Abstract

Lanthanum lutetium gallium garnet of the compositions La2.32Lu2.61-xCrxGa3.07O12 and La2.7Lu2.3-xCrxGa3.07O12 with various chromium concentrations was grown by the Czochralski method. We measured the luminescence, absorption excitation, and excited-state absorption spectra. Two different octahedrally coordinated low field Cr3+ centers were found in crystals of both compositions. In the La2.7Lu2.3-xCrxGa3.07O12 crystals an additional absorption found in the region 13 000–16 000 cm-1 is attributed to the tetrahedrally coordinated Cr4+ system.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. F. M. Hashmi, K. W. Ve Steeg, F. Durville, R. C. Powell, and G. Boulon, “Four-wave-mixing spectroscopy of Cr-doped garnet crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 3818–3828 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Geller, C. E. Miller, and R. G. Treuting, “New synthetic garnets,” Acta Crystallogr. Sect. B 13, 179–186 (1960).
  4. T. H. Allik, S. A. Stewart, D. K. Sardar, G. J. Quarles, R. C. Powell, G. A. Morrison Turner, M. R. Kokta, W. W. Hovis, and A. A. Pinto, “Preparation, structure, and spectroscopic properties of Nd3+:La1−xLux3Lu1−yGay2Ga3O12 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 9129–9139 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. Struve and G. Huber, “The effect of the crystal field strength on the optical spectra of Cr3+ in gallium garnet laser crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 36, 195–201 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Petermann, “The role of excited state absorption in tunable solid state laser,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, S199–S218 (1990).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Kück, “Laser-related spectroscopy of ion-doped crystals for tunable solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 515–562 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Galanciak, P. Perlin, M. Grinberg, and A. Suchocki, “High pressure spectroscopy of LLGG doped with Cr3+,” J. Lumin. 60/61, 223–226 (1994).
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  15. A. Kamińska, P. Kaczor, A. Suchocki, and M. Grinberg, “Low-temperature high-pressure spectroscopy of lanthanum lutetium gallium garnet crystals doped with Cr3+ and Nd3+,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 104106/1–8 (2002).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. Cz. Koepke, K. Wiśniewski, M. Grinberg, D. L. Russell, and K. Holliday, “Optical spectroscopy and excited state absorption of the ZAS (ZrO2–Al2O3–SiO2) glass doped with chromium,” J. Lumin. 81, 301–312 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. P. O’Donnell, A. Marschall, M. Yamaga, B. Henderson, and B. Cockayne, “Vibronic structure in the photoluminescence spectrum of Cr3+ ions in garnets,” J. Lumin. 42, 365–373 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. P. I. Macfarlane, B. Henderson, K. Holliday, and M. Grinberg, “Substitutional disorder and the optical spectroscopy of gallogermanate crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 8, 3933–3946 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  26. L. Kovacs, Zs. Szallet, I. Cravero, I. Foldvari, and C. Zaldo, “OH-related defects in LiNbO3:Mg, M (M=Nd, Cr, Ti, Mn),” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 51, 417–420 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  27. G. Corradi, H. Söthe, J. M. Spaeth, and K. Polgar, “Electron spin resonance and electron-nuclear double-resonance investigation of a new Cr3+ defect on an Nb site in LiNbO3:Mg:Cr,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 3, 1901–1908 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  28. P. I. Macfarlane, K. Holliday, J. F. H. Nicholls, and B. Henderson, “Characterization of Cr3+ centres in LiNbO3 using fluorescence line narrowing,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 7, 9643–9656 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  29. A. Kaminska, A. Suchocki, L. Arizmendi, D. Callejo, E. Díeguez, J. García Solé, F. Jaque, and M. Grinberg, “Spectroscopy of near-stoichiometric LiNbO3:MgO, Cr crystals under high pressure,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 10, 802–10, 811 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2002

A. Kamińska, P. Kaczor, A. Suchocki, and M. Grinberg, “Low-temperature high-pressure spectroscopy of lanthanum lutetium gallium garnet crystals doped with Cr3+ and Nd3+,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 104106/1–8 (2002).

2001

T. Łukasiewicz, A. Majchrowski, and Z. Mierczyk, “Oxide crystals for solid state laser applications,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 9, 49–56 (2001).

S. Kück, “Laser-related spectroscopy of ion-doped crystals for tunable solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 515–562 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

A. Kaminska, A. Suchocki, L. Arizmendi, D. Callejo, E. Díeguez, J. García Solé, F. Jaque, and M. Grinberg, “Spectroscopy of near-stoichiometric LiNbO3:MgO, Cr crystals under high pressure,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 10, 802–10, 811 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

Cz. Koepke, K. Wiśniewski, M. Grinberg, D. L. Russell, and K. Holliday, “Optical spectroscopy and excited state absorption of the ZAS (ZrO2–Al2O3–SiO2) glass doped with chromium,” J. Lumin. 81, 301–312 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

V. Petricevic, S. K. Gayen, and R. R. Alfano, “Laser action in chromium-activated forsterite for near-infrared excitation: Is Cr4+ the lasing ion?” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2590–2592 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cz. Koepke, K. Wiśniewski, M. Grinberg, D. L. Russell, K. Holliday, and G. H. Beall, “Excited state absorption in Cr3+-doped gahnite glass ceramics,” J. Lumin. 78, 135–146 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Allik, S. A. Stewart, D. K. Sardar, G. J. Quarles, R. C. Powell, G. A. Morrison Turner, M. R. Kokta, W. W. Hovis, and A. A. Pinto, “Preparation, structure, and spectroscopic properties of Nd3+:La1−xLux3Lu1−yGay2Ga3O12 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 9129–9139 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

S. Kück, K. Pettermann, U. Pohlmann, and G. Huber, “Electronic and vibronic transitions of the Cr4+-doped garnets Lu3Al5O12, Y3Al5O12, Y3Ga5O12 and Gd3Al5O12,” J. Lumin. 68, 1–14 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Macfarlane, B. Henderson, K. Holliday, and M. Grinberg, “Substitutional disorder and the optical spectroscopy of gallogermanate crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 8, 3933–3946 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

P. I. Macfarlane, K. Holliday, J. F. H. Nicholls, and B. Henderson, “Characterization of Cr3+ centres in LiNbO3 using fluorescence line narrowing,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 7, 9643–9656 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Grinberg, P. I. Macfarlane, B. Henderson, and K. Holliday, “Inhomogeneous broadening of optical transitions dominated by low-symmetry crystal-field components in Cr3+-doped gallogermanates,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 3917–3929 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Z. Frukacz, T. Łukasiewicz, M. Malinowski, and Z. Mierczyk, “Growth of Cr4+:YAG crystals for applications in laser technique,” in Solid State Crystals: Materials Science and Applications, J. Żmija, A. Rogalski, and J. Zieliński, eds., Proc. SPIE 2373, 74–78 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

A. Sugimoto, Y. Nobe, and K. Yamagishi, “Crystal growth and optical characterization of Cr, Ca:Y3Al5O12,” J. Cryst. Growth 140, 349–354 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Galanciak, P. Perlin, M. Grinberg, and A. Suchocki, “High pressure spectroscopy of LLGG doped with Cr3+,” J. Lumin. 60/61, 223–226 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

Cz. Koepke, A. J. Wojtowicz, and A. Lempicki, “Excited-state absorption in excimer-pumped CaWO4 crystals,” J. Lumin. 54, 345–355 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

G. Corradi, H. Söthe, J. M. Spaeth, and K. Polgar, “Electron spin resonance and electron-nuclear double-resonance investigation of a new Cr3+ defect on an Nb site in LiNbO3:Mg:Cr,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 3, 1901–1908 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

L. Kovacs, Zs. Szallet, I. Cravero, I. Foldvari, and C. Zaldo, “OH-related defects in LiNbO3:Mg, M (M=Nd, Cr, Ti, Mn),” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 51, 417–420 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Petermann, “The role of excited state absorption in tunable solid state laser,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, S199–S218 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Hashmi, K. W. Ve Steeg, F. Durville, R. C. Powell, and G. Boulon, “Four-wave-mixing spectroscopy of Cr-doped garnet crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 3818–3828 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

T. Wegner and K. Petermann, “Excited state absorption of Ti3+:YAlO3,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 275–278 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. P. O’Donnell, A. Marschall, M. Yamaga, B. Henderson, and B. Cockayne, “Vibronic structure in the photoluminescence spectrum of Cr3+ ions in garnets,” J. Lumin. 42, 365–373 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985

B. Struve and G. Huber, “The effect of the crystal field strength on the optical spectra of Cr3+ in gallium garnet laser crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 36, 195–201 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1973

M. Kokta and M. Grasso, “New substituted gallium garnets containing trivalent lanthanum on dodecahedral crystallographic sites,” J. Solid State Chem. 8, 357–359 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1960

S. Geller, C. E. Miller, and R. G. Treuting, “New synthetic garnets,” Acta Crystallogr. Sect. B 13, 179–186 (1960).

Alfano, R. R.

V. Petricevic, S. K. Gayen, and R. R. Alfano, “Laser action in chromium-activated forsterite for near-infrared excitation: Is Cr4+ the lasing ion?” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2590–2592 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Allik, T. H.

T. H. Allik, S. A. Stewart, D. K. Sardar, G. J. Quarles, R. C. Powell, G. A. Morrison Turner, M. R. Kokta, W. W. Hovis, and A. A. Pinto, “Preparation, structure, and spectroscopic properties of Nd3+:La1−xLux3Lu1−yGay2Ga3O12 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 9129–9139 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Arizmendi, L.

A. Kaminska, A. Suchocki, L. Arizmendi, D. Callejo, E. Díeguez, J. García Solé, F. Jaque, and M. Grinberg, “Spectroscopy of near-stoichiometric LiNbO3:MgO, Cr crystals under high pressure,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 10, 802–10, 811 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Beall, G. H.

Cz. Koepke, K. Wiśniewski, M. Grinberg, D. L. Russell, K. Holliday, and G. H. Beall, “Excited state absorption in Cr3+-doped gahnite glass ceramics,” J. Lumin. 78, 135–146 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boulon, G.

F. M. Hashmi, K. W. Ve Steeg, F. Durville, R. C. Powell, and G. Boulon, “Four-wave-mixing spectroscopy of Cr-doped garnet crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 3818–3828 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Callejo, D.

A. Kaminska, A. Suchocki, L. Arizmendi, D. Callejo, E. Díeguez, J. García Solé, F. Jaque, and M. Grinberg, “Spectroscopy of near-stoichiometric LiNbO3:MgO, Cr crystals under high pressure,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 10, 802–10, 811 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Camarillo, E.

E. Camarillo, J. Tocho, I. Vergara, E. Díeguez, J. García Solé, and F. Jaque, “Optical bands of Cr3+ induced by Mg2+ ions in LiNbO3:Cr, Mg,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 4600–4604 (1992I).
[CrossRef]

Cockayne, B.

K. P. O’Donnell, A. Marschall, M. Yamaga, B. Henderson, and B. Cockayne, “Vibronic structure in the photoluminescence spectrum of Cr3+ ions in garnets,” J. Lumin. 42, 365–373 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Corradi, G.

G. Corradi, H. Söthe, J. M. Spaeth, and K. Polgar, “Electron spin resonance and electron-nuclear double-resonance investigation of a new Cr3+ defect on an Nb site in LiNbO3:Mg:Cr,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 3, 1901–1908 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cravero, I.

L. Kovacs, Zs. Szallet, I. Cravero, I. Foldvari, and C. Zaldo, “OH-related defects in LiNbO3:Mg, M (M=Nd, Cr, Ti, Mn),” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 51, 417–420 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Díeguez, E.

A. Kaminska, A. Suchocki, L. Arizmendi, D. Callejo, E. Díeguez, J. García Solé, F. Jaque, and M. Grinberg, “Spectroscopy of near-stoichiometric LiNbO3:MgO, Cr crystals under high pressure,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 10, 802–10, 811 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Camarillo, J. Tocho, I. Vergara, E. Díeguez, J. García Solé, and F. Jaque, “Optical bands of Cr3+ induced by Mg2+ ions in LiNbO3:Cr, Mg,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 4600–4604 (1992I).
[CrossRef]

Durville, F.

F. M. Hashmi, K. W. Ve Steeg, F. Durville, R. C. Powell, and G. Boulon, “Four-wave-mixing spectroscopy of Cr-doped garnet crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 3818–3828 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Foldvari, I.

L. Kovacs, Zs. Szallet, I. Cravero, I. Foldvari, and C. Zaldo, “OH-related defects in LiNbO3:Mg, M (M=Nd, Cr, Ti, Mn),” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 51, 417–420 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Frukacz, Z.

Z. Frukacz, T. Łukasiewicz, M. Malinowski, and Z. Mierczyk, “Growth of Cr4+:YAG crystals for applications in laser technique,” in Solid State Crystals: Materials Science and Applications, J. Żmija, A. Rogalski, and J. Zieliński, eds., Proc. SPIE 2373, 74–78 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Galanciak, D.

D. Galanciak, P. Perlin, M. Grinberg, and A. Suchocki, “High pressure spectroscopy of LLGG doped with Cr3+,” J. Lumin. 60/61, 223–226 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gayen, S. K.

V. Petricevic, S. K. Gayen, and R. R. Alfano, “Laser action in chromium-activated forsterite for near-infrared excitation: Is Cr4+ the lasing ion?” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2590–2592 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Geller, S.

S. Geller, C. E. Miller, and R. G. Treuting, “New synthetic garnets,” Acta Crystallogr. Sect. B 13, 179–186 (1960).

Grasso, M.

M. Kokta and M. Grasso, “New substituted gallium garnets containing trivalent lanthanum on dodecahedral crystallographic sites,” J. Solid State Chem. 8, 357–359 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Grinberg, M.

A. Kamińska, P. Kaczor, A. Suchocki, and M. Grinberg, “Low-temperature high-pressure spectroscopy of lanthanum lutetium gallium garnet crystals doped with Cr3+ and Nd3+,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 104106/1–8 (2002).

A. Kaminska, A. Suchocki, L. Arizmendi, D. Callejo, E. Díeguez, J. García Solé, F. Jaque, and M. Grinberg, “Spectroscopy of near-stoichiometric LiNbO3:MgO, Cr crystals under high pressure,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 10, 802–10, 811 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cz. Koepke, K. Wiśniewski, M. Grinberg, D. L. Russell, and K. Holliday, “Optical spectroscopy and excited state absorption of the ZAS (ZrO2–Al2O3–SiO2) glass doped with chromium,” J. Lumin. 81, 301–312 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cz. Koepke, K. Wiśniewski, M. Grinberg, D. L. Russell, K. Holliday, and G. H. Beall, “Excited state absorption in Cr3+-doped gahnite glass ceramics,” J. Lumin. 78, 135–146 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Macfarlane, B. Henderson, K. Holliday, and M. Grinberg, “Substitutional disorder and the optical spectroscopy of gallogermanate crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 8, 3933–3946 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Grinberg, P. I. Macfarlane, B. Henderson, and K. Holliday, “Inhomogeneous broadening of optical transitions dominated by low-symmetry crystal-field components in Cr3+-doped gallogermanates,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 3917–3929 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Galanciak, P. Perlin, M. Grinberg, and A. Suchocki, “High pressure spectroscopy of LLGG doped with Cr3+,” J. Lumin. 60/61, 223–226 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hashmi, F. M.

F. M. Hashmi, K. W. Ve Steeg, F. Durville, R. C. Powell, and G. Boulon, “Four-wave-mixing spectroscopy of Cr-doped garnet crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 3818–3828 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, B.

P. I. Macfarlane, B. Henderson, K. Holliday, and M. Grinberg, “Substitutional disorder and the optical spectroscopy of gallogermanate crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 8, 3933–3946 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Grinberg, P. I. Macfarlane, B. Henderson, and K. Holliday, “Inhomogeneous broadening of optical transitions dominated by low-symmetry crystal-field components in Cr3+-doped gallogermanates,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 3917–3929 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Macfarlane, K. Holliday, J. F. H. Nicholls, and B. Henderson, “Characterization of Cr3+ centres in LiNbO3 using fluorescence line narrowing,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 7, 9643–9656 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. P. O’Donnell, A. Marschall, M. Yamaga, B. Henderson, and B. Cockayne, “Vibronic structure in the photoluminescence spectrum of Cr3+ ions in garnets,” J. Lumin. 42, 365–373 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Holliday, K.

Cz. Koepke, K. Wiśniewski, M. Grinberg, D. L. Russell, and K. Holliday, “Optical spectroscopy and excited state absorption of the ZAS (ZrO2–Al2O3–SiO2) glass doped with chromium,” J. Lumin. 81, 301–312 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cz. Koepke, K. Wiśniewski, M. Grinberg, D. L. Russell, K. Holliday, and G. H. Beall, “Excited state absorption in Cr3+-doped gahnite glass ceramics,” J. Lumin. 78, 135–146 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Macfarlane, B. Henderson, K. Holliday, and M. Grinberg, “Substitutional disorder and the optical spectroscopy of gallogermanate crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 8, 3933–3946 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Grinberg, P. I. Macfarlane, B. Henderson, and K. Holliday, “Inhomogeneous broadening of optical transitions dominated by low-symmetry crystal-field components in Cr3+-doped gallogermanates,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 3917–3929 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Macfarlane, K. Holliday, J. F. H. Nicholls, and B. Henderson, “Characterization of Cr3+ centres in LiNbO3 using fluorescence line narrowing,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 7, 9643–9656 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hovis, W. W.

T. H. Allik, S. A. Stewart, D. K. Sardar, G. J. Quarles, R. C. Powell, G. A. Morrison Turner, M. R. Kokta, W. W. Hovis, and A. A. Pinto, “Preparation, structure, and spectroscopic properties of Nd3+:La1−xLux3Lu1−yGay2Ga3O12 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 9129–9139 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

S. Kück, K. Pettermann, U. Pohlmann, and G. Huber, “Electronic and vibronic transitions of the Cr4+-doped garnets Lu3Al5O12, Y3Al5O12, Y3Ga5O12 and Gd3Al5O12,” J. Lumin. 68, 1–14 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Struve and G. Huber, “The effect of the crystal field strength on the optical spectra of Cr3+ in gallium garnet laser crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 36, 195–201 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Jaque, F.

A. Kaminska, A. Suchocki, L. Arizmendi, D. Callejo, E. Díeguez, J. García Solé, F. Jaque, and M. Grinberg, “Spectroscopy of near-stoichiometric LiNbO3:MgO, Cr crystals under high pressure,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 10, 802–10, 811 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Camarillo, J. Tocho, I. Vergara, E. Díeguez, J. García Solé, and F. Jaque, “Optical bands of Cr3+ induced by Mg2+ ions in LiNbO3:Cr, Mg,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 4600–4604 (1992I).
[CrossRef]

Kaczor, P.

A. Kamińska, P. Kaczor, A. Suchocki, and M. Grinberg, “Low-temperature high-pressure spectroscopy of lanthanum lutetium gallium garnet crystals doped with Cr3+ and Nd3+,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 104106/1–8 (2002).

Kaminska, A.

A. Kamińska, P. Kaczor, A. Suchocki, and M. Grinberg, “Low-temperature high-pressure spectroscopy of lanthanum lutetium gallium garnet crystals doped with Cr3+ and Nd3+,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 104106/1–8 (2002).

A. Kaminska, A. Suchocki, L. Arizmendi, D. Callejo, E. Díeguez, J. García Solé, F. Jaque, and M. Grinberg, “Spectroscopy of near-stoichiometric LiNbO3:MgO, Cr crystals under high pressure,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 10, 802–10, 811 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Koepke, Cz.

Cz. Koepke, K. Wiśniewski, M. Grinberg, D. L. Russell, and K. Holliday, “Optical spectroscopy and excited state absorption of the ZAS (ZrO2–Al2O3–SiO2) glass doped with chromium,” J. Lumin. 81, 301–312 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cz. Koepke, K. Wiśniewski, M. Grinberg, D. L. Russell, K. Holliday, and G. H. Beall, “Excited state absorption in Cr3+-doped gahnite glass ceramics,” J. Lumin. 78, 135–146 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cz. Koepke, A. J. Wojtowicz, and A. Lempicki, “Excited-state absorption in excimer-pumped CaWO4 crystals,” J. Lumin. 54, 345–355 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kokta, M.

M. Kokta and M. Grasso, “New substituted gallium garnets containing trivalent lanthanum on dodecahedral crystallographic sites,” J. Solid State Chem. 8, 357–359 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Kokta, M. R.

T. H. Allik, S. A. Stewart, D. K. Sardar, G. J. Quarles, R. C. Powell, G. A. Morrison Turner, M. R. Kokta, W. W. Hovis, and A. A. Pinto, “Preparation, structure, and spectroscopic properties of Nd3+:La1−xLux3Lu1−yGay2Ga3O12 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 9129–9139 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kovacs, L.

L. Kovacs, Zs. Szallet, I. Cravero, I. Foldvari, and C. Zaldo, “OH-related defects in LiNbO3:Mg, M (M=Nd, Cr, Ti, Mn),” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 51, 417–420 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kück, S.

S. Kück, “Laser-related spectroscopy of ion-doped crystals for tunable solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 515–562 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Kück, K. Pettermann, U. Pohlmann, and G. Huber, “Electronic and vibronic transitions of the Cr4+-doped garnets Lu3Al5O12, Y3Al5O12, Y3Ga5O12 and Gd3Al5O12,” J. Lumin. 68, 1–14 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lempicki, A.

Cz. Koepke, A. J. Wojtowicz, and A. Lempicki, “Excited-state absorption in excimer-pumped CaWO4 crystals,” J. Lumin. 54, 345–355 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lukasiewicz, T.

T. Łukasiewicz, A. Majchrowski, and Z. Mierczyk, “Oxide crystals for solid state laser applications,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 9, 49–56 (2001).

Z. Frukacz, T. Łukasiewicz, M. Malinowski, and Z. Mierczyk, “Growth of Cr4+:YAG crystals for applications in laser technique,” in Solid State Crystals: Materials Science and Applications, J. Żmija, A. Rogalski, and J. Zieliński, eds., Proc. SPIE 2373, 74–78 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Macfarlane, P. I.

P. I. Macfarlane, B. Henderson, K. Holliday, and M. Grinberg, “Substitutional disorder and the optical spectroscopy of gallogermanate crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 8, 3933–3946 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Macfarlane, K. Holliday, J. F. H. Nicholls, and B. Henderson, “Characterization of Cr3+ centres in LiNbO3 using fluorescence line narrowing,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 7, 9643–9656 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Grinberg, P. I. Macfarlane, B. Henderson, and K. Holliday, “Inhomogeneous broadening of optical transitions dominated by low-symmetry crystal-field components in Cr3+-doped gallogermanates,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 3917–3929 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Majchrowski, A.

T. Łukasiewicz, A. Majchrowski, and Z. Mierczyk, “Oxide crystals for solid state laser applications,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 9, 49–56 (2001).

Malinowski, M.

Z. Frukacz, T. Łukasiewicz, M. Malinowski, and Z. Mierczyk, “Growth of Cr4+:YAG crystals for applications in laser technique,” in Solid State Crystals: Materials Science and Applications, J. Żmija, A. Rogalski, and J. Zieliński, eds., Proc. SPIE 2373, 74–78 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Marschall, A.

K. P. O’Donnell, A. Marschall, M. Yamaga, B. Henderson, and B. Cockayne, “Vibronic structure in the photoluminescence spectrum of Cr3+ ions in garnets,” J. Lumin. 42, 365–373 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mierczyk, Z.

T. Łukasiewicz, A. Majchrowski, and Z. Mierczyk, “Oxide crystals for solid state laser applications,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 9, 49–56 (2001).

Z. Frukacz, T. Łukasiewicz, M. Malinowski, and Z. Mierczyk, “Growth of Cr4+:YAG crystals for applications in laser technique,” in Solid State Crystals: Materials Science and Applications, J. Żmija, A. Rogalski, and J. Zieliński, eds., Proc. SPIE 2373, 74–78 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Miller, C. E.

S. Geller, C. E. Miller, and R. G. Treuting, “New synthetic garnets,” Acta Crystallogr. Sect. B 13, 179–186 (1960).

Morrison Turner, G. A.

T. H. Allik, S. A. Stewart, D. K. Sardar, G. J. Quarles, R. C. Powell, G. A. Morrison Turner, M. R. Kokta, W. W. Hovis, and A. A. Pinto, “Preparation, structure, and spectroscopic properties of Nd3+:La1−xLux3Lu1−yGay2Ga3O12 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 9129–9139 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nicholls, J. F. H.

P. I. Macfarlane, K. Holliday, J. F. H. Nicholls, and B. Henderson, “Characterization of Cr3+ centres in LiNbO3 using fluorescence line narrowing,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 7, 9643–9656 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nobe, Y.

A. Sugimoto, Y. Nobe, and K. Yamagishi, “Crystal growth and optical characterization of Cr, Ca:Y3Al5O12,” J. Cryst. Growth 140, 349–354 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O’Donnell, K. P.

K. P. O’Donnell, A. Marschall, M. Yamaga, B. Henderson, and B. Cockayne, “Vibronic structure in the photoluminescence spectrum of Cr3+ ions in garnets,” J. Lumin. 42, 365–373 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Perlin, P.

D. Galanciak, P. Perlin, M. Grinberg, and A. Suchocki, “High pressure spectroscopy of LLGG doped with Cr3+,” J. Lumin. 60/61, 223–226 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

K. Petermann, “The role of excited state absorption in tunable solid state laser,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, S199–S218 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Wegner and K. Petermann, “Excited state absorption of Ti3+:YAlO3,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 275–278 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Petricevic, V.

V. Petricevic, S. K. Gayen, and R. R. Alfano, “Laser action in chromium-activated forsterite for near-infrared excitation: Is Cr4+ the lasing ion?” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2590–2592 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pettermann, K.

S. Kück, K. Pettermann, U. Pohlmann, and G. Huber, “Electronic and vibronic transitions of the Cr4+-doped garnets Lu3Al5O12, Y3Al5O12, Y3Ga5O12 and Gd3Al5O12,” J. Lumin. 68, 1–14 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pinto, A. A.

T. H. Allik, S. A. Stewart, D. K. Sardar, G. J. Quarles, R. C. Powell, G. A. Morrison Turner, M. R. Kokta, W. W. Hovis, and A. A. Pinto, “Preparation, structure, and spectroscopic properties of Nd3+:La1−xLux3Lu1−yGay2Ga3O12 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 9129–9139 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pohlmann, U.

S. Kück, K. Pettermann, U. Pohlmann, and G. Huber, “Electronic and vibronic transitions of the Cr4+-doped garnets Lu3Al5O12, Y3Al5O12, Y3Ga5O12 and Gd3Al5O12,” J. Lumin. 68, 1–14 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Polgar, K.

G. Corradi, H. Söthe, J. M. Spaeth, and K. Polgar, “Electron spin resonance and electron-nuclear double-resonance investigation of a new Cr3+ defect on an Nb site in LiNbO3:Mg:Cr,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 3, 1901–1908 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Powell, R. C.

T. H. Allik, S. A. Stewart, D. K. Sardar, G. J. Quarles, R. C. Powell, G. A. Morrison Turner, M. R. Kokta, W. W. Hovis, and A. A. Pinto, “Preparation, structure, and spectroscopic properties of Nd3+:La1−xLux3Lu1−yGay2Ga3O12 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 9129–9139 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Hashmi, K. W. Ve Steeg, F. Durville, R. C. Powell, and G. Boulon, “Four-wave-mixing spectroscopy of Cr-doped garnet crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 3818–3828 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Quarles, G. J.

T. H. Allik, S. A. Stewart, D. K. Sardar, G. J. Quarles, R. C. Powell, G. A. Morrison Turner, M. R. Kokta, W. W. Hovis, and A. A. Pinto, “Preparation, structure, and spectroscopic properties of Nd3+:La1−xLux3Lu1−yGay2Ga3O12 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 9129–9139 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Russell, D. L.

Cz. Koepke, K. Wiśniewski, M. Grinberg, D. L. Russell, and K. Holliday, “Optical spectroscopy and excited state absorption of the ZAS (ZrO2–Al2O3–SiO2) glass doped with chromium,” J. Lumin. 81, 301–312 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cz. Koepke, K. Wiśniewski, M. Grinberg, D. L. Russell, K. Holliday, and G. H. Beall, “Excited state absorption in Cr3+-doped gahnite glass ceramics,” J. Lumin. 78, 135–146 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sardar, D. K.

T. H. Allik, S. A. Stewart, D. K. Sardar, G. J. Quarles, R. C. Powell, G. A. Morrison Turner, M. R. Kokta, W. W. Hovis, and A. A. Pinto, “Preparation, structure, and spectroscopic properties of Nd3+:La1−xLux3Lu1−yGay2Ga3O12 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 9129–9139 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Solé, J. García

A. Kaminska, A. Suchocki, L. Arizmendi, D. Callejo, E. Díeguez, J. García Solé, F. Jaque, and M. Grinberg, “Spectroscopy of near-stoichiometric LiNbO3:MgO, Cr crystals under high pressure,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 10, 802–10, 811 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Camarillo, J. Tocho, I. Vergara, E. Díeguez, J. García Solé, and F. Jaque, “Optical bands of Cr3+ induced by Mg2+ ions in LiNbO3:Cr, Mg,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 4600–4604 (1992I).
[CrossRef]

Söthe, H.

G. Corradi, H. Söthe, J. M. Spaeth, and K. Polgar, “Electron spin resonance and electron-nuclear double-resonance investigation of a new Cr3+ defect on an Nb site in LiNbO3:Mg:Cr,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 3, 1901–1908 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Spaeth, J. M.

G. Corradi, H. Söthe, J. M. Spaeth, and K. Polgar, “Electron spin resonance and electron-nuclear double-resonance investigation of a new Cr3+ defect on an Nb site in LiNbO3:Mg:Cr,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 3, 1901–1908 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, S. A.

T. H. Allik, S. A. Stewart, D. K. Sardar, G. J. Quarles, R. C. Powell, G. A. Morrison Turner, M. R. Kokta, W. W. Hovis, and A. A. Pinto, “Preparation, structure, and spectroscopic properties of Nd3+:La1−xLux3Lu1−yGay2Ga3O12 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 9129–9139 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Struve, B.

B. Struve and G. Huber, “The effect of the crystal field strength on the optical spectra of Cr3+ in gallium garnet laser crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 36, 195–201 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Suchocki, A.

A. Kamińska, P. Kaczor, A. Suchocki, and M. Grinberg, “Low-temperature high-pressure spectroscopy of lanthanum lutetium gallium garnet crystals doped with Cr3+ and Nd3+,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 104106/1–8 (2002).

A. Kaminska, A. Suchocki, L. Arizmendi, D. Callejo, E. Díeguez, J. García Solé, F. Jaque, and M. Grinberg, “Spectroscopy of near-stoichiometric LiNbO3:MgO, Cr crystals under high pressure,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 10, 802–10, 811 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Galanciak, P. Perlin, M. Grinberg, and A. Suchocki, “High pressure spectroscopy of LLGG doped with Cr3+,” J. Lumin. 60/61, 223–226 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, A.

A. Sugimoto, Y. Nobe, and K. Yamagishi, “Crystal growth and optical characterization of Cr, Ca:Y3Al5O12,” J. Cryst. Growth 140, 349–354 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Szallet, Zs.

L. Kovacs, Zs. Szallet, I. Cravero, I. Foldvari, and C. Zaldo, “OH-related defects in LiNbO3:Mg, M (M=Nd, Cr, Ti, Mn),” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 51, 417–420 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tocho, J.

E. Camarillo, J. Tocho, I. Vergara, E. Díeguez, J. García Solé, and F. Jaque, “Optical bands of Cr3+ induced by Mg2+ ions in LiNbO3:Cr, Mg,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 4600–4604 (1992I).
[CrossRef]

Treuting, R. G.

S. Geller, C. E. Miller, and R. G. Treuting, “New synthetic garnets,” Acta Crystallogr. Sect. B 13, 179–186 (1960).

Ve Steeg, K. W.

F. M. Hashmi, K. W. Ve Steeg, F. Durville, R. C. Powell, and G. Boulon, “Four-wave-mixing spectroscopy of Cr-doped garnet crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 3818–3828 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vergara, I.

E. Camarillo, J. Tocho, I. Vergara, E. Díeguez, J. García Solé, and F. Jaque, “Optical bands of Cr3+ induced by Mg2+ ions in LiNbO3:Cr, Mg,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 4600–4604 (1992I).
[CrossRef]

Wegner, T.

T. Wegner and K. Petermann, “Excited state absorption of Ti3+:YAlO3,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 275–278 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wisniewski, K.

Cz. Koepke, K. Wiśniewski, M. Grinberg, D. L. Russell, and K. Holliday, “Optical spectroscopy and excited state absorption of the ZAS (ZrO2–Al2O3–SiO2) glass doped with chromium,” J. Lumin. 81, 301–312 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cz. Koepke, K. Wiśniewski, M. Grinberg, D. L. Russell, K. Holliday, and G. H. Beall, “Excited state absorption in Cr3+-doped gahnite glass ceramics,” J. Lumin. 78, 135–146 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wojtowicz, A. J.

Cz. Koepke, A. J. Wojtowicz, and A. Lempicki, “Excited-state absorption in excimer-pumped CaWO4 crystals,” J. Lumin. 54, 345–355 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yamaga, M.

K. P. O’Donnell, A. Marschall, M. Yamaga, B. Henderson, and B. Cockayne, “Vibronic structure in the photoluminescence spectrum of Cr3+ ions in garnets,” J. Lumin. 42, 365–373 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yamagishi, K.

A. Sugimoto, Y. Nobe, and K. Yamagishi, “Crystal growth and optical characterization of Cr, Ca:Y3Al5O12,” J. Cryst. Growth 140, 349–354 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zaldo, C.

L. Kovacs, Zs. Szallet, I. Cravero, I. Foldvari, and C. Zaldo, “OH-related defects in LiNbO3:Mg, M (M=Nd, Cr, Ti, Mn),” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 51, 417–420 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Acta Crystallogr. Sect. B

S. Geller, C. E. Miller, and R. G. Treuting, “New synthetic garnets,” Acta Crystallogr. Sect. B 13, 179–186 (1960).

Appl. Phys. B

B. Struve and G. Huber, “The effect of the crystal field strength on the optical spectra of Cr3+ in gallium garnet laser crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 36, 195–201 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Kück, “Laser-related spectroscopy of ion-doped crystals for tunable solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 515–562 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Wegner and K. Petermann, “Excited state absorption of Ti3+:YAlO3,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 275–278 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

V. Petricevic, S. K. Gayen, and R. R. Alfano, “Laser action in chromium-activated forsterite for near-infrared excitation: Is Cr4+ the lasing ion?” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2590–2592 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

A. Sugimoto, Y. Nobe, and K. Yamagishi, “Crystal growth and optical characterization of Cr, Ca:Y3Al5O12,” J. Cryst. Growth 140, 349–354 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin.

D. Galanciak, P. Perlin, M. Grinberg, and A. Suchocki, “High pressure spectroscopy of LLGG doped with Cr3+,” J. Lumin. 60/61, 223–226 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cz. Koepke, A. J. Wojtowicz, and A. Lempicki, “Excited-state absorption in excimer-pumped CaWO4 crystals,” J. Lumin. 54, 345–355 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cz. Koepke, K. Wiśniewski, M. Grinberg, D. L. Russell, K. Holliday, and G. H. Beall, “Excited state absorption in Cr3+-doped gahnite glass ceramics,” J. Lumin. 78, 135–146 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cz. Koepke, K. Wiśniewski, M. Grinberg, D. L. Russell, and K. Holliday, “Optical spectroscopy and excited state absorption of the ZAS (ZrO2–Al2O3–SiO2) glass doped with chromium,” J. Lumin. 81, 301–312 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. P. O’Donnell, A. Marschall, M. Yamaga, B. Henderson, and B. Cockayne, “Vibronic structure in the photoluminescence spectrum of Cr3+ ions in garnets,” J. Lumin. 42, 365–373 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Kück, K. Pettermann, U. Pohlmann, and G. Huber, “Electronic and vibronic transitions of the Cr4+-doped garnets Lu3Al5O12, Y3Al5O12, Y3Ga5O12 and Gd3Al5O12,” J. Lumin. 68, 1–14 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Solids

L. Kovacs, Zs. Szallet, I. Cravero, I. Foldvari, and C. Zaldo, “OH-related defects in LiNbO3:Mg, M (M=Nd, Cr, Ti, Mn),” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 51, 417–420 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter

G. Corradi, H. Söthe, J. M. Spaeth, and K. Polgar, “Electron spin resonance and electron-nuclear double-resonance investigation of a new Cr3+ defect on an Nb site in LiNbO3:Mg:Cr,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 3, 1901–1908 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Macfarlane, K. Holliday, J. F. H. Nicholls, and B. Henderson, “Characterization of Cr3+ centres in LiNbO3 using fluorescence line narrowing,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 7, 9643–9656 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Macfarlane, B. Henderson, K. Holliday, and M. Grinberg, “Substitutional disorder and the optical spectroscopy of gallogermanate crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 8, 3933–3946 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Solid State Chem.

M. Kokta and M. Grasso, “New substituted gallium garnets containing trivalent lanthanum on dodecahedral crystallographic sites,” J. Solid State Chem. 8, 357–359 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron.

K. Petermann, “The role of excited state absorption in tunable solid state laser,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, S199–S218 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opto-Electron. Rev.

T. Łukasiewicz, A. Majchrowski, and Z. Mierczyk, “Oxide crystals for solid state laser applications,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 9, 49–56 (2001).

Phys. Rev. B

A. Kamińska, P. Kaczor, A. Suchocki, and M. Grinberg, “Low-temperature high-pressure spectroscopy of lanthanum lutetium gallium garnet crystals doped with Cr3+ and Nd3+,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 104106/1–8 (2002).

F. M. Hashmi, K. W. Ve Steeg, F. Durville, R. C. Powell, and G. Boulon, “Four-wave-mixing spectroscopy of Cr-doped garnet crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 3818–3828 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Allik, S. A. Stewart, D. K. Sardar, G. J. Quarles, R. C. Powell, G. A. Morrison Turner, M. R. Kokta, W. W. Hovis, and A. A. Pinto, “Preparation, structure, and spectroscopic properties of Nd3+:La1−xLux3Lu1−yGay2Ga3O12 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 9129–9139 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Grinberg, P. I. Macfarlane, B. Henderson, and K. Holliday, “Inhomogeneous broadening of optical transitions dominated by low-symmetry crystal-field components in Cr3+-doped gallogermanates,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 3917–3929 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Kaminska, A. Suchocki, L. Arizmendi, D. Callejo, E. Díeguez, J. García Solé, F. Jaque, and M. Grinberg, “Spectroscopy of near-stoichiometric LiNbO3:MgO, Cr crystals under high pressure,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 10, 802–10, 811 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Camarillo, J. Tocho, I. Vergara, E. Díeguez, J. García Solé, and F. Jaque, “Optical bands of Cr3+ induced by Mg2+ ions in LiNbO3:Cr, Mg,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 4600–4604 (1992I).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

Z. Frukacz, T. Łukasiewicz, M. Malinowski, and Z. Mierczyk, “Growth of Cr4+:YAG crystals for applications in laser technique,” in Solid State Crystals: Materials Science and Applications, J. Żmija, A. Rogalski, and J. Zieliński, eds., Proc. SPIE 2373, 74–78 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other

B. Henderson and G. F. Imbush, Optical Spectroscopy of Inorganic Solids (Oxford Science, Oxford, 1989).

S. Sugano, Y. Tanabe, and H. Kamimura, Multiples of Transition Metal Ions in Crystals (Academic, New York, 1970).

M. Tamatani, “Principal phosphor materials and their optical properties,” in Phosphor Handbook, S. Shionoya and W. M. Yen, eds. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1998), pp. 153–176.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

LLGG photoluminescence spectra (line shapes) obtained under excitation by a 514.5-nm argon-ion laser line at room temperature. Solid curves, La2.7Lu2.3Ga3.07O12; dashed curve, La2.32Lu2.61Ga3.07O12. The concentrations of chromium are indicated. All spectra shown here have been normalized.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

LLGG:Cr3+ absorption spectra. Solid curves, La2.7Lu2.3Ga3.07O12; dashed curve, La2.32Lu2.61Ga3.07O12. The concentrations of chromium are indicated.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Line shapes of characteristic absorption extracted from the absorption spectra. Dotted curves, the Gaussian components of the bands.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

LLGG:Cr3+ 805-nm luminescence excitation spectra. Solid curves, La2.7Lu2.3Ga3.07O12; dashed curve, La2.32Lu2.61Ga3.07O12. The concentrations of chromium are indicated. The excitation spectra do not have a background.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Structure of the excitation spectra. Dotted curves, Gaussian components of the bands.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

ESA spectra of the LLGG:Cr expressed in terms of the EST. The spectra are detected with two different excitations as shown; see text.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Configurational coordinate diagram representing the energetic structure of the β site. Three spin-allowed transitions that correspond to the three absorption bands that are characteristic of the Cr3+ system are indicated by solid arrows. Luminescence and ESA transitions are indicated by dotted arrows.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Energies of the Bands in the Absorption and Excitation Spectra a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Crystal Field Strength 10Dq a and Racah Parameters B and C of the Cr3+ Ions in Sites α and β b

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I(E)=Ai2πσiexp -12E-Eiσi2,
EST=Tp/Tu=exp[(-σESAN*+σSEN*-σGSAN)L]/exp[(-σGSAN0)L],
EST=exp[(-σESA+σGSA+σSE)N*L].
σEXPr(ν)=σESAr(ν)-γσGSAr(ν),
EST=iexp{[(-σESAi+σGSAi+σSEi)Ni*]L},
B=Dq ΔE2/(Dq)2-10(ΔE/Dq)15ΔEDq-8,
C=E(2E)B-7.9+1.8BDqB3.05,

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