Abstract

The use of surface plasmon resonance as a powerful tool for the nonlinear characterization of ultrathin dielectric layers is investigated and experimentally demonstrated. The off-resonant intensity-dependent refractive index of 10–200-nm-thick films of the soluble polycarbazolyldiacetylene 1,6-bis-(3,6-dihexadecyl-N-carbazolyl)-2,4-hexadiyne deposited upon silver was measured at 1064 nm and with picosecond pulses.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  7. J. Vuckovic, M. Loncar, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced light-emitting diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1131-1144 (2000).
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    [CrossRef]
  9. C. K. Chen, A. R. B. de Castro, Y. R. Shen, and F. DeMartini, “Surface coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 946-949 (1979).
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    [CrossRef]
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  31. E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, F. Gelli, S. Sottini, A. Cravino, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, C. Dell’Erba, I. Moggio, G. Dellepiane, and S. Sottini, “Thin films of a novel polydiacetylene for applications to all-optical signal processing,” Synth. Met. 116, 129-133 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  32. E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, S. Sottini, G. Toci, M. Muniz-Miranda, L. Moroni, and G. Dellepiane, “Optical characterization of quasi-monomolecular layers of the nonlinear polymer polyDCHD-HS,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4, 2762-2767 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  33. V. M. Shalaev and A. K. Sarychev, “Nonlinear optics of random metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 13,265–13, 288 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2002

E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, S. Sottini, G. Toci, M. Muniz-Miranda, L. Moroni, and G. Dellepiane, “Optical characterization of quasi-monomolecular layers of the nonlinear polymer polyDCHD-HS,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4, 2762-2767 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, F. Gelli, and S. Sottini, “Nonlinear characterization of ultrathin polymer layers by means of surface plasmon spectroscopy,” Laser Phys. 1, 120-125 (2001).

E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, F. Gelli, S. Sottini, A. Cravino, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, C. Dell’Erba, I. Moggio, G. Dellepiane, and S. Sottini, “Thin films of a novel polydiacetylene for applications to all-optical signal processing,” Synth. Met. 116, 129-133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

S. Sottini, G. Margheri, E. Giorgetti, F. Gelli, A. Cravino, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, C. Dell’Erba, I. Moggio, and G. Dellepiane, “Thin films of a novel polydiacetylene for applications to all-optical signal processing,” Nonlinear Opt. 25, 385-391 (2000).

A. A. Kolomenskii, P. D. Gershon, and H. A. Schuessler, “Surface-plasmon resonance spectrometry and characterization of absorbing liquids,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3314-3320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Konopsky, “Operation of scanning plasmon near-field microscope with gold and silver tips in tapping mode: demonstration of subtip resolution,” Opt. Commun. 185, 83-89 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Vuckovic, M. Loncar, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced light-emitting diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1131-1144 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Kahl and E. Voges, “Analysis of plasmon resonance and surface-enhanced Raman scattering on periodic silver structures,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 14,078-14, 088 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, Z. Q. Cao, Q.-S. Shen, X.-M. Dou, and Y. Chen, “Improved attenuated-total-reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficients of nonlinear optical polymers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 177, 805-808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, S. Sottini, X. F. Chen, A. Cravino, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, C. Dell’Erba, and G. Dellepiane, “Linear and nonlinear characterization of polyDCHD-HS films,” Synth. Met. 115, 257-259 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

B. Gallot, A. Cravino, I. Moggio, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, and G. Dellepiane, “Supramolecular organization in the solid state of a novel soluble polydiacetylene,” Liq. Cryst. 26, 1437-1444 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Grigorenko, P. I. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin, “Phase jumps and interferometric surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917-3919 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

V. M. Shalaev and A. K. Sarychev, “Nonlinear optics of random metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 13,265–13, 288 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

K. Sasaki and T. Nagamura, “Ultrafast all-optical switch using complex refractive index changes of thin films containing photochromic dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 434-436 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

H. Knobloch, G. von Szada-Borryszkowski, S. Woigk, A. Helms, and L. Brehmer, “Dispersive surface plasmon microscopy for the characterization of ultrathin organic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2336-2337 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

R. J. Crook, N. P. K. Cotter, J. R. Sambles, R. Rangel-Rojo,G. Spruce, and B. S. Wherrett, “Electronic nonlinear optical behaviour of a grating coupled polymer 4BCMU waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 113, 344-352 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991

H. E. deBruijn, B. S. F. Altenburg, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, “Determination of thickness and dielectric constant of thin transparent dielectric layers using surface plasmon resonance,” Opt. Commun. 82, 425-432 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988

M. van Exter and A. Lagendijk, “Ultrashort surface-plasmon and phonon dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 49-52 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

1985

L. M. Walpita, “Solutions for planar optical waveguide equation by selecting zero elements in a characteristic matrix,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 595-602 (1985).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, J. Ariyasu, R. F. Wallis, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nonlinear electromagnetic waves guided by a single interface,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 2453-2459 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983

Y. J. Chen and G. M. Carter, “Attenuated total reflectioncalculations for nonlinear surface plasmon dispersion,” Solid State Commun. 45, 277-280 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

V. M. Agranovich and V. Ya. Chernyak, “Perturbation theory for weakly nonlinear p-polarized surface polaritons,” Solid State Commun. 44, 1309-1311 (1982).
[CrossRef]

V. K. Fedyanin and D. Mihalache, “p-Polarized nonlinear surface polaritons in layered structures,” Z. Phys. B 47, 167-173 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979

C. K. Chen, A. R. B. de Castro, Y. R. Shen, and F. DeMartini, “Surface coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 946-949 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978

E. Kretschmann, “The ATR method with focused light. Application to guided waves on a grating,” Opt. Commun. 26, 41-44 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Pockrand, “Surface plasma oscillations at silver surfaces with thin transparent and absorbing coatings,” Surf. Sci. 72, 577-588 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977

F. DeMartini, M. Colocci, S. E. Kohn, and Y. R. Shen, “Nonlinear optical excitation of surface exciton polaritons in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1223-1226 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1972

K. Ujihara, “Reflectivity of metals at high temperatures,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2376-2383 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1909

A. Sommerfeld, “U¨ber die Ausbreitung der Wellen in der drahtlosen Telegraphie,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 4, 665-736 (1909).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, G. S.

Agranovich, V. M.

V. M. Agranovich and V. Ya. Chernyak, “Perturbation theory for weakly nonlinear p-polarized surface polaritons,” Solid State Commun. 44, 1309-1311 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Altenburg, B. S. F.

H. E. deBruijn, B. S. F. Altenburg, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, “Determination of thickness and dielectric constant of thin transparent dielectric layers using surface plasmon resonance,” Opt. Commun. 82, 425-432 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ariyasu, J.

G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, J. Ariyasu, R. F. Wallis, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nonlinear electromagnetic waves guided by a single interface,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 2453-2459 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Brehmer, L.

H. Knobloch, G. von Szada-Borryszkowski, S. Woigk, A. Helms, and L. Brehmer, “Dispersive surface plasmon microscopy for the characterization of ultrathin organic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2336-2337 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Z. Q.

Y. Jiang, Z. Q. Cao, Q.-S. Shen, X.-M. Dou, and Y. Chen, “Improved attenuated-total-reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficients of nonlinear optical polymers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 177, 805-808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Carter, G. M.

Y. J. Chen and G. M. Carter, “Attenuated total reflectioncalculations for nonlinear surface plasmon dispersion,” Solid State Commun. 45, 277-280 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. K.

C. K. Chen, A. R. B. de Castro, Y. R. Shen, and F. DeMartini, “Surface coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 946-949 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. F.

E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, S. Sottini, X. F. Chen, A. Cravino, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, C. Dell’Erba, and G. Dellepiane, “Linear and nonlinear characterization of polyDCHD-HS films,” Synth. Met. 115, 257-259 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Jiang, Z. Q. Cao, Q.-S. Shen, X.-M. Dou, and Y. Chen, “Improved attenuated-total-reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficients of nonlinear optical polymers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 177, 805-808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. J.

Y. J. Chen and G. M. Carter, “Attenuated total reflectioncalculations for nonlinear surface plasmon dispersion,” Solid State Commun. 45, 277-280 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Chernyak, V. Ya.

V. M. Agranovich and V. Ya. Chernyak, “Perturbation theory for weakly nonlinear p-polarized surface polaritons,” Solid State Commun. 44, 1309-1311 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Colocci, M.

F. DeMartini, M. Colocci, S. E. Kohn, and Y. R. Shen, “Nonlinear optical excitation of surface exciton polaritons in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1223-1226 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Comoretto, D.

E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, F. Gelli, S. Sottini, A. Cravino, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, C. Dell’Erba, I. Moggio, G. Dellepiane, and S. Sottini, “Thin films of a novel polydiacetylene for applications to all-optical signal processing,” Synth. Met. 116, 129-133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, S. Sottini, X. F. Chen, A. Cravino, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, C. Dell’Erba, and G. Dellepiane, “Linear and nonlinear characterization of polyDCHD-HS films,” Synth. Met. 115, 257-259 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Sottini, G. Margheri, E. Giorgetti, F. Gelli, A. Cravino, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, C. Dell’Erba, I. Moggio, and G. Dellepiane, “Thin films of a novel polydiacetylene for applications to all-optical signal processing,” Nonlinear Opt. 25, 385-391 (2000).

B. Gallot, A. Cravino, I. Moggio, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, and G. Dellepiane, “Supramolecular organization in the solid state of a novel soluble polydiacetylene,” Liq. Cryst. 26, 1437-1444 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cotter, N. P. K.

R. J. Crook, N. P. K. Cotter, J. R. Sambles, R. Rangel-Rojo,G. Spruce, and B. S. Wherrett, “Electronic nonlinear optical behaviour of a grating coupled polymer 4BCMU waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 113, 344-352 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cravino, A.

E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, F. Gelli, S. Sottini, A. Cravino, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, C. Dell’Erba, I. Moggio, G. Dellepiane, and S. Sottini, “Thin films of a novel polydiacetylene for applications to all-optical signal processing,” Synth. Met. 116, 129-133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, S. Sottini, X. F. Chen, A. Cravino, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, C. Dell’Erba, and G. Dellepiane, “Linear and nonlinear characterization of polyDCHD-HS films,” Synth. Met. 115, 257-259 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Sottini, G. Margheri, E. Giorgetti, F. Gelli, A. Cravino, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, C. Dell’Erba, I. Moggio, and G. Dellepiane, “Thin films of a novel polydiacetylene for applications to all-optical signal processing,” Nonlinear Opt. 25, 385-391 (2000).

B. Gallot, A. Cravino, I. Moggio, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, and G. Dellepiane, “Supramolecular organization in the solid state of a novel soluble polydiacetylene,” Liq. Cryst. 26, 1437-1444 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Crook, R. J.

R. J. Crook, N. P. K. Cotter, J. R. Sambles, R. Rangel-Rojo,G. Spruce, and B. S. Wherrett, “Electronic nonlinear optical behaviour of a grating coupled polymer 4BCMU waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 113, 344-352 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cuniberti, C.

E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, F. Gelli, S. Sottini, A. Cravino, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, C. Dell’Erba, I. Moggio, G. Dellepiane, and S. Sottini, “Thin films of a novel polydiacetylene for applications to all-optical signal processing,” Synth. Met. 116, 129-133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, S. Sottini, X. F. Chen, A. Cravino, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, C. Dell’Erba, and G. Dellepiane, “Linear and nonlinear characterization of polyDCHD-HS films,” Synth. Met. 115, 257-259 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Sottini, G. Margheri, E. Giorgetti, F. Gelli, A. Cravino, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, C. Dell’Erba, I. Moggio, and G. Dellepiane, “Thin films of a novel polydiacetylene for applications to all-optical signal processing,” Nonlinear Opt. 25, 385-391 (2000).

B. Gallot, A. Cravino, I. Moggio, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, and G. Dellepiane, “Supramolecular organization in the solid state of a novel soluble polydiacetylene,” Liq. Cryst. 26, 1437-1444 (1999).
[CrossRef]

de Castro, A. R. B.

C. K. Chen, A. R. B. de Castro, Y. R. Shen, and F. DeMartini, “Surface coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 946-949 (1979).
[CrossRef]

deBruijn, H. E.

H. E. deBruijn, B. S. F. Altenburg, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, “Determination of thickness and dielectric constant of thin transparent dielectric layers using surface plasmon resonance,” Opt. Commun. 82, 425-432 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dell’Erba, C.

E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, F. Gelli, S. Sottini, A. Cravino, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, C. Dell’Erba, I. Moggio, G. Dellepiane, and S. Sottini, “Thin films of a novel polydiacetylene for applications to all-optical signal processing,” Synth. Met. 116, 129-133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, S. Sottini, X. F. Chen, A. Cravino, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, C. Dell’Erba, and G. Dellepiane, “Linear and nonlinear characterization of polyDCHD-HS films,” Synth. Met. 115, 257-259 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Sottini, G. Margheri, E. Giorgetti, F. Gelli, A. Cravino, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, C. Dell’Erba, I. Moggio, and G. Dellepiane, “Thin films of a novel polydiacetylene for applications to all-optical signal processing,” Nonlinear Opt. 25, 385-391 (2000).

Dellepiane, G.

E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, S. Sottini, G. Toci, M. Muniz-Miranda, L. Moroni, and G. Dellepiane, “Optical characterization of quasi-monomolecular layers of the nonlinear polymer polyDCHD-HS,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4, 2762-2767 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, F. Gelli, S. Sottini, A. Cravino, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, C. Dell’Erba, I. Moggio, G. Dellepiane, and S. Sottini, “Thin films of a novel polydiacetylene for applications to all-optical signal processing,” Synth. Met. 116, 129-133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, S. Sottini, X. F. Chen, A. Cravino, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, C. Dell’Erba, and G. Dellepiane, “Linear and nonlinear characterization of polyDCHD-HS films,” Synth. Met. 115, 257-259 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Sottini, G. Margheri, E. Giorgetti, F. Gelli, A. Cravino, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, C. Dell’Erba, I. Moggio, and G. Dellepiane, “Thin films of a novel polydiacetylene for applications to all-optical signal processing,” Nonlinear Opt. 25, 385-391 (2000).

B. Gallot, A. Cravino, I. Moggio, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, and G. Dellepiane, “Supramolecular organization in the solid state of a novel soluble polydiacetylene,” Liq. Cryst. 26, 1437-1444 (1999).
[CrossRef]

DeMartini, F.

C. K. Chen, A. R. B. de Castro, Y. R. Shen, and F. DeMartini, “Surface coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 946-949 (1979).
[CrossRef]

F. DeMartini, M. Colocci, S. E. Kohn, and Y. R. Shen, “Nonlinear optical excitation of surface exciton polaritons in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1223-1226 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Dou, X.-M.

Y. Jiang, Z. Q. Cao, Q.-S. Shen, X.-M. Dou, and Y. Chen, “Improved attenuated-total-reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficients of nonlinear optical polymers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 177, 805-808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fedyanin, V. K.

V. K. Fedyanin and D. Mihalache, “p-Polarized nonlinear surface polaritons in layered structures,” Z. Phys. B 47, 167-173 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Gallot, B.

B. Gallot, A. Cravino, I. Moggio, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, and G. Dellepiane, “Supramolecular organization in the solid state of a novel soluble polydiacetylene,” Liq. Cryst. 26, 1437-1444 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gelli, F.

E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, F. Gelli, S. Sottini, A. Cravino, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, C. Dell’Erba, I. Moggio, G. Dellepiane, and S. Sottini, “Thin films of a novel polydiacetylene for applications to all-optical signal processing,” Synth. Met. 116, 129-133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, F. Gelli, and S. Sottini, “Nonlinear characterization of ultrathin polymer layers by means of surface plasmon spectroscopy,” Laser Phys. 1, 120-125 (2001).

S. Sottini, G. Margheri, E. Giorgetti, F. Gelli, A. Cravino, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, C. Dell’Erba, I. Moggio, and G. Dellepiane, “Thin films of a novel polydiacetylene for applications to all-optical signal processing,” Nonlinear Opt. 25, 385-391 (2000).

Gershon, P. D.

Giorgetti, E.

E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, S. Sottini, G. Toci, M. Muniz-Miranda, L. Moroni, and G. Dellepiane, “Optical characterization of quasi-monomolecular layers of the nonlinear polymer polyDCHD-HS,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4, 2762-2767 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, F. Gelli, S. Sottini, A. Cravino, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, C. Dell’Erba, I. Moggio, G. Dellepiane, and S. Sottini, “Thin films of a novel polydiacetylene for applications to all-optical signal processing,” Synth. Met. 116, 129-133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, F. Gelli, and S. Sottini, “Nonlinear characterization of ultrathin polymer layers by means of surface plasmon spectroscopy,” Laser Phys. 1, 120-125 (2001).

S. Sottini, G. Margheri, E. Giorgetti, F. Gelli, A. Cravino, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, C. Dell’Erba, I. Moggio, and G. Dellepiane, “Thin films of a novel polydiacetylene for applications to all-optical signal processing,” Nonlinear Opt. 25, 385-391 (2000).

E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, S. Sottini, X. F. Chen, A. Cravino, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, C. Dell’Erba, and G. Dellepiane, “Linear and nonlinear characterization of polyDCHD-HS films,” Synth. Met. 115, 257-259 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Greve, J.

H. E. deBruijn, B. S. F. Altenburg, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, “Determination of thickness and dielectric constant of thin transparent dielectric layers using surface plasmon resonance,” Opt. Commun. 82, 425-432 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Grigorenko, A. N.

A. N. Grigorenko, P. I. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin, “Phase jumps and interferometric surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917-3919 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, S. D.

Helms, A.

H. Knobloch, G. von Szada-Borryszkowski, S. Woigk, A. Helms, and L. Brehmer, “Dispersive surface plasmon microscopy for the characterization of ultrathin organic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2336-2337 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hickernell, R. K.

Jiang, Y.

Y. Jiang, Z. Q. Cao, Q.-S. Shen, X.-M. Dou, and Y. Chen, “Improved attenuated-total-reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficients of nonlinear optical polymers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 177, 805-808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kabashin, A. V.

A. N. Grigorenko, P. I. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin, “Phase jumps and interferometric surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917-3919 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kahl, M.

M. Kahl and E. Voges, “Analysis of plasmon resonance and surface-enhanced Raman scattering on periodic silver structures,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 14,078-14, 088 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Knobloch, H.

H. Knobloch, G. von Szada-Borryszkowski, S. Woigk, A. Helms, and L. Brehmer, “Dispersive surface plasmon microscopy for the characterization of ultrathin organic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2336-2337 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kohn, S. E.

F. DeMartini, M. Colocci, S. E. Kohn, and Y. R. Shen, “Nonlinear optical excitation of surface exciton polaritons in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1223-1226 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kolomenskii, A. A.

Konopsky, V. N.

V. N. Konopsky, “Operation of scanning plasmon near-field microscope with gold and silver tips in tapping mode: demonstration of subtip resolution,” Opt. Commun. 185, 83-89 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kooyman, R. P. H.

H. E. deBruijn, B. S. F. Altenburg, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, “Determination of thickness and dielectric constant of thin transparent dielectric layers using surface plasmon resonance,” Opt. Commun. 82, 425-432 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kretschmann, E.

E. Kretschmann, “The ATR method with focused light. Application to guided waves on a grating,” Opt. Commun. 26, 41-44 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Lagendijk, A.

M. van Exter and A. Lagendijk, “Ultrashort surface-plasmon and phonon dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 49-52 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loncar, M.

J. Vuckovic, M. Loncar, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced light-emitting diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1131-1144 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maradudin, A. A.

G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, J. Ariyasu, R. F. Wallis, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nonlinear electromagnetic waves guided by a single interface,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 2453-2459 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Margheri, G.

E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, S. Sottini, G. Toci, M. Muniz-Miranda, L. Moroni, and G. Dellepiane, “Optical characterization of quasi-monomolecular layers of the nonlinear polymer polyDCHD-HS,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4, 2762-2767 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, F. Gelli, S. Sottini, A. Cravino, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, C. Dell’Erba, I. Moggio, G. Dellepiane, and S. Sottini, “Thin films of a novel polydiacetylene for applications to all-optical signal processing,” Synth. Met. 116, 129-133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, F. Gelli, and S. Sottini, “Nonlinear characterization of ultrathin polymer layers by means of surface plasmon spectroscopy,” Laser Phys. 1, 120-125 (2001).

S. Sottini, G. Margheri, E. Giorgetti, F. Gelli, A. Cravino, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, C. Dell’Erba, I. Moggio, and G. Dellepiane, “Thin films of a novel polydiacetylene for applications to all-optical signal processing,” Nonlinear Opt. 25, 385-391 (2000).

E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, S. Sottini, X. F. Chen, A. Cravino, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, C. Dell’Erba, and G. Dellepiane, “Linear and nonlinear characterization of polyDCHD-HS films,” Synth. Met. 115, 257-259 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mihalache, D.

V. K. Fedyanin and D. Mihalache, “p-Polarized nonlinear surface polaritons in layered structures,” Z. Phys. B 47, 167-173 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Moggio, I.

E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, F. Gelli, S. Sottini, A. Cravino, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, C. Dell’Erba, I. Moggio, G. Dellepiane, and S. Sottini, “Thin films of a novel polydiacetylene for applications to all-optical signal processing,” Synth. Met. 116, 129-133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Sottini, G. Margheri, E. Giorgetti, F. Gelli, A. Cravino, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, C. Dell’Erba, I. Moggio, and G. Dellepiane, “Thin films of a novel polydiacetylene for applications to all-optical signal processing,” Nonlinear Opt. 25, 385-391 (2000).

B. Gallot, A. Cravino, I. Moggio, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, and G. Dellepiane, “Supramolecular organization in the solid state of a novel soluble polydiacetylene,” Liq. Cryst. 26, 1437-1444 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moroni, L.

E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, S. Sottini, G. Toci, M. Muniz-Miranda, L. Moroni, and G. Dellepiane, “Optical characterization of quasi-monomolecular layers of the nonlinear polymer polyDCHD-HS,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4, 2762-2767 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Muniz-Miranda, M.

E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, S. Sottini, G. Toci, M. Muniz-Miranda, L. Moroni, and G. Dellepiane, “Optical characterization of quasi-monomolecular layers of the nonlinear polymer polyDCHD-HS,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4, 2762-2767 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nagamura, T.

K. Sasaki and T. Nagamura, “Ultrafast all-optical switch using complex refractive index changes of thin films containing photochromic dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 434-436 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, P. I.

A. N. Grigorenko, P. I. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin, “Phase jumps and interferometric surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917-3919 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pockrand, J.

J. Pockrand, “Surface plasma oscillations at silver surfaces with thin transparent and absorbing coatings,” Surf. Sci. 72, 577-588 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Rangel-Rojo, R.

R. J. Crook, N. P. K. Cotter, J. R. Sambles, R. Rangel-Rojo,G. Spruce, and B. S. Wherrett, “Electronic nonlinear optical behaviour of a grating coupled polymer 4BCMU waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 113, 344-352 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sambles, J. R.

R. J. Crook, N. P. K. Cotter, J. R. Sambles, R. Rangel-Rojo,G. Spruce, and B. S. Wherrett, “Electronic nonlinear optical behaviour of a grating coupled polymer 4BCMU waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 113, 344-352 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sarid, D.

Sarychev, A. K.

V. M. Shalaev and A. K. Sarychev, “Nonlinear optics of random metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 13,265–13, 288 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, K.

K. Sasaki and T. Nagamura, “Ultrafast all-optical switch using complex refractive index changes of thin films containing photochromic dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 434-436 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

J. Vuckovic, M. Loncar, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced light-emitting diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1131-1144 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schuessler, H. A.

Seaton, C. T.

G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, J. Ariyasu, R. F. Wallis, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nonlinear electromagnetic waves guided by a single interface,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 2453-2459 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

V. M. Shalaev and A. K. Sarychev, “Nonlinear optics of random metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 13,265–13, 288 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Q.-S.

Y. Jiang, Z. Q. Cao, Q.-S. Shen, X.-M. Dou, and Y. Chen, “Improved attenuated-total-reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficients of nonlinear optical polymers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 177, 805-808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

C. K. Chen, A. R. B. de Castro, Y. R. Shen, and F. DeMartini, “Surface coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 946-949 (1979).
[CrossRef]

F. DeMartini, M. Colocci, S. E. Kohn, and Y. R. Shen, “Nonlinear optical excitation of surface exciton polaritons in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1223-1226 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Sommerfeld, A.

A. Sommerfeld, “U¨ber die Ausbreitung der Wellen in der drahtlosen Telegraphie,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 4, 665-736 (1909).
[CrossRef]

Sottini, S.

E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, S. Sottini, G. Toci, M. Muniz-Miranda, L. Moroni, and G. Dellepiane, “Optical characterization of quasi-monomolecular layers of the nonlinear polymer polyDCHD-HS,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4, 2762-2767 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, F. Gelli, S. Sottini, A. Cravino, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, C. Dell’Erba, I. Moggio, G. Dellepiane, and S. Sottini, “Thin films of a novel polydiacetylene for applications to all-optical signal processing,” Synth. Met. 116, 129-133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, F. Gelli, S. Sottini, A. Cravino, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, C. Dell’Erba, I. Moggio, G. Dellepiane, and S. Sottini, “Thin films of a novel polydiacetylene for applications to all-optical signal processing,” Synth. Met. 116, 129-133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, F. Gelli, and S. Sottini, “Nonlinear characterization of ultrathin polymer layers by means of surface plasmon spectroscopy,” Laser Phys. 1, 120-125 (2001).

S. Sottini, G. Margheri, E. Giorgetti, F. Gelli, A. Cravino, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, C. Dell’Erba, I. Moggio, and G. Dellepiane, “Thin films of a novel polydiacetylene for applications to all-optical signal processing,” Nonlinear Opt. 25, 385-391 (2000).

E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, S. Sottini, X. F. Chen, A. Cravino, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, C. Dell’Erba, and G. Dellepiane, “Linear and nonlinear characterization of polyDCHD-HS films,” Synth. Met. 115, 257-259 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Spruce, G.

R. J. Crook, N. P. K. Cotter, J. R. Sambles, R. Rangel-Rojo,G. Spruce, and B. S. Wherrett, “Electronic nonlinear optical behaviour of a grating coupled polymer 4BCMU waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 113, 344-352 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, J. Ariyasu, R. F. Wallis, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nonlinear electromagnetic waves guided by a single interface,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 2453-2459 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Toci, G.

E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, S. Sottini, G. Toci, M. Muniz-Miranda, L. Moroni, and G. Dellepiane, “Optical characterization of quasi-monomolecular layers of the nonlinear polymer polyDCHD-HS,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4, 2762-2767 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ujihara, K.

K. Ujihara, “Reflectivity of metals at high temperatures,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2376-2383 (1972).
[CrossRef]

van Exter, M.

M. van Exter and A. Lagendijk, “Ultrashort surface-plasmon and phonon dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 49-52 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voges, E.

M. Kahl and E. Voges, “Analysis of plasmon resonance and surface-enhanced Raman scattering on periodic silver structures,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 14,078-14, 088 (2000).
[CrossRef]

von Szada-Borryszkowski, G.

H. Knobloch, G. von Szada-Borryszkowski, S. Woigk, A. Helms, and L. Brehmer, “Dispersive surface plasmon microscopy for the characterization of ultrathin organic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2336-2337 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vuckovic, J.

J. Vuckovic, M. Loncar, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced light-emitting diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1131-1144 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wallis, R. F.

G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, J. Ariyasu, R. F. Wallis, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nonlinear electromagnetic waves guided by a single interface,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 2453-2459 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Walpita, L. M.

Wherrett, B. S.

R. J. Crook, N. P. K. Cotter, J. R. Sambles, R. Rangel-Rojo,G. Spruce, and B. S. Wherrett, “Electronic nonlinear optical behaviour of a grating coupled polymer 4BCMU waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 113, 344-352 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Woigk, S.

H. Knobloch, G. von Szada-Borryszkowski, S. Woigk, A. Helms, and L. Brehmer, “Dispersive surface plasmon microscopy for the characterization of ultrathin organic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2336-2337 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys. (Leipzig)

A. Sommerfeld, “U¨ber die Ausbreitung der Wellen in der drahtlosen Telegraphie,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 4, 665-736 (1909).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Sasaki and T. Nagamura, “Ultrafast all-optical switch using complex refractive index changes of thin films containing photochromic dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 434-436 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Grigorenko, P. I. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin, “Phase jumps and interferometric surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917-3919 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Knobloch, G. von Szada-Borryszkowski, S. Woigk, A. Helms, and L. Brehmer, “Dispersive surface plasmon microscopy for the characterization of ultrathin organic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2336-2337 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

J. Vuckovic, M. Loncar, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced light-emitting diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1131-1144 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, J. Ariyasu, R. F. Wallis, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nonlinear electromagnetic waves guided by a single interface,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 2453-2459 (1985).
[CrossRef]

K. Ujihara, “Reflectivity of metals at high temperatures,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2376-2383 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Laser Phys.

E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, F. Gelli, and S. Sottini, “Nonlinear characterization of ultrathin polymer layers by means of surface plasmon spectroscopy,” Laser Phys. 1, 120-125 (2001).

Liq. Cryst.

B. Gallot, A. Cravino, I. Moggio, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, and G. Dellepiane, “Supramolecular organization in the solid state of a novel soluble polydiacetylene,” Liq. Cryst. 26, 1437-1444 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nonlinear Opt.

S. Sottini, G. Margheri, E. Giorgetti, F. Gelli, A. Cravino, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, C. Dell’Erba, I. Moggio, and G. Dellepiane, “Thin films of a novel polydiacetylene for applications to all-optical signal processing,” Nonlinear Opt. 25, 385-391 (2000).

Opt. Commun.

R. J. Crook, N. P. K. Cotter, J. R. Sambles, R. Rangel-Rojo,G. Spruce, and B. S. Wherrett, “Electronic nonlinear optical behaviour of a grating coupled polymer 4BCMU waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 113, 344-352 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Kretschmann, “The ATR method with focused light. Application to guided waves on a grating,” Opt. Commun. 26, 41-44 (1978).
[CrossRef]

H. E. deBruijn, B. S. F. Altenburg, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, “Determination of thickness and dielectric constant of thin transparent dielectric layers using surface plasmon resonance,” Opt. Commun. 82, 425-432 (1991).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Konopsky, “Operation of scanning plasmon near-field microscope with gold and silver tips in tapping mode: demonstration of subtip resolution,” Opt. Commun. 185, 83-89 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.

E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, S. Sottini, G. Toci, M. Muniz-Miranda, L. Moroni, and G. Dellepiane, “Optical characterization of quasi-monomolecular layers of the nonlinear polymer polyDCHD-HS,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4, 2762-2767 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

V. M. Shalaev and A. K. Sarychev, “Nonlinear optics of random metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 13,265–13, 288 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Kahl and E. Voges, “Analysis of plasmon resonance and surface-enhanced Raman scattering on periodic silver structures,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 14,078-14, 088 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

F. DeMartini, M. Colocci, S. E. Kohn, and Y. R. Shen, “Nonlinear optical excitation of surface exciton polaritons in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1223-1226 (1977).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Chen, A. R. B. de Castro, Y. R. Shen, and F. DeMartini, “Surface coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 946-949 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. van Exter and A. Lagendijk, “Ultrashort surface-plasmon and phonon dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 49-52 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solid State Commun.

V. M. Agranovich and V. Ya. Chernyak, “Perturbation theory for weakly nonlinear p-polarized surface polaritons,” Solid State Commun. 44, 1309-1311 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Chen and G. M. Carter, “Attenuated total reflectioncalculations for nonlinear surface plasmon dispersion,” Solid State Commun. 45, 277-280 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci.

J. Pockrand, “Surface plasma oscillations at silver surfaces with thin transparent and absorbing coatings,” Surf. Sci. 72, 577-588 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Synth. Met.

E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, F. Gelli, S. Sottini, A. Cravino, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, C. Dell’Erba, I. Moggio, G. Dellepiane, and S. Sottini, “Thin films of a novel polydiacetylene for applications to all-optical signal processing,” Synth. Met. 116, 129-133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Giorgetti, G. Margheri, S. Sottini, X. F. Chen, A. Cravino, D. Comoretto, C. Cuniberti, C. Dell’Erba, and G. Dellepiane, “Linear and nonlinear characterization of polyDCHD-HS films,” Synth. Met. 115, 257-259 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. B

V. K. Fedyanin and D. Mihalache, “p-Polarized nonlinear surface polaritons in layered structures,” Z. Phys. B 47, 167-173 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. van Exter, “Ultrafast spectroscopy of vibrational excitations and surface plasmons,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1988).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Kretschmann’s configuration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sketch of the four-layer stack with incident, reflected, and transmitted electromagnetic waves.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Theoretical variation of plasma angle and (b) percentage change of reflectivity at the position of maximum slope of the plasma resonance versus a real refractive-index shift at 1064 nm for d1=43 nm and several values of d2: 40, 80, 100, 120, 160, and 200 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Theoretical variation of the reflectivity dip at plasma angle versus imaginary refractive-index shift at 1064 nm for d1=43 nm and several values of d2: 40, 80, 120, 160, and 200 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Theoretical variations of plasma angle versus imaginary refractive-index shift with respect to the purely absorptive case of Fig. 3(a) for d2=120 nm and several values of ΔnR: -0.001, -0.003, -0.0066, -0.009.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) |Δθp| versus d1 for a 100-nm-thick dielectric layer and |ΔnR|=2×10-4. (b) ΔR versus d1 for d2=100 nm and ΔnI=2×10-4 and for d2=40 nm and ΔnI=10-3.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

SPR curves for a 49-nm thick silver film with εr1=-34.5+2.3i (circles) and of the same film plus a 20.3-nm dielectric layer with n=1.56+0.148i (triangles), as observed with a cw laser at 849 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental setup.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Re(εr1) and (b) Im(εr1) of a 34-nm-thick silver film. Solid lines represent average values; circles and squares correspond to measurements performed with energy densities in the 2.5×1061×107 and 2×1074×107 J/m3 ranges, respectively. The abscissa shows the order number of the measurements.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Experimental results obtained with a 43-nm-thick polyDCHD-HS film spun onto a 33-nm-thick silver layer: (a) reflectivity versus incident angle; (b) real and (c) imaginary refractive indices versus average intensity. Insets, (b) refractive and (c) absorptive nonlinearity obtained from each reflectivity curve in the second run of the fitting procedure.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Experimental data (triangles and squares) and theoretical best fits (continuous curves) for the scans registered with 43-nm-thick polyDCHD-HS films at 18 and 30 MW/cm2, respectively.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Experimental results obtained with a 157-nm-thick polyDCHD-HS film spun upon a 41-nm-thick silver layer: (a) reflectivity versus incident angle; (b) real and (c) imaginary refractive indices versus average intensity. Insets, (b) refractive and (c) absorptive nonlinearity obtained from each reflectivity curve in the second run of the fitting procedure.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(a) ΔnR and (b) ΔnI versus average intensity. Squares, 43-nm-thick polymer layer; circles and triangles, positions on the 157-nm-thick polymer layer.

Equations (25)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Kp2=k02εr1εr3εr1+εr3,Re(Kp)>0,
rstack=r0,1+r(1)exp(2ik0d1β1)1+r0,1r(1)exp(2ik0d1β1),
r(1)=r1,2+r2,3exp(2ik0d2β2)1+r1,2r2,3exp(2ik0d2β2),
rj,i=εriβj-εrjβiεriβj+εrjβi,
βi=1-εr0εrisin2 ϑ1/2,Re(βi)0,
εr2(I)=εr2,0+Δεr2(I),
  E=iωμ0H,
  H=-iωε0εr2(z)E,
E=[Ex(z)i+Ez(z)k]exp[i(kx-ωt)],
H=Hy(z)exp[i(kx-ωt)]j,
εr2(z)=εr2,0+Δεr2[Ez(z)];
Δεr2[Ez(z)]εr2,0.
Hin y(x, z, t)=exp[i(kx-ωt)]×[A0exp(-p0z)+B0exp(p0z)]
Hout y(x, z, t)=exp[i(kx-ωt)]{Aoutexp[-p3(z-z2)]+Boutexp[p3(z-z2)]}
AoutBout=a11a12a21a22A0B0.
pi=k0(-εri+εr0sin2 θ)1/2,i=0, 1, 2, 3,
Re(pi)0.
r=-a21a22=B0A0.
A2B2=11-p2εr2p2εr2-1×exp(-p1d1)exp(p1d1)-p1exp(-p1d1)εr1p1exp(p1d1)εr1×11-p1εr1p1εr1-111-p0εr0p0εr0A0B0.
Hy(x, z, t)=exp[i(kx-ωt)]{A2exp[-p2(z-z1)]+B2exp[p2(z-z1)]}.
I(0)(z)=½ Re(-EzHy*i+ExHy*k),
I(0)(z)12Re(-EzHy*)=12Reωεr2ε0k |Ez(z)|2.
I(0)=I(0)(z1)+I(0)(z2)2.
n(I)=n0+(n2R+in2I)I,
nR=n0R+n2RI1+I/IsR,nI=n0I+n2II1+(I/IsI)2.

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