Abstract

Within the framework of a laser guide star and in order to solve the major problem of saturation of the sodium atom, we present an “all-optical” modeless laser that excites all sodium velocity classes. A theoretical and experimental study of the excitation of the sodium D2 line is presented in three cases: a single-mode laser of linewidth 1 MHz and modeless lasers of linewidths 3 and 4.5 GHz. The best result is obtained when the linewidth matches the Doppler-hyperfine sodium D2-line profile. By comparison with a single-mode laser excitation, we show that our modeless-laser sodium D2 star becomes six times brighter.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. M. Pennington, “Laser technologies for laser guided adaptive optics,” presented at the NATO Summer Institute on Optics for Astrophysics, Corsica, France, Sept. 16–27, 2002.
  2. L. A. Thompson and C. S. Gardner, “Experiments on laser guide stars at Mauna Kea Observatory for adaptive imaging in astronomy,” Nature (London) 328, 229–231 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, R. J. Morris, H. Bissinger, J. M. Duff, H. W. Friedman, D. T. Gavel, C. E. Max, S. S. Olivier, R. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. Valtjen, “Sodium-layer laser-guide-star experimental results,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 825–831 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Lloyd-Hart, J. R. Angel, D. G. Sandler, T. D. Groesbeck, T. Martinez, and B. P. Jacobsen, “Design of the 6.5 m MMT adaptative optics system and results from its prototype system FASTTRAC II,” in Optical Telescopes of Today and Tomorrow, A. L. Ardeberg, ed., Proc. SPIE 2871, 880–889 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Quirrenbach, W. Hackenberg, H. C. Holstenberg, and N. Wilnhammer, “Sodium laser guide star system of ALFA,” in Adaptive Optics and Applications, R. K. Tyson R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE 3126, 35–43 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. S. Olivier, C. E. Max, J. An, K. Avicola, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, D. T. Gavel, B. Macintosh, and K. E. Waltjen, “First significant image improvement from the Lick Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 28, 1324–1328 (1996).
  7. E. J. Kibblewhite, R. Vuilleumier, B. Carter, W. J. Wild, and T. H. Jeys, “Implementation of cw- and pulsed-laser beacons for astronomical adaptive optics systems,”in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, M. A. Ealey F. Merkle, eds., Proc. SPIE 2201, 272–283 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stromski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, and J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II Telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, M. J. Cullum, E. Brunetto, T. Ott, M. Quattri, E. Allaert, M. Dimmler, M. Tarenghi, A. Van Kersteren, C. Di Chirico, B. Buzzoni, P. Gray, R. Tamai, and M. Tapia, “ESO VLT laser guide star facility,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson D. Bonaccini M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 276–289 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. D. Orgeville, B. J. Bauman, J. W. Catone, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. T. Gavel, R. A. Buchroeder, and A. Richard, “Gemini north and south laser guide star systems requirements and preliminary designs,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson D. Bonaccini M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 302–316 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. M. Telle, P. W. Milonni, and R. Q. Fugate, “Update on 589-nm sodium star pump laser requirements,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 252–257 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. N. Payne, U.S. patent IL-10737 (2002).
  13. W. Hackenberg and D. Bonaccini, “Fiber Raman laser development for multiconjugate adaptive optics with sodium laser guide stars,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson D. Bonaccini M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 271–275 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Foy, A. Migus, A. Biraben, G. Grynberg, P. R. McCullough, and M. Tallon, “The polychromatic artificial sodium star: a new concept for correcting the atmospheric tilt,” Astron. Astrophys., Suppl. Ser. 111, 569–578 (1995).
  15. R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Georges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Feys, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d’Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schoeck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. A. Tokovinin, A. Andrei, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulerse, “ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 284–295 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Schöck, R. Foy, M. Tallon, L. Noethe, and J. P. Pique, “Performance analysis of polychromatic laser guide stars used for wavefront tilt sensing,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 337, 910–920 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. Megie, F. E. Blamont, and M. L. Chanin, “Simultaneous nighttime lidar measurements of atmospheric sodium and potassium,” Planet. Space Sci. 26, 27–35 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. M. Welsh and C. S. Gardner, “Nonlinear resonant absorption effects on the design of resonance fluorescence lidars and laser guide stars,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4141–4153 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. R. Morris, “Efficient excitation of a mesospheric sodium laser guide star by intermediate-duration pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 832–845 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Schoeck, R. Foy, J. P. Pique, P. Chevrou, N. Georges, A. Petit, V. Bellanger, H. Fews, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, O. Peillet, P. Segonds, M. Tallon, and J. M. Weulersse, “PASS-2: quantitative photometric measurements of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 296–307 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Schoeck, R. Foy, J. P. Pique, M. Tallon, P. Segonds, M. Laubscher, and O. Peillet, “PASS-2: photometry of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology, R. K. Tyson R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE 3762, 321–329 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. W. Friedman, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. (personal communication, 2000).
  23. G. Froc, E. Rosencher, B. Attal-Trétout, and V. Michau, “Photon return analysis of a polychromatic laser guide star,” Opt. Commun. 178, 405–409 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  24. V. Bellanger, “Etude de l’interaction laser sodium dans le cadre du projet de l’étoile laser polychromatique pour l’ optique adaptative,” Thesis (Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris VI, France, January 16, 2002).
  25. L. Michaille, J. C. Dainty, J. Quartel, N. J. Wooder, and T. Gregory, “Progress report on the sodium laser monitoring laser guide star adaptive optics,” New Astron. Rev. 45, 69–72 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. P. Pique, Laboratoire Spectrométrie Physique, Université Joseph Fourier, UMR 5588 CNRS-Grenoble I, B.P. 87, 38402 saint Martin d’Hères, France (personal communication, 2003).
  27. P. Edwart, “A modeless, variable bandwidth, tunable laser,” Opt. Commun. 55, 124–126 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  28. I. C. M. Littler, S. Balle, and K. Bergmann, “The cw modeless laser: spectral control, performance data and build-up dynamics,” Opt. Commun. 88, 514–522 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  29. I. C. M. Littler and J. H. Eschner, “The cw modeless laser: model calculations of an active frequency shifted feedback cavity,” Opt. Commun. 87, 44–52 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. Liang, L. Moi, and C. Fabre, “The ‘lamp-laser’: realization of a very long cavity dye laser,” Opt. Commun. 52, 131–135 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  31. O. Svelto, “Continuous wave laser behavior,” in Principles of Lasers, 4th ed., D. C. Hanna, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1998), Vol. 1, Chap. 7, p. 258.
  32. L. Hollberg, “Cw dye laser,” in Dye Laser Principles, F. J. Duarte and L. W. Hillman, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1990), Vol. 1, Chap. 5, pp. 185–238.
  33. H. Chen, C. Y. She, P. Searcy, and E. Korevaar, “Sodium-vapor dispersive Faraday filter,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1019–1021 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. Z. Hu, X. Sun, Y. Liu, L. Fu, and X. Zeng, “Temperature properties of Na dispersive Faraday optical filter at D1 and D2 line,” Opt. Commun. 156, 289–293 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (4)

D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, M. J. Cullum, E. Brunetto, T. Ott, M. Quattri, E. Allaert, M. Dimmler, M. Tarenghi, A. Van Kersteren, C. Di Chirico, B. Buzzoni, P. Gray, R. Tamai, and M. Tapia, “ESO VLT laser guide star facility,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson D. Bonaccini M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 276–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Orgeville, B. J. Bauman, J. W. Catone, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. T. Gavel, R. A. Buchroeder, and A. Richard, “Gemini north and south laser guide star systems requirements and preliminary designs,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson D. Bonaccini M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 302–316 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Hackenberg and D. Bonaccini, “Fiber Raman laser development for multiconjugate adaptive optics with sodium laser guide stars,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson D. Bonaccini M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 271–275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Schöck, R. Foy, M. Tallon, L. Noethe, and J. P. Pique, “Performance analysis of polychromatic laser guide stars used for wavefront tilt sensing,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 337, 910–920 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

L. Michaille, J. C. Dainty, J. Quartel, N. J. Wooder, and T. Gregory, “Progress report on the sodium laser monitoring laser guide star adaptive optics,” New Astron. Rev. 45, 69–72 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (5)

M. Schoeck, R. Foy, J. P. Pique, P. Chevrou, N. Georges, A. Petit, V. Bellanger, H. Fews, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, O. Peillet, P. Segonds, M. Tallon, and J. M. Weulersse, “PASS-2: quantitative photometric measurements of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 296–307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Froc, E. Rosencher, B. Attal-Trétout, and V. Michau, “Photon return analysis of a polychromatic laser guide star,” Opt. Commun. 178, 405–409 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stromski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, and J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II Telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Georges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Feys, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d’Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schoeck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. A. Tokovinin, A. Andrei, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulerse, “ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 284–295 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Telle, P. W. Milonni, and R. Q. Fugate, “Update on 589-nm sodium star pump laser requirements,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 252–257 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. Schoeck, R. Foy, J. P. Pique, M. Tallon, P. Segonds, M. Laubscher, and O. Peillet, “PASS-2: photometry of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology, R. K. Tyson R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE 3762, 321–329 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Z. Hu, X. Sun, Y. Liu, L. Fu, and X. Zeng, “Temperature properties of Na dispersive Faraday optical filter at D1 and D2 line,” Opt. Commun. 156, 289–293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

M. Lloyd-Hart, J. R. Angel, D. G. Sandler, T. D. Groesbeck, T. Martinez, and B. P. Jacobsen, “Design of the 6.5 m MMT adaptative optics system and results from its prototype system FASTTRAC II,” in Optical Telescopes of Today and Tomorrow, A. L. Ardeberg, ed., Proc. SPIE 2871, 880–889 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Quirrenbach, W. Hackenberg, H. C. Holstenberg, and N. Wilnhammer, “Sodium laser guide star system of ALFA,” in Adaptive Optics and Applications, R. K. Tyson R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE 3126, 35–43 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. S. Olivier, C. E. Max, J. An, K. Avicola, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, D. T. Gavel, B. Macintosh, and K. E. Waltjen, “First significant image improvement from the Lick Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 28, 1324–1328 (1996).

1995 (1)

R. Foy, A. Migus, A. Biraben, G. Grynberg, P. R. McCullough, and M. Tallon, “The polychromatic artificial sodium star: a new concept for correcting the atmospheric tilt,” Astron. Astrophys., Suppl. Ser. 111, 569–578 (1995).

1994 (3)

1993 (1)

1992 (2)

I. C. M. Littler, S. Balle, and K. Bergmann, “The cw modeless laser: spectral control, performance data and build-up dynamics,” Opt. Commun. 88, 514–522 (1992).
[CrossRef]

I. C. M. Littler and J. H. Eschner, “The cw modeless laser: model calculations of an active frequency shifted feedback cavity,” Opt. Commun. 87, 44–52 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1987 (1)

L. A. Thompson and C. S. Gardner, “Experiments on laser guide stars at Mauna Kea Observatory for adaptive imaging in astronomy,” Nature (London) 328, 229–231 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

P. Edwart, “A modeless, variable bandwidth, tunable laser,” Opt. Commun. 55, 124–126 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

J. Liang, L. Moi, and C. Fabre, “The ‘lamp-laser’: realization of a very long cavity dye laser,” Opt. Commun. 52, 131–135 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

G. Megie, F. E. Blamont, and M. L. Chanin, “Simultaneous nighttime lidar measurements of atmospheric sodium and potassium,” Planet. Space Sci. 26, 27–35 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Acton, D. S.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stromski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, and J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II Telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Allaert, E.

D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, M. J. Cullum, E. Brunetto, T. Ott, M. Quattri, E. Allaert, M. Dimmler, M. Tarenghi, A. Van Kersteren, C. Di Chirico, B. Buzzoni, P. Gray, R. Tamai, and M. Tapia, “ESO VLT laser guide star facility,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson D. Bonaccini M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 276–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

An, J.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stromski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, and J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II Telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Olivier, C. E. Max, J. An, K. Avicola, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, D. T. Gavel, B. Macintosh, and K. E. Waltjen, “First significant image improvement from the Lick Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 28, 1324–1328 (1996).

Andrei, A.

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Georges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Feys, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d’Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schoeck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. A. Tokovinin, A. Andrei, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulerse, “ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 284–295 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Angel, J. R.

M. Lloyd-Hart, J. R. Angel, D. G. Sandler, T. D. Groesbeck, T. Martinez, and B. P. Jacobsen, “Design of the 6.5 m MMT adaptative optics system and results from its prototype system FASTTRAC II,” in Optical Telescopes of Today and Tomorrow, A. L. Ardeberg, ed., Proc. SPIE 2871, 880–889 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Attal-Trétout, B.

G. Froc, E. Rosencher, B. Attal-Trétout, and V. Michau, “Photon return analysis of a polychromatic laser guide star,” Opt. Commun. 178, 405–409 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Avicola, K.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stromski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, and J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II Telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Olivier, C. E. Max, J. An, K. Avicola, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, D. T. Gavel, B. Macintosh, and K. E. Waltjen, “First significant image improvement from the Lick Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 28, 1324–1328 (1996).

K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, R. J. Morris, H. Bissinger, J. M. Duff, H. W. Friedman, D. T. Gavel, C. E. Max, S. S. Olivier, R. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. Valtjen, “Sodium-layer laser-guide-star experimental results,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 825–831 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Balle, S.

I. C. M. Littler, S. Balle, and K. Bergmann, “The cw modeless laser: spectral control, performance data and build-up dynamics,” Opt. Commun. 88, 514–522 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bauman, B. J.

C. D. Orgeville, B. J. Bauman, J. W. Catone, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. T. Gavel, R. A. Buchroeder, and A. Richard, “Gemini north and south laser guide star systems requirements and preliminary designs,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson D. Bonaccini M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 302–316 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bellanger, V.

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Georges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Feys, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d’Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schoeck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. A. Tokovinin, A. Andrei, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulerse, “ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 284–295 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Schoeck, R. Foy, J. P. Pique, P. Chevrou, N. Georges, A. Petit, V. Bellanger, H. Fews, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, O. Peillet, P. Segonds, M. Tallon, and J. M. Weulersse, “PASS-2: quantitative photometric measurements of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 296–307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bergmann, K.

I. C. M. Littler, S. Balle, and K. Bergmann, “The cw modeless laser: spectral control, performance data and build-up dynamics,” Opt. Commun. 88, 514–522 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Biraben, A.

R. Foy, A. Migus, A. Biraben, G. Grynberg, P. R. McCullough, and M. Tallon, “The polychromatic artificial sodium star: a new concept for correcting the atmospheric tilt,” Astron. Astrophys., Suppl. Ser. 111, 569–578 (1995).

Biraben, F.

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Georges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Feys, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d’Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schoeck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. A. Tokovinin, A. Andrei, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulerse, “ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 284–295 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bissinger, H.

Bissinger, H. D.

S. S. Olivier, C. E. Max, J. An, K. Avicola, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, D. T. Gavel, B. Macintosh, and K. E. Waltjen, “First significant image improvement from the Lick Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 28, 1324–1328 (1996).

Blamont, F. E.

G. Megie, F. E. Blamont, and M. L. Chanin, “Simultaneous nighttime lidar measurements of atmospheric sodium and potassium,” Planet. Space Sci. 26, 27–35 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bonaccini, D.

W. Hackenberg and D. Bonaccini, “Fiber Raman laser development for multiconjugate adaptive optics with sodium laser guide stars,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson D. Bonaccini M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 271–275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, M. J. Cullum, E. Brunetto, T. Ott, M. Quattri, E. Allaert, M. Dimmler, M. Tarenghi, A. Van Kersteren, C. Di Chirico, B. Buzzoni, P. Gray, R. Tamai, and M. Tapia, “ESO VLT laser guide star facility,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson D. Bonaccini M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 276–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brase, J.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stromski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, and J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II Telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brase, J. M.

S. S. Olivier, C. E. Max, J. An, K. Avicola, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, D. T. Gavel, B. Macintosh, and K. E. Waltjen, “First significant image improvement from the Lick Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 28, 1324–1328 (1996).

K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, R. J. Morris, H. Bissinger, J. M. Duff, H. W. Friedman, D. T. Gavel, C. E. Max, S. S. Olivier, R. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. Valtjen, “Sodium-layer laser-guide-star experimental results,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 825–831 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brunetto, E.

D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, M. J. Cullum, E. Brunetto, T. Ott, M. Quattri, E. Allaert, M. Dimmler, M. Tarenghi, A. Van Kersteren, C. Di Chirico, B. Buzzoni, P. Gray, R. Tamai, and M. Tapia, “ESO VLT laser guide star facility,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson D. Bonaccini M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 276–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Buchroeder, R. A.

C. D. Orgeville, B. J. Bauman, J. W. Catone, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. T. Gavel, R. A. Buchroeder, and A. Richard, “Gemini north and south laser guide star systems requirements and preliminary designs,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson D. Bonaccini M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 302–316 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Buzzoni, B.

D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, M. J. Cullum, E. Brunetto, T. Ott, M. Quattri, E. Allaert, M. Dimmler, M. Tarenghi, A. Van Kersteren, C. Di Chirico, B. Buzzoni, P. Gray, R. Tamai, and M. Tapia, “ESO VLT laser guide star facility,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson D. Bonaccini M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 276–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Carter, B.

E. J. Kibblewhite, R. Vuilleumier, B. Carter, W. J. Wild, and T. H. Jeys, “Implementation of cw- and pulsed-laser beacons for astronomical adaptive optics systems,”in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, M. A. Ealey F. Merkle, eds., Proc. SPIE 2201, 272–283 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Catone, J. W.

C. D. Orgeville, B. J. Bauman, J. W. Catone, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. T. Gavel, R. A. Buchroeder, and A. Richard, “Gemini north and south laser guide star systems requirements and preliminary designs,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson D. Bonaccini M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 302–316 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chanin, M. L.

G. Megie, F. E. Blamont, and M. L. Chanin, “Simultaneous nighttime lidar measurements of atmospheric sodium and potassium,” Planet. Space Sci. 26, 27–35 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

Chevrou, P.

M. Schoeck, R. Foy, J. P. Pique, P. Chevrou, N. Georges, A. Petit, V. Bellanger, H. Fews, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, O. Peillet, P. Segonds, M. Tallon, and J. M. Weulersse, “PASS-2: quantitative photometric measurements of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 296–307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Georges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Feys, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d’Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schoeck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. A. Tokovinin, A. Andrei, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulerse, “ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 284–295 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cullum, M. J.

D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, M. J. Cullum, E. Brunetto, T. Ott, M. Quattri, E. Allaert, M. Dimmler, M. Tarenghi, A. Van Kersteren, C. Di Chirico, B. Buzzoni, P. Gray, R. Tamai, and M. Tapia, “ESO VLT laser guide star facility,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson D. Bonaccini M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 276–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

d’Orgeville, C.

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Georges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Feys, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d’Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schoeck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. A. Tokovinin, A. Andrei, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulerse, “ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 284–295 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dainty, J. C.

L. Michaille, J. C. Dainty, J. Quartel, N. J. Wooder, and T. Gregory, “Progress report on the sodium laser monitoring laser guide star adaptive optics,” New Astron. Rev. 45, 69–72 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Deron, R.

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Georges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Feys, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d’Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schoeck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. A. Tokovinin, A. Andrei, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulerse, “ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 284–295 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Di Chirico, C.

D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, M. J. Cullum, E. Brunetto, T. Ott, M. Quattri, E. Allaert, M. Dimmler, M. Tarenghi, A. Van Kersteren, C. Di Chirico, B. Buzzoni, P. Gray, R. Tamai, and M. Tapia, “ESO VLT laser guide star facility,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson D. Bonaccini M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 276–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dimmler, M.

D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, M. J. Cullum, E. Brunetto, T. Ott, M. Quattri, E. Allaert, M. Dimmler, M. Tarenghi, A. Van Kersteren, C. Di Chirico, B. Buzzoni, P. Gray, R. Tamai, and M. Tapia, “ESO VLT laser guide star facility,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson D. Bonaccini M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 276–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Duff, J. M.

Edwart, P.

P. Edwart, “A modeless, variable bandwidth, tunable laser,” Opt. Commun. 55, 124–126 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ellerbroek, B. L.

C. D. Orgeville, B. J. Bauman, J. W. Catone, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. T. Gavel, R. A. Buchroeder, and A. Richard, “Gemini north and south laser guide star systems requirements and preliminary designs,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson D. Bonaccini M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 302–316 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eschner, J. H.

I. C. M. Littler and J. H. Eschner, “The cw modeless laser: model calculations of an active frequency shifted feedback cavity,” Opt. Commun. 87, 44–52 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fabre, C.

J. Liang, L. Moi, and C. Fabre, “The ‘lamp-laser’: realization of a very long cavity dye laser,” Opt. Commun. 52, 131–135 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Fews, H.

M. Schoeck, R. Foy, J. P. Pique, P. Chevrou, N. Georges, A. Petit, V. Bellanger, H. Fews, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, O. Peillet, P. Segonds, M. Tallon, and J. M. Weulersse, “PASS-2: quantitative photometric measurements of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 296–307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Feys, H.

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Georges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Feys, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d’Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schoeck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. A. Tokovinin, A. Andrei, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulerse, “ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 284–295 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Foy, F. C.

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Georges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Feys, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d’Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schoeck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. A. Tokovinin, A. Andrei, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulerse, “ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 284–295 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Schoeck, R. Foy, J. P. Pique, P. Chevrou, N. Georges, A. Petit, V. Bellanger, H. Fews, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, O. Peillet, P. Segonds, M. Tallon, and J. M. Weulersse, “PASS-2: quantitative photometric measurements of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 296–307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Foy, R.

M. Schöck, R. Foy, M. Tallon, L. Noethe, and J. P. Pique, “Performance analysis of polychromatic laser guide stars used for wavefront tilt sensing,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 337, 910–920 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Schoeck, R. Foy, J. P. Pique, P. Chevrou, N. Georges, A. Petit, V. Bellanger, H. Fews, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, O. Peillet, P. Segonds, M. Tallon, and J. M. Weulersse, “PASS-2: quantitative photometric measurements of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 296–307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Georges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Feys, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d’Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schoeck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. A. Tokovinin, A. Andrei, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulerse, “ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 284–295 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Schoeck, R. Foy, J. P. Pique, M. Tallon, P. Segonds, M. Laubscher, and O. Peillet, “PASS-2: photometry of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology, R. K. Tyson R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE 3762, 321–329 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Foy, A. Migus, A. Biraben, G. Grynberg, P. R. McCullough, and M. Tallon, “The polychromatic artificial sodium star: a new concept for correcting the atmospheric tilt,” Astron. Astrophys., Suppl. Ser. 111, 569–578 (1995).

Friedman, H. W.

S. S. Olivier, C. E. Max, J. An, K. Avicola, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, D. T. Gavel, B. Macintosh, and K. E. Waltjen, “First significant image improvement from the Lick Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 28, 1324–1328 (1996).

K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, R. J. Morris, H. Bissinger, J. M. Duff, H. W. Friedman, D. T. Gavel, C. E. Max, S. S. Olivier, R. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. Valtjen, “Sodium-layer laser-guide-star experimental results,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 825–831 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Froc, G.

G. Froc, E. Rosencher, B. Attal-Trétout, and V. Michau, “Photon return analysis of a polychromatic laser guide star,” Opt. Commun. 178, 405–409 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fu, L.

Z. Hu, X. Sun, Y. Liu, L. Fu, and X. Zeng, “Temperature properties of Na dispersive Faraday optical filter at D1 and D2 line,” Opt. Commun. 156, 289–293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fugate, R. Q.

J. M. Telle, P. W. Milonni, and R. Q. Fugate, “Update on 589-nm sodium star pump laser requirements,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 252–257 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, C. S.

B. M. Welsh and C. S. Gardner, “Nonlinear resonant absorption effects on the design of resonance fluorescence lidars and laser guide stars,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4141–4153 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. Thompson and C. S. Gardner, “Experiments on laser guide stars at Mauna Kea Observatory for adaptive imaging in astronomy,” Nature (London) 328, 229–231 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gathright, J.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stromski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, and J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II Telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gavel, D.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stromski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, and J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II Telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gavel, D. T.

C. D. Orgeville, B. J. Bauman, J. W. Catone, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. T. Gavel, R. A. Buchroeder, and A. Richard, “Gemini north and south laser guide star systems requirements and preliminary designs,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson D. Bonaccini M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 302–316 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Olivier, C. E. Max, J. An, K. Avicola, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, D. T. Gavel, B. Macintosh, and K. E. Waltjen, “First significant image improvement from the Lick Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 28, 1324–1328 (1996).

K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, R. J. Morris, H. Bissinger, J. M. Duff, H. W. Friedman, D. T. Gavel, C. E. Max, S. S. Olivier, R. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. Valtjen, “Sodium-layer laser-guide-star experimental results,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 825–831 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Georges, N.

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Georges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Feys, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d’Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schoeck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. A. Tokovinin, A. Andrei, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulerse, “ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 284–295 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Schoeck, R. Foy, J. P. Pique, P. Chevrou, N. Georges, A. Petit, V. Bellanger, H. Fews, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, O. Peillet, P. Segonds, M. Tallon, and J. M. Weulersse, “PASS-2: quantitative photometric measurements of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 296–307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ghez, A.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stromski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, and J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II Telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gray, P.

D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, M. J. Cullum, E. Brunetto, T. Ott, M. Quattri, E. Allaert, M. Dimmler, M. Tarenghi, A. Van Kersteren, C. Di Chirico, B. Buzzoni, P. Gray, R. Tamai, and M. Tapia, “ESO VLT laser guide star facility,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson D. Bonaccini M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 276–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, T.

L. Michaille, J. C. Dainty, J. Quartel, N. J. Wooder, and T. Gregory, “Progress report on the sodium laser monitoring laser guide star adaptive optics,” New Astron. Rev. 45, 69–72 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Groesbeck, T. D.

M. Lloyd-Hart, J. R. Angel, D. G. Sandler, T. D. Groesbeck, T. Martinez, and B. P. Jacobsen, “Design of the 6.5 m MMT adaptative optics system and results from its prototype system FASTTRAC II,” in Optical Telescopes of Today and Tomorrow, A. L. Ardeberg, ed., Proc. SPIE 2871, 880–889 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grynberg, G.

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Georges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Feys, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d’Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schoeck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. A. Tokovinin, A. Andrei, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulerse, “ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 284–295 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Foy, A. Migus, A. Biraben, G. Grynberg, P. R. McCullough, and M. Tallon, “The polychromatic artificial sodium star: a new concept for correcting the atmospheric tilt,” Astron. Astrophys., Suppl. Ser. 111, 569–578 (1995).

Hackenberg, W.

W. Hackenberg and D. Bonaccini, “Fiber Raman laser development for multiconjugate adaptive optics with sodium laser guide stars,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson D. Bonaccini M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 271–275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, M. J. Cullum, E. Brunetto, T. Ott, M. Quattri, E. Allaert, M. Dimmler, M. Tarenghi, A. Van Kersteren, C. Di Chirico, B. Buzzoni, P. Gray, R. Tamai, and M. Tapia, “ESO VLT laser guide star facility,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson D. Bonaccini M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 276–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Quirrenbach, W. Hackenberg, H. C. Holstenberg, and N. Wilnhammer, “Sodium laser guide star system of ALFA,” in Adaptive Optics and Applications, R. K. Tyson R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE 3126, 35–43 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ho, K.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stromski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, and J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II Telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hoegemann, C.

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Georges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Feys, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d’Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schoeck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. A. Tokovinin, A. Andrei, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulerse, “ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 284–295 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Schoeck, R. Foy, J. P. Pique, P. Chevrou, N. Georges, A. Petit, V. Bellanger, H. Fews, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, O. Peillet, P. Segonds, M. Tallon, and J. M. Weulersse, “PASS-2: quantitative photometric measurements of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 296–307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Holstenberg, H. C.

A. Quirrenbach, W. Hackenberg, H. C. Holstenberg, and N. Wilnhammer, “Sodium laser guide star system of ALFA,” in Adaptive Optics and Applications, R. K. Tyson R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE 3126, 35–43 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Z.

Z. Hu, X. Sun, Y. Liu, L. Fu, and X. Zeng, “Temperature properties of Na dispersive Faraday optical filter at D1 and D2 line,” Opt. Commun. 156, 289–293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsen, B. P.

M. Lloyd-Hart, J. R. Angel, D. G. Sandler, T. D. Groesbeck, T. Martinez, and B. P. Jacobsen, “Design of the 6.5 m MMT adaptative optics system and results from its prototype system FASTTRAC II,” in Optical Telescopes of Today and Tomorrow, A. L. Ardeberg, ed., Proc. SPIE 2871, 880–889 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jeys, T. H.

E. J. Kibblewhite, R. Vuilleumier, B. Carter, W. J. Wild, and T. H. Jeys, “Implementation of cw- and pulsed-laser beacons for astronomical adaptive optics systems,”in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, M. A. Ealey F. Merkle, eds., Proc. SPIE 2201, 272–283 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kibblewhite, E. J.

E. J. Kibblewhite, R. Vuilleumier, B. Carter, W. J. Wild, and T. H. Jeys, “Implementation of cw- and pulsed-laser beacons for astronomical adaptive optics systems,”in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, M. A. Ealey F. Merkle, eds., Proc. SPIE 2201, 272–283 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Korevaar, E.

Lai, O.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stromski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, and J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II Telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Larkin, J.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stromski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, and J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II Telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Laubscher, M.

M. Schoeck, R. Foy, J. P. Pique, P. Chevrou, N. Georges, A. Petit, V. Bellanger, H. Fews, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, O. Peillet, P. Segonds, M. Tallon, and J. M. Weulersse, “PASS-2: quantitative photometric measurements of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 296–307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Georges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Feys, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d’Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schoeck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. A. Tokovinin, A. Andrei, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulerse, “ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 284–295 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Schoeck, R. Foy, J. P. Pique, M. Tallon, P. Segonds, M. Laubscher, and O. Peillet, “PASS-2: photometry of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology, R. K. Tyson R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE 3762, 321–329 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liang, J.

J. Liang, L. Moi, and C. Fabre, “The ‘lamp-laser’: realization of a very long cavity dye laser,” Opt. Commun. 52, 131–135 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Littler, I. C. M.

I. C. M. Littler, S. Balle, and K. Bergmann, “The cw modeless laser: spectral control, performance data and build-up dynamics,” Opt. Commun. 88, 514–522 (1992).
[CrossRef]

I. C. M. Littler and J. H. Eschner, “The cw modeless laser: model calculations of an active frequency shifted feedback cavity,” Opt. Commun. 87, 44–52 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Z. Hu, X. Sun, Y. Liu, L. Fu, and X. Zeng, “Temperature properties of Na dispersive Faraday optical filter at D1 and D2 line,” Opt. Commun. 156, 289–293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lloyd-Hart, M.

M. Lloyd-Hart, J. R. Angel, D. G. Sandler, T. D. Groesbeck, T. Martinez, and B. P. Jacobsen, “Design of the 6.5 m MMT adaptative optics system and results from its prototype system FASTTRAC II,” in Optical Telescopes of Today and Tomorrow, A. L. Ardeberg, ed., Proc. SPIE 2871, 880–889 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lupton, W.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stromski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, and J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II Telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Macintosh, B.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stromski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, and J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II Telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Olivier, C. E. Max, J. An, K. Avicola, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, D. T. Gavel, B. Macintosh, and K. E. Waltjen, “First significant image improvement from the Lick Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 28, 1324–1328 (1996).

Martinez, T.

M. Lloyd-Hart, J. R. Angel, D. G. Sandler, T. D. Groesbeck, T. Martinez, and B. P. Jacobsen, “Design of the 6.5 m MMT adaptative optics system and results from its prototype system FASTTRAC II,” in Optical Telescopes of Today and Tomorrow, A. L. Ardeberg, ed., Proc. SPIE 2871, 880–889 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Max, C.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stromski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, and J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II Telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Max, C. E.

S. S. Olivier, C. E. Max, J. An, K. Avicola, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, D. T. Gavel, B. Macintosh, and K. E. Waltjen, “First significant image improvement from the Lick Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 28, 1324–1328 (1996).

K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, R. J. Morris, H. Bissinger, J. M. Duff, H. W. Friedman, D. T. Gavel, C. E. Max, S. S. Olivier, R. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. Valtjen, “Sodium-layer laser-guide-star experimental results,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 825–831 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McCullough, P. R.

R. Foy, A. Migus, A. Biraben, G. Grynberg, P. R. McCullough, and M. Tallon, “The polychromatic artificial sodium star: a new concept for correcting the atmospheric tilt,” Astron. Astrophys., Suppl. Ser. 111, 569–578 (1995).

Megie, G.

G. Megie, F. E. Blamont, and M. L. Chanin, “Simultaneous nighttime lidar measurements of atmospheric sodium and potassium,” Planet. Space Sci. 26, 27–35 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Michaille, L.

L. Michaille, J. C. Dainty, J. Quartel, N. J. Wooder, and T. Gregory, “Progress report on the sodium laser monitoring laser guide star adaptive optics,” New Astron. Rev. 45, 69–72 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Michau, V.

G. Froc, E. Rosencher, B. Attal-Trétout, and V. Michau, “Photon return analysis of a polychromatic laser guide star,” Opt. Commun. 178, 405–409 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Georges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Feys, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d’Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schoeck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. A. Tokovinin, A. Andrei, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulerse, “ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 284–295 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Migus, A.

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Georges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Feys, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d’Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schoeck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. A. Tokovinin, A. Andrei, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulerse, “ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 284–295 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Foy, A. Migus, A. Biraben, G. Grynberg, P. R. McCullough, and M. Tallon, “The polychromatic artificial sodium star: a new concept for correcting the atmospheric tilt,” Astron. Astrophys., Suppl. Ser. 111, 569–578 (1995).

Milonni, P. W.

J. M. Telle, P. W. Milonni, and R. Q. Fugate, “Update on 589-nm sodium star pump laser requirements,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 252–257 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moi, L.

J. Liang, L. Moi, and C. Fabre, “The ‘lamp-laser’: realization of a very long cavity dye laser,” Opt. Commun. 52, 131–135 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Morris, J. R.

Morris, R. J.

Müller, D.

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Georges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Feys, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d’Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schoeck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. A. Tokovinin, A. Andrei, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulerse, “ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 284–295 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Noethe, L.

M. Schöck, R. Foy, M. Tallon, L. Noethe, and J. P. Pique, “Performance analysis of polychromatic laser guide stars used for wavefront tilt sensing,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 337, 910–920 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Olivier, S.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stromski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, and J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II Telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Olivier, S. S.

S. S. Olivier, C. E. Max, J. An, K. Avicola, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, D. T. Gavel, B. Macintosh, and K. E. Waltjen, “First significant image improvement from the Lick Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 28, 1324–1328 (1996).

K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, R. J. Morris, H. Bissinger, J. M. Duff, H. W. Friedman, D. T. Gavel, C. E. Max, S. S. Olivier, R. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. Valtjen, “Sodium-layer laser-guide-star experimental results,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 825–831 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Orgeville, C. D.

C. D. Orgeville, B. J. Bauman, J. W. Catone, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. T. Gavel, R. A. Buchroeder, and A. Richard, “Gemini north and south laser guide star systems requirements and preliminary designs,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson D. Bonaccini M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 302–316 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ott, T.

D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, M. J. Cullum, E. Brunetto, T. Ott, M. Quattri, E. Allaert, M. Dimmler, M. Tarenghi, A. Van Kersteren, C. Di Chirico, B. Buzzoni, P. Gray, R. Tamai, and M. Tapia, “ESO VLT laser guide star facility,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson D. Bonaccini M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 276–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peillet, O.

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Georges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Feys, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d’Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schoeck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. A. Tokovinin, A. Andrei, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulerse, “ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 284–295 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Schoeck, R. Foy, J. P. Pique, P. Chevrou, N. Georges, A. Petit, V. Bellanger, H. Fews, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, O. Peillet, P. Segonds, M. Tallon, and J. M. Weulersse, “PASS-2: quantitative photometric measurements of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 296–307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Schoeck, R. Foy, J. P. Pique, M. Tallon, P. Segonds, M. Laubscher, and O. Peillet, “PASS-2: photometry of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology, R. K. Tyson R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE 3762, 321–329 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Petit, A.

M. Schoeck, R. Foy, J. P. Pique, P. Chevrou, N. Georges, A. Petit, V. Bellanger, H. Fews, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, O. Peillet, P. Segonds, M. Tallon, and J. M. Weulersse, “PASS-2: quantitative photometric measurements of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 296–307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Georges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Feys, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d’Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schoeck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. A. Tokovinin, A. Andrei, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulerse, “ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 284–295 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pique, J. P.

M. Schöck, R. Foy, M. Tallon, L. Noethe, and J. P. Pique, “Performance analysis of polychromatic laser guide stars used for wavefront tilt sensing,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 337, 910–920 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Schoeck, R. Foy, J. P. Pique, P. Chevrou, N. Georges, A. Petit, V. Bellanger, H. Fews, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, O. Peillet, P. Segonds, M. Tallon, and J. M. Weulersse, “PASS-2: quantitative photometric measurements of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 296–307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Georges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Feys, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d’Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schoeck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. A. Tokovinin, A. Andrei, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulerse, “ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 284–295 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Schoeck, R. Foy, J. P. Pique, M. Tallon, P. Segonds, M. Laubscher, and O. Peillet, “PASS-2: photometry of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology, R. K. Tyson R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE 3762, 321–329 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Presta, R.

Quartel, J.

L. Michaille, J. C. Dainty, J. Quartel, N. J. Wooder, and T. Gregory, “Progress report on the sodium laser monitoring laser guide star adaptive optics,” New Astron. Rev. 45, 69–72 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Quattri, M.

D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, M. J. Cullum, E. Brunetto, T. Ott, M. Quattri, E. Allaert, M. Dimmler, M. Tarenghi, A. Van Kersteren, C. Di Chirico, B. Buzzoni, P. Gray, R. Tamai, and M. Tapia, “ESO VLT laser guide star facility,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson D. Bonaccini M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 276–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Quirrenbach, A.

A. Quirrenbach, W. Hackenberg, H. C. Holstenberg, and N. Wilnhammer, “Sodium laser guide star system of ALFA,” in Adaptive Optics and Applications, R. K. Tyson R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE 3126, 35–43 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rapp, D. A.

Redfern, M.

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Georges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Feys, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d’Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schoeck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. A. Tokovinin, A. Andrei, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulerse, “ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 284–295 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Richard, A.

C. D. Orgeville, B. J. Bauman, J. W. Catone, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. T. Gavel, R. A. Buchroeder, and A. Richard, “Gemini north and south laser guide star systems requirements and preliminary designs,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson D. Bonaccini M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 302–316 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rosencher, E.

G. Froc, E. Rosencher, B. Attal-Trétout, and V. Michau, “Photon return analysis of a polychromatic laser guide star,” Opt. Commun. 178, 405–409 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Salmon, J. T.

Sandler, D. G.

M. Lloyd-Hart, J. R. Angel, D. G. Sandler, T. D. Groesbeck, T. Martinez, and B. P. Jacobsen, “Design of the 6.5 m MMT adaptative optics system and results from its prototype system FASTTRAC II,” in Optical Telescopes of Today and Tomorrow, A. L. Ardeberg, ed., Proc. SPIE 2871, 880–889 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schöck, M.

M. Schöck, R. Foy, M. Tallon, L. Noethe, and J. P. Pique, “Performance analysis of polychromatic laser guide stars used for wavefront tilt sensing,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 337, 910–920 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schoeck, M.

M. Schoeck, R. Foy, J. P. Pique, P. Chevrou, N. Georges, A. Petit, V. Bellanger, H. Fews, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, O. Peillet, P. Segonds, M. Tallon, and J. M. Weulersse, “PASS-2: quantitative photometric measurements of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 296–307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Georges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Feys, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d’Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schoeck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. A. Tokovinin, A. Andrei, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulerse, “ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 284–295 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Schoeck, R. Foy, J. P. Pique, M. Tallon, P. Segonds, M. Laubscher, and O. Peillet, “PASS-2: photometry of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology, R. K. Tyson R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE 3762, 321–329 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Searcy, P.

Segonds, P.

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Georges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Feys, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d’Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schoeck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. A. Tokovinin, A. Andrei, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulerse, “ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 284–295 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Schoeck, R. Foy, J. P. Pique, P. Chevrou, N. Georges, A. Petit, V. Bellanger, H. Fews, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, O. Peillet, P. Segonds, M. Tallon, and J. M. Weulersse, “PASS-2: quantitative photometric measurements of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 296–307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Schoeck, R. Foy, J. P. Pique, M. Tallon, P. Segonds, M. Laubscher, and O. Peillet, “PASS-2: photometry of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology, R. K. Tyson R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE 3762, 321–329 (1999).
[CrossRef]

She, C. Y.

Shelton, C.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stromski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, and J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II Telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Soden, R.

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Georges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Feys, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d’Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schoeck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. A. Tokovinin, A. Andrei, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulerse, “ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 284–295 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stromski, P.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stromski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, and J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II Telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

Z. Hu, X. Sun, Y. Liu, L. Fu, and X. Zeng, “Temperature properties of Na dispersive Faraday optical filter at D1 and D2 line,” Opt. Commun. 156, 289–293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tallon, M.

M. Schöck, R. Foy, M. Tallon, L. Noethe, and J. P. Pique, “Performance analysis of polychromatic laser guide stars used for wavefront tilt sensing,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 337, 910–920 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Georges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Feys, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d’Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schoeck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. A. Tokovinin, A. Andrei, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulerse, “ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 284–295 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Schoeck, R. Foy, J. P. Pique, P. Chevrou, N. Georges, A. Petit, V. Bellanger, H. Fews, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, O. Peillet, P. Segonds, M. Tallon, and J. M. Weulersse, “PASS-2: quantitative photometric measurements of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 296–307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Schoeck, R. Foy, J. P. Pique, M. Tallon, P. Segonds, M. Laubscher, and O. Peillet, “PASS-2: photometry of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology, R. K. Tyson R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE 3762, 321–329 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Foy, A. Migus, A. Biraben, G. Grynberg, P. R. McCullough, and M. Tallon, “The polychromatic artificial sodium star: a new concept for correcting the atmospheric tilt,” Astron. Astrophys., Suppl. Ser. 111, 569–578 (1995).

Tamai, R.

D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, M. J. Cullum, E. Brunetto, T. Ott, M. Quattri, E. Allaert, M. Dimmler, M. Tarenghi, A. Van Kersteren, C. Di Chirico, B. Buzzoni, P. Gray, R. Tamai, and M. Tapia, “ESO VLT laser guide star facility,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson D. Bonaccini M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 276–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tapia, M.

D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, M. J. Cullum, E. Brunetto, T. Ott, M. Quattri, E. Allaert, M. Dimmler, M. Tarenghi, A. Van Kersteren, C. Di Chirico, B. Buzzoni, P. Gray, R. Tamai, and M. Tapia, “ESO VLT laser guide star facility,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson D. Bonaccini M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 276–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tarenghi, M.

D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, M. J. Cullum, E. Brunetto, T. Ott, M. Quattri, E. Allaert, M. Dimmler, M. Tarenghi, A. Van Kersteren, C. Di Chirico, B. Buzzoni, P. Gray, R. Tamai, and M. Tapia, “ESO VLT laser guide star facility,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson D. Bonaccini M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 276–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Telle, J. M.

J. M. Telle, P. W. Milonni, and R. Q. Fugate, “Update on 589-nm sodium star pump laser requirements,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 252–257 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thiebaut, E.

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Georges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Feys, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d’Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schoeck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. A. Tokovinin, A. Andrei, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulerse, “ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 284–295 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, L. A.

L. A. Thompson and C. S. Gardner, “Experiments on laser guide stars at Mauna Kea Observatory for adaptive imaging in astronomy,” Nature (London) 328, 229–231 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tokovinin, A. A.

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Georges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Feys, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d’Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schoeck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. A. Tokovinin, A. Andrei, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulerse, “ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 284–295 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tsubota, K.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stromski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, and J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II Telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vaillant, J.

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Georges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Feys, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d’Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schoeck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. A. Tokovinin, A. Andrei, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulerse, “ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 284–295 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Valtjen, K.

Van Kersteren, A.

D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, M. J. Cullum, E. Brunetto, T. Ott, M. Quattri, E. Allaert, M. Dimmler, M. Tarenghi, A. Van Kersteren, C. Di Chirico, B. Buzzoni, P. Gray, R. Tamai, and M. Tapia, “ESO VLT laser guide star facility,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson D. Bonaccini M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 276–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vuilleumier, R.

E. J. Kibblewhite, R. Vuilleumier, B. Carter, W. J. Wild, and T. H. Jeys, “Implementation of cw- and pulsed-laser beacons for astronomical adaptive optics systems,”in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, M. A. Ealey F. Merkle, eds., Proc. SPIE 2201, 272–283 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Waltjen, K. E.

S. S. Olivier, C. E. Max, J. An, K. Avicola, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, D. T. Gavel, B. Macintosh, and K. E. Waltjen, “First significant image improvement from the Lick Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 28, 1324–1328 (1996).

Welsh, B. M.

Weulerse, J. M.

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Georges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Feys, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d’Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schoeck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. A. Tokovinin, A. Andrei, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulerse, “ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 284–295 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weulersse, J. M.

M. Schoeck, R. Foy, J. P. Pique, P. Chevrou, N. Georges, A. Petit, V. Bellanger, H. Fews, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, O. Peillet, P. Segonds, M. Tallon, and J. M. Weulersse, “PASS-2: quantitative photometric measurements of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 296–307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wild, W. J.

E. J. Kibblewhite, R. Vuilleumier, B. Carter, W. J. Wild, and T. H. Jeys, “Implementation of cw- and pulsed-laser beacons for astronomical adaptive optics systems,”in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, M. A. Ealey F. Merkle, eds., Proc. SPIE 2201, 272–283 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wilnhammer, N.

A. Quirrenbach, W. Hackenberg, H. C. Holstenberg, and N. Wilnhammer, “Sodium laser guide star system of ALFA,” in Adaptive Optics and Applications, R. K. Tyson R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE 3126, 35–43 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wizinowich, P.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stromski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, and J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II Telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wooder, N. J.

L. Michaille, J. C. Dainty, J. Quartel, N. J. Wooder, and T. Gregory, “Progress report on the sodium laser monitoring laser guide star adaptive optics,” New Astron. Rev. 45, 69–72 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, X.

Z. Hu, X. Sun, Y. Liu, L. Fu, and X. Zeng, “Temperature properties of Na dispersive Faraday optical filter at D1 and D2 line,” Opt. Commun. 156, 289–293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astron. Astrophys., Suppl. Ser. (1)

R. Foy, A. Migus, A. Biraben, G. Grynberg, P. R. McCullough, and M. Tallon, “The polychromatic artificial sodium star: a new concept for correcting the atmospheric tilt,” Astron. Astrophys., Suppl. Ser. 111, 569–578 (1995).

Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. (1)

S. S. Olivier, C. E. Max, J. An, K. Avicola, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, D. T. Gavel, B. Macintosh, and K. E. Waltjen, “First significant image improvement from the Lick Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 28, 1324–1328 (1996).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (1)

M. Schöck, R. Foy, M. Tallon, L. Noethe, and J. P. Pique, “Performance analysis of polychromatic laser guide stars used for wavefront tilt sensing,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 337, 910–920 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (1)

L. A. Thompson and C. S. Gardner, “Experiments on laser guide stars at Mauna Kea Observatory for adaptive imaging in astronomy,” Nature (London) 328, 229–231 (1987).
[CrossRef]

New Astron. Rev. (1)

L. Michaille, J. C. Dainty, J. Quartel, N. J. Wooder, and T. Gregory, “Progress report on the sodium laser monitoring laser guide star adaptive optics,” New Astron. Rev. 45, 69–72 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (6)

Z. Hu, X. Sun, Y. Liu, L. Fu, and X. Zeng, “Temperature properties of Na dispersive Faraday optical filter at D1 and D2 line,” Opt. Commun. 156, 289–293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Froc, E. Rosencher, B. Attal-Trétout, and V. Michau, “Photon return analysis of a polychromatic laser guide star,” Opt. Commun. 178, 405–409 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Edwart, “A modeless, variable bandwidth, tunable laser,” Opt. Commun. 55, 124–126 (1985).
[CrossRef]

I. C. M. Littler, S. Balle, and K. Bergmann, “The cw modeless laser: spectral control, performance data and build-up dynamics,” Opt. Commun. 88, 514–522 (1992).
[CrossRef]

I. C. M. Littler and J. H. Eschner, “The cw modeless laser: model calculations of an active frequency shifted feedback cavity,” Opt. Commun. 87, 44–52 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Liang, L. Moi, and C. Fabre, “The ‘lamp-laser’: realization of a very long cavity dye laser,” Opt. Commun. 52, 131–135 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Planet. Space Sci. (1)

G. Megie, F. E. Blamont, and M. L. Chanin, “Simultaneous nighttime lidar measurements of atmospheric sodium and potassium,” Planet. Space Sci. 26, 27–35 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (10)

W. Hackenberg and D. Bonaccini, “Fiber Raman laser development for multiconjugate adaptive optics with sodium laser guide stars,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson D. Bonaccini M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 271–275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Lloyd-Hart, J. R. Angel, D. G. Sandler, T. D. Groesbeck, T. Martinez, and B. P. Jacobsen, “Design of the 6.5 m MMT adaptative optics system and results from its prototype system FASTTRAC II,” in Optical Telescopes of Today and Tomorrow, A. L. Ardeberg, ed., Proc. SPIE 2871, 880–889 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Quirrenbach, W. Hackenberg, H. C. Holstenberg, and N. Wilnhammer, “Sodium laser guide star system of ALFA,” in Adaptive Optics and Applications, R. K. Tyson R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE 3126, 35–43 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, M. J. Cullum, E. Brunetto, T. Ott, M. Quattri, E. Allaert, M. Dimmler, M. Tarenghi, A. Van Kersteren, C. Di Chirico, B. Buzzoni, P. Gray, R. Tamai, and M. Tapia, “ESO VLT laser guide star facility,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson D. Bonaccini M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 276–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Orgeville, B. J. Bauman, J. W. Catone, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. T. Gavel, R. A. Buchroeder, and A. Richard, “Gemini north and south laser guide star systems requirements and preliminary designs,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson D. Bonaccini M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 302–316 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Telle, P. W. Milonni, and R. Q. Fugate, “Update on 589-nm sodium star pump laser requirements,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 252–257 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Schoeck, R. Foy, J. P. Pique, P. Chevrou, N. Georges, A. Petit, V. Bellanger, H. Fews, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, O. Peillet, P. Segonds, M. Tallon, and J. M. Weulersse, “PASS-2: quantitative photometric measurements of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 296–307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Schoeck, R. Foy, J. P. Pique, M. Tallon, P. Segonds, M. Laubscher, and O. Peillet, “PASS-2: photometry of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology, R. K. Tyson R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE 3762, 321–329 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Kibblewhite, R. Vuilleumier, B. Carter, W. J. Wild, and T. H. Jeys, “Implementation of cw- and pulsed-laser beacons for astronomical adaptive optics systems,”in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, M. A. Ealey F. Merkle, eds., Proc. SPIE 2201, 272–283 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Georges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Feys, F. C. Foy, C. Hoegemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d’Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schoeck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. A. Tokovinin, A. Andrei, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulerse, “ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 284–295 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (1)

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stromski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, and J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II Telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

H. W. Friedman, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. (personal communication, 2000).

D. N. Payne, U.S. patent IL-10737 (2002).

D. M. Pennington, “Laser technologies for laser guided adaptive optics,” presented at the NATO Summer Institute on Optics for Astrophysics, Corsica, France, Sept. 16–27, 2002.

J. P. Pique, Laboratoire Spectrométrie Physique, Université Joseph Fourier, UMR 5588 CNRS-Grenoble I, B.P. 87, 38402 saint Martin d’Hères, France (personal communication, 2003).

V. Bellanger, “Etude de l’interaction laser sodium dans le cadre du projet de l’étoile laser polychromatique pour l’ optique adaptative,” Thesis (Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris VI, France, January 16, 2002).

O. Svelto, “Continuous wave laser behavior,” in Principles of Lasers, 4th ed., D. C. Hanna, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1998), Vol. 1, Chap. 7, p. 258.

L. Hollberg, “Cw dye laser,” in Dye Laser Principles, F. J. Duarte and L. W. Hillman, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1990), Vol. 1, Chap. 5, pp. 185–238.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Return fluorescence flux versus average laser power for three types of laser: (a) 1-MHz single-mode laser (dotted curves), (b) same laser as that in (a) followed by a double phase modulation (dashed curves), (c) 3-GHz modeless laser (solid curves). The curves with and without crosses correspond, respectively, to 80-ns pulse width, 30-kHz repetition rate and 40-ns pulse width, 15-kHz repetition rate. The star corresponds to Morris’s calculations (see the text). The right-hand y scale is a normalized scale with the calculated point of the 1-MHz single-longitudinal-mode case at 25-W power. It shows the gain for different solutions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Modeless-laser configuration. Two dye jets are pumped by a cw YAG laser and a Q-switched (QS) YAG laser, respectively. Mirrors M2 and M3 are highly reflecting for R6G dye. Mirror M1 has a 3% transmission coating at 589 nm. The acousto-optic frequency shifter (AOS) is made of TiO2. A Lyot filter and a Fabry–Perot etalon (FP) control the linewidth and the absolute wavelength.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Round-trip phase-matching conditions of the AOS. ki and ki (kd and kd) are the incident (diffracted) wave vectors of the first passage and the return passage, respectively. ka is the acoustic wave vector. After a round trip, the optical frequency of the first-order diffracted wave increases by two acoustic quanta νa.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Laser line spectrum analyzed with a high-resolution (∼25-MHz) spectral analyzer: (a) single-mode laser (Coherent 599-21), (b) multimode laser (same configuration as that in Fig. 2 but with the rf power off and the output mirror M1 closing the cavity on the zero order of the AOS, (c) modeless laser.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Logarithm of the output power of the multimode and modeless lasers versus dye pump power. The spontaneous emission signal within the spatial cavity mode is approximately 10-5 mW. Over six decades, the multimode laser shows a first-order transition, whereas the modeless laser shows a second-order transition.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental and calculated spectral linewidths of the modeless laser versus dye pump power.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Setup of the D2 fluorescence photometry experiment. The modeless laser and the single-longitudinal-mode laser (Coherent 599-21) have a similar cavity, which allows fine control of the same beam profile in front of the optical fiber that collects the sodium fluorescence. The beam profile is monitored by a Shack–Hartmann wave-front sensor (HASO32, Imagine Optic). A high-resolution spectrum analyzer (FP 7.5 GHz) records the laser spectrum. The same set of neutral filters is used for both experiments.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Sodium Doppler-hyperfine spectrum. The two maxima correspond to the ground-state 3S1/2 hyperfine structure. The three laser lines studied are represented: 1-MHz single mode, 3-GHz modeless, and 4.5-GHz modeless.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Experimental comparison of the D2-line fluorescence intensity for three laser lines studied versus power density. The photomultiplier tube (PMT) detector and the electronic parameters are maintained identical for the three studied cases. For the ELP-OA project, by comparison with that of the single-mode laser, the gain of the 3-GHz modeless laser is better by a factor of 5.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Values of Parameters Used in the Numerical Calculations a

Equations (29)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N2(t, r, ν)t=N1(t, r, ν)-+σ(ν-ν)Φ(t, r, ν)dν-N2(t, r, ν)τ21-N2(t, r, ν) g1g2×-+σ(ν-ν)Φ(t, r, ν)dν,
Φ(t, r, ν)=ϕ(t)D(r)g(ν).
-+σ(ν-ν)Φ(t, r, ν)dν=ϕ(t)D(r)σeff  (ν),
σeff  (ν)=-+σ(ν-ν)g(ν)dν.
σ(ν)=σ0(Δν/2)2(ν0-ν)2+(Δν/2)2,
Isat=hνσ0τ21.
Isat=πhc2λ3τ21.
I(t, r)=hν-+Φ(t, r, ν)dν=hνϕ(t)D(r).
S(t, r, ν)=I(t, r)Isat(ν)=ϕ(t)D(r)σeff  (ν)τ21.
N2(t, r, ν)t=S(t, r, ν)τ21N(ν)-N2(t, r, ν)×1+g1g2-1τ21 N2(t, r, ν),
-+N(ν)dν=N0.
N2T=-+dν-+d2rpulseN2(t, r, ν)dt.
N2(t, r, ν)=Nsta(r, ν)1-exp-S(r, ν) tτ21,0<t<τL,
N2(t, r, ν)=Nsta(r, ν)exp-t-τLτ21,t>τL.
Nsta(r, ν)=N(ν) S(r, ν)S(r, ν),
S(r, ν)=τ21σeff  (ν)D(r) NLτL,
S(r, ν)=1+1+g1g2 S(r, ν).
ΦD2=fLAΔz4πz2N2Tτ21,
ΦD2=Bs4π A4πz2 N0πw2ΔzfL0.9×106(photon/s)/m2.
n(ν+2νa, t+τc)=n(ν, t)+tt+τc[τcG(ν)N(t)+G(ν)N(t)n(ν, t)-γ(ν)n(ν, t)dt].
n(ν+2νa)-n(ν)=2νan(ν)ν=τc2G(ν)Ns+τcG(ν)Nsn(ν)-τcγ(ν)n(ν).
Ns=Γp1τs+G(ν)n(ν)dν.
Γp=ηPpλphc,
γ(ν)=γc+γout+γLyot(ν)+γFP(ν),
γc=Xislc,
γout=Tislc,
γLyot(ν)=2τcπνΔνLyot2,
γFP(ν)=2τcln1+4R1-R2sin2π νislFP,
Pout=γouthνoutn(ν)dν.

Metrics