Abstract

We present the results of a study of the critical opalescence that is observed as a result of reversible trans–cis photoisomerization in the vicinity of photoinduced isothermal phase transitions in azobenzene liquid crystals (azo LCs). The opalescence is caused by the generation of randomly oriented microdomains and microdroplets of isotropic phase in the illuminated area of the azo LC. Transformations between the strongly light-scattering nematic phase and the transparent isotropic phase of the azo LC are induced all-optically by combination of green (λ=532 nm) and violet (λ=409 nm) laser beams.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. O. Tsutsumi, Y. Demachi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and Yu. Nagase, “Photochemical phase-transition behavior of polymer liquid crystals induced by photochemical reaction of azobenzenes with strong donor-acceptor pairs,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 2869–2874 (1998).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2002 (1)

S. V. Serak, E. O. Arikainen, H. F. Gleeson, V. A. Grozhik, J.-P. Guillou, and N. A. Usova, “Laser-induced concentric colour domains in a cholesteric liquid crystal mixture containing a nematic azobenzene dopant,” Liq. Cryst. 29, 19–26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. Serak, A. Kovalev, A. Agashkov, H. Gleeson, S. Watson, V. Reshetnyak, and O. Yaroshchuk, “Laser-induced surface and bulk reorientation of the director in azo-dye-doped liquid crystal cells,” Opt. Commun. 187, 235–247 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (5)

I. C. Khoo, M.-Y. Shih, and A. Shishido, “Supra-nonlinear photosensitive liquid crystals for image processing, switchable holographic lens, and optical limiting,” in Liquid Crystals IV, I. C. Khoo, ed., Proc. SPIE 4107, 151–159 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Ikeda, O. Tsutsumi, and Y. Wu, “Optical switching and image storage by means of photochromic liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 347, 1–13 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Kurihara, S. Nomiyama, and T. Nonaka, “Photochemical switching between a compensated nematic phase and a twisted nematic phase by photoisomerization of chiral azobenzene molecules,” Chem. Mater. 12, 9–12 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Watson, H. F. Gleeson, A. D’Emanuele, S. Serak, and V. Grozhik, “A study of in situ isothermal phase transition in photochromic liquid crystals,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices II, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE 3282, 76–85 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Kovalev, T. King, S. Serak, N. Usova, and A. Agashkov, “Four-wave phase conjugation in liquid crystals with photoisomerizable dopants,” Opt. Commun. 183, 503–514 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

Y. Lansac, M. A. Glaser, N. A. Clark, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Photocontrolled nanophase segregation in a liquid-crystal solvent,” Nature 398, 54–57 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H.-K. Lee, K. Doi, A. Kanazawa, T. Sciono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, “Light-scattering-mode optical switching and image storage in polymer/liquid crystal composite films by means of photochemical phase transition,” Polymer 41, 1757–1763 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Kurihara, A. Sakamoto, D. Yoneyama, and T. Nonaka, “Photochemical switching behavior of liquid crystalline polymer networks containing azobenzene molecules,” Macromolecules 32, 6493–6498 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

O. Tsutsumi, Y. Demachi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and Yu. Nagase, “Photochemical phase-transition behavior of polymer liquid crystals induced by photochemical reaction of azobenzenes with strong donor-acceptor pairs,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 2869–2874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Kurihara, T. Kanda, T. Nagase, and T. Nonaka, “Photochemical color switching behavior of induced cholesteric liquid crystals for polarized free liquid crystalline devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2081–2083 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Grozhik, H. Gleeson, S. Serak, S. Watson, and A. Agashkov, “Study of optical switching and reorientation in liquid crystals of homologous series of 4-n-butyl-4-n-alkoxyazobenzenes,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 320, 433–444 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. Janossy and L. Slabados, “Optical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals in the presence of photoisomerization,” Phys. Rev. E 58, 4598–4604 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

C. Egami, Y. Suzuki, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, H. Fujimura, K. Nakagawa, and H. Fujiwara, “Third-order resonant optical nonlinearity from trans–cis photoisomerization of an azo dye in a rigid matrix,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 471–478 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Dumont, “Photoinduced orientational order in dye-doped amorphous polymeric films,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 282, 437–450 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

T. Ikeda and O. Tsutsumi, “Optical switching and image storage by means of azobenzene liquid-crystal films,” Science 268, 1873–1875 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

T. Sasaki, T. Ikeda, and K. Ichimura, “Photochemical control of properties of ferroelectric liquid crystals. Photochemical flip of polarization,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 625–628 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

A. Makushenko, O. Stolbova, and B. Neporent, “Reversible orientational photodichroism and photoisomerization of aromatic azo-compounds,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 31, 295–302 (1971).

Agashkov, A.

S. Serak, A. Kovalev, A. Agashkov, H. Gleeson, S. Watson, V. Reshetnyak, and O. Yaroshchuk, “Laser-induced surface and bulk reorientation of the director in azo-dye-doped liquid crystal cells,” Opt. Commun. 187, 235–247 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Kovalev, T. King, S. Serak, N. Usova, and A. Agashkov, “Four-wave phase conjugation in liquid crystals with photoisomerizable dopants,” Opt. Commun. 183, 503–514 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Grozhik, H. Gleeson, S. Serak, S. Watson, and A. Agashkov, “Study of optical switching and reorientation in liquid crystals of homologous series of 4-n-butyl-4-n-alkoxyazobenzenes,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 320, 433–444 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Aizawa, M.

H.-K. Lee, K. Doi, A. Kanazawa, T. Sciono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, “Light-scattering-mode optical switching and image storage in polymer/liquid crystal composite films by means of photochemical phase transition,” Polymer 41, 1757–1763 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Arikainen, E. O.

S. V. Serak, E. O. Arikainen, H. F. Gleeson, V. A. Grozhik, J.-P. Guillou, and N. A. Usova, “Laser-induced concentric colour domains in a cholesteric liquid crystal mixture containing a nematic azobenzene dopant,” Liq. Cryst. 29, 19–26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Clark, N. A.

Y. Lansac, M. A. Glaser, N. A. Clark, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Photocontrolled nanophase segregation in a liquid-crystal solvent,” Nature 398, 54–57 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D’Emanuele, A.

S. J. Watson, H. F. Gleeson, A. D’Emanuele, S. Serak, and V. Grozhik, “A study of in situ isothermal phase transition in photochromic liquid crystals,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices II, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE 3282, 76–85 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Demachi, Y.

O. Tsutsumi, Y. Demachi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and Yu. Nagase, “Photochemical phase-transition behavior of polymer liquid crystals induced by photochemical reaction of azobenzenes with strong donor-acceptor pairs,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 2869–2874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Doi, K.

H.-K. Lee, K. Doi, A. Kanazawa, T. Sciono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, “Light-scattering-mode optical switching and image storage in polymer/liquid crystal composite films by means of photochemical phase transition,” Polymer 41, 1757–1763 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dumont, M.

M. Dumont, “Photoinduced orientational order in dye-doped amorphous polymeric films,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 282, 437–450 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Egami, C.

C. Egami, Y. Suzuki, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, H. Fujimura, K. Nakagawa, and H. Fujiwara, “Third-order resonant optical nonlinearity from trans–cis photoisomerization of an azo dye in a rigid matrix,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 471–478 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fujimura, H.

C. Egami, Y. Suzuki, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, H. Fujimura, K. Nakagawa, and H. Fujiwara, “Third-order resonant optical nonlinearity from trans–cis photoisomerization of an azo dye in a rigid matrix,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 471–478 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fujisawa, T.

H.-K. Lee, K. Doi, A. Kanazawa, T. Sciono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, “Light-scattering-mode optical switching and image storage in polymer/liquid crystal composite films by means of photochemical phase transition,” Polymer 41, 1757–1763 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, H.

C. Egami, Y. Suzuki, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, H. Fujimura, K. Nakagawa, and H. Fujiwara, “Third-order resonant optical nonlinearity from trans–cis photoisomerization of an azo dye in a rigid matrix,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 471–478 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Glaser, M. A.

Y. Lansac, M. A. Glaser, N. A. Clark, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Photocontrolled nanophase segregation in a liquid-crystal solvent,” Nature 398, 54–57 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gleeson, H.

S. Serak, A. Kovalev, A. Agashkov, H. Gleeson, S. Watson, V. Reshetnyak, and O. Yaroshchuk, “Laser-induced surface and bulk reorientation of the director in azo-dye-doped liquid crystal cells,” Opt. Commun. 187, 235–247 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Grozhik, H. Gleeson, S. Serak, S. Watson, and A. Agashkov, “Study of optical switching and reorientation in liquid crystals of homologous series of 4-n-butyl-4-n-alkoxyazobenzenes,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 320, 433–444 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gleeson, H. F.

S. V. Serak, E. O. Arikainen, H. F. Gleeson, V. A. Grozhik, J.-P. Guillou, and N. A. Usova, “Laser-induced concentric colour domains in a cholesteric liquid crystal mixture containing a nematic azobenzene dopant,” Liq. Cryst. 29, 19–26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Watson, H. F. Gleeson, A. D’Emanuele, S. Serak, and V. Grozhik, “A study of in situ isothermal phase transition in photochromic liquid crystals,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices II, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE 3282, 76–85 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grozhik, V.

S. J. Watson, H. F. Gleeson, A. D’Emanuele, S. Serak, and V. Grozhik, “A study of in situ isothermal phase transition in photochromic liquid crystals,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices II, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE 3282, 76–85 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Grozhik, H. Gleeson, S. Serak, S. Watson, and A. Agashkov, “Study of optical switching and reorientation in liquid crystals of homologous series of 4-n-butyl-4-n-alkoxyazobenzenes,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 320, 433–444 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grozhik, V. A.

S. V. Serak, E. O. Arikainen, H. F. Gleeson, V. A. Grozhik, J.-P. Guillou, and N. A. Usova, “Laser-induced concentric colour domains in a cholesteric liquid crystal mixture containing a nematic azobenzene dopant,” Liq. Cryst. 29, 19–26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guillou, J.-P.

S. V. Serak, E. O. Arikainen, H. F. Gleeson, V. A. Grozhik, J.-P. Guillou, and N. A. Usova, “Laser-induced concentric colour domains in a cholesteric liquid crystal mixture containing a nematic azobenzene dopant,” Liq. Cryst. 29, 19–26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ichimura, K.

T. Sasaki, T. Ikeda, and K. Ichimura, “Photochemical control of properties of ferroelectric liquid crystals. Photochemical flip of polarization,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 625–628 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, T.

T. Ikeda, O. Tsutsumi, and Y. Wu, “Optical switching and image storage by means of photochromic liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 347, 1–13 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H.-K. Lee, K. Doi, A. Kanazawa, T. Sciono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, “Light-scattering-mode optical switching and image storage in polymer/liquid crystal composite films by means of photochemical phase transition,” Polymer 41, 1757–1763 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Tsutsumi, Y. Demachi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and Yu. Nagase, “Photochemical phase-transition behavior of polymer liquid crystals induced by photochemical reaction of azobenzenes with strong donor-acceptor pairs,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 2869–2874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Ikeda and O. Tsutsumi, “Optical switching and image storage by means of azobenzene liquid-crystal films,” Science 268, 1873–1875 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sasaki, T. Ikeda, and K. Ichimura, “Photochemical control of properties of ferroelectric liquid crystals. Photochemical flip of polarization,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 625–628 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Janossy, I.

I. Janossy and L. Slabados, “Optical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals in the presence of photoisomerization,” Phys. Rev. E 58, 4598–4604 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kanazawa, A.

H.-K. Lee, K. Doi, A. Kanazawa, T. Sciono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, “Light-scattering-mode optical switching and image storage in polymer/liquid crystal composite films by means of photochemical phase transition,” Polymer 41, 1757–1763 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Tsutsumi, Y. Demachi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and Yu. Nagase, “Photochemical phase-transition behavior of polymer liquid crystals induced by photochemical reaction of azobenzenes with strong donor-acceptor pairs,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 2869–2874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kanda, T.

S. Kurihara, T. Kanda, T. Nagase, and T. Nonaka, “Photochemical color switching behavior of induced cholesteric liquid crystals for polarized free liquid crystalline devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2081–2083 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Khoo, I. C.

I. C. Khoo, M.-Y. Shih, and A. Shishido, “Supra-nonlinear photosensitive liquid crystals for image processing, switchable holographic lens, and optical limiting,” in Liquid Crystals IV, I. C. Khoo, ed., Proc. SPIE 4107, 151–159 (2000).
[CrossRef]

King, T.

A. Kovalev, T. King, S. Serak, N. Usova, and A. Agashkov, “Four-wave phase conjugation in liquid crystals with photoisomerizable dopants,” Opt. Commun. 183, 503–514 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kovalev, A.

S. Serak, A. Kovalev, A. Agashkov, H. Gleeson, S. Watson, V. Reshetnyak, and O. Yaroshchuk, “Laser-induced surface and bulk reorientation of the director in azo-dye-doped liquid crystal cells,” Opt. Commun. 187, 235–247 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Kovalev, T. King, S. Serak, N. Usova, and A. Agashkov, “Four-wave phase conjugation in liquid crystals with photoisomerizable dopants,” Opt. Commun. 183, 503–514 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kurihara, S.

S. Kurihara, S. Nomiyama, and T. Nonaka, “Photochemical switching between a compensated nematic phase and a twisted nematic phase by photoisomerization of chiral azobenzene molecules,” Chem. Mater. 12, 9–12 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Kurihara, A. Sakamoto, D. Yoneyama, and T. Nonaka, “Photochemical switching behavior of liquid crystalline polymer networks containing azobenzene molecules,” Macromolecules 32, 6493–6498 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Kurihara, T. Kanda, T. Nagase, and T. Nonaka, “Photochemical color switching behavior of induced cholesteric liquid crystals for polarized free liquid crystalline devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2081–2083 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lansac, Y.

Y. Lansac, M. A. Glaser, N. A. Clark, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Photocontrolled nanophase segregation in a liquid-crystal solvent,” Nature 398, 54–57 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lavrentovich, O. D.

Y. Lansac, M. A. Glaser, N. A. Clark, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Photocontrolled nanophase segregation in a liquid-crystal solvent,” Nature 398, 54–57 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

H.-K. Lee, K. Doi, A. Kanazawa, T. Sciono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, “Light-scattering-mode optical switching and image storage in polymer/liquid crystal composite films by means of photochemical phase transition,” Polymer 41, 1757–1763 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.-K.

H.-K. Lee, K. Doi, A. Kanazawa, T. Sciono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, “Light-scattering-mode optical switching and image storage in polymer/liquid crystal composite films by means of photochemical phase transition,” Polymer 41, 1757–1763 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Makushenko, A.

A. Makushenko, O. Stolbova, and B. Neporent, “Reversible orientational photodichroism and photoisomerization of aromatic azo-compounds,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 31, 295–302 (1971).

Nagase, T.

S. Kurihara, T. Kanda, T. Nagase, and T. Nonaka, “Photochemical color switching behavior of induced cholesteric liquid crystals for polarized free liquid crystalline devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2081–2083 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nagase, Yu.

O. Tsutsumi, Y. Demachi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and Yu. Nagase, “Photochemical phase-transition behavior of polymer liquid crystals induced by photochemical reaction of azobenzenes with strong donor-acceptor pairs,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 2869–2874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, K.

C. Egami, Y. Suzuki, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, H. Fujimura, K. Nakagawa, and H. Fujiwara, “Third-order resonant optical nonlinearity from trans–cis photoisomerization of an azo dye in a rigid matrix,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 471–478 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Neporent, B.

A. Makushenko, O. Stolbova, and B. Neporent, “Reversible orientational photodichroism and photoisomerization of aromatic azo-compounds,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 31, 295–302 (1971).

Nomiyama, S.

S. Kurihara, S. Nomiyama, and T. Nonaka, “Photochemical switching between a compensated nematic phase and a twisted nematic phase by photoisomerization of chiral azobenzene molecules,” Chem. Mater. 12, 9–12 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nonaka, T.

S. Kurihara, S. Nomiyama, and T. Nonaka, “Photochemical switching between a compensated nematic phase and a twisted nematic phase by photoisomerization of chiral azobenzene molecules,” Chem. Mater. 12, 9–12 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Kurihara, A. Sakamoto, D. Yoneyama, and T. Nonaka, “Photochemical switching behavior of liquid crystalline polymer networks containing azobenzene molecules,” Macromolecules 32, 6493–6498 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Kurihara, T. Kanda, T. Nagase, and T. Nonaka, “Photochemical color switching behavior of induced cholesteric liquid crystals for polarized free liquid crystalline devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2081–2083 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, N.

C. Egami, Y. Suzuki, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, H. Fujimura, K. Nakagawa, and H. Fujiwara, “Third-order resonant optical nonlinearity from trans–cis photoisomerization of an azo dye in a rigid matrix,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 471–478 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reshetnyak, V.

S. Serak, A. Kovalev, A. Agashkov, H. Gleeson, S. Watson, V. Reshetnyak, and O. Yaroshchuk, “Laser-induced surface and bulk reorientation of the director in azo-dye-doped liquid crystal cells,” Opt. Commun. 187, 235–247 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sakamoto, A.

S. Kurihara, A. Sakamoto, D. Yoneyama, and T. Nonaka, “Photochemical switching behavior of liquid crystalline polymer networks containing azobenzene molecules,” Macromolecules 32, 6493–6498 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, T.

T. Sasaki, T. Ikeda, and K. Ichimura, “Photochemical control of properties of ferroelectric liquid crystals. Photochemical flip of polarization,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 625–628 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sciono, T.

H.-K. Lee, K. Doi, A. Kanazawa, T. Sciono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, “Light-scattering-mode optical switching and image storage in polymer/liquid crystal composite films by means of photochemical phase transition,” Polymer 41, 1757–1763 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Serak, S.

S. Serak, A. Kovalev, A. Agashkov, H. Gleeson, S. Watson, V. Reshetnyak, and O. Yaroshchuk, “Laser-induced surface and bulk reorientation of the director in azo-dye-doped liquid crystal cells,” Opt. Commun. 187, 235–247 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Kovalev, T. King, S. Serak, N. Usova, and A. Agashkov, “Four-wave phase conjugation in liquid crystals with photoisomerizable dopants,” Opt. Commun. 183, 503–514 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Watson, H. F. Gleeson, A. D’Emanuele, S. Serak, and V. Grozhik, “A study of in situ isothermal phase transition in photochromic liquid crystals,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices II, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE 3282, 76–85 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Grozhik, H. Gleeson, S. Serak, S. Watson, and A. Agashkov, “Study of optical switching and reorientation in liquid crystals of homologous series of 4-n-butyl-4-n-alkoxyazobenzenes,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 320, 433–444 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Serak, S. V.

S. V. Serak, E. O. Arikainen, H. F. Gleeson, V. A. Grozhik, J.-P. Guillou, and N. A. Usova, “Laser-induced concentric colour domains in a cholesteric liquid crystal mixture containing a nematic azobenzene dopant,” Liq. Cryst. 29, 19–26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shih, M.-Y.

I. C. Khoo, M.-Y. Shih, and A. Shishido, “Supra-nonlinear photosensitive liquid crystals for image processing, switchable holographic lens, and optical limiting,” in Liquid Crystals IV, I. C. Khoo, ed., Proc. SPIE 4107, 151–159 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shiono, T.

O. Tsutsumi, Y. Demachi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and Yu. Nagase, “Photochemical phase-transition behavior of polymer liquid crystals induced by photochemical reaction of azobenzenes with strong donor-acceptor pairs,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 2869–2874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shishido, A.

I. C. Khoo, M.-Y. Shih, and A. Shishido, “Supra-nonlinear photosensitive liquid crystals for image processing, switchable holographic lens, and optical limiting,” in Liquid Crystals IV, I. C. Khoo, ed., Proc. SPIE 4107, 151–159 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Slabados, L.

I. Janossy and L. Slabados, “Optical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals in the presence of photoisomerization,” Phys. Rev. E 58, 4598–4604 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stolbova, O.

A. Makushenko, O. Stolbova, and B. Neporent, “Reversible orientational photodichroism and photoisomerization of aromatic azo-compounds,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 31, 295–302 (1971).

Sugihara, O.

C. Egami, Y. Suzuki, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, H. Fujimura, K. Nakagawa, and H. Fujiwara, “Third-order resonant optical nonlinearity from trans–cis photoisomerization of an azo dye in a rigid matrix,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 471–478 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, Y.

C. Egami, Y. Suzuki, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, H. Fujimura, K. Nakagawa, and H. Fujiwara, “Third-order resonant optical nonlinearity from trans–cis photoisomerization of an azo dye in a rigid matrix,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 471–478 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsumi, O.

T. Ikeda, O. Tsutsumi, and Y. Wu, “Optical switching and image storage by means of photochromic liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 347, 1–13 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Tsutsumi, Y. Demachi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and Yu. Nagase, “Photochemical phase-transition behavior of polymer liquid crystals induced by photochemical reaction of azobenzenes with strong donor-acceptor pairs,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 2869–2874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Ikeda and O. Tsutsumi, “Optical switching and image storage by means of azobenzene liquid-crystal films,” Science 268, 1873–1875 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Usova, N.

A. Kovalev, T. King, S. Serak, N. Usova, and A. Agashkov, “Four-wave phase conjugation in liquid crystals with photoisomerizable dopants,” Opt. Commun. 183, 503–514 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Usova, N. A.

S. V. Serak, E. O. Arikainen, H. F. Gleeson, V. A. Grozhik, J.-P. Guillou, and N. A. Usova, “Laser-induced concentric colour domains in a cholesteric liquid crystal mixture containing a nematic azobenzene dopant,” Liq. Cryst. 29, 19–26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Watson, S.

S. Serak, A. Kovalev, A. Agashkov, H. Gleeson, S. Watson, V. Reshetnyak, and O. Yaroshchuk, “Laser-induced surface and bulk reorientation of the director in azo-dye-doped liquid crystal cells,” Opt. Commun. 187, 235–247 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Grozhik, H. Gleeson, S. Serak, S. Watson, and A. Agashkov, “Study of optical switching and reorientation in liquid crystals of homologous series of 4-n-butyl-4-n-alkoxyazobenzenes,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 320, 433–444 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Watson, S. J.

S. J. Watson, H. F. Gleeson, A. D’Emanuele, S. Serak, and V. Grozhik, “A study of in situ isothermal phase transition in photochromic liquid crystals,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices II, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE 3282, 76–85 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

T. Ikeda, O. Tsutsumi, and Y. Wu, “Optical switching and image storage by means of photochromic liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 347, 1–13 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yaroshchuk, O.

S. Serak, A. Kovalev, A. Agashkov, H. Gleeson, S. Watson, V. Reshetnyak, and O. Yaroshchuk, “Laser-induced surface and bulk reorientation of the director in azo-dye-doped liquid crystal cells,” Opt. Commun. 187, 235–247 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yoneyama, D.

S. Kurihara, A. Sakamoto, D. Yoneyama, and T. Nonaka, “Photochemical switching behavior of liquid crystalline polymer networks containing azobenzene molecules,” Macromolecules 32, 6493–6498 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

C. Egami, Y. Suzuki, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, H. Fujimura, K. Nakagawa, and H. Fujiwara, “Third-order resonant optical nonlinearity from trans–cis photoisomerization of an azo dye in a rigid matrix,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 471–478 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Kurihara, T. Kanda, T. Nagase, and T. Nonaka, “Photochemical color switching behavior of induced cholesteric liquid crystals for polarized free liquid crystalline devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2081–2083 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

S. Kurihara, S. Nomiyama, and T. Nonaka, “Photochemical switching between a compensated nematic phase and a twisted nematic phase by photoisomerization of chiral azobenzene molecules,” Chem. Mater. 12, 9–12 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

T. Sasaki, T. Ikeda, and K. Ichimura, “Photochemical control of properties of ferroelectric liquid crystals. Photochemical flip of polarization,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 625–628 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

O. Tsutsumi, Y. Demachi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and Yu. Nagase, “Photochemical phase-transition behavior of polymer liquid crystals induced by photochemical reaction of azobenzenes with strong donor-acceptor pairs,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 2869–2874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liq. Cryst. (1)

S. V. Serak, E. O. Arikainen, H. F. Gleeson, V. A. Grozhik, J.-P. Guillou, and N. A. Usova, “Laser-induced concentric colour domains in a cholesteric liquid crystal mixture containing a nematic azobenzene dopant,” Liq. Cryst. 29, 19–26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (1)

S. Kurihara, A. Sakamoto, D. Yoneyama, and T. Nonaka, “Photochemical switching behavior of liquid crystalline polymer networks containing azobenzene molecules,” Macromolecules 32, 6493–6498 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (3)

T. Ikeda, O. Tsutsumi, and Y. Wu, “Optical switching and image storage by means of photochromic liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 347, 1–13 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Grozhik, H. Gleeson, S. Serak, S. Watson, and A. Agashkov, “Study of optical switching and reorientation in liquid crystals of homologous series of 4-n-butyl-4-n-alkoxyazobenzenes,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 320, 433–444 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Dumont, “Photoinduced orientational order in dye-doped amorphous polymeric films,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 282, 437–450 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

Y. Lansac, M. A. Glaser, N. A. Clark, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Photocontrolled nanophase segregation in a liquid-crystal solvent,” Nature 398, 54–57 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

S. Serak, A. Kovalev, A. Agashkov, H. Gleeson, S. Watson, V. Reshetnyak, and O. Yaroshchuk, “Laser-induced surface and bulk reorientation of the director in azo-dye-doped liquid crystal cells,” Opt. Commun. 187, 235–247 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Kovalev, T. King, S. Serak, N. Usova, and A. Agashkov, “Four-wave phase conjugation in liquid crystals with photoisomerizable dopants,” Opt. Commun. 183, 503–514 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) (1)

A. Makushenko, O. Stolbova, and B. Neporent, “Reversible orientational photodichroism and photoisomerization of aromatic azo-compounds,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 31, 295–302 (1971).

Phys. Rev. E (1)

I. Janossy and L. Slabados, “Optical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals in the presence of photoisomerization,” Phys. Rev. E 58, 4598–4604 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Polymer (1)

H.-K. Lee, K. Doi, A. Kanazawa, T. Sciono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, “Light-scattering-mode optical switching and image storage in polymer/liquid crystal composite films by means of photochemical phase transition,” Polymer 41, 1757–1763 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

I. C. Khoo, M.-Y. Shih, and A. Shishido, “Supra-nonlinear photosensitive liquid crystals for image processing, switchable holographic lens, and optical limiting,” in Liquid Crystals IV, I. C. Khoo, ed., Proc. SPIE 4107, 151–159 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Watson, H. F. Gleeson, A. D’Emanuele, S. Serak, and V. Grozhik, “A study of in situ isothermal phase transition in photochromic liquid crystals,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices II, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE 3282, 76–85 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

T. Ikeda and O. Tsutsumi, “Optical switching and image storage by means of azobenzene liquid-crystal films,” Science 268, 1873–1875 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

A. A. Kovalev, G. L. Nekrasov, Yu. V. Razvin, V. A. Grozhik, and S. V. Serak, “Optical recording of the information in azobenzene liquid crystals,” in Handbook of Optical Methods of Information Processing, V. A. Pilipovich, ed. (Science and Technique, Minsk, Belarus, 1978), pp. 21–35.

N. V. Tabiryan, U. A. Hrozhyk, H. L. Margaryan, M. J. Mora, S. R. Nersisyan, and S. V. Serak, “Nonlinear optical absorption and related phenomena in liquid crystals,” in Advances in Liquid Crystalline Materials and Techniques, P. T. Mather, D. J. Broer, T. J. Bunner, D. M. Walba, and R. Zendel, eds., MRS Proc. 709, CC4.5.1–CC4.5.11 (2002).

H. E. Stanley, Introduction to Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1987).

M. A. Anisimov, Critical Phenomena in Liquids and Liquid Crystals (Gordon & Breach, London, 1991).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Visible absorption spectra of a 3-μm-thick layer of BAAB 125 at several exposure times for radiation of a violet laser beam at a power density 6.4 mW/cm2: 1, the spectrum before illumination; 2, after 5-min exposure; 3, after 20-min exposure; 4, after 30-min exposure. The chemical structures of trans and cis isomers of BAAB 125 are shown in the inset. (b) Absorption coefficient versus exposure time for the wavelength λ=445 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for the study of the transmittance of an azo LC: P, polarizer; NDFs, neutral-density filters; TSC, temperature-stabilized optical chamber; S, shutter; BS, beam splitter; A, analyzer; D, diaphragm; PD, photodiode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Dynamics of the transmittance of the LC cell at several input power levels of the green laser beam in a 10-μm-thick azo LC: 1, 0.5 mW; 2, 1 mW; 3, 2 mW; 4, 5 mW. (b) Incubation time τi and time constant of exponential relaxation τr of the transmittance versus the input power of the green laser beam. (c) Steady-state transmittance of the LC as a function of the input power of the green laser beam. The measurements were made at a temperature of 22 °C.  

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Real-time observation of photoinduced (λ=532 nm) transformations in an azo LC under a microscope. (a) Color change in the illuminated area of a 5-μm-thick layer between crossed polarizers (magnification, 200×). (b) Formation of nanodomains. (c) Emergence of the strong light-scattering region in the area of the LC illuminated by the central part of the beam. (d) Magnified image showing nanodomains of the isotropic phase with white-light-scattering nuclei. (e) Homogeneous lactic opalescence. (f) Magnified image of the scattering texture in the LC. (g), (h) Isotropic state (dark areas within the polarizers) and scattering state of the material corresponding to all-optical switching induced by (g) violet and (h) green laser irradiation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Critical behavior of the power dependence of the transmittance of a 5-μm-thick LC layer. (b) Critical behavior of the light-extinction coefficient in the vicinity of the photoinduced isothermal phase transition. The temperature is fixed at 19 °C.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Transmission oscillations of a system of crossed polarizers that compose an azo LC layer (PGr=2 mW). (b) Dynamics of photoinduced birefringence of a 10-μm-thick layer of BAAB 125.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Dynamics of a photoinduced (λ=409 nm) isothermal phase transition in a 10-μm-thick azo LC. The LC is initially in its mesophase and is planarly oriented for curves 1 and 2, and it is in the photoinduced (λ=409 nm) isotropic phase for curves 3 and 4. The green laser beam is polarized parallel to the initial orientation of the LC for curves 1, 3, and 5. The beam polarization is perpendicular to the orientation of the planar state of the LC for curves 2 and 4. Curve 5 shows the result of simultaneous action of green and violet laser beams in the geometry EGr  EVi  n. PGr=3 mW; PVi=1.8 mW.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

All-optical reversible switching of the transmission state of a 10-μm-thick layer of an azo LC as a result of periodic modulation of the power of the violet laser beam(PVi=01.8 mW) in the presence of green radiation with PGr=3 mW. (a) EGr  EVi  n; (b) (EGr  EVi)  n. Hatched areas correspond to illumination by a violet laser beam.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Switching amplitude (normalized to the maximal transmittance) versus power of the green laser beam at several power levels of the violet radiation: 1, 0.2; 2, 0.3; 3, 0.5; 4, 0.8; 5, 1.2; 6, 1.8 mW. (b) Switching amplitude versus power of the violet laser beam at several power levels of the green radiation: 1, 0.5; 2, 1; 3, 2; 4, 3; 5, 4; and 6, 6 mW. The LC is 10 μm thick.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Switching time for a high transmittance state (isotropic phase of the LC) versus power of the violet laser beam at several power levels of the green radiation. (b) Switching time of a low transmission state (opalescent regime) versus power of the green laser beam at several power levels of the violet radiation.

Equations (2)

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α(t)=α0+(α-α0)[(1-exp(-t/τ)].
Ncist=αqN0hν (N0-Ncis)I-Ncisτcis+DΔNcis,

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