Abstract

We describe the generation of ultrafast x-ray pulses at a 2-kHz repetition rate with a new tabletop laser and x-ray generation system. The range of the emitted x-radiation wavelength is approximately a single ångstrom, from 0.3 to 0.1 nm. Specific emphasis is placed on the generation of broad continuum radiation for x-ray absorption spectroscopy. High-contrast laser pulses are desirable for generation of ultrashort pulses, which we achieve by dividing the laser system into a section for generation of high-contrast microjoule pulses followed by pulse cleaning and a section for chirped pulse amplification and pulse compression. Using this system, we generated x radiation from solid-copper and liquid-mercury targets in a helium atmosphere. From copper targets an average x-ray flux of 1013 photons/(s 4π sr keV) at 3 keV and 109 photons/(s 4π sr) above 5 keV photon energy was produced. X radiation from the mercury target did not exhibit emission lines within the spectral range 3–13 keV.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2002

2001

J. C. Kieffer, F. Dorchies, P. Forget, P. Gallant, Z. Jiang, H. Pepin, O. Peyrusse, C. Toth, A. Cavalleri, J. Squier, and K. Wilson, “Femtosecond thermal x-ray pulses from hot solid density plasmas,” Laser Phys. 11, 1201–1204 (2001).

L. X. Chen, W. J. H. Jager, G. Jennings, D. J. Gosztola, A. Munkholm, and J. P. Hessler, “Capturing a photoexcited molecular structure through time-domain x-ray absorption fine structure,” Science 292, 262–264 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jiang, T. Lee, W. Li, G. Ketwaroo, and C. Rose-Petruck, “High-average-power 2-kHz laser for generation of ultrashort x-ray pulses,” Opt. Lett. 27, 963–965 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, W. Li, T. Lee, G. Ketwaroo, and C. Rose-Petruck, “Ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy: observing the equilibrium structure and structural dynamics of solvated molecules,” in Applications of X-Rays Generated from Lasers and Other Bright Sources, J. J. Gauthier and G. A. Kyrala, eds., Proc. SPIE 4504, 42–48 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, C. Toth, J. A. Squier, C. P. J. Barty, K. R. Wilson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. H. von Hoegen, and D. von der Linde, “Ultrafast x-ray measurement of laser heating in semiconductors: parameters determining the melting threshold,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 193306/1–193306/4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Backus, R. Bartels, S. Thompson, R. Dollinger, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “High-efficiency, single-stage 7-kHz high-average-power ultrafast laser system,” Opt. Lett. 26, 465–467 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

V. Bagnoud and F. Salin, “Amplifying laser pulses to the terawatt level at a 1-kilohertz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S165–S170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Kieffer, C. Y. Chien, F. Dorchies, P. Forget, P. Gallant . Z. M. Jiang, and H. Pepin, “Ultrafast laser-based thermal x-ray sources,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. IV 1, 297–303 (2000).

C. W. Siders, A. Cavalleri, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, T. Guo, C. Tóth, R. Jimenez, C. Rose-Petruck, D. v. d. Linde, K. R. Wilson, and C. P. J. Barty, “Ultrafast movies of atomic motion with femtosecond laser-based x-rays,” in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications III, L. B. Da Silva and J. J. Rocca, eds., Proc. SPIE 3776, 302–311 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnurer, R. Nolte, A. Rousse, G. Grillon, G. Cheriaux, M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, and W. Sandner, “Dosimetric measurements of electron and photon yields from solid targets irradiated with 30 fs pulses from a 14 TW laser,” Phys. Rev. E 61, 4394–4401 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Kulcsar, D. Al Mawlawi, F. W. Budnik, P. R. Herman, M. Moskovits, L. Zhao, and R. S. Marjoribanks, “Intense picosecond x-ray pulses from laser plasmas by use of nanostructured ‘velvet’ targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5149–5152 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zhidkov, A. Sasaki, T. Utsumi, I. Fukumoto, T. Tajima, F. Saito, Y. Hironaka, K. G. Nakamura, K. Kondo, and M. Yoshida, “Prepulse effects on the interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with high-Z solids,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 7232–7240 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

T. Nishikawa, H. Nakano, and N. Uesugi, “Enhancement of soft x-ray emission from femtosecond laser-produced plasma with a rectangular groove target,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 539–542 (1999).

Y. Hironaka, Y. Fujimoto, K. G. Nakamura, and K. Kondo, “Enhancement of hard x-ray emission from a copper target by multiple shots of femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1645–1647 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Perry, J. A. Sefcik, T. Cowan, S. Hatchett, A. Hunt, M. Moran, D. Pennington, R. Snavely, and S. C. Wilks, “Hard x-ray production from high intensity laser solid interactions (invited),” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 265–269 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Nakano, P. X. Lu, T. Nishikawa, and N. Uesugi, “Prepulse effects on x-ray emission in keV and sub-keV ranges from Al plasma produced by femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulses,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 535–538 (1999).

T. Nishikawa, H. Nakano, N. Uesugi, M. Nakao, and H. Masuda, “Greatly enhanced soft x-ray generation from femtosecond-laser-produced plasma by using a nanohole-alumina target,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 4079–4081 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, I. Uschmann, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, E. Forster, J. L. Martin, and A. Antonetti, “KeV x-ray source toward 100 fs time-resolved x-ray applications,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 691–697 (1999).

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, I. Uschmann, E. Forster, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, and A. Antonetti, “Subpicosecond x-ray diffraction study of laser-induced disorder dynamics above the damage threshold of organic solids,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 32, 977–981 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Siders, A. Cavalleri, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, C. Toth, T. Guo, M. Kammler, M. H. von Hoegen, K. R. Wilson, D. von der Linde, and C. P. J. Barty, “Detection of nonthermal melting by ultrafast x-ray diffraction,” Science 286, 1340–1342 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rousse, “Subpicosecond-scale atomic dynamics: state of the art,” J. Phys. IV: Proc. 9, 57–61 (1999).

C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, T. Guo, A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, F. Ráksi, J. Squier, B. Walker, K. R. Wilson, and C. P. J. Barty, “Picosecond-milliangstrom lattice dynamics measured by ultrafast x-ray diffraction,” Nature 398, 310–312 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

Y. Nabekawa, Y. Kuramoto, T. Togashi, T. Sekikawa, and S. Watanabe, “Generation of 0.66-TW pulses at 1 kHz by a Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1384–1386 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. C. G. Durfee, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Design and implementations of a TW-class high-average power laser system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4, 395–406 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Le Blanc, E. Baubeau, F. Salin, J. A. Squier, C. P. J. Barty, and C. Spielmann, “Toward a terawatt-kilohertz repetition-rate laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4, 407–413 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Nantel, J. Itatani, A. C. Tien, J. Faure, D. Kaplan, M. Bouvier, T. Buma, P. Van Rompay, J. Nees, P. P. Pronko, D. Umstadter, and G. A. Mourou, “Temporal contrast in Ti:sapphire lasers: characterization and control,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4, 449–458 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Cote, J. C. Kieffer, Z. Jiang, A. Ikhlef, and H. Pepin, “keV x-ray emission produced by a sub-picosecond laser interacting with a controlled preformed plasma,” J. Phys. B 31, L883–L889 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Savel’ev, V. G. Babaev, M. S. Dzhidzhoev, V. M. Gordienko, M. A. Joukov, A. A. Shashkov, V. Y. Timoshenko, and R. V. Volkov, “Femtosecond plasma in solid targets with reduced thermal conduction: x-ray production and second harmonic generation,” Laser Phys. 8, 637–641 (1998).

T. Nishikawa, H. Nakano, N. Uesugi, and T. Serikawa, “Porous layer effects on soft x-ray radiation emitted from a plasma generated by 130-fs laser pulses irradiating a porous silicon target,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 567–570 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Volkov, V. M. Gordienko, M. S. Dzhidzhoev, B. V. Kamenev, P. K. Kashkarov, Y. V. Ponomarev, A. B. Savel’ev, V. Y. Timoshenko, and A. A. Shashkov, “Generation of hard x-ray radiation by irradiation of porous silicon with ultraintense femtosecond laser pulses,” Quantum Electron. 28, 1–2 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. V. Volkov, V. M. Gordienko, M. S. Dzhidzhoev, M. A. Zhukov, P. M. Mikheev, A. B. Savel’ev, and A. A. Shashkov, “Control of the properties and diagnostics of a dense femtosecond plasma formed from modified targets,” Quantum Electron. 27, 1081–1093 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Nishikawa, H. Nakano, H. Ahn, N. Uesugi, and T. Serikawa, “X-ray generation enhancement from a laser-produced plasma with a porous silicon target,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1653–1655 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Bastiani, A. Rousse, J. P. Geinder, P. Audebert, C. Quoix, G. Hamoniaux, A. Antonetti, and J.-C. Gauthier, “Experi-mental study of the interaction of subpicosecond laser pulses with solid targets of varying initial scale lengths,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 7179–7185 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Andreev, V. I. Bayanov, A. B. Vankov, A. A. Kozlov, V. M. Komarov, I. V. Kurnin, N. A. Solovev, S. A. Chizhov, and V. E. Yashin, “Emission of x-rays from a plasma formed by a train of picosecond laser pulses,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 24, 79–81 (1997).

C. Rischel, A. Rousse, I. Uschmann, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, E. Forster, J. L. Martin, and A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond time-resolved x-ray diffraction from laser-heated organic films,” Nature 390, 490–492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

F. Raksi, K. R. Wilson, Z. M. Jiang, A. Ikhlef, C. Y. Cote, and J. C. Kieffer, “Ultrafast x-ray absorption probing of a chemical reaction,” J. Chem. Phys. 104, 6066–6079 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Volfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zolotorev, K. J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond x-ray pulses at 0.4 Å generated by 90° Thomson scattering: a tool for probing the structural dynamics of materials,” Science 274, 236–238 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. Srajer, T. Tsu-yi, T. Ursby, C. Pradervand, R. Zhong, S.-I. Adachi, W. Schildkamp, D. Bourgeois, M. Wulff, and K. Moffat, “Photolysis of the carbon monoxide complex of myoglobin: nanosecond time-resolved crystallography,” Science 274, 1726–1729 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chen, I. V. Tomov, and P. M. Rentzepis, “Time resolved heat propagation in gold crystals by means of picosecond x-ray diffraction,” J. Chem. Phys. 104, 10001–10007 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Steingruber, S. Borgstrom, T. Starczewski, and U. Litzen, “Prepulse dependence of x-ray emission from plasmas created by IR femtosecond laser pulses on solids,” J. Phys. B 29, L75–L81 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Nickles, M. Schnuerer, M. P. Kalachnikov, and T. Schlegel, “X-ray emission from short-pulse laser plasmas,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 229–239 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Gratz, C. Tillman, I. Mercer, and S. Svanberg, “X-ray generation for medical applications from a laser-produced plasma,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 96–8, 443–447 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Gibbon and E. Forster, “Short-pulse laser-plasma interactions,” Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 38, 769–793 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. C. Gauthier, “Short-pulse laser interaction with solid targets,” Laser Interact. Matter, 140, 1–7 (1995).

W. Theobald, C. Wulker, S. Szatmari, F. P. Schafer, and J. S. Bakos, “Investigation of the interaction of subpicosecond Krf laser pulses with a preformed carbon plasma,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 593–600 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lin, C. H. Chao, H. Ma, and P. M. Rentzepis, “Theory of ultrafast time resolved x-ray diffraction and applications to vaporization kinetics of finite systems,” in Time-Resolved Electron and X-Ray Diffraction, P. M. Rentzepis, ed., Proc. SPIE 2521, 258–268 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Tomov, P. Chen, and P. M. Rentzepis, “Picosecond time-resolved x-ray-diffraction during laser-pulse heating of an Au(111) crystal,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 28, 358–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Larson and J. Z. Tischler, “Time-resolved materials science opportunities using synchrotron x-ray sources,” in Time-Resolved Electron and X-Ray Diffraction, P. M. Rentzepis, ed., Proc. SPIE 2521, 208–219 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Wark, N. C. Woolsey, and R. R. Whitlock, “Time-resolved x-ray diffraction from shock-compressed solids,” in Time-Resolved Electron and X-Ray Diffraction, P. M. Rentzepis, ed., Proc. SPIE 2521, 232–243 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Ráksi, K. R. Wilson, Z. Jiang, A. Ikhlef, C. Y. Co⁁té, and J.-C. Kieffer, “Ultrafast 2.5 keV x-ray absorption probing of a chemical reaction with 3 ps time resolution,” in Applications of Laser Plasma Radiation II, G. A. Kyrala and M. C. Richardson, eds., Proc. SPIE 2523, 306–315 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. R. Pressprich, M. A. White, Y. Vekhter, and P. Coppens, “Analysis of a metastable electronic excited state of sodium nitroprusside by x-ray crystallography,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 5233–5238 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Rousse, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, F. Fallies, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, “Efficient k-alpha-x-ray source from femtosecond laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 50, 2200–2207 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Gordon, T. Donnelly, A. Sullivan, H. Hamster, and R. W. Falcone, “X-rays from microstructured targets heated by femtosecond lasers,” Opt. Lett. 19, 484–486 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

H. He, J. S. Wark, E. Foerster, I. Uschmann, O. Renner, M. Kopecky, and W. Blyth, “Double-crystal high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 26–30 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Anderson, I. V. Tomov, and M. P. Rentzepis, “A high repetition rate, picosecond hard x-ray system, and its application to time resolved x-ray diffraction,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 869–875 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Kieffer, M. Chaker, J. P. Matte, H. Pepin, C. Y. Cote, Y. Beaudoin, T. W. Johnston, C. Y. Chien, S. Coe, G. Mourou, and O. Peyrusse, “Ultrasfast x-ray sources,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 2676–2681 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

J. D. Kmetec, C. L. Gordon, J. J. Macklin, B. E. Lemoff, G. S. Brown, and S. E. Harris, “MeV x-ray generation with a femtosecond laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1527–1530 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and R. W. Falcone, “Generation of efficient ultrafast laser-plasma x-ray sources,” Phys. Fluids B 3, 2409–2413 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

H. van Wonterghem and P. M. Rentzepis, “Characteristics of a TA photocathode for the generation of picosecond x-ray pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1005–1007 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Wong, E. M. Larson, J. B. Holt, P. A. Waide, B. Rupp, and R. Frahm, “Time-resolved x-ray diffraction study of solid combustion reactions,” Science 249, 1406–1409 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

J. S. Wark, R. R. Whitlock, A. A. Hauer, J. E. Swain, and P. J. Solone, “Subnanosecond x-ray-diffraction from laser-shocked crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 5705–5714 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987

R. Kodama, T. Mochizuki, K. A. Tanaka, and C. Yamanaka, “Enhancement of keV x-ray emission in laser-produced plasmas by a weak prepulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 720–722 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

J. S. Wark, R. R. Whitlock, A. Hauer, J. E. Swain, and P. J. Solone, “Shock launching in silicon studied with use of pulsed x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 9391–9394 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Bergsma, M. H. Colodonato, P. M. Edelsten, K. R. Wilson, and D. R. Fredkin, “Transient x-ray scattering calculated from molecular dynamics,” J. Chem. Phys. 84, 6151–6160 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984

S. Williamson and G. Mourou, “Time-resolved laser-induced phase transformation in aluminum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 2364–2367 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982

G. Mourou and S. Williamson, “Picosecond electron diffraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 44–45 (1982).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Larson, C. W. White, T. S. Noggle, and D. Mills, “Synchrotron x-ray diffraction study of silicon during pulsed-laser annealing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 337–340 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, S.-I.

V. Srajer, T. Tsu-yi, T. Ursby, C. Pradervand, R. Zhong, S.-I. Adachi, W. Schildkamp, D. Bourgeois, M. Wulff, and K. Moffat, “Photolysis of the carbon monoxide complex of myoglobin: nanosecond time-resolved crystallography,” Science 274, 1726–1729 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, H.

T. Nishikawa, H. Nakano, H. Ahn, N. Uesugi, and T. Serikawa, “X-ray generation enhancement from a laser-produced plasma with a porous silicon target,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1653–1655 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Al Mawlawi, D.

G. Kulcsar, D. Al Mawlawi, F. W. Budnik, P. R. Herman, M. Moskovits, L. Zhao, and R. S. Marjoribanks, “Intense picosecond x-ray pulses from laser plasmas by use of nanostructured ‘velvet’ targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5149–5152 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Albouy, P. A.

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, I. Uschmann, E. Forster, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, and A. Antonetti, “Subpicosecond x-ray diffraction study of laser-induced disorder dynamics above the damage threshold of organic solids,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 32, 977–981 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, I. Uschmann, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, E. Forster, J. L. Martin, and A. Antonetti, “KeV x-ray source toward 100 fs time-resolved x-ray applications,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 691–697 (1999).

C. Rischel, A. Rousse, I. Uschmann, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, E. Forster, J. L. Martin, and A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond time-resolved x-ray diffraction from laser-heated organic films,” Nature 390, 490–492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, T.

T. Anderson, I. V. Tomov, and M. P. Rentzepis, “A high repetition rate, picosecond hard x-ray system, and its application to time resolved x-ray diffraction,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 869–875 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Andreev, A. A.

A. A. Andreev, V. I. Bayanov, A. B. Vankov, A. A. Kozlov, V. M. Komarov, I. V. Kurnin, N. A. Solovev, S. A. Chizhov, and V. E. Yashin, “Emission of x-rays from a plasma formed by a train of picosecond laser pulses,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 24, 79–81 (1997).

Antonetti, A.

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, I. Uschmann, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, E. Forster, J. L. Martin, and A. Antonetti, “KeV x-ray source toward 100 fs time-resolved x-ray applications,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 691–697 (1999).

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, I. Uschmann, E. Forster, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, and A. Antonetti, “Subpicosecond x-ray diffraction study of laser-induced disorder dynamics above the damage threshold of organic solids,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 32, 977–981 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Rischel, A. Rousse, I. Uschmann, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, E. Forster, J. L. Martin, and A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond time-resolved x-ray diffraction from laser-heated organic films,” Nature 390, 490–492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Bastiani, A. Rousse, J. P. Geinder, P. Audebert, C. Quoix, G. Hamoniaux, A. Antonetti, and J.-C. Gauthier, “Experi-mental study of the interaction of subpicosecond laser pulses with solid targets of varying initial scale lengths,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 7179–7185 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Rousse, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, F. Fallies, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, “Efficient k-alpha-x-ray source from femtosecond laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 50, 2200–2207 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Audebert, P.

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, I. Uschmann, E. Forster, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, and A. Antonetti, “Subpicosecond x-ray diffraction study of laser-induced disorder dynamics above the damage threshold of organic solids,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 32, 977–981 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, I. Uschmann, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, E. Forster, J. L. Martin, and A. Antonetti, “KeV x-ray source toward 100 fs time-resolved x-ray applications,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 691–697 (1999).

C. Rischel, A. Rousse, I. Uschmann, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, E. Forster, J. L. Martin, and A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond time-resolved x-ray diffraction from laser-heated organic films,” Nature 390, 490–492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Bastiani, A. Rousse, J. P. Geinder, P. Audebert, C. Quoix, G. Hamoniaux, A. Antonetti, and J.-C. Gauthier, “Experi-mental study of the interaction of subpicosecond laser pulses with solid targets of varying initial scale lengths,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 7179–7185 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Rousse, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, F. Fallies, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, “Efficient k-alpha-x-ray source from femtosecond laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 50, 2200–2207 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Babaev, V. G.

A. B. Savel’ev, V. G. Babaev, M. S. Dzhidzhoev, V. M. Gordienko, M. A. Joukov, A. A. Shashkov, V. Y. Timoshenko, and R. V. Volkov, “Femtosecond plasma in solid targets with reduced thermal conduction: x-ray production and second harmonic generation,” Laser Phys. 8, 637–641 (1998).

Backus, S.

S. Backus, R. Bartels, S. Thompson, R. Dollinger, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “High-efficiency, single-stage 7-kHz high-average-power ultrafast laser system,” Opt. Lett. 26, 465–467 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. C. G. Durfee, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Design and implementations of a TW-class high-average power laser system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4, 395–406 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bagnoud, V.

V. Bagnoud and F. Salin, “Amplifying laser pulses to the terawatt level at a 1-kilohertz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S165–S170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bakos, J. S.

W. Theobald, C. Wulker, S. Szatmari, F. P. Schafer, and J. S. Bakos, “Investigation of the interaction of subpicosecond Krf laser pulses with a preformed carbon plasma,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 593–600 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Balling, P.

R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Volfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zolotorev, K. J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond x-ray pulses at 0.4 Å generated by 90° Thomson scattering: a tool for probing the structural dynamics of materials,” Science 274, 236–238 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, R.

Barty, C. P. J.

A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, C. Toth, J. A. Squier, C. P. J. Barty, K. R. Wilson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. H. von Hoegen, and D. von der Linde, “Ultrafast x-ray measurement of laser heating in semiconductors: parameters determining the melting threshold,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 193306/1–193306/4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Siders, A. Cavalleri, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, T. Guo, C. Tóth, R. Jimenez, C. Rose-Petruck, D. v. d. Linde, K. R. Wilson, and C. P. J. Barty, “Ultrafast movies of atomic motion with femtosecond laser-based x-rays,” in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications III, L. B. Da Silva and J. J. Rocca, eds., Proc. SPIE 3776, 302–311 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, T. Guo, A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, F. Ráksi, J. Squier, B. Walker, K. R. Wilson, and C. P. J. Barty, “Picosecond-milliangstrom lattice dynamics measured by ultrafast x-ray diffraction,” Nature 398, 310–312 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Siders, A. Cavalleri, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, C. Toth, T. Guo, M. Kammler, M. H. von Hoegen, K. R. Wilson, D. von der Linde, and C. P. J. Barty, “Detection of nonthermal melting by ultrafast x-ray diffraction,” Science 286, 1340–1342 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Le Blanc, E. Baubeau, F. Salin, J. A. Squier, C. P. J. Barty, and C. Spielmann, “Toward a terawatt-kilohertz repetition-rate laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4, 407–413 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bastiani, S.

S. Bastiani, A. Rousse, J. P. Geinder, P. Audebert, C. Quoix, G. Hamoniaux, A. Antonetti, and J.-C. Gauthier, “Experi-mental study of the interaction of subpicosecond laser pulses with solid targets of varying initial scale lengths,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 7179–7185 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baubeau, E.

C. Le Blanc, E. Baubeau, F. Salin, J. A. Squier, C. P. J. Barty, and C. Spielmann, “Toward a terawatt-kilohertz repetition-rate laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4, 407–413 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bayanov, V. I.

A. A. Andreev, V. I. Bayanov, A. B. Vankov, A. A. Kozlov, V. M. Komarov, I. V. Kurnin, N. A. Solovev, S. A. Chizhov, and V. E. Yashin, “Emission of x-rays from a plasma formed by a train of picosecond laser pulses,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 24, 79–81 (1997).

Beaudoin, Y.

J. C. Kieffer, M. Chaker, J. P. Matte, H. Pepin, C. Y. Cote, Y. Beaudoin, T. W. Johnston, C. Y. Chien, S. Coe, G. Mourou, and O. Peyrusse, “Ultrasfast x-ray sources,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 2676–2681 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bergsma, J. P.

J. P. Bergsma, M. H. Colodonato, P. M. Edelsten, K. R. Wilson, and D. R. Fredkin, “Transient x-ray scattering calculated from molecular dynamics,” J. Chem. Phys. 84, 6151–6160 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Blyth, W.

H. He, J. S. Wark, E. Foerster, I. Uschmann, O. Renner, M. Kopecky, and W. Blyth, “Double-crystal high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 26–30 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Borgstrom, S.

J. Steingruber, S. Borgstrom, T. Starczewski, and U. Litzen, “Prepulse dependence of x-ray emission from plasmas created by IR femtosecond laser pulses on solids,” J. Phys. B 29, L75–L81 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bourgeois, D.

V. Srajer, T. Tsu-yi, T. Ursby, C. Pradervand, R. Zhong, S.-I. Adachi, W. Schildkamp, D. Bourgeois, M. Wulff, and K. Moffat, “Photolysis of the carbon monoxide complex of myoglobin: nanosecond time-resolved crystallography,” Science 274, 1726–1729 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouvier, M.

M. Nantel, J. Itatani, A. C. Tien, J. Faure, D. Kaplan, M. Bouvier, T. Buma, P. Van Rompay, J. Nees, P. P. Pronko, D. Umstadter, and G. A. Mourou, “Temporal contrast in Ti:sapphire lasers: characterization and control,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4, 449–458 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brown, G. S.

J. D. Kmetec, C. L. Gordon, J. J. Macklin, B. E. Lemoff, G. S. Brown, and S. E. Harris, “MeV x-ray generation with a femtosecond laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1527–1530 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Budnik, F. W.

G. Kulcsar, D. Al Mawlawi, F. W. Budnik, P. R. Herman, M. Moskovits, L. Zhao, and R. S. Marjoribanks, “Intense picosecond x-ray pulses from laser plasmas by use of nanostructured ‘velvet’ targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5149–5152 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buma, T.

M. Nantel, J. Itatani, A. C. Tien, J. Faure, D. Kaplan, M. Bouvier, T. Buma, P. Van Rompay, J. Nees, P. P. Pronko, D. Umstadter, and G. A. Mourou, “Temporal contrast in Ti:sapphire lasers: characterization and control,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4, 449–458 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cavalleri, A.

J. C. Kieffer, F. Dorchies, P. Forget, P. Gallant, Z. Jiang, H. Pepin, O. Peyrusse, C. Toth, A. Cavalleri, J. Squier, and K. Wilson, “Femtosecond thermal x-ray pulses from hot solid density plasmas,” Laser Phys. 11, 1201–1204 (2001).

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J. C. Kieffer, M. Chaker, J. P. Matte, H. Pepin, C. Y. Cote, Y. Beaudoin, T. W. Johnston, C. Y. Chien, S. Coe, G. Mourou, and O. Peyrusse, “Ultrasfast x-ray sources,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 2676–2681 (1993).
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L. X. Chen, W. J. H. Jager, G. Jennings, D. J. Gosztola, A. Munkholm, and J. P. Hessler, “Capturing a photoexcited molecular structure through time-domain x-ray absorption fine structure,” Science 292, 262–264 (2001).
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J. C. Kieffer, M. Chaker, J. P. Matte, H. Pepin, C. Y. Cote, Y. Beaudoin, T. W. Johnston, C. Y. Chien, S. Coe, G. Mourou, and O. Peyrusse, “Ultrasfast x-ray sources,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 2676–2681 (1993).
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J. C. Kieffer, C. Y. Chien, F. Dorchies, P. Forget, P. Gallant . Z. M. Jiang, and H. Pepin, “Ultrafast laser-based thermal x-ray sources,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. IV 1, 297–303 (2000).

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J. C. Kieffer, C. Y. Chien, F. Dorchies, P. Forget, P. Gallant . Z. M. Jiang, and H. Pepin, “Ultrafast laser-based thermal x-ray sources,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. IV 1, 297–303 (2000).

Forster, E.

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, I. Uschmann, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, E. Forster, J. L. Martin, and A. Antonetti, “KeV x-ray source toward 100 fs time-resolved x-ray applications,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 691–697 (1999).

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, I. Uschmann, E. Forster, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, and A. Antonetti, “Subpicosecond x-ray diffraction study of laser-induced disorder dynamics above the damage threshold of organic solids,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 32, 977–981 (1999).
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C. Rischel, A. Rousse, I. Uschmann, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, E. Forster, J. L. Martin, and A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond time-resolved x-ray diffraction from laser-heated organic films,” Nature 390, 490–492 (1997).
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J. Wong, E. M. Larson, J. B. Holt, P. A. Waide, B. Rupp, and R. Frahm, “Time-resolved x-ray diffraction study of solid combustion reactions,” Science 249, 1406–1409 (1990).
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J. P. Bergsma, M. H. Colodonato, P. M. Edelsten, K. R. Wilson, and D. R. Fredkin, “Transient x-ray scattering calculated from molecular dynamics,” J. Chem. Phys. 84, 6151–6160 (1986).
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Y. Hironaka, Y. Fujimoto, K. G. Nakamura, and K. Kondo, “Enhancement of hard x-ray emission from a copper target by multiple shots of femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1645–1647 (1999).
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A. Zhidkov, A. Sasaki, T. Utsumi, I. Fukumoto, T. Tajima, F. Saito, Y. Hironaka, K. G. Nakamura, K. Kondo, and M. Yoshida, “Prepulse effects on the interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with high-Z solids,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 7232–7240 (2000).
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J. C. Kieffer, F. Dorchies, P. Forget, P. Gallant, Z. Jiang, H. Pepin, O. Peyrusse, C. Toth, A. Cavalleri, J. Squier, and K. Wilson, “Femtosecond thermal x-ray pulses from hot solid density plasmas,” Laser Phys. 11, 1201–1204 (2001).

J. C. Kieffer, C. Y. Chien, F. Dorchies, P. Forget, P. Gallant . Z. M. Jiang, and H. Pepin, “Ultrafast laser-based thermal x-ray sources,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. IV 1, 297–303 (2000).

Gauthier, J. C.

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, I. Uschmann, E. Forster, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, and A. Antonetti, “Subpicosecond x-ray diffraction study of laser-induced disorder dynamics above the damage threshold of organic solids,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 32, 977–981 (1999).
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A. Rousse, C. Rischel, I. Uschmann, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, E. Forster, J. L. Martin, and A. Antonetti, “KeV x-ray source toward 100 fs time-resolved x-ray applications,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 691–697 (1999).

C. Rischel, A. Rousse, I. Uschmann, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, E. Forster, J. L. Martin, and A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond time-resolved x-ray diffraction from laser-heated organic films,” Nature 390, 490–492 (1997).
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A. Rousse, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, F. Fallies, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, “Efficient k-alpha-x-ray source from femtosecond laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 50, 2200–2207 (1994).
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S. Bastiani, A. Rousse, J. P. Geinder, P. Audebert, C. Quoix, G. Hamoniaux, A. Antonetti, and J.-C. Gauthier, “Experi-mental study of the interaction of subpicosecond laser pulses with solid targets of varying initial scale lengths,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 7179–7185 (1997).
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S. Bastiani, A. Rousse, J. P. Geinder, P. Audebert, C. Quoix, G. Hamoniaux, A. Antonetti, and J.-C. Gauthier, “Experi-mental study of the interaction of subpicosecond laser pulses with solid targets of varying initial scale lengths,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 7179–7185 (1997).
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A. Rousse, C. Rischel, I. Uschmann, E. Forster, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, and A. Antonetti, “Subpicosecond x-ray diffraction study of laser-induced disorder dynamics above the damage threshold of organic solids,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 32, 977–981 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, I. Uschmann, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, E. Forster, J. L. Martin, and A. Antonetti, “KeV x-ray source toward 100 fs time-resolved x-ray applications,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 691–697 (1999).

C. Rischel, A. Rousse, I. Uschmann, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, E. Forster, J. L. Martin, and A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond time-resolved x-ray diffraction from laser-heated organic films,” Nature 390, 490–492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Rousse, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, F. Fallies, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, “Efficient k-alpha-x-ray source from femtosecond laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 50, 2200–2207 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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P. Gibbon and E. Forster, “Short-pulse laser-plasma interactions,” Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 38, 769–793 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Volfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zolotorev, K. J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond x-ray pulses at 0.4 Å generated by 90° Thomson scattering: a tool for probing the structural dynamics of materials,” Science 274, 236–238 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gordienko, V. M.

A. B. Savel’ev, V. G. Babaev, M. S. Dzhidzhoev, V. M. Gordienko, M. A. Joukov, A. A. Shashkov, V. Y. Timoshenko, and R. V. Volkov, “Femtosecond plasma in solid targets with reduced thermal conduction: x-ray production and second harmonic generation,” Laser Phys. 8, 637–641 (1998).

R. V. Volkov, V. M. Gordienko, M. S. Dzhidzhoev, B. V. Kamenev, P. K. Kashkarov, Y. V. Ponomarev, A. B. Savel’ev, V. Y. Timoshenko, and A. A. Shashkov, “Generation of hard x-ray radiation by irradiation of porous silicon with ultraintense femtosecond laser pulses,” Quantum Electron. 28, 1–2 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Volkov, V. M. Gordienko, M. S. Dzhidzhoev, M. A. Zhukov, P. M. Mikheev, A. B. Savel’ev, and A. A. Shashkov, “Control of the properties and diagnostics of a dense femtosecond plasma formed from modified targets,” Quantum Electron. 27, 1081–1093 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, C. L.

J. D. Kmetec, C. L. Gordon, J. J. Macklin, B. E. Lemoff, G. S. Brown, and S. E. Harris, “MeV x-ray generation with a femtosecond laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1527–1530 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, S. P.

Gosztola, D. J.

L. X. Chen, W. J. H. Jager, G. Jennings, D. J. Gosztola, A. Munkholm, and J. P. Hessler, “Capturing a photoexcited molecular structure through time-domain x-ray absorption fine structure,” Science 292, 262–264 (2001).
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M. Schnurer, R. Nolte, A. Rousse, G. Grillon, G. Cheriaux, M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, and W. Sandner, “Dosimetric measurements of electron and photon yields from solid targets irradiated with 30 fs pulses from a 14 TW laser,” Phys. Rev. E 61, 4394–4401 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Rousse, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, F. Fallies, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, “Efficient k-alpha-x-ray source from femtosecond laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 50, 2200–2207 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Guo, T.

C. W. Siders, A. Cavalleri, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, T. Guo, C. Tóth, R. Jimenez, C. Rose-Petruck, D. v. d. Linde, K. R. Wilson, and C. P. J. Barty, “Ultrafast movies of atomic motion with femtosecond laser-based x-rays,” in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications III, L. B. Da Silva and J. J. Rocca, eds., Proc. SPIE 3776, 302–311 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Siders, A. Cavalleri, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, C. Toth, T. Guo, M. Kammler, M. H. von Hoegen, K. R. Wilson, D. von der Linde, and C. P. J. Barty, “Detection of nonthermal melting by ultrafast x-ray diffraction,” Science 286, 1340–1342 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, T. Guo, A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, F. Ráksi, J. Squier, B. Walker, K. R. Wilson, and C. P. J. Barty, “Picosecond-milliangstrom lattice dynamics measured by ultrafast x-ray diffraction,” Nature 398, 310–312 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hamoniaux, G.

S. Bastiani, A. Rousse, J. P. Geinder, P. Audebert, C. Quoix, G. Hamoniaux, A. Antonetti, and J.-C. Gauthier, “Experi-mental study of the interaction of subpicosecond laser pulses with solid targets of varying initial scale lengths,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 7179–7185 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Harris, S. E.

J. D. Kmetec, C. L. Gordon, J. J. Macklin, B. E. Lemoff, G. S. Brown, and S. E. Harris, “MeV x-ray generation with a femtosecond laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1527–1530 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. D. Perry, J. A. Sefcik, T. Cowan, S. Hatchett, A. Hunt, M. Moran, D. Pennington, R. Snavely, and S. C. Wilks, “Hard x-ray production from high intensity laser solid interactions (invited),” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 265–269 (1999).
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H. He, J. S. Wark, E. Foerster, I. Uschmann, O. Renner, M. Kopecky, and W. Blyth, “Double-crystal high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 26–30 (1993).
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G. Kulcsar, D. Al Mawlawi, F. W. Budnik, P. R. Herman, M. Moskovits, L. Zhao, and R. S. Marjoribanks, “Intense picosecond x-ray pulses from laser plasmas by use of nanostructured ‘velvet’ targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5149–5152 (2000).
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L. X. Chen, W. J. H. Jager, G. Jennings, D. J. Gosztola, A. Munkholm, and J. P. Hessler, “Capturing a photoexcited molecular structure through time-domain x-ray absorption fine structure,” Science 292, 262–264 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Zhidkov, A. Sasaki, T. Utsumi, I. Fukumoto, T. Tajima, F. Saito, Y. Hironaka, K. G. Nakamura, K. Kondo, and M. Yoshida, “Prepulse effects on the interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with high-Z solids,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 7232–7240 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hironaka, Y. Fujimoto, K. G. Nakamura, and K. Kondo, “Enhancement of hard x-ray emission from a copper target by multiple shots of femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1645–1647 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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J. Wong, E. M. Larson, J. B. Holt, P. A. Waide, B. Rupp, and R. Frahm, “Time-resolved x-ray diffraction study of solid combustion reactions,” Science 249, 1406–1409 (1990).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

X-ray emission spectrum (thicker solid curve) and its 95% confidence interval (thinner solid curves) measured from a solid-copper target in a helium atmosphere at 1 bar. The spectrum is corrected for the detection efficiency of the x-ray CCD camera as well as for the absorption of all materials in the x-ray beam’s path. The copper fluorescence lines are measured with a spectral resolution of 170 eV. For orientation, the positions of the iron and the chlorine K absorption edges are shown. The continuum radiation at the iron edge is comparable to the flux in the Cu Kα line. An upgrade from the current f10 to an f1 focusing optics is expected to increase the x-ray flux by ∼3 orders of magnitude.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Design of the laser system. The beam path in the expander is vertically folded twice. For clarity, some mode-matching lenses are not shown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Laser spectrum at various locations in the laser system. The transmission through the saturable absorber is spectrally well balanced, indicating that the saturable absorber improves the contrast equally well over the entire pulse spectrum.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Prepulse–main-pulse contrast (left-hand bar of each pair) and ASE intensity–main pulse intensity contrast (right-hand bar) at various locations in the laser system. All ASE contrast values are normalized to a main pulse length of 40 fs, irrespective of the fact that the main pulse is temporarily expanded in the CPA section of the laser system.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

X-ray emission spectrum measured from a liquid-mercury target in a helium atmosphere at standard conditions. The spectrum is corrected for the detection efficiency of the x-ray CCD camera and the absorption of all materials in the x-ray beam’s path. For orientation, the positions of the iron and the chlorine K absorption edges are shown. No line emission is visible in the entire spectral range.

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