Abstract

We present an in-depth experimental study of frequency-domain (FD) methods for measuring second-harmonic (SH) amplitude and phase spectra of surfaces by use of a 60-nm bandwidth femtosecond source and spectral dispersion of generated SH light. We directly compare FD with conventional scanning approaches, in which a narrowband laser is tuned over resonant features, by applying them to common Si1-xGex, Si1-x-yGexCy, and Si(001)SiO2Cr metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) samples. FD methods yield chirp-independent χ(2) amplitude spectra in good agreement with more time-consuming conventionally measured spectra. FD interferometric SH (FDISH) phase spectroscopy avoids the need for an interferometer scan at each frequency and yields detailed, reproducible phase spectra of the MOS capacitor. To validate the measured phase spectra, we reproduce their bias-dependent features in detail with a model of a resonant electric-field-induced SH polarization superposed coherently upon a field-independent background.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  36. J. I. Dadap, P. T. Wilson, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, and M. ter Beek, “Femtosecond carrier-induced screening of dc electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation at the Si(001)–SiO2 interface,” Opt. Lett. 22, 901–903 (1997).
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2002 (2)

P. T. Wilson, K. A. Briggman, W. E. Wallace, J. C. Stephenson, and L. J. Richter, “Selective study of polymer/dielectric interfaces with vibrationally resonant sum frequency generation via thin-film interference,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3084–3086 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Wilson, L. J. Richter, W. E. Wallace, K. A. Briggman, and J. C. Stephenson, “Correlation of molecular orientation with adhesion at polystyrene/solid interfaces,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 363, 161–168 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. C. Downer, Y. Jiang, D. Lim, L. Mantese, P. T. Wilson, B. S. Mendoza, and V. I. Gavrilenko, “Optical second harmonic spectroscopy of silicon surfaces, interfaces and nanocrystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 188, 1371–1380 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (7)

L. Mantese, K. Selinidis, P. T. Wilson, D. Lim, Y. Jiang, J. G. Ekerdt, and M. C. Downer, “In situ control and monitoring of doped and compositionally graded SiGe films using spectroscopic ellipsometry and second harmonic generation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 154–155, 229–237 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Aktsipetrov, T. V. Dolgova, A. A. Fedyanin, D. Schuhmacher, and G. Marowsky, “Optical second-harmonic phase spectroscopy of the Si(111)–SiO2 interface,” Thin Solid Films 364, 91–94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in tapered fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1415–1417 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air–silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25, 25–27 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Zollner, J. Hildreth, R. Liu, P. Zaumseil, M. Weidner, and B. Tillack, “Optical constants and ellipsometric thickness determination of strained Si1−xGex:C layers on Si (100) and related heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4102–4108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. L. Malevich, “Dynamics of photoinduced field screening: THz pulse and second harmonic generation from semiconductor surface,” Surf. Sci. 454–456, 1074–1078 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Lim, M. C. Downer, and J. G. Ekerdt, “Second-harmonic spectroscopy of bulk boron-doped Si(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 181–183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (7)

J. G. Mihaychuk, N. Shamir, and H. M. van Driel, “Multiphoton photoemission and electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation as probes of charge transfer across the Si/SiO2 interface,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 2164–2173 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Kronik and Y. Shapira, “Photovoltage phenomena: theory, experiment and applications,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 37, 1–206 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. John, E. Quinones, B. Ferguson, S. Ray, B. Ananthram, S. Middlebrooks, C. Mullins, J. G. Ekerdt, J. Rawlings, and S. Banerjee, “Properties of Si1−x−yGexCy epitaxial films grown by ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 146, 4611–4615 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, A. V. Melnikov, E. D. Mishina, A. N. Rubtsov, M. H. Anderson, P. T. Wilson, M. ter Beek, X. F. Hu, J. I. Dadap, and M. C. Downer, “dc-electric-field-induced and low-frequency electromodulation second-harmonic generation spectroscopy of Si(001)–SiO2 interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 8924–8938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. McGuire, W. Beck, X. Wei, and Y. R. Shen, “Fourier-transform sum-frequency surface vibrational spectroscopy with femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1877–1879 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Wilson, Y. Jiang, O. A. Aktsipetrov, E. D. Mishina, and M. C. Downer, “Frequency-domain interferometric second-harmonic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 24, 496–498 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Lüpke, “Characterization of semiconductor interfaces by second-harmonic generation,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 35, 75–162 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (5)

G. Erley and W. Daum, “Silicon interband transitions observed at Si(100)–SiO2 interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 58, R1734–1737 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Collins, I. An, H. Fujiwara, J. Lee, Y. Lu, J. Koh, and P. I. Rovira, “Advances in multichannel spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 18–32 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. W. M. van der Ham, Q. H. F. Vrehen, and E. R. Eliel, “Self-dispersive sum-frequency generation at interfaces,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1448–1450 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Richter, T. P. Petralli-Mallow, and J. C. Stephenson, “Vibrationally resolved sumfrequency generation with broad-bandwidth infrared pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1594–1596 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Zaumseil, “High resolution determination of the Ge depth profile in SiGe heterobipolar transistor structures by x-ray diffractometry,” Phys. Status Solidi A 165, 195–204 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

J. I. Dadap, P. T. Wilson, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, and M. ter Beek, “Femtosecond carrier-induced screening of dc electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation at the Si(001)–SiO2 interface,” Opt. Lett. 22, 901–903 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Trebino, K. W. Delong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krummbügel, and B. A. Richman, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (4)

R. Stolle, G. Marowsky, E. Schwarzberg, and G. Berkovic, “Phase measurements in nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 491–498 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Bloch, J. G. Mihaychuk, and H. M. van Driel, “Electron photoinjection from silicon to ultrathin SiO2 films via ambient oxygen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 920–923 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Dadap, X. F. Hu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, “Optical second-harmonic electroreflectance spectroscopy of a Si(001) metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” Phys. Rev. B 53, R7607–R7609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Sego, R. J. Culbertson, D. J. Smith, Z. Atzmon, and A. E. Bair, “Strain measurements of SiGeC heteroepitaxial layers on Si(001) using ion beam analysis,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 441–446 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

W. M. Duncan, S. A. Henck, J. W. Kuehne, L. M. Loewenstein, and S. Maung, “High-speed spectral ellipsometry for in situ diagnostics and process control,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 2779–2784 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

C. Pickering, R. T. Carline, D. J. Robbins, W. Y. Leong, S. J. Barnett, A. D. Pitt, and A. G. Cullis, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of strained and relaxed Si1−xGex epitaxial layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 239–250 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. Daum, H.-J. Krause, U. Reichel, and H. Ibach, “Identification of strained silicon layers at Si–SiO2 interfaces and clean Si surfaces by nonlinear optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1234–1237 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Asaki, C.-P. Huang, D. Garvey, J. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Generation of 11-fs pulses from a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 18, 977–979 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

Y. R. Shen, “Surface properties probed by second-harmonic and sum-frequency generation,” Nature 337, 519–525 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

R. People, “Physics and applications of GexSi1−x/Si strained-layer heterostructures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1696–1710 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

R. K. Chang, J. Ducuing, and N. Bloembergen, “Relative phase measurement between fundamental and second-harmonic light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 6–8 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

R. C. Miller, “Optical second harmonic generation in piezoelectric crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 17–19 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Aktsipetrov, O. A.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, T. V. Dolgova, A. A. Fedyanin, D. Schuhmacher, and G. Marowsky, “Optical second-harmonic phase spectroscopy of the Si(111)–SiO2 interface,” Thin Solid Films 364, 91–94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, A. V. Melnikov, E. D. Mishina, A. N. Rubtsov, M. H. Anderson, P. T. Wilson, M. ter Beek, X. F. Hu, J. I. Dadap, and M. C. Downer, “dc-electric-field-induced and low-frequency electromodulation second-harmonic generation spectroscopy of Si(001)–SiO2 interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 8924–8938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Wilson, Y. Jiang, O. A. Aktsipetrov, E. D. Mishina, and M. C. Downer, “Frequency-domain interferometric second-harmonic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 24, 496–498 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Dadap, X. F. Hu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, “Optical second-harmonic electroreflectance spectroscopy of a Si(001) metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” Phys. Rev. B 53, R7607–R7609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

An, I.

R. W. Collins, I. An, H. Fujiwara, J. Lee, Y. Lu, J. Koh, and P. I. Rovira, “Advances in multichannel spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 18–32 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ananthram, B.

S. John, E. Quinones, B. Ferguson, S. Ray, B. Ananthram, S. Middlebrooks, C. Mullins, J. G. Ekerdt, J. Rawlings, and S. Banerjee, “Properties of Si1−x−yGexCy epitaxial films grown by ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 146, 4611–4615 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, M. H.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, A. V. Melnikov, E. D. Mishina, A. N. Rubtsov, M. H. Anderson, P. T. Wilson, M. ter Beek, X. F. Hu, J. I. Dadap, and M. C. Downer, “dc-electric-field-induced and low-frequency electromodulation second-harmonic generation spectroscopy of Si(001)–SiO2 interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 8924–8938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Dadap, P. T. Wilson, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, and M. ter Beek, “Femtosecond carrier-induced screening of dc electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation at the Si(001)–SiO2 interface,” Opt. Lett. 22, 901–903 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Dadap, X. F. Hu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, “Optical second-harmonic electroreflectance spectroscopy of a Si(001) metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” Phys. Rev. B 53, R7607–R7609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Asaki, M. T.

Atzmon, Z.

S. Sego, R. J. Culbertson, D. J. Smith, Z. Atzmon, and A. E. Bair, “Strain measurements of SiGeC heteroepitaxial layers on Si(001) using ion beam analysis,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 441–446 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bair, A. E.

S. Sego, R. J. Culbertson, D. J. Smith, Z. Atzmon, and A. E. Bair, “Strain measurements of SiGeC heteroepitaxial layers on Si(001) using ion beam analysis,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 441–446 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, S.

S. John, E. Quinones, B. Ferguson, S. Ray, B. Ananthram, S. Middlebrooks, C. Mullins, J. G. Ekerdt, J. Rawlings, and S. Banerjee, “Properties of Si1−x−yGexCy epitaxial films grown by ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 146, 4611–4615 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barnett, S. J.

C. Pickering, R. T. Carline, D. J. Robbins, W. Y. Leong, S. J. Barnett, A. D. Pitt, and A. G. Cullis, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of strained and relaxed Si1−xGex epitaxial layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 239–250 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Beck, W.

Berkovic, G.

R. Stolle, G. Marowsky, E. Schwarzberg, and G. Berkovic, “Phase measurements in nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 491–498 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

Bloch, J.

J. Bloch, J. G. Mihaychuk, and H. M. van Driel, “Electron photoinjection from silicon to ultrathin SiO2 films via ambient oxygen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 920–923 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bloembergen, N.

R. K. Chang, J. Ducuing, and N. Bloembergen, “Relative phase measurement between fundamental and second-harmonic light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 6–8 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Briggman, K. A.

P. T. Wilson, K. A. Briggman, W. E. Wallace, J. C. Stephenson, and L. J. Richter, “Selective study of polymer/dielectric interfaces with vibrationally resonant sum frequency generation via thin-film interference,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3084–3086 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Wilson, L. J. Richter, W. E. Wallace, K. A. Briggman, and J. C. Stephenson, “Correlation of molecular orientation with adhesion at polystyrene/solid interfaces,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 363, 161–168 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Carline, R. T.

C. Pickering, R. T. Carline, D. J. Robbins, W. Y. Leong, S. J. Barnett, A. D. Pitt, and A. G. Cullis, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of strained and relaxed Si1−xGex epitaxial layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 239–250 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. K.

R. K. Chang, J. Ducuing, and N. Bloembergen, “Relative phase measurement between fundamental and second-harmonic light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 6–8 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Cheriaux, G.

Collins, R. W.

R. W. Collins, I. An, H. Fujiwara, J. Lee, Y. Lu, J. Koh, and P. I. Rovira, “Advances in multichannel spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 18–32 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Culbertson, R. J.

S. Sego, R. J. Culbertson, D. J. Smith, Z. Atzmon, and A. E. Bair, “Strain measurements of SiGeC heteroepitaxial layers on Si(001) using ion beam analysis,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 441–446 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cullis, A. G.

C. Pickering, R. T. Carline, D. J. Robbins, W. Y. Leong, S. J. Barnett, A. D. Pitt, and A. G. Cullis, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of strained and relaxed Si1−xGex epitaxial layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 239–250 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dadap, J. I.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, A. V. Melnikov, E. D. Mishina, A. N. Rubtsov, M. H. Anderson, P. T. Wilson, M. ter Beek, X. F. Hu, J. I. Dadap, and M. C. Downer, “dc-electric-field-induced and low-frequency electromodulation second-harmonic generation spectroscopy of Si(001)–SiO2 interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 8924–8938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Dadap, P. T. Wilson, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, and M. ter Beek, “Femtosecond carrier-induced screening of dc electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation at the Si(001)–SiO2 interface,” Opt. Lett. 22, 901–903 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Dadap, X. F. Hu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, “Optical second-harmonic electroreflectance spectroscopy of a Si(001) metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” Phys. Rev. B 53, R7607–R7609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Daum, W.

G. Erley and W. Daum, “Silicon interband transitions observed at Si(100)–SiO2 interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 58, R1734–1737 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Daum, H.-J. Krause, U. Reichel, and H. Ibach, “Identification of strained silicon layers at Si–SiO2 interfaces and clean Si surfaces by nonlinear optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1234–1237 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delong, K. W.

R. Trebino, K. W. Delong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krummbügel, and B. A. Richman, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dolgova, T. V.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, T. V. Dolgova, A. A. Fedyanin, D. Schuhmacher, and G. Marowsky, “Optical second-harmonic phase spectroscopy of the Si(111)–SiO2 interface,” Thin Solid Films 364, 91–94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Downer, M. C.

M. C. Downer, Y. Jiang, D. Lim, L. Mantese, P. T. Wilson, B. S. Mendoza, and V. I. Gavrilenko, “Optical second harmonic spectroscopy of silicon surfaces, interfaces and nanocrystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 188, 1371–1380 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Mantese, K. Selinidis, P. T. Wilson, D. Lim, Y. Jiang, J. G. Ekerdt, and M. C. Downer, “In situ control and monitoring of doped and compositionally graded SiGe films using spectroscopic ellipsometry and second harmonic generation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 154–155, 229–237 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Lim, M. C. Downer, and J. G. Ekerdt, “Second-harmonic spectroscopy of bulk boron-doped Si(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 181–183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, A. V. Melnikov, E. D. Mishina, A. N. Rubtsov, M. H. Anderson, P. T. Wilson, M. ter Beek, X. F. Hu, J. I. Dadap, and M. C. Downer, “dc-electric-field-induced and low-frequency electromodulation second-harmonic generation spectroscopy of Si(001)–SiO2 interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 8924–8938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Wilson, Y. Jiang, O. A. Aktsipetrov, E. D. Mishina, and M. C. Downer, “Frequency-domain interferometric second-harmonic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 24, 496–498 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Dadap, P. T. Wilson, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, and M. ter Beek, “Femtosecond carrier-induced screening of dc electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation at the Si(001)–SiO2 interface,” Opt. Lett. 22, 901–903 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Dadap, X. F. Hu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, “Optical second-harmonic electroreflectance spectroscopy of a Si(001) metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” Phys. Rev. B 53, R7607–R7609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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R. K. Chang, J. Ducuing, and N. Bloembergen, “Relative phase measurement between fundamental and second-harmonic light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 6–8 (1965).
[CrossRef]

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W. M. Duncan, S. A. Henck, J. W. Kuehne, L. M. Loewenstein, and S. Maung, “High-speed spectral ellipsometry for in situ diagnostics and process control,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 2779–2784 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ekerdt, J. G.

L. Mantese, K. Selinidis, P. T. Wilson, D. Lim, Y. Jiang, J. G. Ekerdt, and M. C. Downer, “In situ control and monitoring of doped and compositionally graded SiGe films using spectroscopic ellipsometry and second harmonic generation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 154–155, 229–237 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Lim, M. C. Downer, and J. G. Ekerdt, “Second-harmonic spectroscopy of bulk boron-doped Si(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 181–183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. John, E. Quinones, B. Ferguson, S. Ray, B. Ananthram, S. Middlebrooks, C. Mullins, J. G. Ekerdt, J. Rawlings, and S. Banerjee, “Properties of Si1−x−yGexCy epitaxial films grown by ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 146, 4611–4615 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eliel, E. R.

Erley, G.

G. Erley and W. Daum, “Silicon interband transitions observed at Si(100)–SiO2 interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 58, R1734–1737 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fedyanin, A. A.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, T. V. Dolgova, A. A. Fedyanin, D. Schuhmacher, and G. Marowsky, “Optical second-harmonic phase spectroscopy of the Si(111)–SiO2 interface,” Thin Solid Films 364, 91–94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, A. V. Melnikov, E. D. Mishina, A. N. Rubtsov, M. H. Anderson, P. T. Wilson, M. ter Beek, X. F. Hu, J. I. Dadap, and M. C. Downer, “dc-electric-field-induced and low-frequency electromodulation second-harmonic generation spectroscopy of Si(001)–SiO2 interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 8924–8938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, B.

S. John, E. Quinones, B. Ferguson, S. Ray, B. Ananthram, S. Middlebrooks, C. Mullins, J. G. Ekerdt, J. Rawlings, and S. Banerjee, “Properties of Si1−x−yGexCy epitaxial films grown by ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 146, 4611–4615 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fittinghoff, D. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. Delong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krummbügel, and B. A. Richman, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, H.

R. W. Collins, I. An, H. Fujiwara, J. Lee, Y. Lu, J. Koh, and P. I. Rovira, “Advances in multichannel spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 18–32 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Garvey, D.

Gavrilenko, V. I.

M. C. Downer, Y. Jiang, D. Lim, L. Mantese, P. T. Wilson, B. S. Mendoza, and V. I. Gavrilenko, “Optical second harmonic spectroscopy of silicon surfaces, interfaces and nanocrystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 188, 1371–1380 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Henck, S. A.

W. M. Duncan, S. A. Henck, J. W. Kuehne, L. M. Loewenstein, and S. Maung, “High-speed spectral ellipsometry for in situ diagnostics and process control,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 2779–2784 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hildreth, J.

S. Zollner, J. Hildreth, R. Liu, P. Zaumseil, M. Weidner, and B. Tillack, “Optical constants and ellipsometric thickness determination of strained Si1−xGex:C layers on Si (100) and related heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4102–4108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X. F.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, A. V. Melnikov, E. D. Mishina, A. N. Rubtsov, M. H. Anderson, P. T. Wilson, M. ter Beek, X. F. Hu, J. I. Dadap, and M. C. Downer, “dc-electric-field-induced and low-frequency electromodulation second-harmonic generation spectroscopy of Si(001)–SiO2 interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 8924–8938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Dadap, X. F. Hu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, “Optical second-harmonic electroreflectance spectroscopy of a Si(001) metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” Phys. Rev. B 53, R7607–R7609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.-P.

Ibach, H.

W. Daum, H.-J. Krause, U. Reichel, and H. Ibach, “Identification of strained silicon layers at Si–SiO2 interfaces and clean Si surfaces by nonlinear optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1234–1237 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, Y.

M. C. Downer, Y. Jiang, D. Lim, L. Mantese, P. T. Wilson, B. S. Mendoza, and V. I. Gavrilenko, “Optical second harmonic spectroscopy of silicon surfaces, interfaces and nanocrystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 188, 1371–1380 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Mantese, K. Selinidis, P. T. Wilson, D. Lim, Y. Jiang, J. G. Ekerdt, and M. C. Downer, “In situ control and monitoring of doped and compositionally graded SiGe films using spectroscopic ellipsometry and second harmonic generation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 154–155, 229–237 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Wilson, Y. Jiang, O. A. Aktsipetrov, E. D. Mishina, and M. C. Downer, “Frequency-domain interferometric second-harmonic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 24, 496–498 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Joffre, M.

John, S.

S. John, E. Quinones, B. Ferguson, S. Ray, B. Ananthram, S. Middlebrooks, C. Mullins, J. G. Ekerdt, J. Rawlings, and S. Banerjee, “Properties of Si1−x−yGexCy epitaxial films grown by ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 146, 4611–4615 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H. C.

Koh, J.

R. W. Collins, I. An, H. Fujiwara, J. Lee, Y. Lu, J. Koh, and P. I. Rovira, “Advances in multichannel spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 18–32 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Krause, H.-J.

W. Daum, H.-J. Krause, U. Reichel, and H. Ibach, “Identification of strained silicon layers at Si–SiO2 interfaces and clean Si surfaces by nonlinear optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1234–1237 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kronik, L.

L. Kronik and Y. Shapira, “Photovoltage phenomena: theory, experiment and applications,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 37, 1–206 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Krummbügel, M. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. Delong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krummbügel, and B. A. Richman, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kuehne, J. W.

W. M. Duncan, S. A. Henck, J. W. Kuehne, L. M. Loewenstein, and S. Maung, “High-speed spectral ellipsometry for in situ diagnostics and process control,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 2779–2784 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

R. W. Collins, I. An, H. Fujiwara, J. Lee, Y. Lu, J. Koh, and P. I. Rovira, “Advances in multichannel spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 18–32 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leong, W. Y.

C. Pickering, R. T. Carline, D. J. Robbins, W. Y. Leong, S. J. Barnett, A. D. Pitt, and A. G. Cullis, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of strained and relaxed Si1−xGex epitaxial layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 239–250 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lepetit, L.

Lim, D.

M. C. Downer, Y. Jiang, D. Lim, L. Mantese, P. T. Wilson, B. S. Mendoza, and V. I. Gavrilenko, “Optical second harmonic spectroscopy of silicon surfaces, interfaces and nanocrystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 188, 1371–1380 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Mantese, K. Selinidis, P. T. Wilson, D. Lim, Y. Jiang, J. G. Ekerdt, and M. C. Downer, “In situ control and monitoring of doped and compositionally graded SiGe films using spectroscopic ellipsometry and second harmonic generation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 154–155, 229–237 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Lim, M. C. Downer, and J. G. Ekerdt, “Second-harmonic spectroscopy of bulk boron-doped Si(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 181–183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, R.

S. Zollner, J. Hildreth, R. Liu, P. Zaumseil, M. Weidner, and B. Tillack, “Optical constants and ellipsometric thickness determination of strained Si1−xGex:C layers on Si (100) and related heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4102–4108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Loewenstein, L. M.

W. M. Duncan, S. A. Henck, J. W. Kuehne, L. M. Loewenstein, and S. Maung, “High-speed spectral ellipsometry for in situ diagnostics and process control,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 2779–2784 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lowell, J. K.

J. I. Dadap, X. F. Hu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, “Optical second-harmonic electroreflectance spectroscopy of a Si(001) metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” Phys. Rev. B 53, R7607–R7609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

R. W. Collins, I. An, H. Fujiwara, J. Lee, Y. Lu, J. Koh, and P. I. Rovira, “Advances in multichannel spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 18–32 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lüpke, G.

G. Lüpke, “Characterization of semiconductor interfaces by second-harmonic generation,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 35, 75–162 (1999).
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V. L. Malevich, “Dynamics of photoinduced field screening: THz pulse and second harmonic generation from semiconductor surface,” Surf. Sci. 454–456, 1074–1078 (2000).
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Mantese, L.

M. C. Downer, Y. Jiang, D. Lim, L. Mantese, P. T. Wilson, B. S. Mendoza, and V. I. Gavrilenko, “Optical second harmonic spectroscopy of silicon surfaces, interfaces and nanocrystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 188, 1371–1380 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Mantese, K. Selinidis, P. T. Wilson, D. Lim, Y. Jiang, J. G. Ekerdt, and M. C. Downer, “In situ control and monitoring of doped and compositionally graded SiGe films using spectroscopic ellipsometry and second harmonic generation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 154–155, 229–237 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Marowsky, G.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, T. V. Dolgova, A. A. Fedyanin, D. Schuhmacher, and G. Marowsky, “Optical second-harmonic phase spectroscopy of the Si(111)–SiO2 interface,” Thin Solid Films 364, 91–94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Stolle, G. Marowsky, E. Schwarzberg, and G. Berkovic, “Phase measurements in nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 491–498 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Maung, S.

W. M. Duncan, S. A. Henck, J. W. Kuehne, L. M. Loewenstein, and S. Maung, “High-speed spectral ellipsometry for in situ diagnostics and process control,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 2779–2784 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McGuire, J. A.

Melnikov, A. V.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, A. V. Melnikov, E. D. Mishina, A. N. Rubtsov, M. H. Anderson, P. T. Wilson, M. ter Beek, X. F. Hu, J. I. Dadap, and M. C. Downer, “dc-electric-field-induced and low-frequency electromodulation second-harmonic generation spectroscopy of Si(001)–SiO2 interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 8924–8938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mendoza, B. S.

M. C. Downer, Y. Jiang, D. Lim, L. Mantese, P. T. Wilson, B. S. Mendoza, and V. I. Gavrilenko, “Optical second harmonic spectroscopy of silicon surfaces, interfaces and nanocrystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 188, 1371–1380 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Middlebrooks, S.

S. John, E. Quinones, B. Ferguson, S. Ray, B. Ananthram, S. Middlebrooks, C. Mullins, J. G. Ekerdt, J. Rawlings, and S. Banerjee, “Properties of Si1−x−yGexCy epitaxial films grown by ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 146, 4611–4615 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mihaychuk, J. G.

J. G. Mihaychuk, N. Shamir, and H. M. van Driel, “Multiphoton photoemission and electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation as probes of charge transfer across the Si/SiO2 interface,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 2164–2173 (1999).
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R. C. Miller, “Optical second harmonic generation in piezoelectric crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 17–19 (1964).
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O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, A. V. Melnikov, E. D. Mishina, A. N. Rubtsov, M. H. Anderson, P. T. Wilson, M. ter Beek, X. F. Hu, J. I. Dadap, and M. C. Downer, “dc-electric-field-induced and low-frequency electromodulation second-harmonic generation spectroscopy of Si(001)–SiO2 interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 8924–8938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Wilson, Y. Jiang, O. A. Aktsipetrov, E. D. Mishina, and M. C. Downer, “Frequency-domain interferometric second-harmonic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 24, 496–498 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mullins, C.

S. John, E. Quinones, B. Ferguson, S. Ray, B. Ananthram, S. Middlebrooks, C. Mullins, J. G. Ekerdt, J. Rawlings, and S. Banerjee, “Properties of Si1−x−yGexCy epitaxial films grown by ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 146, 4611–4615 (1999).
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People, R.

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Petralli-Mallow, T. P.

Pickering, C.

C. Pickering, R. T. Carline, D. J. Robbins, W. Y. Leong, S. J. Barnett, A. D. Pitt, and A. G. Cullis, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of strained and relaxed Si1−xGex epitaxial layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 239–250 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pitt, A. D.

C. Pickering, R. T. Carline, D. J. Robbins, W. Y. Leong, S. J. Barnett, A. D. Pitt, and A. G. Cullis, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of strained and relaxed Si1−xGex epitaxial layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 239–250 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Quinones, E.

S. John, E. Quinones, B. Ferguson, S. Ray, B. Ananthram, S. Middlebrooks, C. Mullins, J. G. Ekerdt, J. Rawlings, and S. Banerjee, “Properties of Si1−x−yGexCy epitaxial films grown by ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 146, 4611–4615 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ranka, J. K.

Rawlings, J.

S. John, E. Quinones, B. Ferguson, S. Ray, B. Ananthram, S. Middlebrooks, C. Mullins, J. G. Ekerdt, J. Rawlings, and S. Banerjee, “Properties of Si1−x−yGexCy epitaxial films grown by ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 146, 4611–4615 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ray, S.

S. John, E. Quinones, B. Ferguson, S. Ray, B. Ananthram, S. Middlebrooks, C. Mullins, J. G. Ekerdt, J. Rawlings, and S. Banerjee, “Properties of Si1−x−yGexCy epitaxial films grown by ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 146, 4611–4615 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Reichel, U.

W. Daum, H.-J. Krause, U. Reichel, and H. Ibach, “Identification of strained silicon layers at Si–SiO2 interfaces and clean Si surfaces by nonlinear optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1234–1237 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richman, B. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. Delong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krummbügel, and B. A. Richman, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Richter, L. J.

P. T. Wilson, K. A. Briggman, W. E. Wallace, J. C. Stephenson, and L. J. Richter, “Selective study of polymer/dielectric interfaces with vibrationally resonant sum frequency generation via thin-film interference,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3084–3086 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Wilson, L. J. Richter, W. E. Wallace, K. A. Briggman, and J. C. Stephenson, “Correlation of molecular orientation with adhesion at polystyrene/solid interfaces,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 363, 161–168 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Richter, T. P. Petralli-Mallow, and J. C. Stephenson, “Vibrationally resolved sumfrequency generation with broad-bandwidth infrared pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1594–1596 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Robbins, D. J.

C. Pickering, R. T. Carline, D. J. Robbins, W. Y. Leong, S. J. Barnett, A. D. Pitt, and A. G. Cullis, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of strained and relaxed Si1−xGex epitaxial layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 239–250 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rovira, P. I.

R. W. Collins, I. An, H. Fujiwara, J. Lee, Y. Lu, J. Koh, and P. I. Rovira, “Advances in multichannel spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 18–32 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rubtsov, A. N.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, A. V. Melnikov, E. D. Mishina, A. N. Rubtsov, M. H. Anderson, P. T. Wilson, M. ter Beek, X. F. Hu, J. I. Dadap, and M. C. Downer, “dc-electric-field-induced and low-frequency electromodulation second-harmonic generation spectroscopy of Si(001)–SiO2 interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 8924–8938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

Schuhmacher, D.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, T. V. Dolgova, A. A. Fedyanin, D. Schuhmacher, and G. Marowsky, “Optical second-harmonic phase spectroscopy of the Si(111)–SiO2 interface,” Thin Solid Films 364, 91–94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schwarzberg, E.

R. Stolle, G. Marowsky, E. Schwarzberg, and G. Berkovic, “Phase measurements in nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 491–498 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sego, S.

S. Sego, R. J. Culbertson, D. J. Smith, Z. Atzmon, and A. E. Bair, “Strain measurements of SiGeC heteroepitaxial layers on Si(001) using ion beam analysis,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 441–446 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Selinidis, K.

L. Mantese, K. Selinidis, P. T. Wilson, D. Lim, Y. Jiang, J. G. Ekerdt, and M. C. Downer, “In situ control and monitoring of doped and compositionally graded SiGe films using spectroscopic ellipsometry and second harmonic generation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 154–155, 229–237 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shamir, N.

J. G. Mihaychuk, N. Shamir, and H. M. van Driel, “Multiphoton photoemission and electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation as probes of charge transfer across the Si/SiO2 interface,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 2164–2173 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shapira, Y.

L. Kronik and Y. Shapira, “Photovoltage phenomena: theory, experiment and applications,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 37, 1–206 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

Smith, D. J.

S. Sego, R. J. Culbertson, D. J. Smith, Z. Atzmon, and A. E. Bair, “Strain measurements of SiGeC heteroepitaxial layers on Si(001) using ion beam analysis,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 441–446 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stentz, A. J.

Stephenson, J. C.

P. T. Wilson, L. J. Richter, W. E. Wallace, K. A. Briggman, and J. C. Stephenson, “Correlation of molecular orientation with adhesion at polystyrene/solid interfaces,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 363, 161–168 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Wilson, K. A. Briggman, W. E. Wallace, J. C. Stephenson, and L. J. Richter, “Selective study of polymer/dielectric interfaces with vibrationally resonant sum frequency generation via thin-film interference,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3084–3086 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Richter, T. P. Petralli-Mallow, and J. C. Stephenson, “Vibrationally resolved sumfrequency generation with broad-bandwidth infrared pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1594–1596 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stolle, R.

R. Stolle, G. Marowsky, E. Schwarzberg, and G. Berkovic, “Phase measurements in nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 491–498 (1996).
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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Broadband SFG by an IR continuum pulse that is resonant with one-photon transition(s) and a narrowband visible pulse.10,11 Two-photon (IR+VIS) processes should be nonresonant. (b) Broadband SHG by use of a single incident continuum pulse. Left, direct SHG processes that dominate in the absence of one-photon resonances near the fundamental frequencies. Right, SFG that becomes important in the presence of such resonances.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Fabry–Perot configuration for FDISH spectroscopy. The reference SH pulse is generated by a 15-fs pulse in a SnO2 film and then delayed from the fundamental in a glass substrate. Inset (dashed box), alternative double-reflection scheme for generating a reference SH pulse and temporally separating it from the fundamental input. (b) Interferogram measured at the spectrometer detector array.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Configuration for conventional SH phase measurement. The reference SH pulse is generated by narrowband 100-fs pulses in SnO2 film and then delayed from the fundamental in air between the reference and the sample.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Chirp-dependent SHG spectrum of a Si MOS capacitor. Inset, incident laser spectrum. (b) Chirp-dependent SHG spectrum of quartz. (c) Chirp-independent SHG spectrum of a Si MOS capacitor normalized to quartz.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a)–(e) Normalized SHG amplitude spectra of oxidized Si1-xGex samples acquired by broadband (continuous curves) and conventional scanning (filled squares) methods. The insets in (d) show the dependence of SHG intensity at h νSH=3.0 eV on azimuthal sample rotation (left) and time (right). (f) Real part of linear pseudodielectric functions of Si1-xGex samples used for the SHG spectra in (a)–(e) acquired by spectroscopic ellipsometry.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a)–(c) Normalized SHG amplitude spectra of oxidized Si0.87-yGe0.13Cy samples acquired by broadband (continuous curves) and conventional scanning (filled squares) methods. (d) Real part of linear dielectric functions 1(ω) of Si0.87-yGe0.13Cy samples used for the SHG spectra in (a)–(c), acquired by spectroscopic ellipsometry.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Broadband (continuous curves) and scanning (filled squares and filled circles) SHG amplitude spectra of a SiSiO2Cr MOS structure at large negative bias (-7 V) and near Vfb (-2.45 V). (b) Bias dependence of the SHG signal at h νSH=3.37 eV acquired by broadband (squares) and scanning (circles) methods. The vertical scales in (a) and (b) are mutually consistent.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Conventional time-domain interferometric SH scans of a SiSiO2Cr MOS capacitor at bias -7 V for 16 laser wavelengths.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) SHG phase spectra of the MOS capacitor as measured by FDISH (continuous curves) at several biases and by conventional SH scanning interferometry at -2.45 and -7 V (discrete points). Because FDISH does not accurately determine the dc component of phase, the seven FDISH phase spectra have been placed vertically such that their average phase is zero at h νSH=2.87 eV. (b) Bias-dependent phase shift of SHG at h νSH=3.37 eV measured by FDISH (squares) and by the conventional method (circles).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

FDISH interferograms for (a) the quartz standard and for (b)–(h) a MOS capacitor at several biases. The small extra peak at 375 nm for -3.79 V results from bad CCD pixels. There is no phase discontinuity. Such infrequent defects are filtered from the data before phase spectra are extracted.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Direct comparison of FDISH interferograms for a MOS capacitor at biases above and below Vfb. The relative amplitudes have been scaled to high-light the ∼π phase shift in the spectral region (λSH<370 nm) where EFISH dominates.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Calculated phase of the SH field from a MOS capacitor for comparison with FDISH measurements in Fig. 9(a). (a) Total phase ϕTOT of the SH field for negative biases VVfb (heavier solid curve) and V<Vfb (lighter solid curves) and positive biases V>Vfb (heavier dashed curve) and a larger bias (lighter dashed curve). Insets, phasor diagrams depicting the addition of EFI (phasors with filled-circle ends) and EEFISH (lighter arrows) in a complex plane at three frequencies and three biases. (b) Contributions to phase of E2ωEFISH from susceptibility χ(3) modeled as a Lorentzian oscillator (thin solid curve, ϕχ), EFISH integral I (short-dashed curve, ϕI), and Fresnel factor F2ω (long-dashed curve, ϕF), and their sum ϕEFISH=ϕχ+ϕI+ϕF (thicker solid curve). The thinner solid curve that nearly coincides with ϕF shows the phase change ϕrefR of the SH reference pulse on reflection from the MOS sample. Inset, amplitude of the EFISH field.

Equations (11)

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P(2)(2ω)=1(2π)2-χ(2)(2ω, Ω, 2ω-Ω)×E(Ω)(2ω-Ω)dΩ
P(2)(2ω)=1(2π)2 χ(2)(2ω)-E(Ω)E(2ω-Ω)dΩ.
I(2ω, τ)=12π-[Esamp(t)+Eref(t-τ)]exp(2iωt)dt2=|Esamp(2ω)+Eref(2ω)exp(-2iωτ)|2=|Esamp(2ω)|2+|Eref(2ω)|2+2|Esamp(2ω)||Eref(2ω)|cos(Δϕ(2ω)+2ωτ),
Δϕ(2ω)=[ϕsampχ+ϕsampF+ϕsampI]-[ϕrefχ+ϕrefF+ϕrefP+ϕrefR]+ωlc [nair(2ω)-nair(ω)]+ωdc [nglass(2ω)-nglass(ω)].
I2ω=(E2ωINT+E2ωBQ+E2ωEFISH)2,
P(2)(2ω)=exp[2iϕ(ω)] ΔmE02(2π)2 Ξ(2ω)×0[Z(ω+δ)+Z(ω-δ)]×exp[-(ω+δ-ωt)2/σ2]×exp[-(ω-δ-ωl)2/σ2]×exp(-2iaδ2/σ2)dδ,
P(2)(2ω)=exp[2iϕ(ω)] σΔm|E(ω)|2(2π)2π2(1+ia)1/2×Ξ(2ω)Z(ω)1+σ28(1+ia)Z(ω)Z(ω).
σ28(1+ia)Z(ω)Z(ω)=(Δλ)21+ian2/2n2-1nn+2λnn+3n2-1n2-1nn2.
I(t)=Isamp+Iref1+z2/zR2+αIsampIref1+z2/z02×cos(Δkl-ΦSH),
ETOT(2ω)=E2ωFI+E2ωEFISH=[F2ωFIχFI(2)+F˜2ωχ˜(3)I˜EFISH]Fω2Eω2,
2ξiΔ1-Δ2-W+exp[(iΔ1-Δ2)W]-1iΔ1-Δ2,

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