich, D. Schwalm, P. Sigray, M. Steck, B. Wanner, and A. Wolf, “First laser cooling of relativistic ions in a storage ring,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2901–2904 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bosser, J.

S. Baird, J. Bosser, C. Carli, M. Chanel, P. Lefèvre, R. Ley, R. Maccaferri, I. Meshkov, D. Möhl, G. Molinary, F. Motsch, G. Tranquille, and F. Varenne, “Measurement of the lifetime of Pb52+, Pb53+, Pb54+ beams at 4.2 MeV per nucleon subject to electron cooling,” Phys. Lett. B 361, 184–186 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bourgeois, W.

F. Nolden, D. Böhne, W. Bourgeois, B. Franzke, M. Steck, and A. Schwinn, “ESR stochastic precooling,” Nucl. Phys. A 626, 491C–494C (1997).
[CrossRef]

Budker, G. I.

G. I. Budker, N. S. Dikansky, V. I. Kudelainen, I. N. Meshkov, V. V. Parkhomchuk, D. V. Pestrikov, A. N. Skrinsky, and B. N. Sukhina, “Experimental studies of electron cooling,” Part. Accel. 7, 197–211 (1976).

Burov, A.

S. Nagaitsev, A. Burov, A. C. Crawford, T. Kroc, J. MacLachlan, G. Saewert, C. W. Schmidt, A. Shemyakin, and A. Warner, “FNAL R&D in medium energy electron cooling,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 441, 241–245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Carli, C.

S. Baird, J. Bosser, C. Carli, M. Chanel, P. Lefèvre, R. Ley, R. Maccaferri, I. Meshkov, D. Möhl, G. Molinary, F. Motsch, G. Tranquille, and F. Varenne, “Measurement of the lifetime of Pb52+, Pb53+, Pb54+ beams at 4.2 MeV per nucleon subject to electron cooling,” Phys. Lett. B 361, 184–186 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Carron, G.

G. Carron, H. Herr, G. Lebee, H. Koziol, F. Krienen, D. Möhl, G. Petrucci, C. Rubbia, F. Sacherer, B. Sadoulet, G. Stefanini, L. Thorndahl, S. van der Meer, and T. Wikberg, “Experiments on stochastic cooling in ICE (initial cooling experiment),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-26, 3456–3461 (1979).

Chanel, M.

S. Baird, J. Bosser, C. Carli, M. Chanel, P. Lefèvre, R. Ley, R. Maccaferri, I. Meshkov, D. Möhl, G. Molinary, F. Motsch, G. Tranquille, and F. Varenne, “Measurement of the lifetime of Pb52+, Pb53+, Pb54+ beams at 4.2 MeV per nucleon subject to electron cooling,” Phys. Lett. B 361, 184–186 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chaney, J.

M. Bell, J. Chaney, S. Cittolin, H. Herr, H. Koziol, F. Krienen, G. Lebee, P. Moller Petersen, G. Petrucci, H. Poth, T. Sherwood, G. Stefanini, C. Taylor, L. Tecchio, C. Rubbia, S. van der Meer, and T. Wikberg, “Electron cooling experiment at CERN,” Phys. Lett. 87, 275–280 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Cittolin, S.

M. Bell, J. Chaney, S. Cittolin, H. Herr, H. Koziol, F. Krienen, G. Lebee, P. Moller Petersen, G. Petrucci, H. Poth, T. Sherwood, G. Stefanini, C. Taylor, L. Tecchio, C. Rubbia, S. van der Meer, and T. Wikberg, “Electron cooling experiment at CERN,” Phys. Lett. 87, 275–280 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, A. C.

S. Nagaitsev, A. Burov, A. C. Crawford, T. Kroc, J. MacLachlan, G. Saewert, C. W. Schmidt, A. Shemyakin, and A. Warner, “FNAL R&D in medium energy electron cooling,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 441, 241–245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Danared, H.

H. Danared, A. Källberg, K.-G. Rensfelt, and A. Simonsson, “Model and observations of Schottky-noise suppression in a cold heavy-ion beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 174801–174801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Danared, G. Andler, L. Bagge, C. J. Herrlander, J. Hilke, J. Jeansson, A. Källberg, A. Nilsson, A. Paál, K.-G. Rensfelt, A. Rosengard, J. Starker, and M. aF Ugglas, “Electron cooling with an ultracold electron beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3775–3778 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dementev, E. N.

E. N. Dementev, N. S. Dikansky, A. S. Medvedko, V. V. Parkhomchuk, and D. V. Pestrikov, “Measurement of the thermal noise of a proton beam in the NAP-M storage ring,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 25, 1001–1004 (1980).

DeWitt, D. R.

H. Gao, R. Schuch, W. Zong, E. Justiniano, D. R. DeWitt, H. Lebius, and W. Spies, “Energy and charge dependence of the rate of electron-ion recombination in cold magnetized plasmas,” J. Phys. B 30, L499–L506 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dikansky, N. S.

E. N. Dementev, N. S. Dikansky, A. S. Medvedko, V. V. Parkhomchuk, and D. V. Pestrikov, “Measurement of the thermal noise of a proton beam in the NAP-M storage ring,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 25, 1001–1004 (1980).

G. I. Budker, N. S. Dikansky, V. I. Kudelainen, I. N. Meshkov, V. V. Parkhomchuk, D. V. Pestrikov, A. N. Skrinsky, and B. N. Sukhina, “Experimental studies of electron cooling,” Part. Accel. 7, 197–211 (1976).

Eickhoff, H.

M. Steck, K. Beckert, H. Eickhoff, B. Franzke, F. Nolden, H. Reich, B. Schlitt, and T. Winkler, “Anomalous temperature reduction in cooled heavy ion beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3803–3806 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eike, B.

U. Eisenbart, M. Mudrich, B. Eike, M. Grieser, R. Grimm, V. Luger, T. Schätz, U. Schramm, D. Schwalm, and M. Weidemüller, “Anomalous behaviour of laser-cooled fast ion beams,” Hyperfine Interactions 127, 223–235 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eisenbart, U.

U. Eisenbart, M. Mudrich, B. Eike, M. Grieser, R. Grimm, V. Luger, T. Schätz, U. Schramm, D. Schwalm, and M. Weidemüller, “Anomalous behaviour of laser-cooled fast ion beams,” Hyperfine Interactions 127, 223–235 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eisenbarth, U.

I. Lauer, U. Eisenbarth, M. Grieser, R. Grimm, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, T. Schätz, U. Schramm, D. Schwalm, and M. Weidemüller, “Transverse laser cooling of a fast stored ion beam through dispersive coupling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2052–2055 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Forster, R.

R. Forster, T. Hardek, D. E. Johnson, W. Kelles, V. Kerner, H. Lai, A. J. Lennox, F. Mills, Y. Miyahara, L. Oleksiuk, R. Peters, T. Rhoades, D. Young, and P. M. McIntyre, “Electron cooling experiments at Fermilab,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-28, 2386–2388 (1981).

Franczak, B.

M. Steck, L. Groening, K. Blasche, B. Franczak, B. Franzke, T. Winkler, and V. V. Parkhomchuk, “Beam accumulation with the SIS electron cooler,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 441, 175–182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Franzke, B.

M. Steck, L. Groening, K. Blasche, B. Franczak, B. Franzke, T. Winkler, and V. V. Parkhomchuk, “Beam accumulation with the SIS electron cooler,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 441, 175–182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Nolden, D. Böhne, W. Bourgeois, B. Franzke, M. Steck, and A. Schwinn, “ESR stochastic precooling,” Nucl. Phys. A 626, 491C–494C (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Steck, K. Beckert, H. Eickhoff, B. Franzke, F. Nolden, H. Reich, B. Schlitt, and T. Winkler, “Anomalous temperature reduction in cooled heavy ion beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3803–3806 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, H.

H. Gao, R. Schuch, W. Zong, E. Justiniano, D. R. DeWitt, H. Lebius, and W. Spies, “Energy and charge dependence of the rate of electron-ion recombination in cold magnetized plasmas,” J. Phys. B 30, L499–L506 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gerhard, M.

S. Schröder, R. Klein, N. Boos, M. Gerhard, R. Grieser, G. Huber, A. Karafillidis, M. Krieg, N. Schmidt, T. Kühl, R. Neumann, V. Balykin, M. Grieser, D. Habs, E. Jaeschke, D. Krämer, M. Kristensen, M. Music, W. Petrich, D. Schwalm, P. Sigray, M. Steck, B. Wanner, and A. Wolf, “First laser cooling of relativistic ions in a storage ring,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2901–2904 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giannini, R.

R. Giannini, P. Lefèvre, and D. Möhl, “SuperLEAR, conceptual machine design,” Nucl. Phys. A 558, 519C–536C (1993).
[CrossRef]

Grieser, M.

U. Eisenbart, M. Mudrich, B. Eike, M. Grieser, R. Grimm, V. Luger, T. Schätz, U. Schramm, D. Schwalm, and M. Weidemüller, “Anomalous behaviour of laser-cooled fast ion beams,” Hyperfine Interactions 127, 223–235 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Lauer, U. Eisenbarth, M. Grieser, R. Grimm, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, T. Schätz, U. Schramm, D. Schwalm, and M. Weidemüller, “Transverse laser cooling of a fast stored ion beam through dispersive coupling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2052–2055 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H.-J. Miesner, R. Grimm, M. Grieser, D. Habs, D. Schwalm, B. Wanner, and A. Wolf, “Efficient indirect transverse laser cooling of a fast stored ion beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 623–626 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schröder, R. Klein, N. Boos, M. Gerhard, R. Grieser, G. Huber, A. Karafillidis, M. Krieg, N. Schmidt, T. Kühl, R. Neumann, V. Balykin, M. Grieser, D. Habs, E. Jaeschke, D. Krämer, M. Kristensen, M. Music, W. Petrich, D. Schwalm, P. Sigray, M. Steck, B. Wanner, and A. Wolf, “First laser cooling of relativistic ions in a storage ring,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2901–2904 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grieser, R.

S. Schröder, R. Klein, N. Boos, M. Gerhard, R. Grieser, G. Huber, A. Karafillidis, M. Krieg, N. Schmidt, T. Kühl, R. Neumann, V. Balykin, M. Grieser, D. Habs, E. Jaeschke, D. Krämer, M. Kristensen, M. Music, W. Petrich, D. Schwalm, P. Sigray, M. Steck, B. Wanner, and A. Wolf, “First laser cooling of relativistic ions in a storage ring,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2901–2904 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grimm, R.

U. Eisenbart, M. Mudrich, B. Eike, M. Grieser, R. Grimm, V. Luger, T. Schätz, U. Schramm, D. Schwalm, and M. Weidemüller, “Anomalous behaviour of laser-cooled fast ion beams,” Hyperfine Interactions 127, 223–235 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Lauer, U. Eisenbarth, M. Grieser, R. Grimm, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, T. Schätz, U. Schramm, D. Schwalm, and M. Weidemüller, “Transverse laser cooling of a fast stored ion beam through dispersive coupling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2052–2055 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H.-J. Miesner, R. Grimm, M. Grieser, D. Habs, D. Schwalm, B. Wanner, and A. Wolf, “Efficient indirect transverse laser cooling of a fast stored ion beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 623–626 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Habs and R. Grimm, “Crystalline ion beams,” Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 45, 391–428 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Groening, L.

M. Steck, L. Groening, K. Blasche, B. Franczak, B. Franzke, T. Winkler, and V. V. Parkhomchuk, “Beam accumulation with the SIS electron cooler,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 441, 175–182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Guzman, O.

H. F. Beyer, D. Liesen, and O. Guzman, “On the total recombination between cooling electrons and heavy ions,” Part. Accel. 24, 163–175 (1989).

Habs, D.

H.-J. Miesner, R. Grimm, M. Grieser, D. Habs, D. Schwalm, B. Wanner, and A. Wolf, “Efficient indirect transverse laser cooling of a fast stored ion beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 623–626 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Habs and R. Grimm, “Crystalline ion beams,” Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 45, 391–428 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Schröder, R. Klein, N. Boos, M. Gerhard, R. Grieser, G. Huber, A. Karafillidis, M. Krieg, N. Schmidt, T. Kühl, R. Neumann, V. Balykin, M. Grieser, D. Habs, E. Jaeschke, D. Krämer, M. Kristensen, M. Music, W. Petrich, D. Schwalm, P. Sigray, M. Steck, B. Wanner, and A. Wolf, “First laser cooling of relativistic ions in a storage ring,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2901–2904 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hangst, J. S.

J. S. Hangst, M. Kristensen, J. S. Nielsen, O. Poulsen, J. P. Schiffer, and P. Shi, “Laser cooling of a stored ion beam to 1 mK,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1238–1241 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hardek, T.

R. Forster, T. Hardek, D. E. Johnson, W. Kelles, V. Kerner, H. Lai, A. J. Lennox, F. Mills, Y. Miyahara, L. Oleksiuk, R. Peters, T. Rhoades, D. Young, and P. M. McIntyre, “Electron cooling experiments at Fermilab,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-28, 2386–2388 (1981).

Hasse, R. W.

R. W. Hasse, “Theoretical verification of Coulomb order of ions in a storage ring,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3430–3433 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Herr, H.

M. Bell, J. Chaney, S. Cittolin, H. Herr, H. Koziol, F. Krienen, G. Lebee, P. Moller Petersen, G. Petrucci, H. Poth, T. Sherwood, G. Stefanini, C. Taylor, L. Tecchio, C. Rubbia, S. van der Meer, and T. Wikberg, “Electron cooling experiment at CERN,” Phys. Lett. 87, 275–280 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. Carron, H. Herr, G. Lebee, H. Koziol, F. Krienen, D. Möhl, G. Petrucci, C. Rubbia, F. Sacherer, B. Sadoulet, G. Stefanini, L. Thorndahl, S. van der Meer, and T. Wikberg, “Experiments on stochastic cooling in ICE (initial cooling experiment),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-26, 3456–3461 (1979).

Herrlander, C. J.

H. Danared, G. Andler, L. Bagge, C. J. Herrlander, J. Hilke, J. Jeansson, A. Källberg, A. Nilsson, A. Paál, K.-G. Rensfelt, A. Rosengard, J. Starker, and M. aF Ugglas, “Electron cooling with an ultracold electron beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3775–3778 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hilke, J.

H. Danared, G. Andler, L. Bagge, C. J. Herrlander, J. Hilke, J. Jeansson, A. Källberg, A. Nilsson, A. Paál, K.-G. Rensfelt, A. Rosengard, J. Starker, and M. aF Ugglas, “Electron cooling with an ultracold electron beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3775–3778 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, G.

S. Schröder, R. Klein, N. Boos, M. Gerhard, R. Grieser, G. Huber, A. Karafillidis, M. Krieg, N. Schmidt, T. Kühl, R. Neumann, V. Balykin, M. Grieser, D. Habs, E. Jaeschke, D. Krämer, M. Kristensen, M. Music, W. Petrich, D. Schwalm, P. Sigray, M. Steck, B. Wanner, and A. Wolf, “First laser cooling of relativistic ions in a storage ring,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2901–2904 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaeschke, E.

S. Schröder, R. Klein, N. Boos, M. Gerhard, R. Grieser, G. Huber, A. Karafillidis, M. Krieg, N. Schmidt, T. Kühl, R. Neumann, V. Balykin, M. Grieser, D. Habs, E. Jaeschke, D. Krämer, M. Kristensen, M. Music, W. Petrich, D. Schwalm, P. Sigray, M. Steck, B. Wanner, and A. Wolf, “First laser cooling of relativistic ions in a storage ring,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2901–2904 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeansson, J.

H. Danared, G. Andler, L. Bagge, C. J. Herrlander, J. Hilke, J. Jeansson, A. Källberg, A. Nilsson, A. Paál, K.-G. Rensfelt, A. Rosengard, J. Starker, and M. aF Ugglas, “Electron cooling with an ultracold electron beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3775–3778 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, D. E.

R. Forster, T. Hardek, D. E. Johnson, W. Kelles, V. Kerner, H. Lai, A. J. Lennox, F. Mills, Y. Miyahara, L. Oleksiuk, R. Peters, T. Rhoades, D. Young, and P. M. McIntyre, “Electron cooling experiments at Fermilab,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-28, 2386–2388 (1981).

Justiniano, E.

H. Gao, R. Schuch, W. Zong, E. Justiniano, D. R. DeWitt, H. Lebius, and W. Spies, “Energy and charge dependence of the rate of electron-ion recombination in cold magnetized plasmas,” J. Phys. B 30, L499–L506 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Källberg, A.

H. Danared, A. Källberg, K.-G. Rensfelt, and A. Simonsson, “Model and observations of Schottky-noise suppression in a cold heavy-ion beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 174801–174801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Danared, G. Andler, L. Bagge, C. J. Herrlander, J. Hilke, J. Jeansson, A. Källberg, A. Nilsson, A. Paál, K.-G. Rensfelt, A. Rosengard, J. Starker, and M. aF Ugglas, “Electron cooling with an ultracold electron beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3775–3778 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karafillidis, A.

S. Schröder, R. Klein, N. Boos, M. Gerhard, R. Grieser, G. Huber, A. Karafillidis, M. Krieg, N. Schmidt, T. Kühl, R. Neumann, V. Balykin, M. Grieser, D. Habs, E. Jaeschke, D. Krämer, M. Kristensen, M. Music, W. Petrich, D. Schwalm, P. Sigray, M. Steck, B. Wanner, and A. Wolf, “First laser cooling of relativistic ions in a storage ring,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2901–2904 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelles, W.

R. Forster, T. Hardek, D. E. Johnson, W. Kelles, V. Kerner, H. Lai, A. J. Lennox, F. Mills, Y. Miyahara, L. Oleksiuk, R. Peters, T. Rhoades, D. Young, and P. M. McIntyre, “Electron cooling experiments at Fermilab,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-28, 2386–2388 (1981).

Kerner, V.

R. Forster, T. Hardek, D. E. Johnson, W. Kelles, V. Kerner, H. Lai, A. J. Lennox, F. Mills, Y. Miyahara, L. Oleksiuk, R. Peters, T. Rhoades, D. Young, and P. M. McIntyre, “Electron cooling experiments at Fermilab,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-28, 2386–2388 (1981).

Klein, R.

S. Schröder, R. Klein, N. Boos, M. Gerhard, R. Grieser, G. Huber, A. Karafillidis, M. Krieg, N. Schmidt, T. Kühl, R. Neumann, V. Balykin, M. Grieser, D. Habs, E. Jaeschke, D. Krämer, M. Kristensen, M. Music, W. Petrich, D. Schwalm, P. Sigray, M. Steck, B. Wanner, and A. Wolf, “First laser cooling of relativistic ions in a storage ring,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2901–2904 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koziol, H.

M. Bell, J. Chaney, S. Cittolin, H. Herr, H. Koziol, F. Krienen, G. Lebee, P. Moller Petersen, G. Petrucci, H. Poth, T. Sherwood, G. Stefanini, C. Taylor, L. Tecchio, C. Rubbia, S. van der Meer, and T. Wikberg, “Electron cooling experiment at CERN,” Phys. Lett. 87, 275–280 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. Carron, H. Herr, G. Lebee, H. Koziol, F. Krienen, D. Möhl, G. Petrucci, C. Rubbia, F. Sacherer, B. Sadoulet, G. Stefanini, L. Thorndahl, S. van der Meer, and T. Wikberg, “Experiments on stochastic cooling in ICE (initial cooling experiment),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-26, 3456–3461 (1979).

Krämer, D.

S. Schröder, R. Klein, N. Boos, M. Gerhard, R. Grieser, G. Huber, A. Karafillidis, M. Krieg, N. Schmidt, T. Kühl, R. Neumann, V. Balykin, M. Grieser, D. Habs, E. Jaeschke, D. Krämer, M. Kristensen, M. Music, W. Petrich, D. Schwalm, P. Sigray, M. Steck, B. Wanner, and A. Wolf, “First laser cooling of relativistic ions in a storage ring,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2901–2904 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krieg, M.

S. Schröder, R. Klein, N. Boos, M. Gerhard, R. Grieser, G. Huber, A. Karafillidis, M. Krieg, N. Schmidt, T. Kühl, R. Neumann, V. Balykin, M. Grieser, D. Habs, E. Jaeschke, D. Krämer, M. Kristensen, M. Music, W. Petrich, D. Schwalm, P. Sigray, M. Steck, B. Wanner, and A. Wolf, “First laser cooling of relativistic ions in a storage ring,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2901–2904 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krienen, F.

M. Bell, J. Chaney, S. Cittolin, H. Herr, H. Koziol, F. Krienen, G. Lebee, P. Moller Petersen, G. Petrucci, H. Poth, T. Sherwood, G. Stefanini, C. Taylor, L. Tecchio, C. Rubbia, S. van der Meer, and T. Wikberg, “Electron cooling experiment at CERN,” Phys. Lett. 87, 275–280 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. Carron, H. Herr, G. Lebee, H. Koziol, F. Krienen, D. Möhl, G. Petrucci, C. Rubbia, F. Sacherer, B. Sadoulet, G. Stefanini, L. Thorndahl, S. van der Meer, and T. Wikberg, “Experiments on stochastic cooling in ICE (initial cooling experiment),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-26, 3456–3461 (1979).

Kristensen, M.

J. S. Hangst, M. Kristensen, J. S. Nielsen, O. Poulsen, J. P. Schiffer, and P. Shi, “Laser cooling of a stored ion beam to 1 mK,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1238–1241 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schröder, R. Klein, N. Boos, M. Gerhard, R. Grieser, G. Huber, A. Karafillidis, M. Krieg, N. Schmidt, T. Kühl, R. Neumann, V. Balykin, M. Grieser, D. Habs, E. Jaeschke, D. Krämer, M. Kristensen, M. Music, W. Petrich, D. Schwalm, P. Sigray, M. Steck, B. Wanner, and A. Wolf, “First laser cooling of relativistic ions in a storage ring,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2901–2904 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kroc, T.

S. Nagaitsev, A. Burov, A. C. Crawford, T. Kroc, J. MacLachlan, G. Saewert, C. W. Schmidt, A. Shemyakin, and A. Warner, “FNAL R&D in medium energy electron cooling,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 441, 241–245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kudelainen, V. I.

G. I. Budker, N. S. Dikansky, V. I. Kudelainen, I. N. Meshkov, V. V. Parkhomchuk, D. V. Pestrikov, A. N. Skrinsky, and B. N. Sukhina, “Experimental studies of electron cooling,” Part. Accel. 7, 197–211 (1976).

Kühl, T.

S. Schröder, R. Klein, N. Boos, M. Gerhard, R. Grieser, G. Huber, A. Karafillidis, M. Krieg, N. Schmidt, T. Kühl, R. Neumann, V. Balykin, M. Grieser, D. Habs, E. Jaeschke, D. Krämer, M. Kristensen, M. Music, W. Petrich, D. Schwalm, P. Sigray, M. Steck, B. Wanner, and A. Wolf, “First laser cooling of relativistic ions in a storage ring,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2901–2904 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, H.

R. Forster, T. Hardek, D. E. Johnson, W. Kelles, V. Kerner, H. Lai, A. J. Lennox, F. Mills, Y. Miyahara, L. Oleksiuk, R. Peters, T. Rhoades, D. Young, and P. M. McIntyre, “Electron cooling experiments at Fermilab,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-28, 2386–2388 (1981).

Lauer, I.

I. Lauer, U. Eisenbarth, M. Grieser, R. Grimm, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, T. Schätz, U. Schramm, D. Schwalm, and M. Weidemüller, “Transverse laser cooling of a fast stored ion beam through dispersive coupling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2052–2055 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lebee, G.

M. Bell, J. Chaney, S. Cittolin, H. Herr, H. Koziol, F. Krienen, G. Lebee, P. Moller Petersen, G. Petrucci, H. Poth, T. Sherwood, G. Stefanini, C. Taylor, L. Tecchio, C. Rubbia, S. van der Meer, and T. Wikberg, “Electron cooling experiment at CERN,” Phys. Lett. 87, 275–280 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. Carron, H. Herr, G. Lebee, H. Koziol, F. Krienen, D. Möhl, G. Petrucci, C. Rubbia, F. Sacherer, B. Sadoulet, G. Stefanini, L. Thorndahl, S. van der Meer, and T. Wikberg, “Experiments on stochastic cooling in ICE (initial cooling experiment),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-26, 3456–3461 (1979).

Lebius, H.

H. Gao, R. Schuch, W. Zong, E. Justiniano, D. R. DeWitt, H. Lebius, and W. Spies, “Energy and charge dependence of the rate of electron-ion recombination in cold magnetized plasmas,” J. Phys. B 30, L499–L506 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lefèvre, P.

S. Baird, J. Bosser, C. Carli, M. Chanel, P. Lefèvre, R. Ley, R. Maccaferri, I. Meshkov, D. Möhl, G. Molinary, F. Motsch, G. Tranquille, and F. Varenne, “Measurement of the lifetime of Pb52+, Pb53+, Pb54+ beams at 4.2 MeV per nucleon subject to electron cooling,” Phys. Lett. B 361, 184–186 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Giannini, P. Lefèvre, and D. Möhl, “SuperLEAR, conceptual machine design,” Nucl. Phys. A 558, 519C–536C (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lenisa, P.

I. Lauer, U. Eisenbarth, M. Grieser, R. Grimm, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, T. Schätz, U. Schramm, D. Schwalm, and M. Weidemüller, “Transverse laser cooling of a fast stored ion beam through dispersive coupling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2052–2055 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lennox, A. J.

R. Forster, T. Hardek, D. E. Johnson, W. Kelles, V. Kerner, H. Lai, A. J. Lennox, F. Mills, Y. Miyahara, L. Oleksiuk, R. Peters, T. Rhoades, D. Young, and P. M. McIntyre, “Electron cooling experiments at Fermilab,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-28, 2386–2388 (1981).

Ley, R.

S. Baird, J. Bosser, C. Carli, M. Chanel, P. Lefèvre, R. Ley, R. Maccaferri, I. Meshkov, D. Möhl, G. Molinary, F. Motsch, G. Tranquille, and F. Varenne, “Measurement of the lifetime of Pb52+, Pb53+, Pb54+ beams at 4.2 MeV per nucleon subject to electron cooling,” Phys. Lett. B 361, 184–186 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Liesen, D.

H. F. Beyer, D. Liesen, and O. Guzman, “On the total recombination between cooling electrons and heavy ions,” Part. Accel. 24, 163–175 (1989).

Luger, V.

U. Eisenbart, M. Mudrich, B. Eike, M. Grieser, R. Grimm, V. Luger, T. Schätz, U. Schramm, D. Schwalm, and M. Weidemüller, “Anomalous behaviour of laser-cooled fast ion beams,” Hyperfine Interactions 127, 223–235 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Lauer, U. Eisenbarth, M. Grieser, R. Grimm, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, T. Schätz, U. Schramm, D. Schwalm, and M. Weidemüller, “Transverse laser cooling of a fast stored ion beam through dispersive coupling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2052–2055 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Maccaferri, R.

S. Baird, J. Bosser, C. Carli, M. Chanel, P. Lefèvre, R. Ley, R. Maccaferri, I. Meshkov, D. Möhl, G. Molinary, F. Motsch, G. Tranquille, and F. Varenne, “Measurement of the lifetime of Pb52+, Pb53+, Pb54+ beams at 4.2 MeV per nucleon subject to electron cooling,” Phys. Lett. B 361, 184–186 (1995).
[CrossRef]

MacLachlan, J.

S. Nagaitsev, A. Burov, A. C. Crawford, T. Kroc, J. MacLachlan, G. Saewert, C. W. Schmidt, A. Shemyakin, and A. Warner, “FNAL R&D in medium energy electron cooling,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 441, 241–245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McIntyre, P. M.

R. Forster, T. Hardek, D. E. Johnson, W. Kelles, V. Kerner, H. Lai, A. J. Lennox, F. Mills, Y. Miyahara, L. Oleksiuk, R. Peters, T. Rhoades, D. Young, and P. M. McIntyre, “Electron cooling experiments at Fermilab,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-28, 2386–2388 (1981).

Medvedko, A. S.

E. N. Dementev, N. S. Dikansky, A. S. Medvedko, V. V. Parkhomchuk, and D. V. Pestrikov, “Measurement of the thermal noise of a proton beam in the NAP-M storage ring,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 25, 1001–1004 (1980).

Meshkov, I.

S. Baird, J. Bosser, C. Carli, M. Chanel, P. Lefèvre, R. Ley, R. Maccaferri, I. Meshkov, D. Möhl, G. Molinary, F. Motsch, G. Tranquille, and F. Varenne, “Measurement of the lifetime of Pb52+, Pb53+, Pb54+ beams at 4.2 MeV per nucleon subject to electron cooling,” Phys. Lett. B 361, 184–186 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. Meshkov, “Electron cooling: status and perspectives,” Phys. Part. Nucl. 25, 631–661 (1994).

Meshkov, I. N.

G. I. Budker, N. S. Dikansky, V. I. Kudelainen, I. N. Meshkov, V. V. Parkhomchuk, D. V. Pestrikov, A. N. Skrinsky, and B. N. Sukhina, “Experimental studies of electron cooling,” Part. Accel. 7, 197–211 (1976).

Miesner, H.-J.

H.-J. Miesner, R. Grimm, M. Grieser, D. Habs, D. Schwalm, B. Wanner, and A. Wolf, “Efficient indirect transverse laser cooling of a fast stored ion beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 623–626 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mills, F.

R. Forster, T. Hardek, D. E. Johnson, W. Kelles, V. Kerner, H. Lai, A. J. Lennox, F. Mills, Y. Miyahara, L. Oleksiuk, R. Peters, T. Rhoades, D. Young, and P. M. McIntyre, “Electron cooling experiments at Fermilab,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-28, 2386–2388 (1981).

Miyahara, Y.

R. Forster, T. Hardek, D. E. Johnson, W. Kelles, V. Kerner, H. Lai, A. J. Lennox, F. Mills, Y. Miyahara, L. Oleksiuk, R. Peters, T. Rhoades, D. Young, and P. M. McIntyre, “Electron cooling experiments at Fermilab,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-28, 2386–2388 (1981).

Möhl, D.

S. Baird, J. Bosser, C. Carli, M. Chanel, P. Lefèvre, R. Ley, R. Maccaferri, I. Meshkov, D. Möhl, G. Molinary, F. Motsch, G. Tranquille, and F. Varenne, “Measurement of the lifetime of Pb52+, Pb53+, Pb54+ beams at 4.2 MeV per nucleon subject to electron cooling,” Phys. Lett. B 361, 184–186 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Giannini, P. Lefèvre, and D. Möhl, “SuperLEAR, conceptual machine design,” Nucl. Phys. A 558, 519C–536C (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Carron, H. Herr, G. Lebee, H. Koziol, F. Krienen, D. Möhl, G. Petrucci, C. Rubbia, F. Sacherer, B. Sadoulet, G. Stefanini, L. Thorndahl, S. van der Meer, and T. Wikberg, “Experiments on stochastic cooling in ICE (initial cooling experiment),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-26, 3456–3461 (1979).

Molinary, G.

S. Baird, J. Bosser, C. Carli, M. Chanel, P. Lefèvre, R. Ley, R. Maccaferri, I. Meshkov, D. Möhl, G. Molinary, F. Motsch, G. Tranquille, and F. Varenne, “Measurement of the lifetime of Pb52+, Pb53+, Pb54+ beams at 4.2 MeV per nucleon subject to electron cooling,” Phys. Lett. B 361, 184–186 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Motsch, F.

S. Baird, J. Bosser, C. Carli, M. Chanel, P. Lefèvre, R. Ley, R. Maccaferri, I. Meshkov, D. Möhl, G. Molinary, F. Motsch, G. Tranquille, and F. Varenne, “Measurement of the lifetime of Pb52+, Pb53+, Pb54+ beams at 4.2 MeV per nucleon subject to electron cooling,” Phys. Lett. B 361, 184–186 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mudrich, M.

U. Eisenbart, M. Mudrich, B. Eike, M. Grieser, R. Grimm, V. Luger, T. Schätz, U. Schramm, D. Schwalm, and M. Weidemüller, “Anomalous behaviour of laser-cooled fast ion beams,” Hyperfine Interactions 127, 223–235 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Music, M.

S. Schröder, R. Klein, N. Boos, M. Gerhard, R. Grieser, G. Huber, A. Karafillidis, M. Krieg, N. Schmidt, T. Kühl, R. Neumann, V. Balykin, M. Grieser, D. Habs, E. Jaeschke, D. Krämer, M. Kristensen, M. Music, W. Petrich, D. Schwalm, P. Sigray, M. Steck, B. Wanner, and A. Wolf, “First laser cooling of relativistic ions in a storage ring,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2901–2904 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagaitsev, S.

S. Nagaitsev, A. Burov, A. C. Crawford, T. Kroc, J. MacLachlan, G. Saewert, C. W. Schmidt, A. Shemyakin, and A. Warner, “FNAL R&D in medium energy electron cooling,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 441, 241–245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Neumann, R.

S. Schröder, R. Klein, N. Boos, M. Gerhard, R. Grieser, G. Huber, A. Karafillidis, M. Krieg, N. Schmidt, T. Kühl, R. Neumann, V. Balykin, M. Grieser, D. Habs, E. Jaeschke, D. Krämer, M. Kristensen, M. Music, W. Petrich, D. Schwalm, P. Sigray, M. Steck, B. Wanner, and A. Wolf, “First laser cooling of relativistic ions in a storage ring,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2901–2904 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nielsen, J. S.

J. S. Hangst, M. Kristensen, J. S. Nielsen, O. Poulsen, J. P. Schiffer, and P. Shi, “Laser cooling of a stored ion beam to 1 mK,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1238–1241 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nilsson, A.

H. Danared, G. Andler, L. Bagge, C. J. Herrlander, J. Hilke, J. Jeansson, A. Källberg, A. Nilsson, A. Paál, K.-G. Rensfelt, A. Rosengard, J. Starker, and M. aF Ugglas, “Electron cooling with an ultracold electron beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3775–3778 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nolden, F.

F. Nolden, D. Böhne, W. Bourgeois, B. Franzke, M. Steck, and A. Schwinn, “ESR stochastic precooling,” Nucl. Phys. A 626, 491C–494C (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Steck, K. Beckert, H. Eickhoff, B. Franzke, F. Nolden, H. Reich, B. Schlitt, and T. Winkler, “Anomalous temperature reduction in cooled heavy ion beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3803–3806 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oleksiuk, L.

R. Forster, T. Hardek, D. E. Johnson, W. Kelles, V. Kerner, H. Lai, A. J. Lennox, F. Mills, Y. Miyahara, L. Oleksiuk, R. Peters, T. Rhoades, D. Young, and P. M. McIntyre, “Electron cooling experiments at Fermilab,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-28, 2386–2388 (1981).

Paál, A.

H. Danared, G. Andler, L. Bagge, C. J. Herrlander, J. Hilke, J. Jeansson, A. Källberg, A. Nilsson, A. Paál, K.-G. Rensfelt, A. Rosengard, J. Starker, and M. aF Ugglas, “Electron cooling with an ultracold electron beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3775–3778 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parkhomchuk, V. V.

M. Steck, L. Groening, K. Blasche, B. Franczak, B. Franzke, T. Winkler, and V. V. Parkhomchuk, “Beam accumulation with the SIS electron cooler,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 441, 175–182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Dementev, N. S. Dikansky, A. S. Medvedko, V. V. Parkhomchuk, and D. V. Pestrikov, “Measurement of the thermal noise of a proton beam in the NAP-M storage ring,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 25, 1001–1004 (1980).

G. I. Budker, N. S. Dikansky, V. I. Kudelainen, I. N. Meshkov, V. V. Parkhomchuk, D. V. Pestrikov, A. N. Skrinsky, and B. N. Sukhina, “Experimental studies of electron cooling,” Part. Accel. 7, 197–211 (1976).

Pestrikov, D. V.

E. N. Dementev, N. S. Dikansky, A. S. Medvedko, V. V. Parkhomchuk, and D. V. Pestrikov, “Measurement of the thermal noise of a proton beam in the NAP-M storage ring,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 25, 1001–1004 (1980).

G. I. Budker, N. S. Dikansky, V. I. Kudelainen, I. N. Meshkov, V. V. Parkhomchuk, D. V. Pestrikov, A. N. Skrinsky, and B. N. Sukhina, “Experimental studies of electron cooling,” Part. Accel. 7, 197–211 (1976).

Peters, R.

R. Forster, T. Hardek, D. E. Johnson, W. Kelles, V. Kerner, H. Lai, A. J. Lennox, F. Mills, Y. Miyahara, L. Oleksiuk, R. Peters, T. Rhoades, D. Young, and P. M. McIntyre, “Electron cooling experiments at Fermilab,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-28, 2386–2388 (1981).

Petersen, P. Moller

M. Bell, J. Chaney, S. Cittolin, H. Herr, H. Koziol, F. Krienen, G. Lebee, P. Moller Petersen, G. Petrucci, H. Poth, T. Sherwood, G. Stefanini, C. Taylor, L. Tecchio, C. Rubbia, S. van der Meer, and T. Wikberg, “Electron cooling experiment at CERN,” Phys. Lett. 87, 275–280 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Petrich, W.

S. Schröder, R. Klein, N. Boos, M. Gerhard, R. Grieser, G. Huber, A. Karafillidis, M. Krieg, N. Schmidt, T. Kühl, R. Neumann, V. Balykin, M. Grieser, D. Habs, E. Jaeschke, D. Krämer, M. Kristensen, M. Music, W. Petrich, D. Schwalm, P. Sigray, M. Steck, B. Wanner, and A. Wolf, “First laser cooling of relativistic ions in a storage ring,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2901–2904 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrucci, G.

M. Bell, J. Chaney, S. Cittolin, H. Herr, H. Koziol, F. Krienen, G. Lebee, P. Moller Petersen, G. Petrucci, H. Poth, T. Sherwood, G. Stefanini, C. Taylor, L. Tecchio, C. Rubbia, S. van der Meer, and T. Wikberg, “Electron cooling experiment at CERN,” Phys. Lett. 87, 275–280 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. Carron, H. Herr, G. Lebee, H. Koziol, F. Krienen, D. Möhl, G. Petrucci, C. Rubbia, F. Sacherer, B. Sadoulet, G. Stefanini, L. Thorndahl, S. van der Meer, and T. Wikberg, “Experiments on stochastic cooling in ICE (initial cooling experiment),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-26, 3456–3461 (1979).

Pollock, R. E.

R. E. Pollock, “Storage rings for nuclear physics,” Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 1991.41, 357–388 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Poth, H.

M. Bell, J. Chaney, S. Cittolin, H. Herr, H. Koziol, F. Krienen, G. Lebee, P. Moller Petersen, G. Petrucci, H. Poth, T. Sherwood, G. Stefanini, C. Taylor, L. Tecchio, C. Rubbia, S. van der Meer, and T. Wikberg, “Electron cooling experiment at CERN,” Phys. Lett. 87, 275–280 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Poulsen, O.

J. S. Hangst, M. Kristensen, J. S. Nielsen, O. Poulsen, J. P. Schiffer, and P. Shi, “Laser cooling of a stored ion beam to 1 mK,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1238–1241 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reich, H.

M. Steck, K. Beckert, H. Eickhoff, B. Franzke, F. Nolden, H. Reich, B. Schlitt, and T. Winkler, “Anomalous temperature reduction in cooled heavy ion beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3803–3806 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rensfelt, K.-G.

H. Danared, A. Källberg, K.-G. Rensfelt, and A. Simonsson, “Model and observations of Schottky-noise suppression in a cold heavy-ion beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 174801–174801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Danared, G. Andler, L. Bagge, C. J. Herrlander, J. Hilke, J. Jeansson, A. Källberg, A. Nilsson, A. Paál, K.-G. Rensfelt, A. Rosengard, J. Starker, and M. aF Ugglas, “Electron cooling with an ultracold electron beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3775–3778 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rhoades, T.

R. Forster, T. Hardek, D. E. Johnson, W. Kelles, V. Kerner, H. Lai, A. J. Lennox, F. Mills, Y. Miyahara, L. Oleksiuk, R. Peters, T. Rhoades, D. Young, and P. M. McIntyre, “Electron cooling experiments at Fermilab,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-28, 2386–2388 (1981).

Rosengard, A.

H. Danared, G. Andler, L. Bagge, C. J. Herrlander, J. Hilke, J. Jeansson, A. Källberg, A. Nilsson, A. Paál, K.-G. Rensfelt, A. Rosengard, J. Starker, and M. aF Ugglas, “Electron cooling with an ultracold electron beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3775–3778 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubbia, C.

M. Bell, J. Chaney, S. Cittolin, H. Herr, H. Koziol, F. Krienen, G. Lebee, P. Moller Petersen, G. Petrucci, H. Poth, T. Sherwood, G. Stefanini, C. Taylor, L. Tecchio, C. Rubbia, S. van der Meer, and T. Wikberg, “Electron cooling experiment at CERN,” Phys. Lett. 87, 275–280 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. Carron, H. Herr, G. Lebee, H. Koziol, F. Krienen, D. Möhl, G. Petrucci, C. Rubbia, F. Sacherer, B. Sadoulet, G. Stefanini, L. Thorndahl, S. van der Meer, and T. Wikberg, “Experiments on stochastic cooling in ICE (initial cooling experiment),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-26, 3456–3461 (1979).

Sacherer, F.

G. Carron, H. Herr, G. Lebee, H. Koziol, F. Krienen, D. Möhl, G. Petrucci, C. Rubbia, F. Sacherer, B. Sadoulet, G. Stefanini, L. Thorndahl, S. van der Meer, and T. Wikberg, “Experiments on stochastic cooling in ICE (initial cooling experiment),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-26, 3456–3461 (1979).

Sadoulet, B.

G. Carron, H. Herr, G. Lebee, H. Koziol, F. Krienen, D. Möhl, G. Petrucci, C. Rubbia, F. Sacherer, B. Sadoulet, G. Stefanini, L. Thorndahl, S. van der Meer, and T. Wikberg, “Experiments on stochastic cooling in ICE (initial cooling experiment),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-26, 3456–3461 (1979).

Saewert, G.

S. Nagaitsev, A. Burov, A. C. Crawford, T. Kroc, J. MacLachlan, G. Saewert, C. W. Schmidt, A. Shemyakin, and A. Warner, “FNAL R&D in medium energy electron cooling,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 441, 241–245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schätz, T.

U. Eisenbart, M. Mudrich, B. Eike, M. Grieser, R. Grimm, V. Luger, T. Schätz, U. Schramm, D. Schwalm, and M. Weidemüller, “Anomalous behaviour of laser-cooled fast ion beams,” Hyperfine Interactions 127, 223–235 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Lauer, U. Eisenbarth, M. Grieser, R. Grimm, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, T. Schätz, U. Schramm, D. Schwalm, and M. Weidemüller, “Transverse laser cooling of a fast stored ion beam through dispersive coupling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2052–2055 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schiffer, J. P.

J. S. Hangst, M. Kristensen, J. S. Nielsen, O. Poulsen, J. P. Schiffer, and P. Shi, “Laser cooling of a stored ion beam to 1 mK,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1238–1241 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlitt, B.

M. Steck, K. Beckert, H. Eickhoff, B. Franzke, F. Nolden, H. Reich, B. Schlitt, and T. Winkler, “Anomalous temperature reduction in cooled heavy ion beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3803–3806 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, C. W.

S. Nagaitsev, A. Burov, A. C. Crawford, T. Kroc, J. MacLachlan, G. Saewert, C. W. Schmidt, A. Shemyakin, and A. Warner, “FNAL R&D in medium energy electron cooling,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 441, 241–245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, N.

S. Schröder, R. Klein, N. Boos, M. Gerhard, R. Grieser, G. Huber, A. Karafillidis, M. Krieg, N. Schmidt, T. Kühl, R. Neumann, V. Balykin, M. Grieser, D. Habs, E. Jaeschke, D. Krämer, M. Kristensen, M. Music, W. Petrich, D. Schwalm, P. Sigray, M. Steck, B. Wanner, and A. Wolf, “First laser cooling of relativistic ions in a storage ring,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2901–2904 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schramm, U.

U. Eisenbart, M. Mudrich, B. Eike, M. Grieser, R. Grimm, V. Luger, T. Schätz, U. Schramm, D. Schwalm, and M. Weidemüller, “Anomalous behaviour of laser-cooled fast ion beams,” Hyperfine Interactions 127, 223–235 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Lauer, U. Eisenbarth, M. Grieser, R. Grimm, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, T. Schätz, U. Schramm, D. Schwalm, and M. Weidemüller, “Transverse laser cooling of a fast stored ion beam through dispersive coupling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2052–2055 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schröder, S.

S. Schröder, R. Klein, N. Boos, M. Gerhard, R. Grieser, G. Huber, A. Karafillidis, M. Krieg, N. Schmidt, T. Kühl, R. Neumann, V. Balykin, M. Grieser, D. Habs, E. Jaeschke, D. Krämer, M. Kristensen, M. Music, W. Petrich, D. Schwalm, P. Sigray, M. Steck, B. Wanner, and A. Wolf, “First laser cooling of relativistic ions in a storage ring,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2901–2904 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuch, R.

H. Gao, R. Schuch, W. Zong, E. Justiniano, D. R. DeWitt, H. Lebius, and W. Spies, “Energy and charge dependence of the rate of electron-ion recombination in cold magnetized plasmas,” J. Phys. B 30, L499–L506 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schwalm, D.

U. Eisenbart, M. Mudrich, B. Eike, M. Grieser, R. Grimm, V. Luger, T. Schätz, U. Schramm, D. Schwalm, and M. Weidemüller, “Anomalous behaviour of laser-cooled fast ion beams,” Hyperfine Interactions 127, 223–235 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Lauer, U. Eisenbarth, M. Grieser, R. Grimm, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, T. Schätz, U. Schramm, D. Schwalm, and M. Weidemüller, “Transverse laser cooling of a fast stored ion beam through dispersive coupling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2052–2055 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H.-J. Miesner, R. Grimm, M. Grieser, D. Habs, D. Schwalm, B. Wanner, and A. Wolf, “Efficient indirect transverse laser cooling of a fast stored ion beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 623–626 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schröder, R. Klein, N. Boos, M. Gerhard, R. Grieser, G. Huber, A. Karafillidis, M. Krieg, N. Schmidt, T. Kühl, R. Neumann, V. Balykin, M. Grieser, D. Habs, E. Jaeschke, D. Krämer, M. Kristensen, M. Music, W. Petrich, D. Schwalm, P. Sigray, M. Steck, B. Wanner, and A. Wolf, “First laser cooling of relativistic ions in a storage ring,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2901–2904 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwinn, A.

F. Nolden, D. Böhne, W. Bourgeois, B. Franzke, M. Steck, and A. Schwinn, “ESR stochastic precooling,” Nucl. Phys. A 626, 491C–494C (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shemyakin, A.

S. Nagaitsev, A. Burov, A. C. Crawford, T. Kroc, J. MacLachlan, G. Saewert, C. W. Schmidt, A. Shemyakin, and A. Warner, “FNAL R&D in medium energy electron cooling,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 441, 241–245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sherwood, T.

M. Bell, J. Chaney, S. Cittolin, H. Herr, H. Koziol, F. Krienen, G. Lebee, P. Moller Petersen, G. Petrucci, H. Poth, T. Sherwood, G. Stefanini, C. Taylor, L. Tecchio, C. Rubbia, S. van der Meer, and T. Wikberg, “Electron cooling experiment at CERN,” Phys. Lett. 87, 275–280 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Shi, P.

J. S. Hangst, M. Kristensen, J. S. Nielsen, O. Poulsen, J. P. Schiffer, and P. Shi, “Laser cooling of a stored ion beam to 1 mK,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1238–1241 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sigray, P.

S. Schröder, R. Klein, N. Boos, M. Gerhard, R. Grieser, G. Huber, A. Karafillidis, M. Krieg, N. Schmidt, T. Kühl, R. Neumann, V. Balykin, M. Grieser, D. Habs, E. Jaeschke, D. Krämer, M. Kristensen, M. Music, W. Petrich, D. Schwalm, P. Sigray, M. Steck, B. Wanner, and A. Wolf, “First laser cooling of relativistic ions in a storage ring,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2901–2904 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simonsson, A.

H. Danared, A. Källberg, K.-G. Rensfelt, and A. Simonsson, “Model and observations of Schottky-noise suppression in a cold heavy-ion beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 174801–174801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skrinsky, A. N.

G. I. Budker, N. S. Dikansky, V. I. Kudelainen, I. N. Meshkov, V. V. Parkhomchuk, D. V. Pestrikov, A. N. Skrinsky, and B. N. Sukhina, “Experimental studies of electron cooling,” Part. Accel. 7, 197–211 (1976).

Spies, W.

H. Gao, R. Schuch, W. Zong, E. Justiniano, D. R. DeWitt, H. Lebius, and W. Spies, “Energy and charge dependence of the rate of electron-ion recombination in cold magnetized plasmas,” J. Phys. B 30, L499–L506 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Starker, J.

H. Danared, G. Andler, L. Bagge, C. J. Herrlander, J. Hilke, J. Jeansson, A. Källberg, A. Nilsson, A. Paál, K.-G. Rensfelt, A. Rosengard, J. Starker, and M. aF Ugglas, “Electron cooling with an ultracold electron beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3775–3778 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steck, M.

M. Steck, L. Groening, K. Blasche, B. Franczak, B. Franzke, T. Winkler, and V. V. Parkhomchuk, “Beam accumulation with the SIS electron cooler,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 441, 175–182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Steck, “Methods to detect the properties of cooled heavy ion beams in storage rings,” Nucl. Phys. A 626, 473C–483C (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Nolden, D. Böhne, W. Bourgeois, B. Franzke, M. Steck, and A. Schwinn, “ESR stochastic precooling,” Nucl. Phys. A 626, 491C–494C (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Steck, K. Beckert, H. Eickhoff, B. Franzke, F. Nolden, H. Reich, B. Schlitt, and T. Winkler, “Anomalous temperature reduction in cooled heavy ion beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3803–3806 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schröder, R. Klein, N. Boos, M. Gerhard, R. Grieser, G. Huber, A. Karafillidis, M. Krieg, N. Schmidt, T. Kühl, R. Neumann, V. Balykin, M. Grieser, D. Habs, E. Jaeschke, D. Krämer, M. Kristensen, M. Music, W. Petrich, D. Schwalm, P. Sigray, M. Steck, B. Wanner, and A. Wolf, “First laser cooling of relativistic ions in a storage ring,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2901–2904 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stefanini, G.

M. Bell, J. Chaney, S. Cittolin, H. Herr, H. Koziol, F. Krienen, G. Lebee, P. Moller Petersen, G. Petrucci, H. Poth, T. Sherwood, G. Stefanini, C. Taylor, L. Tecchio, C. Rubbia, S. van der Meer, and T. Wikberg, “Electron cooling experiment at CERN,” Phys. Lett. 87, 275–280 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. Carron, H. Herr, G. Lebee, H. Koziol, F. Krienen, D. Möhl, G. Petrucci, C. Rubbia, F. Sacherer, B. Sadoulet, G. Stefanini, L. Thorndahl, S. van der Meer, and T. Wikberg, “Experiments on stochastic cooling in ICE (initial cooling experiment),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-26, 3456–3461 (1979).

Sukhina, B. N.

G. I. Budker, N. S. Dikansky, V. I. Kudelainen, I. N. Meshkov, V. V. Parkhomchuk, D. V. Pestrikov, A. N. Skrinsky, and B. N. Sukhina, “Experimental studies of electron cooling,” Part. Accel. 7, 197–211 (1976).

Taylor, C.

M. Bell, J. Chaney, S. Cittolin, H. Herr, H. Koziol, F. Krienen, G. Lebee, P. Moller Petersen, G. Petrucci, H. Poth, T. Sherwood, G. Stefanini, C. Taylor, L. Tecchio, C. Rubbia, S. van der Meer, and T. Wikberg, “Electron cooling experiment at CERN,” Phys. Lett. 87, 275–280 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Tecchio, L.

M. Bell, J. Chaney, S. Cittolin, H. Herr, H. Koziol, F. Krienen, G. Lebee, P. Moller Petersen, G. Petrucci, H. Poth, T. Sherwood, G. Stefanini, C. Taylor, L. Tecchio, C. Rubbia, S. van der Meer, and T. Wikberg, “Electron cooling experiment at CERN,” Phys. Lett. 87, 275–280 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Thorndahl, L.

G. Carron, H. Herr, G. Lebee, H. Koziol, F. Krienen, D. Möhl, G. Petrucci, C. Rubbia, F. Sacherer, B. Sadoulet, G. Stefanini, L. Thorndahl, S. van der Meer, and T. Wikberg, “Experiments on stochastic cooling in ICE (initial cooling experiment),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-26, 3456–3461 (1979).

Tranquille, G.

S. Baird, J. Bosser, C. Carli, M. Chanel, P. Lefèvre, R. Ley, R. Maccaferri, I. Meshkov, D. Möhl, G. Molinary, F. Motsch, G. Tranquille, and F. Varenne, “Measurement of the lifetime of Pb52+, Pb53+, Pb54+ beams at 4.2 MeV per nucleon subject to electron cooling,” Phys. Lett. B 361, 184–186 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ugglas, M. aF

H. Danared, G. Andler, L. Bagge, C. J. Herrlander, J. Hilke, J. Jeansson, A. Källberg, A. Nilsson, A. Paál, K.-G. Rensfelt, A. Rosengard, J. Starker, and M. aF Ugglas, “Electron cooling with an ultracold electron beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3775–3778 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Meer, S.

M. Bell, J. Chaney, S. Cittolin, H. Herr, H. Koziol, F. Krienen, G. Lebee, P. Moller Petersen, G. Petrucci, H. Poth, T. Sherwood, G. Stefanini, C. Taylor, L. Tecchio, C. Rubbia, S. van der Meer, and T. Wikberg, “Electron cooling experiment at CERN,” Phys. Lett. 87, 275–280 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. Carron, H. Herr, G. Lebee, H. Koziol, F. Krienen, D. Möhl, G. Petrucci, C. Rubbia, F. Sacherer, B. Sadoulet, G. Stefanini, L. Thorndahl, S. van der Meer, and T. Wikberg, “Experiments on stochastic cooling in ICE (initial cooling experiment),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-26, 3456–3461 (1979).

Varenne, F.

S. Baird, J. Bosser, C. Carli, M. Chanel, P. Lefèvre, R. Ley, R. Maccaferri, I. Meshkov, D. Möhl, G. Molinary, F. Motsch, G. Tranquille, and F. Varenne, “Measurement of the lifetime of Pb52+, Pb53+, Pb54+ beams at 4.2 MeV per nucleon subject to electron cooling,” Phys. Lett. B 361, 184–186 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wanner, B.

H.-J. Miesner, R. Grimm, M. Grieser, D. Habs, D. Schwalm, B. Wanner, and A. Wolf, “Efficient indirect transverse laser cooling of a fast stored ion beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 623–626 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schröder, R. Klein, N. Boos, M. Gerhard, R. Grieser, G. Huber, A. Karafillidis, M. Krieg, N. Schmidt, T. Kühl, R. Neumann, V. Balykin, M. Grieser, D. Habs, E. Jaeschke, D. Krämer, M. Kristensen, M. Music, W. Petrich, D. Schwalm, P. Sigray, M. Steck, B. Wanner, and A. Wolf, “First laser cooling of relativistic ions in a storage ring,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2901–2904 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warner, A.

S. Nagaitsev, A. Burov, A. C. Crawford, T. Kroc, J. MacLachlan, G. Saewert, C. W. Schmidt, A. Shemyakin, and A. Warner, “FNAL R&D in medium energy electron cooling,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 441, 241–245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weidemüller, M.

U. Eisenbart, M. Mudrich, B. Eike, M. Grieser, R. Grimm, V. Luger, T. Schätz, U. Schramm, D. Schwalm, and M. Weidemüller, “Anomalous behaviour of laser-cooled fast ion beams,” Hyperfine Interactions 127, 223–235 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Lauer, U. Eisenbarth, M. Grieser, R. Grimm, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, T. Schätz, U. Schramm, D. Schwalm, and M. Weidemüller, “Transverse laser cooling of a fast stored ion beam through dispersive coupling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2052–2055 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wikberg, T.

M. Bell, J. Chaney, S. Cittolin, H. Herr, H. Koziol, F. Krienen, G. Lebee, P. Moller Petersen, G. Petrucci, H. Poth, T. Sherwood, G. Stefanini, C. Taylor, L. Tecchio, C. Rubbia, S. van der Meer, and T. Wikberg, “Electron cooling experiment at CERN,” Phys. Lett. 87, 275–280 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. Carron, H. Herr, G. Lebee, H. Koziol, F. Krienen, D. Möhl, G. Petrucci, C. Rubbia, F. Sacherer, B. Sadoulet, G. Stefanini, L. Thorndahl, S. van der Meer, and T. Wikberg, “Experiments on stochastic cooling in ICE (initial cooling experiment),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-26, 3456–3461 (1979).

Winkler, T.

M. Steck, L. Groening, K. Blasche, B. Franczak, B. Franzke, T. Winkler, and V. V. Parkhomchuk, “Beam accumulation with the SIS electron cooler,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 441, 175–182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Steck, K. Beckert, H. Eickhoff, B. Franzke, F. Nolden, H. Reich, B. Schlitt, and T. Winkler, “Anomalous temperature reduction in cooled heavy ion beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3803–3806 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, A.

H.-J. Miesner, R. Grimm, M. Grieser, D. Habs, D. Schwalm, B. Wanner, and A. Wolf, “Efficient indirect transverse laser cooling of a fast stored ion beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 623–626 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schröder, R. Klein, N. Boos, M. Gerhard, R. Grieser, G. Huber, A. Karafillidis, M. Krieg, N. Schmidt, T. Kühl, R. Neumann, V. Balykin, M. Grieser, D. Habs, E. Jaeschke, D. Krämer, M. Kristensen, M. Music, W. Petrich, D. Schwalm, P. Sigray, M. Steck, B. Wanner, and A. Wolf, “First laser cooling of relativistic ions in a storage ring,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2901–2904 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, D.

R. Forster, T. Hardek, D. E. Johnson, W. Kelles, V. Kerner, H. Lai, A. J. Lennox, F. Mills, Y. Miyahara, L. Oleksiuk, R. Peters, T. Rhoades, D. Young, and P. M. McIntyre, “Electron cooling experiments at Fermilab,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-28, 2386–2388 (1981).

Zong, W.

H. Gao, R. Schuch, W. Zong, E. Justiniano, D. R. DeWitt, H. Lebius, and W. Spies, “Energy and charge dependence of the rate of electron-ion recombination in cold magnetized plasmas,” J. Phys. B 30, L499–L506 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. (2)

D. Habs and R. Grimm, “Crystalline ion beams,” Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 45, 391–428 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Pollock, “Storage rings for nuclear physics,” Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 1991.41, 357–388 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hyperfine Interactions (1)

U. Eisenbart, M. Mudrich, B. Eike, M. Grieser, R. Grimm, V. Luger, T. Schätz, U. Schramm, D. Schwalm, and M. Weidemüller, “Anomalous behaviour of laser-cooled fast ion beams,” Hyperfine Interactions 127, 223–235 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (2)

G. Carron, H. Herr, G. Lebee, H. Koziol, F. Krienen, D. Möhl, G. Petrucci, C. Rubbia, F. Sacherer, B. Sadoulet, G. Stefanini, L. Thorndahl, S. van der Meer, and T. Wikberg, “Experiments on stochastic cooling in ICE (initial cooling experiment),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-26, 3456–3461 (1979).

R. Forster, T. Hardek, D. E. Johnson, W. Kelles, V. Kerner, H. Lai, A. J. Lennox, F. Mills, Y. Miyahara, L. Oleksiuk, R. Peters, T. Rhoades, D. Young, and P. M. McIntyre, “Electron cooling experiments at Fermilab,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-28, 2386–2388 (1981).

J. Phys. B (1)

H. Gao, R. Schuch, W. Zong, E. Justiniano, D. R. DeWitt, H. Lebius, and W. Spies, “Energy and charge dependence of the rate of electron-ion recombination in cold magnetized plasmas,” J. Phys. B 30, L499–L506 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (2)

M. Steck, L. Groening, K. Blasche, B. Franczak, B. Franzke, T. Winkler, and V. V. Parkhomchuk, “Beam accumulation with the SIS electron cooler,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 441, 175–182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Nagaitsev, A. Burov, A. C. Crawford, T. Kroc, J. MacLachlan, G. Saewert, C. W. Schmidt, A. Shemyakin, and A. Warner, “FNAL R&D in medium energy electron cooling,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 441, 241–245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Phys. A (3)

F. Nolden, D. Böhne, W. Bourgeois, B. Franzke, M. Steck, and A. Schwinn, “ESR stochastic precooling,” Nucl. Phys. A 626, 491C–494C (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Giannini, P. Lefèvre, and D. Möhl, “SuperLEAR, conceptual machine design,” Nucl. Phys. A 558, 519C–536C (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Steck, “Methods to detect the properties of cooled heavy ion beams in storage rings,” Nucl. Phys. A 626, 473C–483C (1997).
[CrossRef]

Part. Accel. (2)

H. F. Beyer, D. Liesen, and O. Guzman, “On the total recombination between cooling electrons and heavy ions,” Part. Accel. 24, 163–175 (1989).

G. I. Budker, N. S. Dikansky, V. I. Kudelainen, I. N. Meshkov, V. V. Parkhomchuk, D. V. Pestrikov, A. N. Skrinsky, and B. N. Sukhina, “Experimental studies of electron cooling,” Part. Accel. 7, 197–211 (1976).

Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Bell, J. Chaney, S. Cittolin, H. Herr, H. Koziol, F. Krienen, G. Lebee, P. Moller Petersen, G. Petrucci, H. Poth, T. Sherwood, G. Stefanini, C. Taylor, L. Tecchio, C. Rubbia, S. van der Meer, and T. Wikberg, “Electron cooling experiment at CERN,” Phys. Lett. 87, 275–280 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Lett. B (1)

S. Baird, J. Bosser, C. Carli, M. Chanel, P. Lefèvre, R. Ley, R. Maccaferri, I. Meshkov, D. Möhl, G. Molinary, F. Motsch, G. Tranquille, and F. Varenne, “Measurement of the lifetime of Pb52+, Pb53+, Pb54+ beams at 4.2 MeV per nucleon subject to electron cooling,” Phys. Lett. B 361, 184–186 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Part. Nucl. (1)

I. Meshkov, “Electron cooling: status and perspectives,” Phys. Part. Nucl. 25, 631–661 (1994).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (8)

H. Danared, G. Andler, L. Bagge, C. J. Herrlander, J. Hilke, J. Jeansson, A. Källberg, A. Nilsson, A. Paál, K.-G. Rensfelt, A. Rosengard, J. Starker, and M. aF Ugglas, “Electron cooling with an ultracold electron beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3775–3778 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Steck, K. Beckert, H. Eickhoff, B. Franzke, F. Nolden, H. Reich, B. Schlitt, and T. Winkler, “Anomalous temperature reduction in cooled heavy ion beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3803–3806 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Hasse, “Theoretical verification of Coulomb order of ions in a storage ring,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3430–3433 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Schröder, R. Klein, N. Boos, M. Gerhard, R. Grieser, G. Huber, A. Karafillidis, M. Krieg, N. Schmidt, T. Kühl, R. Neumann, V. Balykin, M. Grieser, D. Habs, E. Jaeschke, D. Krämer, M. Kristensen, M. Music, W. Petrich, D. Schwalm, P. Sigray, M. Steck, B. Wanner, and A. Wolf, “First laser cooling of relativistic ions in a storage ring,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2901–2904 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Hangst, M. Kristensen, J. S. Nielsen, O. Poulsen, J. P. Schiffer, and P. Shi, “Laser cooling of a stored ion beam to 1 mK,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1238–1241 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-J. Miesner, R. Grimm, M. Grieser, D. Habs, D. Schwalm, B. Wanner, and A. Wolf, “Efficient indirect transverse laser cooling of a fast stored ion beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 623–626 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Lauer, U. Eisenbarth, M. Grieser, R. Grimm, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, T. Schätz, U. Schramm, D. Schwalm, and M. Weidemüller, “Transverse laser cooling of a fast stored ion beam through dispersive coupling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2052–2055 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Danared, A. Källberg, K.-G. Rensfelt, and A. Simonsson, “Model and observations of Schottky-noise suppression in a cold heavy-ion beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 174801–174801 (2002).
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E. N. Dementev, N. S. Dikansky, A. S. Medvedko, V. V. Parkhomchuk, and D. V. Pestrikov, “Measurement of the thermal noise of a proton beam in the NAP-M storage ring,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 25, 1001–1004 (1980).

Other (18)

S. van der Meer, “Stochastic damping of betatron oscillations,” CERN Internal Note ISR-PO/72–31 (CERN, Geneva, Switzerland, 1972).

M. Wakasugi, N. Inabe, and T. Katayama, “Simulation study of stochastic cooling for ACR at RIKEN MUSES,” in Proceeding of the 7th European Particle Accelerator Conference (2000), pp. 1274–1276, Joint Accelerator Conferences Website, http://accelconf.web.cern.ch/accelconf/e00/PAPERS/TUP4B16.pdf.

A. Dolinskii, K. Beckert, P. Beller, B. Franzke, F. Nolden, and M. Steck, “Design of a collector ring for antiprotons and rare isotope beams,” in Proceeding of the 8th European Particle Accelerator Conference (2002), pp. 572–574, Joint Accelerator Conferences Website, http://accelconf.web.cern.ch/accelconf/e02/PAPERS/THPLE076.pdf.

G. I. Budker, A. F. Buluchev, N. S. Dikansky, V. I. Kononov, V. I. Kudelainen, V. V. Parkhomchuk, D. V. Pestrikov, A. N. Skrinsky, and B. N. Sukhina, “New experimental results of electron cooling,” CERN Internal Note 76–25 (CERN, Geneva, Switzerland, 1976).

M. Steck, “Low energy electron cooling,” in Proceedings of the 255th International WE-Heraeus-Seminar on Beam Cooling and Related Topics (Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, 2002).

M. Steck, K. Beckert, H. Eickhoff, B. Franzke, F. Nolden, and P. Spädtke, “Electron cooling of heavy ions at GSI,” in Proceedings of the 1993 Particle Accelerator Conference (1993), pp. 1738–1740, Joint Accelerator Conferences Website, http://accelconf.web.cern.ch/accelconf/p93/PDF/PAC1993_1738.pdf.

B. Franzke, K. Beckert, H. Eickhoff, F. Nolden, H. Reich, A. Schwinn, M. Steck, and T. Winkler, “Performance of Schottky mass spectrometry at the ESR,” in Proceedings of the 6th European Particle Accelerator Conference (1998), pp. 256–258, Joint Accelerator Conferences Website, http://accelconf.web.cern.ch/accelconf/e98/PAPERS/WEOA02A.pdf.

M. Steck, “Extremely cooled ion beams with evidence of ordering,” in Proceedings of the 2001 Particle Accelerator Conference (2001), pp. 137–141, Joint Accelerator Conferences Website, http://accelconf.web.cern.ch/accelconf/p01/PAPERS/TOAA002.pdf.

R. W. Hasse and M. Steck, “Ordered ion beams,” in Proceedings of the 7th European Particle Accelerator Conference (2000), pp. 274–277, Joint Accelerator Conferences Web site, http://accelconf.web.cern.ch/accelconf/e00/PAPERS/TUOBF201.pdf.

F. Nolden, K. Beckert, P. Beller, B. Franczak, B. Franzke, A. Schwinn, M. Steck, and F. Caspers, “Fast stochastic cooling of heavy ions at the ESR storage ring,” in Proceedings of the 7th European Particle Accelerator Conference (2000), pp. 1262–1264, Joint Accelerator Conferences Website, http://accelconf.web.cern.ch/accelconf/e00/PAPERS/TUP5A09.pdf.

D. Möhl, Stochastic Cooling, Vol. CERN 87-03 of CERN Proceedings on Accelerator School Advanced Accelerator Physics (CERN, Geneva, Switzerland, 1987).

F. Caspers, “Stochastic cooling,” in Crystalline Beams and Related Issues, D. M. Maletić and A. G. Ruggiero, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996).

B. Belochitskii, J. Bosser, J. Bottkus, C. Carli, F. Caspers, V. Chohan, D. Cornuet, T. Eriksson, A. Findlay, M. Giovannozzi, B. Holzer, R. Maccaferri, N. Madsen, M. Marchesotti, S. Maury, D. Möhl, S. Pasinelli, F. Pedersen, L. Soby, J. Tan, and G. Tranquille, “Commissioning and first operation of the antiproton decelerator (AD),” presented at the 2001 Particle Accelerator Conference, Chicago Ill., 2001.

T. Katayama, “Storage rings for radio-isotope beams,” in Proceedings of the 7th European Particle Accelerator Conference (2000), pp. 68–72, Joint Accelerator Conferences Website, http://accelconf.web.cern.ch/accelconf/e00/PAPERS/TUZF202.pdf.

M. Steck, “New magnetic storage rings,” Hyperfine Interact. (to be published).

G. R. Lambertson, J. Bisognano, W. Flood, L. J. Laslett, C. Leeman, B. Leskovar, C. C. Lo, R. M. Main, L. Smith, and J. Staples, “Stochastic cooling of 200 MeV protons,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on High-Energy Accelerators, W. S. Newman, ed. (Birkhauser Verlag, Basil, 1980), pp. 772–776.

E. N. Dementev, “Experimental study of stochastic cooling of protons in NAP-M,” CERN document/PS/AA 82–3 (CERN, Geneva, Switzerland, 1982).

G. I. Budker, “An effective method of damping particle oscillations in proton and antiproton storage rings,” Atom. Energ. 22, 346–348 (1967).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Top, cooling of the momentum spread and bottom, horizontal beam size for a beam of Ar18+ ions at an energy of 400 MeV/u. The traces, which represent the longitudinal particle distribution, were measured every 100 ms by frequency analysis of Schottky noise. The horizontal beam profile was detected nondestructively by a residual gas ionization monitor; the traces represent profiles averaged over time intervals of 2 s.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Increase of the phase-space volume of electron-cooled ion beams with the intensity of the ion beam as a result of intrabeam scattering. For a constant electron current of 0.25 A this increase has been confirmed for various ion species. The measurements also show that the equilibrium values with intrabeam scattering are slightly higher for higher ion charges.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The first clear indication of an ordering effect was observed in the Schottky noise of stored heavy ion beams. The exponential decay of the noise power represents finite beam lifetime. The momentum spread, which is proportional to the frequency spread of the Schottky signal, shrinks discontinuously by 1 order of magnitude for 103 stored ions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reduction of momentum spread and horizontal beam radius for a beam of Zn30+ ions at 400 MeV/u. The discontinuous radius reduction at 103 stored ions indicates the transition from a gaseous to a liquidlike state.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Ion current as a function of time during accumulation of an intense gold beam. The beam is injected by multiturn injection, filling the horizontal acceptance. Between the injections the beam is cooled by electron cooling to reduce the beam emittance and thus deplete a large fraction of the acceptance and make new empty space for the next injection available.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

τ-1=WN [2g(1-M˜-2)-g2(M+U)].
F(vi)=4πq2e4ne(4π0)2meLC(u)f(ve) uu3 d3ve,
τiAq2β4γ56πrpLCm0c2ηeje×θi3,
αREC=1.92×10-13 cm3 s-1×q2kTeln5.66qkTe+0.196kTeq21/3.
F(v)=12ω0c Γ S(Γ/2)2(ω-ω0)2+(Γ/2)2(1+S),

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