Abstract

We present a study detailing the effects of refraction on the analysis and interpretation of line-of-site optical probe characterization techniques within laser-produced plasmas. Results using x-ray laser backlit grid deflectometry and ray-tracing simulations illustrate the extent to which refraction can be a limiting factor in diagnosing high-density, short-scale-length plasmas. Analysis is applied to a recent experiment in which soft-x-ray interferometry was used to measure the electron density within a fast-evolving Al plasma. Comparisons are drawn between extreme ultraviolet and ultraviolet probe wavelengths.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, V. N. Shlyaptsev, S. Moon, J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, J. R. Hunter, and T. W. Barbee, Jr., “Picosecond x-ray laser interferometry of dense plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 065004–1 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Aschke, S. Depierreux, K. G. Estabrook, K. B. Fournier, J. Fuchs, S. Glenzer, R. W. Lee, W. Rozmus, R. S. Thoe, and P. E. Young, “Towards an experimental benchmark for aluminum x-ray spectra,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 65, 23–30 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, A. Rousse, F. Fallies, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Dos Santos, G. Hamoniaux, and A. Antonetti, “Frequency-domain interferometer for measuring the phase and amplitude of a femtosecond pulse probing a laser-produced plasma,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1997–1999 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. E. Young, C. H. Still, D. E. Hinkel, W. L. Kruer, E. A. Williams, R. L. Berger, and K. G. Estabrook, “Observations of laser-beam bending due to transverse plasma flow,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1425–1428 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. A. Attwood, D. W. Sweeney, J. M. Auerbach, and P. H. Y. Lee, “Interferometric confirmation of radiation-pressure effects in laser-plasma interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 184–187 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Filevich, K. Kanizay, M. C. Marconi, J. L. A. Chilla, and J. J. Rocca, “Dense plasma diagnostics with an amplitude-division soft-x-ray laser interferometer based on diffraction gratings,” Opt. Lett. 25, 356–358 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Dunn, Y. Li, A. L. Osterheld, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Gain saturation regime for laser-driven tabletop, transient Ni-like ion X-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4834–4837 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. V. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810/1–4 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. P. Celliers, F. Weber, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, A. S. Wan, and J. C. Moreno, Opt. Lett. 20, 1907–1909 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. V. N. Shlyaptsev, P. V. Nickles, T. Schlegel, M. P. Kalashnikov, and A. L. Osterheld, “Table-top x-ray laser pumped with subnanosecond and picosecond pulses,” in Ultrashort Wavelength Lasers II, S. Suckewer, ed., Proc. SPIE 2012, 111–118 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. D. Decker, R. A. London, J. A. Harte, L. V. Powers, and J. E. Trebes, “Electron-density measurements in hohlraums using soft-x-ray deflectometry,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 5952–5957 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2002

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, V. N. Shlyaptsev, S. Moon, J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, J. R. Hunter, and T. W. Barbee, Jr., “Picosecond x-ray laser interferometry of dense plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 065004–1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. V. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810/1–4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. Dunn, Y. Li, A. L. Osterheld, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Gain saturation regime for laser-driven tabletop, transient Ni-like ion X-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4834–4837 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Aschke, S. Depierreux, K. G. Estabrook, K. B. Fournier, J. Fuchs, S. Glenzer, R. W. Lee, W. Rozmus, R. S. Thoe, and P. E. Young, “Towards an experimental benchmark for aluminum x-ray spectra,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 65, 23–30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, K. Kanizay, M. C. Marconi, J. L. A. Chilla, and J. J. Rocca, “Dense plasma diagnostics with an amplitude-division soft-x-ray laser interferometer based on diffraction gratings,” Opt. Lett. 25, 356–358 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

P. E. Young, C. H. Still, D. E. Hinkel, W. L. Kruer, E. A. Williams, R. L. Berger, and K. G. Estabrook, “Observations of laser-beam bending due to transverse plasma flow,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1425–1428 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Decker, R. A. London, J. A. Harte, L. V. Powers, and J. E. Trebes, “Electron-density measurements in hohlraums using soft-x-ray deflectometry,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 5952–5957 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Celliers, F. Weber, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, A. S. Wan, and J. C. Moreno, Opt. Lett. 20, 1907–1909 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, A. Rousse, F. Fallies, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Dos Santos, G. Hamoniaux, and A. Antonetti, “Frequency-domain interferometer for measuring the phase and amplitude of a femtosecond pulse probing a laser-produced plasma,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1997–1999 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. N. Shlyaptsev, P. V. Nickles, T. Schlegel, M. P. Kalashnikov, and A. L. Osterheld, “Table-top x-ray laser pumped with subnanosecond and picosecond pulses,” in Ultrashort Wavelength Lasers II, S. Suckewer, ed., Proc. SPIE 2012, 111–118 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1978

D. A. Attwood, D. W. Sweeney, J. M. Auerbach, and P. H. Y. Lee, “Interferometric confirmation of radiation-pressure effects in laser-plasma interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 184–187 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Antonetti, A.

Aschke, L.

L. Aschke, S. Depierreux, K. G. Estabrook, K. B. Fournier, J. Fuchs, S. Glenzer, R. W. Lee, W. Rozmus, R. S. Thoe, and P. E. Young, “Towards an experimental benchmark for aluminum x-ray spectra,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 65, 23–30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D. A.

D. A. Attwood, D. W. Sweeney, J. M. Auerbach, and P. H. Y. Lee, “Interferometric confirmation of radiation-pressure effects in laser-plasma interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 184–187 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Audebert, P.

Auerbach, J. M.

D. A. Attwood, D. W. Sweeney, J. M. Auerbach, and P. H. Y. Lee, “Interferometric confirmation of radiation-pressure effects in laser-plasma interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 184–187 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Barbee Jr., T. W.

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, V. N. Shlyaptsev, S. Moon, J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, J. R. Hunter, and T. W. Barbee, Jr., “Picosecond x-ray laser interferometry of dense plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 065004–1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Celliers, F. Weber, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, A. S. Wan, and J. C. Moreno, Opt. Lett. 20, 1907–1909 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berger, R. L.

P. E. Young, C. H. Still, D. E. Hinkel, W. L. Kruer, E. A. Williams, R. L. Berger, and K. G. Estabrook, “Observations of laser-beam bending due to transverse plasma flow,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1425–1428 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bortolotto, F.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. V. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810/1–4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cauble, R.

P. Celliers, F. Weber, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, A. S. Wan, and J. C. Moreno, Opt. Lett. 20, 1907–1909 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Celliers, P.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Celliers, F. Weber, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, A. S. Wan, and J. C. Moreno, Opt. Lett. 20, 1907–1909 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chenais-Popovics, C.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. V. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810/1–4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chilla, J. L. A.

Ciarlo, D.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clarke, R.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. V. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810/1–4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Collier, J.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. V. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810/1–4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Da Silva, L. B.

P. Celliers, F. Weber, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, A. S. Wan, and J. C. Moreno, Opt. Lett. 20, 1907–1909 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Decker, C. D.

C. D. Decker, R. A. London, J. A. Harte, L. V. Powers, and J. E. Trebes, “Electron-density measurements in hohlraums using soft-x-ray deflectometry,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 5952–5957 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Depierreux, S.

L. Aschke, S. Depierreux, K. G. Estabrook, K. B. Fournier, J. Fuchs, S. Glenzer, R. W. Lee, W. Rozmus, R. S. Thoe, and P. E. Young, “Towards an experimental benchmark for aluminum x-ray spectra,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 65, 23–30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dos Santos, A.

Dunn, J.

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, V. N. Shlyaptsev, S. Moon, J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, J. R. Hunter, and T. W. Barbee, Jr., “Picosecond x-ray laser interferometry of dense plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 065004–1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Dunn, Y. Li, A. L. Osterheld, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Gain saturation regime for laser-driven tabletop, transient Ni-like ion X-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4834–4837 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Estabrook, K. G.

L. Aschke, S. Depierreux, K. G. Estabrook, K. B. Fournier, J. Fuchs, S. Glenzer, R. W. Lee, W. Rozmus, R. S. Thoe, and P. E. Young, “Towards an experimental benchmark for aluminum x-ray spectra,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 65, 23–30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Young, C. H. Still, D. E. Hinkel, W. L. Kruer, E. A. Williams, R. L. Berger, and K. G. Estabrook, “Observations of laser-beam bending due to transverse plasma flow,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1425–1428 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fallies, F.

Filevich, J.

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, V. N. Shlyaptsev, S. Moon, J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, J. R. Hunter, and T. W. Barbee, Jr., “Picosecond x-ray laser interferometry of dense plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 065004–1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, K. Kanizay, M. C. Marconi, J. L. A. Chilla, and J. J. Rocca, “Dense plasma diagnostics with an amplitude-division soft-x-ray laser interferometer based on diffraction gratings,” Opt. Lett. 25, 356–358 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fournier, K. B.

L. Aschke, S. Depierreux, K. G. Estabrook, K. B. Fournier, J. Fuchs, S. Glenzer, R. W. Lee, W. Rozmus, R. S. Thoe, and P. E. Young, “Towards an experimental benchmark for aluminum x-ray spectra,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 65, 23–30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, J.

L. Aschke, S. Depierreux, K. G. Estabrook, K. B. Fournier, J. Fuchs, S. Glenzer, R. W. Lee, W. Rozmus, R. S. Thoe, and P. E. Young, “Towards an experimental benchmark for aluminum x-ray spectra,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 65, 23–30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, J. C.

Geindre, J. P.

Glenzer, S.

L. Aschke, S. Depierreux, K. G. Estabrook, K. B. Fournier, J. Fuchs, S. Glenzer, R. W. Lee, W. Rozmus, R. S. Thoe, and P. E. Young, “Towards an experimental benchmark for aluminum x-ray spectra,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 65, 23–30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hamoniaux, G.

Harte, J. A.

C. D. Decker, R. A. London, J. A. Harte, L. V. Powers, and J. E. Trebes, “Electron-density measurements in hohlraums using soft-x-ray deflectometry,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 5952–5957 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hinkel, D. E.

P. E. Young, C. H. Still, D. E. Hinkel, W. L. Kruer, E. A. Williams, R. L. Berger, and K. G. Estabrook, “Observations of laser-beam bending due to transverse plasma flow,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1425–1428 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, J. R.

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, V. N. Shlyaptsev, S. Moon, J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, J. R. Hunter, and T. W. Barbee, Jr., “Picosecond x-ray laser interferometry of dense plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 065004–1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Dunn, Y. Li, A. L. Osterheld, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Gain saturation regime for laser-driven tabletop, transient Ni-like ion X-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4834–4837 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jamelot, G.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. V. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810/1–4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Janulewicz, K. A.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. V. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810/1–4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kalashnikov, M. P.

V. N. Shlyaptsev, P. V. Nickles, T. Schlegel, M. P. Kalashnikov, and A. L. Osterheld, “Table-top x-ray laser pumped with subnanosecond and picosecond pulses,” in Ultrashort Wavelength Lasers II, S. Suckewer, ed., Proc. SPIE 2012, 111–118 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kanizay, K.

Keenan, R.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. V. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810/1–4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Klisnick, A.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. V. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810/1–4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kruer, W. L.

P. E. Young, C. H. Still, D. E. Hinkel, W. L. Kruer, E. A. Williams, R. L. Berger, and K. G. Estabrook, “Observations of laser-beam bending due to transverse plasma flow,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1425–1428 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kuba, J.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. V. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810/1–4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, P. H. Y.

D. A. Attwood, D. W. Sweeney, J. M. Auerbach, and P. H. Y. Lee, “Interferometric confirmation of radiation-pressure effects in laser-plasma interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 184–187 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Lee, R. W.

L. Aschke, S. Depierreux, K. G. Estabrook, K. B. Fournier, J. Fuchs, S. Glenzer, R. W. Lee, W. Rozmus, R. S. Thoe, and P. E. Young, “Towards an experimental benchmark for aluminum x-ray spectra,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 65, 23–30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, C. L. S.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. V. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810/1–4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

J. Dunn, Y. Li, A. L. Osterheld, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Gain saturation regime for laser-driven tabletop, transient Ni-like ion X-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4834–4837 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Libby, S.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

London, R. A.

C. D. Decker, R. A. London, J. A. Harte, L. V. Powers, and J. E. Trebes, “Electron-density measurements in hohlraums using soft-x-ray deflectometry,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 5952–5957 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacPhee, A. G.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. V. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810/1–4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marconi, M. C.

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, V. N. Shlyaptsev, S. Moon, J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, J. R. Hunter, and T. W. Barbee, Jr., “Picosecond x-ray laser interferometry of dense plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 065004–1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, K. Kanizay, M. C. Marconi, J. L. A. Chilla, and J. J. Rocca, “Dense plasma diagnostics with an amplitude-division soft-x-ray laser interferometer based on diffraction gratings,” Opt. Lett. 25, 356–358 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Matthews, D.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moon, S.

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, V. N. Shlyaptsev, S. Moon, J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, J. R. Hunter, and T. W. Barbee, Jr., “Picosecond x-ray laser interferometry of dense plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 065004–1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, J. C.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Celliers, F. Weber, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, A. S. Wan, and J. C. Moreno, Opt. Lett. 20, 1907–1909 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mrowka, S.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mysyrowicz, A.

Neely, D.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. V. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810/1–4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nickles, P. V.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. V. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810/1–4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Shlyaptsev, P. V. Nickles, T. Schlegel, M. P. Kalashnikov, and A. L. Osterheld, “Table-top x-ray laser pumped with subnanosecond and picosecond pulses,” in Ultrashort Wavelength Lasers II, S. Suckewer, ed., Proc. SPIE 2012, 111–118 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nilsen, J.

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, V. N. Shlyaptsev, S. Moon, J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, J. R. Hunter, and T. W. Barbee, Jr., “Picosecond x-ray laser interferometry of dense plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 065004–1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Dunn, Y. Li, A. L. Osterheld, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Gain saturation regime for laser-driven tabletop, transient Ni-like ion X-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4834–4837 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osterheld, A. L.

J. Dunn, Y. Li, A. L. Osterheld, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Gain saturation regime for laser-driven tabletop, transient Ni-like ion X-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4834–4837 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. N. Shlyaptsev, P. V. Nickles, T. Schlegel, M. P. Kalashnikov, and A. L. Osterheld, “Table-top x-ray laser pumped with subnanosecond and picosecond pulses,” in Ultrashort Wavelength Lasers II, S. Suckewer, ed., Proc. SPIE 2012, 111–118 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Powers, L. V.

C. D. Decker, R. A. London, J. A. Harte, L. V. Powers, and J. E. Trebes, “Electron-density measurements in hohlraums using soft-x-ray deflectometry,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 5952–5957 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ress, D.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rocca, J. J.

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, V. N. Shlyaptsev, S. Moon, J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, J. R. Hunter, and T. W. Barbee, Jr., “Picosecond x-ray laser interferometry of dense plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 065004–1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, K. Kanizay, M. C. Marconi, J. L. A. Chilla, and J. J. Rocca, “Dense plasma diagnostics with an amplitude-division soft-x-ray laser interferometer based on diffraction gratings,” Opt. Lett. 25, 356–358 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ros, D.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. V. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810/1–4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rousse, A.

Rozmus, W.

L. Aschke, S. Depierreux, K. G. Estabrook, K. B. Fournier, J. Fuchs, S. Glenzer, R. W. Lee, W. Rozmus, R. S. Thoe, and P. E. Young, “Towards an experimental benchmark for aluminum x-ray spectra,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 65, 23–30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schlegel, T.

V. N. Shlyaptsev, P. V. Nickles, T. Schlegel, M. P. Kalashnikov, and A. L. Osterheld, “Table-top x-ray laser pumped with subnanosecond and picosecond pulses,” in Ultrashort Wavelength Lasers II, S. Suckewer, ed., Proc. SPIE 2012, 111–118 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shlyaptsev, V. N.

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, V. N. Shlyaptsev, S. Moon, J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, J. R. Hunter, and T. W. Barbee, Jr., “Picosecond x-ray laser interferometry of dense plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 065004–1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Dunn, Y. Li, A. L. Osterheld, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Gain saturation regime for laser-driven tabletop, transient Ni-like ion X-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4834–4837 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. N. Shlyaptsev, P. V. Nickles, T. Schlegel, M. P. Kalashnikov, and A. L. Osterheld, “Table-top x-ray laser pumped with subnanosecond and picosecond pulses,” in Ultrashort Wavelength Lasers II, S. Suckewer, ed., Proc. SPIE 2012, 111–118 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. V. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810/1–4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. F.

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, V. N. Shlyaptsev, S. Moon, J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, J. R. Hunter, and T. W. Barbee, Jr., “Picosecond x-ray laser interferometry of dense plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 065004–1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Still, C. H.

P. E. Young, C. H. Still, D. E. Hinkel, W. L. Kruer, E. A. Williams, R. L. Berger, and K. G. Estabrook, “Observations of laser-beam bending due to transverse plasma flow,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1425–1428 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Strati, F.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. V. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810/1–4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sweeney, D. W.

D. A. Attwood, D. W. Sweeney, J. M. Auerbach, and P. H. Y. Lee, “Interferometric confirmation of radiation-pressure effects in laser-plasma interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 184–187 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Tallents, G. J.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. V. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810/1–4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thoe, R. S.

L. Aschke, S. Depierreux, K. G. Estabrook, K. B. Fournier, J. Fuchs, S. Glenzer, R. W. Lee, W. Rozmus, R. S. Thoe, and P. E. Young, “Towards an experimental benchmark for aluminum x-ray spectra,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 65, 23–30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Topping, S.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. V. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810/1–4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Trebes, J. E.

C. D. Decker, R. A. London, J. A. Harte, L. V. Powers, and J. E. Trebes, “Electron-density measurements in hohlraums using soft-x-ray deflectometry,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 5952–5957 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wan, A. S.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Celliers, F. Weber, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, A. S. Wan, and J. C. Moreno, Opt. Lett. 20, 1907–1909 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, F.

P. Celliers, F. Weber, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, A. S. Wan, and J. C. Moreno, Opt. Lett. 20, 1907–1909 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, E. A.

P. E. Young, C. H. Still, D. E. Hinkel, W. L. Kruer, E. A. Williams, R. L. Berger, and K. G. Estabrook, “Observations of laser-beam bending due to transverse plasma flow,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1425–1428 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Young, P. E.

L. Aschke, S. Depierreux, K. G. Estabrook, K. B. Fournier, J. Fuchs, S. Glenzer, R. W. Lee, W. Rozmus, R. S. Thoe, and P. E. Young, “Towards an experimental benchmark for aluminum x-ray spectra,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 65, 23–30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Young, C. H. Still, D. E. Hinkel, W. L. Kruer, E. A. Williams, R. L. Berger, and K. G. Estabrook, “Observations of laser-beam bending due to transverse plasma flow,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1425–1428 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.

L. Aschke, S. Depierreux, K. G. Estabrook, K. B. Fournier, J. Fuchs, S. Glenzer, R. W. Lee, W. Rozmus, R. S. Thoe, and P. E. Young, “Towards an experimental benchmark for aluminum x-ray spectra,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 65, 23–30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. V. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810/1–4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

C. D. Decker, R. A. London, J. A. Harte, L. V. Powers, and J. E. Trebes, “Electron-density measurements in hohlraums using soft-x-ray deflectometry,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 5952–5957 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, V. N. Shlyaptsev, S. Moon, J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, J. R. Hunter, and T. W. Barbee, Jr., “Picosecond x-ray laser interferometry of dense plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 065004–1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Young, C. H. Still, D. E. Hinkel, W. L. Kruer, E. A. Williams, R. L. Berger, and K. G. Estabrook, “Observations of laser-beam bending due to transverse plasma flow,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1425–1428 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Attwood, D. W. Sweeney, J. M. Auerbach, and P. H. Y. Lee, “Interferometric confirmation of radiation-pressure effects in laser-plasma interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 184–187 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Dunn, Y. Li, A. L. Osterheld, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Gain saturation regime for laser-driven tabletop, transient Ni-like ion X-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4834–4837 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

V. N. Shlyaptsev, P. V. Nickles, T. Schlegel, M. P. Kalashnikov, and A. L. Osterheld, “Table-top x-ray laser pumped with subnanosecond and picosecond pulses,” in Ultrashort Wavelength Lasers II, S. Suckewer, ed., Proc. SPIE 2012, 111–118 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. D. Guenther, “Parametric characterization of a light guide,” in Modern Optics (Wiley, New York, 1990), pp. 163–171.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for x-ray laser diffraction grating interferometry on the COMET laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A 5-mm-long Al plasma is probed at 700 ps after the peak of the 600-ps (FWHM) plasma forming beam by the 14.68-nm Ni-like Pd x-ray laser. The plasma was generated with a 6×0.04 mm2 line focus with an intensity of 4×1011 W/cm2. Each fringe shift is equivalent to an electron density of 2.95×1019 cm-3. Different gray scales are applied to the image for clarity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fringe separation for two different probe wavelengths as a function of the relative angle, Δϕ, of the combing phase fronts associated with the two arms of the interferometer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Refraction away from the target surface has a direct relation to the local relative angle (Δϕ) of the combining phase fronts of the two arms after G2. The 1-mm pinhole after G2 prevents rays from the probe beam refracted greater than 3 mrad from being accepted by the imaging system. The insertable 12.7-μm spacing mesh allows grid deflectometry measurements of the refraction to be measured (see Fig. 5).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

A 12.7-μm spacing mesh is placed in front of the target (as shown in Fig. 4) and backlit by the probe beam to allow grid deflectometry measurements of the refraction to be made. Different gray scales have been applied for reproducibility.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured electron density (circles), RADEX one-dimensional calculated density profile (solid curve) and the predicted modification of this profile (dashed curve), when viewed with an interferometer with refraction effects considered (1-mm target length), shown as a function of distance away from the target surface (λ=14.68 nm). The 265-nm probe beam is limited by refraction to >75 μm from the target surface with the predicted limit of the 14.68-nm probe wavelength, shown by the termination of the dashed line, at ∼13 μm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Ray tracing of the probe beam through the calculated RADEX density profile shown in Fig. 6. Two probe wavelengths, 14.68 and 265 nm, are considered for target lengths as great as 1 mm.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

θLne(z)2ncritnL,
ne(x)=neoexp-znL.
nref=(1-ne/ncrit)1/2.
Nfringe=δψ2π=1λ0L(1-nref)dlne2ncritLλ,
K=2π sin Δϕλ.
ϕ=sin-1mλd-sin β,

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