Abstract

Surface plasmon polaritons are believed to be responsible for higher-than-expected light transmission through metallic films with subwavelength aperture arrays. Here we report the effect of aperture size increase on far-infrared transmission characteristics of such perforated films. The observed increase in the transmission efficiency and the redshift of the resonance frequency are consistent with a published theoretical model, which identifies radiation damping of surface plasmon polaritons as the driving mechanism behind these spectral changes. Optical properties of films with different lattice and aperture configurations, however, are found to respond distinctly to aperture enlargement and indicate the critical role of these parameters on the scattering of surface plasmon polaritons into electromagnetic radiation. The effects of radiation damping are also recognized in the angular dependence of the transmission spectra.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2003 (2)

2002 (2)

E. Altewischer, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Plasmon-assisted transmission of entangled photons,” Nature 418, 304–306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Degiron, H. J. Lezec, W. L. Barnes, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Effects of hole depth on enhanced light transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4327–4329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

J. Kupersztych, P. Monchicourt, and M. Raynaud, “Ponderomotive acceleration of photoelectrons in surface-plasmon-assisted multiphoton photoelectric emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5180–5183 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Salomon, F. Grillot, A. V. Zayats, and F. de Fornel, “Near-field distribution of optical transmission of periodic subwavelength holes in a metal film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1110–1113 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dogariu, T. Thio, L. J. Wang, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Delay in light transmission through small apertures,” Opt. Lett. 26, 450–452 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (5)

J. A. Sanchez-Gil and A. A. Maradudin, “Near-field and far-field scattering of surface plasmon polaritons by one-dimensional surface defects,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 8359–8367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Porto, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, “Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2845–2848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 meters per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397, 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, “Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229–5232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, and V. V. Yashchuk, “Nonlinear magneto-optics and reduced group velocity of light in atomic vapor with slow ground state relaxation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1767–1770 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (5)

S. Chu, “The manipulation of neutral particles,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 685–706 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. N. Cohen-Tannoudji, “Manipulating atoms with photons,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 707–719 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Phillips, “Laser cooling and trapping of neutral atoms,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 721–741 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Sambles, “More than transparent,” Nature 391, 641–642 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

A. Z. Genack and N. Garcia, “Observation of photon localization in a three-dimensional disordered system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2064–2067 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (2)

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. John, “Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486–2489 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

1974 (1)

M. Fleischmann, P. J. Hendra, and A. J. McQuillan, “Raman spectra of pyridine adsorbed at a silver electrode,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 26, 163–166 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1944 (1)

H. A. Bethe, “Theory of diffraction by small holes,” Phys. Rev. 66, 163–182 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Alexander Jr., R. W.

Altewischer, E.

E. Altewischer, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Plasmon-assisted transmission of entangled photons,” Nature 418, 304–306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bailey Jr., W. A.

Barnes, W. L.

A. Degiron, H. J. Lezec, W. L. Barnes, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Effects of hole depth on enhanced light transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4327–4329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baumann, F.

Behroozi, C. H.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 meters per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397, 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bell, R. J.

Bell, R. R.

Bell, S. E.

Bethe, H. A.

H. A. Bethe, “Theory of diffraction by small holes,” Phys. Rev. 66, 163–182 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Budker, D.

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, and V. V. Yashchuk, “Nonlinear magneto-optics and reduced group velocity of light in atomic vapor with slow ground state relaxation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1767–1770 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

S. Chu, “The manipulation of neutral particles,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 685–706 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cohen-Tannoudji, C. N.

C. N. Cohen-Tannoudji, “Manipulating atoms with photons,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 707–719 (1998).
[CrossRef]

de Fornel, F.

L. Salomon, F. Grillot, A. V. Zayats, and F. de Fornel, “Near-field distribution of optical transmission of periodic subwavelength holes in a metal film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1110–1113 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Degiron, A.

A. Degiron, H. J. Lezec, W. L. Barnes, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Effects of hole depth on enhanced light transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4327–4329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dogariu, A.

Dutton, Z.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 meters per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397, 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

A. Degiron, H. J. Lezec, W. L. Barnes, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Effects of hole depth on enhanced light transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4327–4329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Dogariu, T. Thio, L. J. Wang, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Delay in light transmission through small apertures,” Opt. Lett. 26, 450–452 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fleischmann, M.

M. Fleischmann, P. J. Hendra, and A. J. McQuillan, “Raman spectra of pyridine adsorbed at a silver electrode,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 26, 163–166 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Fry, E. S.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, “Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229–5232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, N.

A. Z. Genack and N. Garcia, “Observation of photon localization in a three-dimensional disordered system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2064–2067 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

J. A. Porto, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, “Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2845–2848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

García-Vidal, F. J.

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gatesman, A. J.

Genack, A. Z.

A. Z. Genack and N. Garcia, “Observation of photon localization in a three-dimensional disordered system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2064–2067 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Goodhue, W. D.

Grillot, F.

L. Salomon, F. Grillot, A. V. Zayats, and F. de Fornel, “Near-field distribution of optical transmission of periodic subwavelength holes in a metal film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1110–1113 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, S. E.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 meters per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397, 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hau, L. V.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 meters per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397, 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hendra, P. J.

M. Fleischmann, P. J. Hendra, and A. J. McQuillan, “Raman spectra of pyridine adsorbed at a silver electrode,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 26, 163–166 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, “Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229–5232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

John, S.

S. John, “Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486–2489 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, S. G.

Kash, M. M.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, “Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229–5232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kimball, D. F.

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, and V. V. Yashchuk, “Nonlinear magneto-optics and reduced group velocity of light in atomic vapor with slow ground state relaxation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1767–1770 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kupersztych, J.

J. Kupersztych, P. Monchicourt, and M. Raynaud, “Ponderomotive acceleration of photoelectrons in surface-plasmon-assisted multiphoton photoelectric emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5180–5183 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lezec, H. J.

A. Degiron, H. J. Lezec, W. L. Barnes, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Effects of hole depth on enhanced light transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4327–4329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dogariu, T. Thio, L. J. Wang, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Delay in light transmission through small apertures,” Opt. Lett. 26, 450–452 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Long, L. L.

Lukin, M. D.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, “Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229–5232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Luo, C.

Maradudin, A. A.

J. A. Sanchez-Gil and A. A. Maradudin, “Near-field and far-field scattering of surface plasmon polaritons by one-dimensional surface defects,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 8359–8367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Martin-Moreno, L.

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McQuillan, A. J.

M. Fleischmann, P. J. Hendra, and A. J. McQuillan, “Raman spectra of pyridine adsorbed at a silver electrode,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 26, 163–166 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Monchicourt, P.

J. Kupersztych, P. Monchicourt, and M. Raynaud, “Ponderomotive acceleration of photoelectrons in surface-plasmon-assisted multiphoton photoelectric emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5180–5183 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naweed, A.

Ordal, M. A.

Pellerin, K. M.

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction without negative index in metallic photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 11, 746–754 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Porto, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, “Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2845–2848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, W. D.

W. D. Phillips, “Laser cooling and trapping of neutral atoms,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 721–741 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Porto, J. A.

J. A. Porto, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, “Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2845–2848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Raynaud, M.

J. Kupersztych, P. Monchicourt, and M. Raynaud, “Ponderomotive acceleration of photoelectrons in surface-plasmon-assisted multiphoton photoelectric emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5180–5183 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rochester, S. M.

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, and V. V. Yashchuk, “Nonlinear magneto-optics and reduced group velocity of light in atomic vapor with slow ground state relaxation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1767–1770 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rostovtsev, Y.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, “Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229–5232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Salomon, L.

L. Salomon, F. Grillot, A. V. Zayats, and F. de Fornel, “Near-field distribution of optical transmission of periodic subwavelength holes in a metal film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1110–1113 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sambles, R.

R. Sambles, “More than transparent,” Nature 391, 641–642 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez-Gil, J. A.

J. A. Sanchez-Gil and A. A. Maradudin, “Near-field and far-field scattering of surface plasmon polaritons by one-dimensional surface defects,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 8359–8367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sautenkov, V. A.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, “Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229–5232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scully, M. O.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, “Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229–5232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thio, T.

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dogariu, T. Thio, L. J. Wang, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Delay in light transmission through small apertures,” Opt. Lett. 26, 450–452 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

van Exter, M. P.

E. Altewischer, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Plasmon-assisted transmission of entangled photons,” Nature 418, 304–306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. J.

Ward, C. A.

Welch, G. R.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, “Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229–5232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Woerdman, J. P.

E. Altewischer, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Plasmon-assisted transmission of entangled photons,” Nature 418, 304–306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolff, P. A.

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Because of the frail nature of the films, it was not possible to determine the decrease in film thickness as a function of etch time. However, the film thickness is expected to decrease at a rate similar to the rate of increase in aperture size.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scanning electron microscope images of the perforated copper films used in this paper and corresponding photomask dimensions. (a) Sample A photomask consists of symmetrically arranged crosses where the length of each cross arm is al=90 μm and its width is aw=10μm. The horizontal and vertical periodicities gx and gy are 135 μm; the symmetrically distributed cross-aperture photomask parameters corresponding to sample B are al=98μm, aw=29μm, and gx=gy=154μm. (b) In case of a tripole-aperture (sample C) the photomask parameters are gx=47.1μm, gy=54.4μm, tripole width bw=5μm, and the length of each tripole arm is bl=43.3μm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Transmission spectra of sample A that is recorded after different etching durations. The approximate aperture dimensions, estimated with the aid of a calibrated optical microscope, after the first etching cycle are al=85.6 μm and aw=8.6 μm. (b) Peak transmittance and FWHM bandwidth as a function of etching duration. The solid curve is a nonlinear fit to the transmittance data, and the dotted line is a linear fit to the spectral bandwidth.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Change in transmission characteristics of sample B after different etching intervals. The initial aperture dimensions, corresponding to the first etching cycle, are al=96.6μm and aw=27.2μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission spectra of the tripole-aperture film. In this case the initial aperture dimensions determined after the first etching cycle are bw=4.1μm and bl=42μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Angular dependence of sample A spectra obtained after the initial etch cycle.

Equations (3)

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νsp=c2π |ksp|m+sms1/2,
ksp=kosin θ±ex m 2πgx±ey n 2πgy.
X¨+γ X˙+ωo2 X=-QM Eocos(ωt).

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