Abstract

Magnetically induced birefringence (the Cotton–Mouton effect) of argon, neon, and helium atoms was measured with a high-sensitivity ellipsometer with a 790-nm GaAlAs diode laser. The detection limit of the change in ellipticity was attained to a shot-noise-limited value of 10-10 rad. We determined the absolute values of the ellipticity changes caused by noble atoms using the light extinction ratio of the ellipsometer as an absolute standard, with this ratio measured by a method based on Malus’s law. The measured values of the Cotton–Mouton constant were (7.1±2.5)×10-10 T-2 m-1 for He atoms, (1.3±0.5)×10-9 T-2 m-1 for Ne atoms, and (1.1±0.2)×10-8 T-2 m-1 for Ar atoms at a gas pressure of 1.52×105 Pa and a gas temperature of 285–293 K.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. B. Lukins and G. L. D. Ritchie, “Magneto-optical Cotton-Mouton effect of molecular oxygen. A comparison,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 180, 551–555 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Brandi, R. Della Valle, P. Micossi, A. M. De Riva, G. Zavattini, F. Perrone, C. Rizzo, and G. Ruoso, “Cotton-Mouton effect of molecular oxygen: a novel measurement,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1278–1281 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. D. Buckingham, W. H. Prichard, and D. H. Whiffen, “Magnetic birefringence of some diamagnetic gases,” Trans. Faraday Soc. 63, 1057–1064 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Carusotto, E. Polacco, E. Iacopini, G. Stefanini, and E. Zavattini, “Measurement of the magnetic birefringence in oxygen and nitrogen gases,” Opt. Commun. 42, 104–108 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Carusotto, E. Iacopini, E. Polacco, F. Scuri, G. Stefanini, and E. Zavattini, “Measurement of the magnetic birefringence of noble gas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 635–640 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Cameron, G. Cantatore, A. C. Melissinos, J. Rogers, Y. Semertzidis, H. Halama, A. Prodell, F. A. Nezrick, C. Rizzo, and E. Zavattini, “Measurement of the magnetic birefringence of neon gas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 520–524 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Cameron, G. Cantatore, A. C. Melissinos, Y. Semertzidis, H. Halama, D. Lazarus, A. Prodell, F. Nezrich, P. Micossi, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, and E. Zavattini, “First measurement of the magnetic birefringence of helium gas,” Phys. Lett. A 157, 125–128 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Carusotto, E. Iacopini, F. Scuri, and G. Stefanini, “Atom size of rare gases from their magnetic birefringence,” Lett. Nouvo Cimento 42, 204–208 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. M. Bishop and S. M. Cybulski, “Calculation of dynamic magnetic hyperpolarizability anisotropies for He, Ne and Ar,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 200, 153–157 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Muroo, M. Namikawa, and Y. Takubo, “High-sensitivity detection of magnetically-induced birefringence,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 32–37 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Takubo, N. Takeda, J. Hau Huang, K. Muroo, and M. Yamamoto, “Precise measurement of the extinction ratio of a polarization analyser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 20–23 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Muroo, S. Nakamura, H. Ishizaka, Y. Takubo, and M. Yamamoto, “Limit of sensitivity in the detection of sodium atoms in a flame with the resonant Voigt effect,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 5–8 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. L. Adler, “Photon splitting and photon dispersion in a strong magnetic field,” Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 67, 599–647 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Regarding experimental proposals to detect vacuum birefringence, see articles in the Proceedings of the AIP Conference on Quantum Electrodynamics and Physics of the Vacuum, G. Cantatore, ed. (American Institute of Physics, Melville, N.Y., 2001). For example, E. Zavattini, F. Brandi, M. Bregant, G. Cantatore, S. Carusotto, F. Della Valle, G. Di Domenico, U. Gastaldi, E. Milotti, R. Pengo, G. Petrucci, E. Polacco, G. Ruoso, and G. Zavattini, “The PVLAS collaboration: experimental search for anisotropy of the phase velocity of light in vacuum due to a static magnetic field” (pp. 77–86) and S. Askenazy, J. Billette, P. Dupré, P. Ganau, J. Mackowski, J. Marquez, L. Pinard, O. Portugall, D. Ricard, G. L. J. A. Rikken, C. Rizzo, G. Trenec, and J. Vigué, “A 25 T dipole pulsed magnet to study the magnetic birefringence of vacuum: the BMV project” (pp. 115–122).
  15. J. L. Hall, J. Ye, and L.-S. Ma, “Measurement of mirror birefringence at the sub-ppm level: proposed application to a test of QED,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 013815 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (2)

K. Muroo, M. Namikawa, and Y. Takubo, “High-sensitivity detection of magnetically-induced birefringence,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 32–37 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall, J. Ye, and L.-S. Ma, “Measurement of mirror birefringence at the sub-ppm level: proposed application to a test of QED,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 013815 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

Y. Takubo, N. Takeda, J. Hau Huang, K. Muroo, and M. Yamamoto, “Precise measurement of the extinction ratio of a polarization analyser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 20–23 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Brandi, R. Della Valle, P. Micossi, A. M. De Riva, G. Zavattini, F. Perrone, C. Rizzo, and G. Ruoso, “Cotton-Mouton effect of molecular oxygen: a novel measurement,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1278–1281 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

D. M. Bishop and S. M. Cybulski, “Calculation of dynamic magnetic hyperpolarizability anisotropies for He, Ne and Ar,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 200, 153–157 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

R. Cameron, G. Cantatore, A. C. Melissinos, J. Rogers, Y. Semertzidis, H. Halama, A. Prodell, F. A. Nezrick, C. Rizzo, and E. Zavattini, “Measurement of the magnetic birefringence of neon gas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 520–524 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Cameron, G. Cantatore, A. C. Melissinos, Y. Semertzidis, H. Halama, D. Lazarus, A. Prodell, F. Nezrich, P. Micossi, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, and E. Zavattini, “First measurement of the magnetic birefringence of helium gas,” Phys. Lett. A 157, 125–128 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Lukins and G. L. D. Ritchie, “Magneto-optical Cotton-Mouton effect of molecular oxygen. A comparison,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 180, 551–555 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

S. Carusotto, E. Iacopini, F. Scuri, and G. Stefanini, “Atom size of rare gases from their magnetic birefringence,” Lett. Nouvo Cimento 42, 204–208 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1982 (1)

S. Carusotto, E. Polacco, E. Iacopini, G. Stefanini, and E. Zavattini, “Measurement of the magnetic birefringence in oxygen and nitrogen gases,” Opt. Commun. 42, 104–108 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

S. L. Adler, “Photon splitting and photon dispersion in a strong magnetic field,” Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 67, 599–647 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

A. D. Buckingham, W. H. Prichard, and D. H. Whiffen, “Magnetic birefringence of some diamagnetic gases,” Trans. Faraday Soc. 63, 1057–1064 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Adler, S. L.

S. L. Adler, “Photon splitting and photon dispersion in a strong magnetic field,” Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 67, 599–647 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Bishop, D. M.

D. M. Bishop and S. M. Cybulski, “Calculation of dynamic magnetic hyperpolarizability anisotropies for He, Ne and Ar,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 200, 153–157 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brandi, F.

Buckingham, A. D.

A. D. Buckingham, W. H. Prichard, and D. H. Whiffen, “Magnetic birefringence of some diamagnetic gases,” Trans. Faraday Soc. 63, 1057–1064 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Cameron, R.

R. Cameron, G. Cantatore, A. C. Melissinos, J. Rogers, Y. Semertzidis, H. Halama, A. Prodell, F. A. Nezrick, C. Rizzo, and E. Zavattini, “Measurement of the magnetic birefringence of neon gas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 520–524 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Cameron, G. Cantatore, A. C. Melissinos, Y. Semertzidis, H. Halama, D. Lazarus, A. Prodell, F. Nezrich, P. Micossi, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, and E. Zavattini, “First measurement of the magnetic birefringence of helium gas,” Phys. Lett. A 157, 125–128 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cantatore, G.

R. Cameron, G. Cantatore, A. C. Melissinos, Y. Semertzidis, H. Halama, D. Lazarus, A. Prodell, F. Nezrich, P. Micossi, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, and E. Zavattini, “First measurement of the magnetic birefringence of helium gas,” Phys. Lett. A 157, 125–128 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Cameron, G. Cantatore, A. C. Melissinos, J. Rogers, Y. Semertzidis, H. Halama, A. Prodell, F. A. Nezrick, C. Rizzo, and E. Zavattini, “Measurement of the magnetic birefringence of neon gas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 520–524 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Carusotto, S.

S. Carusotto, E. Iacopini, F. Scuri, and G. Stefanini, “Atom size of rare gases from their magnetic birefringence,” Lett. Nouvo Cimento 42, 204–208 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Carusotto, E. Iacopini, E. Polacco, F. Scuri, G. Stefanini, and E. Zavattini, “Measurement of the magnetic birefringence of noble gas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 635–640 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. Carusotto, E. Polacco, E. Iacopini, G. Stefanini, and E. Zavattini, “Measurement of the magnetic birefringence in oxygen and nitrogen gases,” Opt. Commun. 42, 104–108 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Cybulski, S. M.

D. M. Bishop and S. M. Cybulski, “Calculation of dynamic magnetic hyperpolarizability anisotropies for He, Ne and Ar,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 200, 153–157 (1992).
[CrossRef]

De Riva, A. M.

Della Valle, R.

Halama, H.

R. Cameron, G. Cantatore, A. C. Melissinos, J. Rogers, Y. Semertzidis, H. Halama, A. Prodell, F. A. Nezrick, C. Rizzo, and E. Zavattini, “Measurement of the magnetic birefringence of neon gas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 520–524 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Cameron, G. Cantatore, A. C. Melissinos, Y. Semertzidis, H. Halama, D. Lazarus, A. Prodell, F. Nezrich, P. Micossi, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, and E. Zavattini, “First measurement of the magnetic birefringence of helium gas,” Phys. Lett. A 157, 125–128 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

J. L. Hall, J. Ye, and L.-S. Ma, “Measurement of mirror birefringence at the sub-ppm level: proposed application to a test of QED,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 013815 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hau Huang, J.

Y. Takubo, N. Takeda, J. Hau Huang, K. Muroo, and M. Yamamoto, “Precise measurement of the extinction ratio of a polarization analyser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 20–23 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Iacopini, E.

S. Carusotto, E. Iacopini, F. Scuri, and G. Stefanini, “Atom size of rare gases from their magnetic birefringence,” Lett. Nouvo Cimento 42, 204–208 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Carusotto, E. Iacopini, E. Polacco, F. Scuri, G. Stefanini, and E. Zavattini, “Measurement of the magnetic birefringence of noble gas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 635–640 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. Carusotto, E. Polacco, E. Iacopini, G. Stefanini, and E. Zavattini, “Measurement of the magnetic birefringence in oxygen and nitrogen gases,” Opt. Commun. 42, 104–108 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ishizaka, H.

Lazarus, D.

R. Cameron, G. Cantatore, A. C. Melissinos, Y. Semertzidis, H. Halama, D. Lazarus, A. Prodell, F. Nezrich, P. Micossi, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, and E. Zavattini, “First measurement of the magnetic birefringence of helium gas,” Phys. Lett. A 157, 125–128 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lukins, P. B.

P. B. Lukins and G. L. D. Ritchie, “Magneto-optical Cotton-Mouton effect of molecular oxygen. A comparison,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 180, 551–555 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ma, L.-S.

J. L. Hall, J. Ye, and L.-S. Ma, “Measurement of mirror birefringence at the sub-ppm level: proposed application to a test of QED,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 013815 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Melissinos, A. C.

R. Cameron, G. Cantatore, A. C. Melissinos, Y. Semertzidis, H. Halama, D. Lazarus, A. Prodell, F. Nezrich, P. Micossi, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, and E. Zavattini, “First measurement of the magnetic birefringence of helium gas,” Phys. Lett. A 157, 125–128 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Cameron, G. Cantatore, A. C. Melissinos, J. Rogers, Y. Semertzidis, H. Halama, A. Prodell, F. A. Nezrick, C. Rizzo, and E. Zavattini, “Measurement of the magnetic birefringence of neon gas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 520–524 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Micossi, P.

F. Brandi, R. Della Valle, P. Micossi, A. M. De Riva, G. Zavattini, F. Perrone, C. Rizzo, and G. Ruoso, “Cotton-Mouton effect of molecular oxygen: a novel measurement,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1278–1281 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Cameron, G. Cantatore, A. C. Melissinos, Y. Semertzidis, H. Halama, D. Lazarus, A. Prodell, F. Nezrich, P. Micossi, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, and E. Zavattini, “First measurement of the magnetic birefringence of helium gas,” Phys. Lett. A 157, 125–128 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Muroo, K.

K. Muroo, M. Namikawa, and Y. Takubo, “High-sensitivity detection of magnetically-induced birefringence,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 32–37 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takubo, N. Takeda, J. Hau Huang, K. Muroo, and M. Yamamoto, “Precise measurement of the extinction ratio of a polarization analyser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 20–23 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Muroo, S. Nakamura, H. Ishizaka, Y. Takubo, and M. Yamamoto, “Limit of sensitivity in the detection of sodium atoms in a flame with the resonant Voigt effect,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 5–8 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

Namikawa, M.

K. Muroo, M. Namikawa, and Y. Takubo, “High-sensitivity detection of magnetically-induced birefringence,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 32–37 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nezrich, F.

R. Cameron, G. Cantatore, A. C. Melissinos, Y. Semertzidis, H. Halama, D. Lazarus, A. Prodell, F. Nezrich, P. Micossi, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, and E. Zavattini, “First measurement of the magnetic birefringence of helium gas,” Phys. Lett. A 157, 125–128 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nezrick, F. A.

Perrone, F.

Polacco, E.

S. Carusotto, E. Iacopini, E. Polacco, F. Scuri, G. Stefanini, and E. Zavattini, “Measurement of the magnetic birefringence of noble gas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 635–640 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. Carusotto, E. Polacco, E. Iacopini, G. Stefanini, and E. Zavattini, “Measurement of the magnetic birefringence in oxygen and nitrogen gases,” Opt. Commun. 42, 104–108 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Prichard, W. H.

A. D. Buckingham, W. H. Prichard, and D. H. Whiffen, “Magnetic birefringence of some diamagnetic gases,” Trans. Faraday Soc. 63, 1057–1064 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Prodell, A.

R. Cameron, G. Cantatore, A. C. Melissinos, Y. Semertzidis, H. Halama, D. Lazarus, A. Prodell, F. Nezrich, P. Micossi, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, and E. Zavattini, “First measurement of the magnetic birefringence of helium gas,” Phys. Lett. A 157, 125–128 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Cameron, G. Cantatore, A. C. Melissinos, J. Rogers, Y. Semertzidis, H. Halama, A. Prodell, F. A. Nezrick, C. Rizzo, and E. Zavattini, “Measurement of the magnetic birefringence of neon gas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 520–524 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, G. L. D.

P. B. Lukins and G. L. D. Ritchie, “Magneto-optical Cotton-Mouton effect of molecular oxygen. A comparison,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 180, 551–555 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rizzo, C.

Rogers, J.

Ruoso, G.

F. Brandi, R. Della Valle, P. Micossi, A. M. De Riva, G. Zavattini, F. Perrone, C. Rizzo, and G. Ruoso, “Cotton-Mouton effect of molecular oxygen: a novel measurement,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1278–1281 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Cameron, G. Cantatore, A. C. Melissinos, Y. Semertzidis, H. Halama, D. Lazarus, A. Prodell, F. Nezrich, P. Micossi, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, and E. Zavattini, “First measurement of the magnetic birefringence of helium gas,” Phys. Lett. A 157, 125–128 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Scuri, F.

S. Carusotto, E. Iacopini, F. Scuri, and G. Stefanini, “Atom size of rare gases from their magnetic birefringence,” Lett. Nouvo Cimento 42, 204–208 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Carusotto, E. Iacopini, E. Polacco, F. Scuri, G. Stefanini, and E. Zavattini, “Measurement of the magnetic birefringence of noble gas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 635–640 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Semertzidis, Y.

R. Cameron, G. Cantatore, A. C. Melissinos, J. Rogers, Y. Semertzidis, H. Halama, A. Prodell, F. A. Nezrick, C. Rizzo, and E. Zavattini, “Measurement of the magnetic birefringence of neon gas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 520–524 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Cameron, G. Cantatore, A. C. Melissinos, Y. Semertzidis, H. Halama, D. Lazarus, A. Prodell, F. Nezrich, P. Micossi, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, and E. Zavattini, “First measurement of the magnetic birefringence of helium gas,” Phys. Lett. A 157, 125–128 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stefanini, G.

S. Carusotto, E. Iacopini, F. Scuri, and G. Stefanini, “Atom size of rare gases from their magnetic birefringence,” Lett. Nouvo Cimento 42, 204–208 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Carusotto, E. Iacopini, E. Polacco, F. Scuri, G. Stefanini, and E. Zavattini, “Measurement of the magnetic birefringence of noble gas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 635–640 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. Carusotto, E. Polacco, E. Iacopini, G. Stefanini, and E. Zavattini, “Measurement of the magnetic birefringence in oxygen and nitrogen gases,” Opt. Commun. 42, 104–108 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, N.

Y. Takubo, N. Takeda, J. Hau Huang, K. Muroo, and M. Yamamoto, “Precise measurement of the extinction ratio of a polarization analyser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 20–23 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Takubo, Y.

K. Muroo, M. Namikawa, and Y. Takubo, “High-sensitivity detection of magnetically-induced birefringence,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 32–37 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takubo, N. Takeda, J. Hau Huang, K. Muroo, and M. Yamamoto, “Precise measurement of the extinction ratio of a polarization analyser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 20–23 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Muroo, S. Nakamura, H. Ishizaka, Y. Takubo, and M. Yamamoto, “Limit of sensitivity in the detection of sodium atoms in a flame with the resonant Voigt effect,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 5–8 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Whiffen, D. H.

A. D. Buckingham, W. H. Prichard, and D. H. Whiffen, “Magnetic birefringence of some diamagnetic gases,” Trans. Faraday Soc. 63, 1057–1064 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, M.

Y. Takubo, N. Takeda, J. Hau Huang, K. Muroo, and M. Yamamoto, “Precise measurement of the extinction ratio of a polarization analyser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 20–23 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Muroo, S. Nakamura, H. Ishizaka, Y. Takubo, and M. Yamamoto, “Limit of sensitivity in the detection of sodium atoms in a flame with the resonant Voigt effect,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 5–8 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

J. L. Hall, J. Ye, and L.-S. Ma, “Measurement of mirror birefringence at the sub-ppm level: proposed application to a test of QED,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 013815 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zavattini, E.

R. Cameron, G. Cantatore, A. C. Melissinos, Y. Semertzidis, H. Halama, D. Lazarus, A. Prodell, F. Nezrich, P. Micossi, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, and E. Zavattini, “First measurement of the magnetic birefringence of helium gas,” Phys. Lett. A 157, 125–128 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Cameron, G. Cantatore, A. C. Melissinos, J. Rogers, Y. Semertzidis, H. Halama, A. Prodell, F. A. Nezrick, C. Rizzo, and E. Zavattini, “Measurement of the magnetic birefringence of neon gas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 520–524 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Carusotto, E. Iacopini, E. Polacco, F. Scuri, G. Stefanini, and E. Zavattini, “Measurement of the magnetic birefringence of noble gas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 635–640 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. Carusotto, E. Polacco, E. Iacopini, G. Stefanini, and E. Zavattini, “Measurement of the magnetic birefringence in oxygen and nitrogen gases,” Opt. Commun. 42, 104–108 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Zavattini, G.

Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) (1)

S. L. Adler, “Photon splitting and photon dispersion in a strong magnetic field,” Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 67, 599–647 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

P. B. Lukins and G. L. D. Ritchie, “Magneto-optical Cotton-Mouton effect of molecular oxygen. A comparison,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 180, 551–555 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Bishop and S. M. Cybulski, “Calculation of dynamic magnetic hyperpolarizability anisotropies for He, Ne and Ar,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 200, 153–157 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

Lett. Nouvo Cimento (1)

S. Carusotto, E. Iacopini, F. Scuri, and G. Stefanini, “Atom size of rare gases from their magnetic birefringence,” Lett. Nouvo Cimento 42, 204–208 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

K. Muroo, M. Namikawa, and Y. Takubo, “High-sensitivity detection of magnetically-induced birefringence,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 32–37 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takubo, N. Takeda, J. Hau Huang, K. Muroo, and M. Yamamoto, “Precise measurement of the extinction ratio of a polarization analyser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 20–23 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Carusotto, E. Polacco, E. Iacopini, G. Stefanini, and E. Zavattini, “Measurement of the magnetic birefringence in oxygen and nitrogen gases,” Opt. Commun. 42, 104–108 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Lett. A (1)

R. Cameron, G. Cantatore, A. C. Melissinos, Y. Semertzidis, H. Halama, D. Lazarus, A. Prodell, F. Nezrich, P. Micossi, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, and E. Zavattini, “First measurement of the magnetic birefringence of helium gas,” Phys. Lett. A 157, 125–128 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

J. L. Hall, J. Ye, and L.-S. Ma, “Measurement of mirror birefringence at the sub-ppm level: proposed application to a test of QED,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 013815 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Faraday Soc. (1)

A. D. Buckingham, W. H. Prichard, and D. H. Whiffen, “Magnetic birefringence of some diamagnetic gases,” Trans. Faraday Soc. 63, 1057–1064 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

Regarding experimental proposals to detect vacuum birefringence, see articles in the Proceedings of the AIP Conference on Quantum Electrodynamics and Physics of the Vacuum, G. Cantatore, ed. (American Institute of Physics, Melville, N.Y., 2001). For example, E. Zavattini, F. Brandi, M. Bregant, G. Cantatore, S. Carusotto, F. Della Valle, G. Di Domenico, U. Gastaldi, E. Milotti, R. Pengo, G. Petrucci, E. Polacco, G. Ruoso, and G. Zavattini, “The PVLAS collaboration: experimental search for anisotropy of the phase velocity of light in vacuum due to a static magnetic field” (pp. 77–86) and S. Askenazy, J. Billette, P. Dupré, P. Ganau, J. Mackowski, J. Marquez, L. Pinard, O. Portugall, D. Ricard, G. L. J. A. Rikken, C. Rizzo, G. Trenec, and J. Vigué, “A 25 T dipole pulsed magnet to study the magnetic birefringence of vacuum: the BMV project” (pp. 115–122).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. LD, laser diode; P.M.T., photomultiplier tube; PZT, piezoelectric transducer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Light extinction curve for the ellipsometer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Light-source instability.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Signal versus incident light ellipticity for Ne atoms.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Signal versus incident light ellipticity for He atoms.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Signal versus incident light ellipticity for Ar atoms.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Cotton–Mouton Constant for He, Ne, and Ar

Equations (7)

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ψ=πCB2 L=kL n-n2,
I/I0=ψ2+2ψΔα+Δα2+a,
(SNR)=(SNR)s/F=|ψ|F(2I0τη)-1,
P=I0τη(Δθ2+a).
I0τη=Pex/a,
S=2ψΔα=PSPexa.
C=πNA4π0λVm Δη,

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