Abstract

Recently the initial measurements of single attosecond pulses with laser-dressed single-photon XUV ionization of gas atoms were reported. Determination of the extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) pulse duration from the electron spectrum is based on a classical theory. Although classical models are known to give a qualitatively correct description of strong laser–atom interaction, the validity range for accurate determination of subfemtosecond pulses must be scrutinized by quantum mechanical analysis. We establish a theoretical framework for the accurate temporal characterization of attosecond XUV pulses by using a Fourier–Bessel expansion of the XUV electron spectrum under the strong field approximation and a semiclassical derivation, setting earlier results on a rigorous theoretical footing. Our analysis reveals an improved scheme that is by more than an order of magnitude more efficient than the one used so far and allows for direct experimental discrimination between single and multiple attosecond pulses.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond XUV pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173904 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (4)

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Scrinzi, M. Geissler, and T. Brabec, “Attosecond cross correlation technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 412–415 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, “X-ray pulses approaching the attosecond frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. Le Blanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, “Ponderomotive streaking of the ionization potential as a method for measuring pulse durations in the XUV domain with fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801 (R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545–591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. B. Milosevic and F. Ehlotzky, “Coulomb and rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 3124–3127 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1996 (3)

T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, A. H. Chin, and C. V. Shank, “Observation of laser assisted photoelectric effect and femtosecond high order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2468–2471 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, A. Bouhal, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Cross-correlation measurements of femtosecond extreme-ultraviolet high-order harmonics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 197–200 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. Véniard, R. Taïeb, and A. Maquet, “Phase dependence of (N+1)-color (N>1) ir–uv photoionization of atoms with higher harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 721–728 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, and P. Agostini, “Observation of laser-assisted auger decay in argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180–2183 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1965 (1)

L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307–1314 (1965).

Agostini, P.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. Le Blanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, “Ponderomotive streaking of the ionization potential as a method for measuring pulse durations in the XUV domain with fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801 (R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Bouhal, R. Evans, G. Grillon, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, and D. von der Linde, “Cross-correlation measurement of femtosecond noncollinear high-order harmonics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 950–956 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, A. Bouhal, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Cross-correlation measurements of femtosecond extreme-ultraviolet high-order harmonics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 197–200 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, and P. Agostini, “Observation of laser-assisted auger decay in argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180–2183 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antonetti, A.

Augé, F.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balcou, Ph.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouhal, A.

Brabec, T.

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond XUV pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173904 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Scrinzi, M. Geissler, and T. Brabec, “Attosecond cross correlation technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 412–415 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545–591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Breger, P.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. Le Blanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, “Ponderomotive streaking of the ionization potential as a method for measuring pulse durations in the XUV domain with fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801 (R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Bouhal, R. Evans, G. Grillon, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, and D. von der Linde, “Cross-correlation measurement of femtosecond noncollinear high-order harmonics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 950–956 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, A. Bouhal, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Cross-correlation measurements of femtosecond extreme-ultraviolet high-order harmonics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 197–200 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, and P. Agostini, “Observation of laser-assisted auger decay in argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180–2183 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheret, M.

E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. Le Blanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, “Ponderomotive streaking of the ionization potential as a method for measuring pulse durations in the XUV domain with fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801 (R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cheriaux, G.

E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. Le Blanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, “Ponderomotive streaking of the ionization potential as a method for measuring pulse durations in the XUV domain with fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801 (R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chin, A. H.

T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, A. H. Chin, and C. V. Shank, “Observation of laser assisted photoelectric effect and femtosecond high order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2468–2471 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Constant, E.

E. Constant, V. D. Taranukhin, A. Stolow, and P. B. Corkum, “Methods for the measurement of the duration of high-harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 3870–3878 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Constantinescu, R. C.

Corkum, P.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, “X-ray pulses approaching the attosecond frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Constant, V. D. Taranukhin, A. Stolow, and P. B. Corkum, “Methods for the measurement of the duration of high-harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 3870–3878 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Drescher, M.

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, “X-ray pulses approaching the attosecond frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ehlotzky, F.

D. B. Milosevic and F. Ehlotzky, “Coulomb and rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 3124–3127 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Evans, R.

Geissler, M.

A. Scrinzi, M. Geissler, and T. Brabec, “Attosecond cross correlation technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 412–415 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glover, T. E.

T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, A. H. Chin, and C. V. Shank, “Observation of laser assisted photoelectric effect and femtosecond high order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2468–2471 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grillon, G.

Heinzmann, U.

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, “X-ray pulses approaching the attosecond frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itatani, J.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivanov, M. Yu.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keldysh, L. V.

L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307–1314 (1965).

Kienberger, R.

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, “X-ray pulses approaching the attosecond frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitzler, M.

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond XUV pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173904 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleineberg, U.

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond XUV pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173904 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, “X-ray pulses approaching the attosecond frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545–591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Le Blanc, C.

E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. Le Blanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, “Ponderomotive streaking of the ionization potential as a method for measuring pulse durations in the XUV domain with fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801 (R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maquet, A.

V. Véniard, R. Taïeb, and A. Maquet, “Phase dependence of (N+1)-color (N>1) ir–uv photoionization of atoms with higher harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 721–728 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Milosevic, D. B.

D. B. Milosevic and F. Ehlotzky, “Coulomb and rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 3124–3127 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Milosevic, N.

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond XUV pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173904 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, H. G.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. Le Blanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, “Ponderomotive streaking of the ionization potential as a method for measuring pulse durations in the XUV domain with fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801 (R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Bouhal, R. Evans, G. Grillon, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, and D. von der Linde, “Cross-correlation measurement of femtosecond noncollinear high-order harmonics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 950–956 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, A. Bouhal, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Cross-correlation measurements of femtosecond extreme-ultraviolet high-order harmonics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 197–200 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mullot, G.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. Le Blanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, “Ponderomotive streaking of the ionization potential as a method for measuring pulse durations in the XUV domain with fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801 (R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

Paul, P. M.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. Le Blanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, “Ponderomotive streaking of the ionization potential as a method for measuring pulse durations in the XUV domain with fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801 (R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

Quéré, F.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reider, G. A.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, “X-ray pulses approaching the attosecond frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schins, J. M.

Schoenlein, R. W.

T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, A. H. Chin, and C. V. Shank, “Observation of laser assisted photoelectric effect and femtosecond high order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2468–2471 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scrinzi, A.

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond XUV pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173904 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Scrinzi, M. Geissler, and T. Brabec, “Attosecond cross correlation technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 412–415 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shank, C. V.

T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, A. H. Chin, and C. V. Shank, “Observation of laser assisted photoelectric effect and femtosecond high order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2468–2471 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spielmann, C.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, “X-ray pulses approaching the attosecond frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spielmann, Ch.

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stolow, A.

E. Constant, V. D. Taranukhin, A. Stolow, and P. B. Corkum, “Methods for the measurement of the duration of high-harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 3870–3878 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Taïeb, R.

V. Véniard, R. Taïeb, and A. Maquet, “Phase dependence of (N+1)-color (N>1) ir–uv photoionization of atoms with higher harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 721–728 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Taranukhin, V. D.

E. Constant, V. D. Taranukhin, A. Stolow, and P. B. Corkum, “Methods for the measurement of the duration of high-harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 3870–3878 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tempea, G.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, “X-ray pulses approaching the attosecond frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toma, E. S.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. Le Blanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, “Ponderomotive streaking of the ionization potential as a method for measuring pulse durations in the XUV domain with fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801 (R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

Uiberacker, M.

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Véniard, V.

V. Véniard, R. Taïeb, and A. Maquet, “Phase dependence of (N+1)-color (N>1) ir–uv photoionization of atoms with higher harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 721–728 (1996).
[CrossRef]

von der Linde, D.

Westerwalbesloh, Th.

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wieland, M.

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yudin, G. L.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nature (1)

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (4)

V. Véniard, R. Taïeb, and A. Maquet, “Phase dependence of (N+1)-color (N>1) ir–uv photoionization of atoms with higher harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 721–728 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Constant, V. D. Taranukhin, A. Stolow, and P. B. Corkum, “Methods for the measurement of the duration of high-harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 3870–3878 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Milosevic and F. Ehlotzky, “Coulomb and rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 3124–3127 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. Le Blanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, “Ponderomotive streaking of the ionization potential as a method for measuring pulse durations in the XUV domain with fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801 (R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, and P. Agostini, “Observation of laser-assisted auger decay in argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180–2183 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, A. H. Chin, and C. V. Shank, “Observation of laser assisted photoelectric effect and femtosecond high order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2468–2471 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Scrinzi, M. Geissler, and T. Brabec, “Attosecond cross correlation technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 412–415 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond XUV pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173904 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545–591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Science (3)

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, “X-ray pulses approaching the attosecond frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307–1314 (1965).

Other (4)

U. Becker and D. A. Shirley, VUV and Soft X-Ray Photoionization (Plenum, New York, 1996).

M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Dover, New York, 1973).

C. M. Bender and S. A. Orszag, Advanced Mathematical Methods for Scientists and Engineers (McGraw Hill, New York, 1978).

A. Scrinzi, T. Brabec, and M. Walser, “Momentum space description of hydrogen atom interacting with a low frequency strong laser field,” in Super-Intense Laser-Atom Physics, B. Piraux and K. Rzazewski, eds., Vol. 12 of NATO Science Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2001), p. 313.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Rms width ΔΩ of the electron spectrum for a hydrogen (1s) ground state as a function of delay time td between laser and XUV pulse. The pulse parameters are laser wavelength λl=800 nm, laser FWHM pulse duration 5 fs, sech laser pulse envelope, laser intensity Il=3×1013 W/cm2, ωx=90 eV, XUV pulse duration 500 as, XUV pulse intensity Ix=1012 W/cm2. Laser and XUV polarization were chosen parallel to the direction of observation, zˆ=e^l|e^x|p, and θ1=2°. ΔΩ was calculated in various ways: exact numerical solution of Eq. (1) (filled circles), evaluation of the SFA Eq. (3) (solid curve), and integration of the semiclassical Eq. (8) (dotted curve).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photoelectron spectrum for the parameters of Fig. 1 and delay td=0. The solid and the dotted curves denote the electron spectrum as determined by numerical integration of Schrödinger Eq. (1) and SFA Eq. (3), respectively. Note that in the derivation of Eq. (3) laser-induced ionization is not included, which is responsible for the low-frequency part (<30 eV) in the exact calculation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the optimized experimental setup.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Signature of two attosecond pulses with delay times td=±0.25 laser optical cycles compared with a single pulse with delay td=0.25. The remaining pulse parameters are as in Fig. 1. Electrons released at td=±0.25 experience maximal acceleration and maximum deceleration by the laser, respectively, creating two well-separated electron peaks (dotted curve). A single pulse creates only a single peak (solid curve).

Equations (11)

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itΨ(r)=-12 2-1r-rE(t)Ψ(r),
b(p)=i-E(t)d[p-A(t)]×exp-it12 [p-A(t)]2dt+iIptdt.
|b(p)|2=n=-+inJn(a, b)Fn(p)2,
Fn(p)=-+dEx(t-td)×exp{i[p2/2+Ip+Up(td)+nωl]t}dt,
Jn(a, b)=[sign(-a)]nl=-+Jn+2l(|a|)J-l(b),
b(p)ts2πiS¨(ts) Ex(ts-td)e^xd [p-A(ts)]×exp[-iS(ts)],
Ωω0+Up(ts)(cos 2ωlts-1)+4Up(ts)sin2 ωltscos2 θ+8ω0Up(ts)sin ωltscos θ,
S¨=dΩdts1-11+ω02Upsin2 ωltscos2 θ-tan2 θ1/2dΩdts.
Ωn(td)=θ0θ10Ωn|b(Ω, θ)|2ΩdΩ sin θdθθ0θ10|b(Ω, θ)|2ΩdΩ sin θdθ.
Ωn(td)
=θ0θ1-Ωn+1/2(ts)Ex2(ts-td)[e^xd(ts)]2dtssin θdθθ0θ1-Ω1/2(ts)Ex2(ts-td)[e^xd(ts)]2dtssin θdθ.

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