Abstract

We describe a low-frequency-noise laser system conceived for the readout of small mechanical vibrations. The system consists of a Nd:YAG source stabilized to a high-finesse Fabry–Perot cavity and achieves the best performance in the range 1–10 kHz with a minimum residual noise of 4×10-3 Hz/Hz. We perform an extended characterization of the frequency stability by means of an independent optical cavity and we also measure the residual fluctuations after transmission through an optical fiber. Our apparatus is optimized for use in an optical readout for the gravitational wave detector AURIGA, where a laser system with the characteristics reported here will allow an improvement of one order of magnitude in the detector sensitivity.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Mulney, and H. Ward, “Laser phase frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
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  21. All the spectra reported in this work are one-sided, i.e., reported to positive frequencies.
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    [CrossRef]
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  24. J.-P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Bignotto, M. Bonaldi, M. Cerdonio, L. Conti, M. De Rosa, P. Falferi, P. L. Fortini, M. Inguscio, A. Marin, F. Marin, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, E. Rocco, F. Salemi, G. Soranzo, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, A. Vinante, and S. Vitale, “Status report and near future prospects for the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1925–1933 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (2)

M. De Rosa, L. Baggio, M. Cerdonio, L. Conti, G. Galet, F. Marin, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, S. Vitale, and J. P. Zendri, “First room temperature operation of the AURIGA optical readout,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1919–1924 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Bignotto, M. Bonaldi, M. Cerdonio, L. Conti, M. De Rosa, P. Falferi, P. L. Fortini, M. Inguscio, A. Marin, F. Marin, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, E. Rocco, F. Salemi, G. Soranzo, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, A. Vinante, and S. Vitale, “Status report and near future prospects for the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1925–1933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

M. Musha, T. Kanaya, K. Nakagawa, and K. Ueda, “The short- and long-term frequency stabilization of an injection-locked Nd:YAG laser in reference to a Fabry–Perot cavity and an iodine saturated absorption line,” Opt. Commun. 183, 165–173 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Clubley, K. D. Skeldon, B. W. Barr, G. P. Newton, K. A. Strain, and J. Hough, “Ultrahigh level of frequency stabilisation of an injection locked Nd:YAG laser with relevance to gravitational wave detection,” Opt. Commun. 186, 177–184 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Conti, M. De Rosa, and F. Marin, “Low-amplitude-noise laser for AURIGA detector optical readout,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5732–5738 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, “Visible laser with subhertz linewidths,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799–3802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

L. Conti, M. Cerdonio, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, A. Ortolan, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, G. A. Prodi, S. Vitale, G. Cantatore, and E. Zavattini, “Optical transduction chain for gravitational wave bar detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 554–558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. Seel, R. Storz, G. Ruoso, J. Mlynek, and S. Schiller, “Cryogenic optical resonator: a new tool for laser frequency stabilisation at the 1 Hz level,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4741–4744 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

1994 (1)

1992 (2)

J. Dirscherl, B. Neizert, T. Wegener, and H. Walther, “Visible lasers with subhertz linewidths,” Opt. Commun. 91, 131–139 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Richard, “Approaching the quantum limit with optically instrumented multimode gravitational-wave bar detectors,” Phys. Rev. D 46, 2309–2317 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

A. Giazotto, “Interferometric detection of gravitational waves,” Phys. Rep. 182, 365–424 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

J.-P. Richard, “Laser instrumentation for one-phonon sensitivity and wide bandwidth with multimode gravitational radiation detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 2202–2205 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

V. V. Kulagin, A. G. Polnarev, and V. N. Rudenko, “A combined optical-acoustical gravitational antenna,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 915–921 (1986).

1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Mulney, and H. Ward, “Laser phase frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

D. W. Allan, “Statistics of atomic frequency standards,” Proc. IEEE 54, 221–230 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Allan, D. W.

D. W. Allan, “Statistics of atomic frequency standards,” Proc. IEEE 54, 221–230 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Baggio, L.

J.-P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Bignotto, M. Bonaldi, M. Cerdonio, L. Conti, M. De Rosa, P. Falferi, P. L. Fortini, M. Inguscio, A. Marin, F. Marin, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, E. Rocco, F. Salemi, G. Soranzo, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, A. Vinante, and S. Vitale, “Status report and near future prospects for the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1925–1933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. De Rosa, L. Baggio, M. Cerdonio, L. Conti, G. Galet, F. Marin, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, S. Vitale, and J. P. Zendri, “First room temperature operation of the AURIGA optical readout,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1919–1924 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barr, B. W.

D. A. Clubley, K. D. Skeldon, B. W. Barr, G. P. Newton, K. A. Strain, and J. Hough, “Ultrahigh level of frequency stabilisation of an injection locked Nd:YAG laser with relevance to gravitational wave detection,” Opt. Commun. 186, 177–184 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bergquist, J. C.

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, “Visible laser with subhertz linewidths,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799–3802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bignotto, M.

J.-P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Bignotto, M. Bonaldi, M. Cerdonio, L. Conti, M. De Rosa, P. Falferi, P. L. Fortini, M. Inguscio, A. Marin, F. Marin, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, E. Rocco, F. Salemi, G. Soranzo, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, A. Vinante, and S. Vitale, “Status report and near future prospects for the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1925–1933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bonaldi, M.

J.-P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Bignotto, M. Bonaldi, M. Cerdonio, L. Conti, M. De Rosa, P. Falferi, P. L. Fortini, M. Inguscio, A. Marin, F. Marin, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, E. Rocco, F. Salemi, G. Soranzo, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, A. Vinante, and S. Vitale, “Status report and near future prospects for the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1925–1933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bondu, F.

Brillet, A.

Cantatore, G.

L. Conti, M. Cerdonio, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, A. Ortolan, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, G. A. Prodi, S. Vitale, G. Cantatore, and E. Zavattini, “Optical transduction chain for gravitational wave bar detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 554–558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cerdonio, M.

M. De Rosa, L. Baggio, M. Cerdonio, L. Conti, G. Galet, F. Marin, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, S. Vitale, and J. P. Zendri, “First room temperature operation of the AURIGA optical readout,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1919–1924 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Bignotto, M. Bonaldi, M. Cerdonio, L. Conti, M. De Rosa, P. Falferi, P. L. Fortini, M. Inguscio, A. Marin, F. Marin, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, E. Rocco, F. Salemi, G. Soranzo, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, A. Vinante, and S. Vitale, “Status report and near future prospects for the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1925–1933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Conti, M. Cerdonio, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, A. Ortolan, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, G. A. Prodi, S. Vitale, G. Cantatore, and E. Zavattini, “Optical transduction chain for gravitational wave bar detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 554–558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Clubley, D. A.

D. A. Clubley, K. D. Skeldon, B. W. Barr, G. P. Newton, K. A. Strain, and J. Hough, “Ultrahigh level of frequency stabilisation of an injection locked Nd:YAG laser with relevance to gravitational wave detection,” Opt. Commun. 186, 177–184 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Conti, L.

J.-P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Bignotto, M. Bonaldi, M. Cerdonio, L. Conti, M. De Rosa, P. Falferi, P. L. Fortini, M. Inguscio, A. Marin, F. Marin, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, E. Rocco, F. Salemi, G. Soranzo, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, A. Vinante, and S. Vitale, “Status report and near future prospects for the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1925–1933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. De Rosa, L. Baggio, M. Cerdonio, L. Conti, G. Galet, F. Marin, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, S. Vitale, and J. P. Zendri, “First room temperature operation of the AURIGA optical readout,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1919–1924 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Conti, M. De Rosa, and F. Marin, “Low-amplitude-noise laser for AURIGA detector optical readout,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5732–5738 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Conti, M. Cerdonio, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, A. Ortolan, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, G. A. Prodi, S. Vitale, G. Cantatore, and E. Zavattini, “Optical transduction chain for gravitational wave bar detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 554–558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, F. C.

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, “Visible laser with subhertz linewidths,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799–3802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

De Rosa, M.

M. De Rosa, L. Baggio, M. Cerdonio, L. Conti, G. Galet, F. Marin, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, S. Vitale, and J. P. Zendri, “First room temperature operation of the AURIGA optical readout,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1919–1924 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Bignotto, M. Bonaldi, M. Cerdonio, L. Conti, M. De Rosa, P. Falferi, P. L. Fortini, M. Inguscio, A. Marin, F. Marin, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, E. Rocco, F. Salemi, G. Soranzo, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, A. Vinante, and S. Vitale, “Status report and near future prospects for the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1925–1933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Conti, M. De Rosa, and F. Marin, “Low-amplitude-noise laser for AURIGA detector optical readout,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5732–5738 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dirscherl, J.

J. Dirscherl, B. Neizert, T. Wegener, and H. Walther, “Visible lasers with subhertz linewidths,” Opt. Commun. 91, 131–139 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Mulney, and H. Ward, “Laser phase frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Falferi, P.

J.-P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Bignotto, M. Bonaldi, M. Cerdonio, L. Conti, M. De Rosa, P. Falferi, P. L. Fortini, M. Inguscio, A. Marin, F. Marin, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, E. Rocco, F. Salemi, G. Soranzo, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, A. Vinante, and S. Vitale, “Status report and near future prospects for the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1925–1933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Mulney, and H. Ward, “Laser phase frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fortini, P. L.

J.-P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Bignotto, M. Bonaldi, M. Cerdonio, L. Conti, M. De Rosa, P. Falferi, P. L. Fortini, M. Inguscio, A. Marin, F. Marin, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, E. Rocco, F. Salemi, G. Soranzo, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, A. Vinante, and S. Vitale, “Status report and near future prospects for the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1925–1933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fritschel, P.

Galet, G.

M. De Rosa, L. Baggio, M. Cerdonio, L. Conti, G. Galet, F. Marin, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, S. Vitale, and J. P. Zendri, “First room temperature operation of the AURIGA optical readout,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1919–1924 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Giazotto, A.

A. Giazotto, “Interferometric detection of gravitational waves,” Phys. Rep. 182, 365–424 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J.

Hall, J. L.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Mulney, and H. Ward, “Laser phase frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hough, J.

D. A. Clubley, K. D. Skeldon, B. W. Barr, G. P. Newton, K. A. Strain, and J. Hough, “Ultrahigh level of frequency stabilisation of an injection locked Nd:YAG laser with relevance to gravitational wave detection,” Opt. Commun. 186, 177–184 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Mulney, and H. Ward, “Laser phase frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Inguscio, M.

J.-P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Bignotto, M. Bonaldi, M. Cerdonio, L. Conti, M. De Rosa, P. Falferi, P. L. Fortini, M. Inguscio, A. Marin, F. Marin, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, E. Rocco, F. Salemi, G. Soranzo, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, A. Vinante, and S. Vitale, “Status report and near future prospects for the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1925–1933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Itano, W. M.

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, “Visible laser with subhertz linewidths,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799–3802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jungner, P.

Kanaya, T.

M. Musha, T. Kanaya, K. Nakagawa, and K. Ueda, “The short- and long-term frequency stabilization of an injection-locked Nd:YAG laser in reference to a Fabry–Perot cavity and an iodine saturated absorption line,” Opt. Commun. 183, 165–173 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, F.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Mulney, and H. Ward, “Laser phase frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kulagin, V. V.

V. V. Kulagin, A. G. Polnarev, and V. N. Rudenko, “A combined optical-acoustical gravitational antenna,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 915–921 (1986).

Ma, L.-S.

Man, C. N.

Marin, A.

J.-P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Bignotto, M. Bonaldi, M. Cerdonio, L. Conti, M. De Rosa, P. Falferi, P. L. Fortini, M. Inguscio, A. Marin, F. Marin, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, E. Rocco, F. Salemi, G. Soranzo, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, A. Vinante, and S. Vitale, “Status report and near future prospects for the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1925–1933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marin, F.

J.-P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Bignotto, M. Bonaldi, M. Cerdonio, L. Conti, M. De Rosa, P. Falferi, P. L. Fortini, M. Inguscio, A. Marin, F. Marin, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, E. Rocco, F. Salemi, G. Soranzo, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, A. Vinante, and S. Vitale, “Status report and near future prospects for the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1925–1933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. De Rosa, L. Baggio, M. Cerdonio, L. Conti, G. Galet, F. Marin, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, S. Vitale, and J. P. Zendri, “First room temperature operation of the AURIGA optical readout,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1919–1924 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Conti, M. De Rosa, and F. Marin, “Low-amplitude-noise laser for AURIGA detector optical readout,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5732–5738 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mezzena, R.

J.-P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Bignotto, M. Bonaldi, M. Cerdonio, L. Conti, M. De Rosa, P. Falferi, P. L. Fortini, M. Inguscio, A. Marin, F. Marin, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, E. Rocco, F. Salemi, G. Soranzo, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, A. Vinante, and S. Vitale, “Status report and near future prospects for the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1925–1933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mio, N.

Mlynek, J.

S. Seel, R. Storz, G. Ruoso, J. Mlynek, and S. Schiller, “Cryogenic optical resonator: a new tool for laser frequency stabilisation at the 1 Hz level,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4741–4744 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mulney, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Mulney, and H. Ward, “Laser phase frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Musha, M.

M. Musha, T. Kanaya, K. Nakagawa, and K. Ueda, “The short- and long-term frequency stabilization of an injection-locked Nd:YAG laser in reference to a Fabry–Perot cavity and an iodine saturated absorption line,” Opt. Commun. 183, 165–173 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, K.

M. Musha, T. Kanaya, K. Nakagawa, and K. Ueda, “The short- and long-term frequency stabilization of an injection-locked Nd:YAG laser in reference to a Fabry–Perot cavity and an iodine saturated absorption line,” Opt. Commun. 183, 165–173 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Neizert, B.

J. Dirscherl, B. Neizert, T. Wegener, and H. Walther, “Visible lasers with subhertz linewidths,” Opt. Commun. 91, 131–139 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Newton, G. P.

D. A. Clubley, K. D. Skeldon, B. W. Barr, G. P. Newton, K. A. Strain, and J. Hough, “Ultrahigh level of frequency stabilisation of an injection locked Nd:YAG laser with relevance to gravitational wave detection,” Opt. Commun. 186, 177–184 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ortolan, A.

J.-P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Bignotto, M. Bonaldi, M. Cerdonio, L. Conti, M. De Rosa, P. Falferi, P. L. Fortini, M. Inguscio, A. Marin, F. Marin, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, E. Rocco, F. Salemi, G. Soranzo, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, A. Vinante, and S. Vitale, “Status report and near future prospects for the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1925–1933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. De Rosa, L. Baggio, M. Cerdonio, L. Conti, G. Galet, F. Marin, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, S. Vitale, and J. P. Zendri, “First room temperature operation of the AURIGA optical readout,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1919–1924 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Conti, M. Cerdonio, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, A. Ortolan, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, G. A. Prodi, S. Vitale, G. Cantatore, and E. Zavattini, “Optical transduction chain for gravitational wave bar detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 554–558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pang, Y.

Polnarev, A. G.

V. V. Kulagin, A. G. Polnarev, and V. N. Rudenko, “A combined optical-acoustical gravitational antenna,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 915–921 (1986).

Prodi, G. A.

J.-P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Bignotto, M. Bonaldi, M. Cerdonio, L. Conti, M. De Rosa, P. Falferi, P. L. Fortini, M. Inguscio, A. Marin, F. Marin, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, E. Rocco, F. Salemi, G. Soranzo, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, A. Vinante, and S. Vitale, “Status report and near future prospects for the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1925–1933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. De Rosa, L. Baggio, M. Cerdonio, L. Conti, G. Galet, F. Marin, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, S. Vitale, and J. P. Zendri, “First room temperature operation of the AURIGA optical readout,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1919–1924 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Conti, M. Cerdonio, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, A. Ortolan, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, G. A. Prodi, S. Vitale, G. Cantatore, and E. Zavattini, “Optical transduction chain for gravitational wave bar detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 554–558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Richard, J.-P.

Y. Pang and J.-P. Richard, “Room-temperature tests of an optical transducer for resonant gravitational wave detectors,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4982–4988 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-P. Richard, “Approaching the quantum limit with optically instrumented multimode gravitational-wave bar detectors,” Phys. Rev. D 46, 2309–2317 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Richard, “Laser instrumentation for one-phonon sensitivity and wide bandwidth with multimode gravitational radiation detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 2202–2205 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Rizzo, C.

L. Conti, M. Cerdonio, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, A. Ortolan, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, G. A. Prodi, S. Vitale, G. Cantatore, and E. Zavattini, “Optical transduction chain for gravitational wave bar detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 554–558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rocco, E.

J.-P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Bignotto, M. Bonaldi, M. Cerdonio, L. Conti, M. De Rosa, P. Falferi, P. L. Fortini, M. Inguscio, A. Marin, F. Marin, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, E. Rocco, F. Salemi, G. Soranzo, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, A. Vinante, and S. Vitale, “Status report and near future prospects for the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1925–1933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rudenko, V. N.

V. V. Kulagin, A. G. Polnarev, and V. N. Rudenko, “A combined optical-acoustical gravitational antenna,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 915–921 (1986).

Ruoso, G.

L. Conti, M. Cerdonio, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, A. Ortolan, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, G. A. Prodi, S. Vitale, G. Cantatore, and E. Zavattini, “Optical transduction chain for gravitational wave bar detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 554–558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Seel, R. Storz, G. Ruoso, J. Mlynek, and S. Schiller, “Cryogenic optical resonator: a new tool for laser frequency stabilisation at the 1 Hz level,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4741–4744 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Salemi, F.

J.-P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Bignotto, M. Bonaldi, M. Cerdonio, L. Conti, M. De Rosa, P. Falferi, P. L. Fortini, M. Inguscio, A. Marin, F. Marin, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, E. Rocco, F. Salemi, G. Soranzo, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, A. Vinante, and S. Vitale, “Status report and near future prospects for the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1925–1933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schiller, S.

S. Seel, R. Storz, G. Ruoso, J. Mlynek, and S. Schiller, “Cryogenic optical resonator: a new tool for laser frequency stabilisation at the 1 Hz level,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4741–4744 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Seel, S.

S. Seel, R. Storz, G. Ruoso, J. Mlynek, and S. Schiller, “Cryogenic optical resonator: a new tool for laser frequency stabilisation at the 1 Hz level,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4741–4744 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Skeldon, K. D.

D. A. Clubley, K. D. Skeldon, B. W. Barr, G. P. Newton, K. A. Strain, and J. Hough, “Ultrahigh level of frequency stabilisation of an injection locked Nd:YAG laser with relevance to gravitational wave detection,” Opt. Commun. 186, 177–184 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Soranzo, G.

J.-P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Bignotto, M. Bonaldi, M. Cerdonio, L. Conti, M. De Rosa, P. Falferi, P. L. Fortini, M. Inguscio, A. Marin, F. Marin, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, E. Rocco, F. Salemi, G. Soranzo, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, A. Vinante, and S. Vitale, “Status report and near future prospects for the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1925–1933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Storz, R.

S. Seel, R. Storz, G. Ruoso, J. Mlynek, and S. Schiller, “Cryogenic optical resonator: a new tool for laser frequency stabilisation at the 1 Hz level,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4741–4744 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Strain, K. A.

D. A. Clubley, K. D. Skeldon, B. W. Barr, G. P. Newton, K. A. Strain, and J. Hough, “Ultrahigh level of frequency stabilisation of an injection locked Nd:YAG laser with relevance to gravitational wave detection,” Opt. Commun. 186, 177–184 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Taffarello, L.

J.-P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Bignotto, M. Bonaldi, M. Cerdonio, L. Conti, M. De Rosa, P. Falferi, P. L. Fortini, M. Inguscio, A. Marin, F. Marin, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, E. Rocco, F. Salemi, G. Soranzo, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, A. Vinante, and S. Vitale, “Status report and near future prospects for the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1925–1933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. De Rosa, L. Baggio, M. Cerdonio, L. Conti, G. Galet, F. Marin, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, S. Vitale, and J. P. Zendri, “First room temperature operation of the AURIGA optical readout,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1919–1924 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Conti, M. Cerdonio, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, A. Ortolan, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, G. A. Prodi, S. Vitale, G. Cantatore, and E. Zavattini, “Optical transduction chain for gravitational wave bar detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 554–558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tsubono, K.

Ueda, K.

M. Musha, T. Kanaya, K. Nakagawa, and K. Ueda, “The short- and long-term frequency stabilization of an injection-locked Nd:YAG laser in reference to a Fabry–Perot cavity and an iodine saturated absorption line,” Opt. Commun. 183, 165–173 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vedovato, G.

M. De Rosa, L. Baggio, M. Cerdonio, L. Conti, G. Galet, F. Marin, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, S. Vitale, and J. P. Zendri, “First room temperature operation of the AURIGA optical readout,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1919–1924 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Bignotto, M. Bonaldi, M. Cerdonio, L. Conti, M. De Rosa, P. Falferi, P. L. Fortini, M. Inguscio, A. Marin, F. Marin, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, E. Rocco, F. Salemi, G. Soranzo, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, A. Vinante, and S. Vitale, “Status report and near future prospects for the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1925–1933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vinante, A.

J.-P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Bignotto, M. Bonaldi, M. Cerdonio, L. Conti, M. De Rosa, P. Falferi, P. L. Fortini, M. Inguscio, A. Marin, F. Marin, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, E. Rocco, F. Salemi, G. Soranzo, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, A. Vinante, and S. Vitale, “Status report and near future prospects for the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1925–1933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vitale, S.

J.-P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Bignotto, M. Bonaldi, M. Cerdonio, L. Conti, M. De Rosa, P. Falferi, P. L. Fortini, M. Inguscio, A. Marin, F. Marin, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, E. Rocco, F. Salemi, G. Soranzo, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, A. Vinante, and S. Vitale, “Status report and near future prospects for the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1925–1933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. De Rosa, L. Baggio, M. Cerdonio, L. Conti, G. Galet, F. Marin, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, S. Vitale, and J. P. Zendri, “First room temperature operation of the AURIGA optical readout,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1919–1924 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Conti, M. Cerdonio, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, A. Ortolan, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, G. A. Prodi, S. Vitale, G. Cantatore, and E. Zavattini, “Optical transduction chain for gravitational wave bar detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 554–558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Walther, H.

J. Dirscherl, B. Neizert, T. Wegener, and H. Walther, “Visible lasers with subhertz linewidths,” Opt. Commun. 91, 131–139 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Mulney, and H. Ward, “Laser phase frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, T.

J. Dirscherl, B. Neizert, T. Wegener, and H. Walther, “Visible lasers with subhertz linewidths,” Opt. Commun. 91, 131–139 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

Young, B. C.

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, “Visible laser with subhertz linewidths,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799–3802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zavattini, E.

L. Conti, M. Cerdonio, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, A. Ortolan, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, G. A. Prodi, S. Vitale, G. Cantatore, and E. Zavattini, “Optical transduction chain for gravitational wave bar detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 554–558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zendri, J. P.

M. De Rosa, L. Baggio, M. Cerdonio, L. Conti, G. Galet, F. Marin, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, S. Vitale, and J. P. Zendri, “First room temperature operation of the AURIGA optical readout,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1919–1924 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Conti, M. Cerdonio, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, A. Ortolan, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, G. A. Prodi, S. Vitale, G. Cantatore, and E. Zavattini, “Optical transduction chain for gravitational wave bar detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 554–558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zendri, J.-P.

J.-P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Bignotto, M. Bonaldi, M. Cerdonio, L. Conti, M. De Rosa, P. Falferi, P. L. Fortini, M. Inguscio, A. Marin, F. Marin, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, E. Rocco, F. Salemi, G. Soranzo, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, A. Vinante, and S. Vitale, “Status report and near future prospects for the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1925–1933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Mulney, and H. Ward, “Laser phase frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Class. Quantum Grav. (2)

J.-P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Bignotto, M. Bonaldi, M. Cerdonio, L. Conti, M. De Rosa, P. Falferi, P. L. Fortini, M. Inguscio, A. Marin, F. Marin, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, E. Rocco, F. Salemi, G. Soranzo, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, A. Vinante, and S. Vitale, “Status report and near future prospects for the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1925–1933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. De Rosa, L. Baggio, M. Cerdonio, L. Conti, G. Galet, F. Marin, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, S. Vitale, and J. P. Zendri, “First room temperature operation of the AURIGA optical readout,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1919–1924 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J.-P. Richard, “Laser instrumentation for one-phonon sensitivity and wide bandwidth with multimode gravitational radiation detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 2202–2205 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

J. Dirscherl, B. Neizert, T. Wegener, and H. Walther, “Visible lasers with subhertz linewidths,” Opt. Commun. 91, 131–139 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Musha, T. Kanaya, K. Nakagawa, and K. Ueda, “The short- and long-term frequency stabilization of an injection-locked Nd:YAG laser in reference to a Fabry–Perot cavity and an iodine saturated absorption line,” Opt. Commun. 183, 165–173 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Clubley, K. D. Skeldon, B. W. Barr, G. P. Newton, K. A. Strain, and J. Hough, “Ultrahigh level of frequency stabilisation of an injection locked Nd:YAG laser with relevance to gravitational wave detection,” Opt. Commun. 186, 177–184 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. Giazotto, “Interferometric detection of gravitational waves,” Phys. Rep. 182, 365–424 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. D (1)

J.-P. Richard, “Approaching the quantum limit with optically instrumented multimode gravitational-wave bar detectors,” Phys. Rev. D 46, 2309–2317 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

S. Seel, R. Storz, G. Ruoso, J. Mlynek, and S. Schiller, “Cryogenic optical resonator: a new tool for laser frequency stabilisation at the 1 Hz level,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4741–4744 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, “Visible laser with subhertz linewidths,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799–3802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. W. Allan, “Statistics of atomic frequency standards,” Proc. IEEE 54, 221–230 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

L. Conti, M. Cerdonio, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, A. Ortolan, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, G. A. Prodi, S. Vitale, G. Cantatore, and E. Zavattini, “Optical transduction chain for gravitational wave bar detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 554–558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

V. V. Kulagin, A. G. Polnarev, and V. N. Rudenko, “A combined optical-acoustical gravitational antenna,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 915–921 (1986).

Other (5)

L. Conti, “An optical readout for the AURIGA resonant gravitational wave detector,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Trento, Trento, Italy, 1999) http://www.auriga.lnl.infn.it/publications/publications.html.

All the spectra reported in this work are one-sided, i.e., reported to positive frequencies.

J. Hall, “Frequency stabilized lasers—a driving force for new spectroscopies,” in Frontiers in Laser Spectroscopy, Proceedings of the International School of Physics “Enrico Fermi”: Course 120, T. W. Hansch and M. Inguscio, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1994).

G. A. Prodi, L. Conti, R. Mezzena, S. Vitale, L. Taffarello, J.-P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Cerdonio, A. Colombo, V. Crivelli-Visconti, R. Macchietto, P. Falferi, M. Bonaldi, A. Ortolan, G. Vedovato, E. Cavallini, and P. Fortini, “Initial operation of the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” in Gravitational Waves, Proceedings of the Second Edoardo Amaldi Conference, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, and G. Veneziano, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1998), pp. 148–158. For more information, see also http://www.auriga.lnl.infn.it.

For a comprehensive review of the most recent results of GW research see the special issue of Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1227–2049 (2002).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. OI, optical isolator; HW, half-wave plate; QW, quarter-wave plate; EOM 1, -2, electro-optic modulator; P, polarizer; BS, beam splitter; PD, photodiode; C1, -2, Fabry–Perot cavity; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; L., lens; OF, optical fiber that can be inserted into the path to C1. Dashed lines mark out active thermal stabilization.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Residual temperature fluctuations of a stabilized ZERODUR® cavity. Upper trace, from the probe used in the servo-loop. Lower trace, from an independent probe. The difference in the average values is within the calibration accuracy.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sketch of the piezoelectric actuators and mechanical demultiplier used to finely tune cavity C1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Asymptotic Bode diagrams of the frequency-loop electronics for the first prelocking block (dashed curve) and for the second locking block (solid curve).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Frequency noise spectral density of the free-running laser. (b) Noise spectrum of the in-loop signal for the laser locked to C2. (c) Noise measured with the laser far from resonance. Frequency resolution, 2 Hz.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Residual frequency noise of the laser when locked to C2, measured with respect to C1. (b) Noise spectrum measured on the C1 detector when the laser is far from resonance. (c) In-loop spectrum. Frequency resolution, 2 Hz. The dashed line shows the trend of a 1/f power noise.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Frequency noise of the laser after passage through the single-mode optical fiber. (b) Lower limit to the frequency fluctuations (see text). Frequency resolution, 2 Hz.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Laser frequency noise for (a) in-air propagation; (b) in-fiber propagation. Frequency resolution, 0.6 Hz.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Allan deviation of the stabilized laser. Filled circles, with no voltage applied to the PZT. Open circles, with offset voltage applied. The scale on the right gives the relative Allan deviation σA/νL, where νL=2.82×1014 Hz is the laser frequency.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters of the Two Cavities

Equations (2)

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σA2(τ)=1N-1k=1N-1(x¯k+1-x¯k)22,
x¯k(τ)=1τ(k-1)τkτx(t)dt

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