Abstract

We describe the generation of ultrafast x-ray pulses at a 2-kHz repetition rate with a new tabletop laser and x-ray generation system. The range of the emitted x-radiation wavelength is approximately a single ångstrom, from 0.3 to 0.1 nm. Specific emphasis is placed on the generation of broad continuum radiation for x-ray absorption spectroscopy. High-contrast laser pulses are desirable for generation of ultrashort pulses, which we achieve by dividing the laser system into a section for generation of high-contrast microjoule pulses followed by pulse cleaning and a section for chirped pulse amplification and pulse compression. Using this system, we generated x radiation from solid-copper and liquid-mercury targets in a helium atmosphere. From copper targets an average x-ray flux of 1013 photons/(s 4π sr keV) at 3 keV and 109 photons/(s 4π sr) above 5 keV photon energy was produced. X radiation from the mercury target did not exhibit emission lines within the spectral range 3–13 keV.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2002 (1)

2001 (5)

S. Backus, R. Bartels, S. Thompson, R. Dollinger, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “High-efficiency, single-stage 7-kHz high-average-power ultrafast laser system,” Opt. Lett. 26, 465–467 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, C. Toth, J. A. Squier, C. P. J. Barty, K. R. Wilson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. H. von Hoegen, and D. von der Linde, “Ultrafast x-ray measurement of laser heating in semiconductors: parameters determining the melting threshold,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 193306/1–193306/4 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. X. Chen, W. J. H. Jager, G. Jennings, D. J. Gosztola, A. Munkholm, and J. P. Hessler, “Capturing a photoexcited molecular structure through time-domain x-ray absorption fine structure,” Science 292, 262–264 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jiang, T. Lee, W. Li, G. Ketwaroo, and C. Rose-Petruck, “High-average-power 2-kHz laser for generation of ultrashort x-ray pulses,” Opt. Lett. 27, 963–965 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. C. Kieffer, F. Dorchies, P. Forget, P. Gallant, Z. Jiang, H. Pepin, O. Peyrusse, C. Toth, A. Cavalleri, J. Squier, and K. Wilson, “Femtosecond thermal x-ray pulses from hot solid density plasmas,” Laser Phys. 11, 1201–1204 (2001).

2000 (5)

J. C. Kieffer, C. Y. Chien, F. Dorchies, P. Forget, P. Gallant, Z. M. Jiang, and H. Pepin, “Ultrafast laser-based thermal x-ray sources,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. IV 1, 297–303 (2000).

M. Schnurer, R. Nolte, A. Rousse, G. Grillon, G. Cheriaux, M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, and W. Sandner, “Dosimetric measurements of electron and photon yields from solid targets irradiated with 30 fs pulses from a 14 TW laser,” Phys. Rev. E 61, 4394–4401 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Zhidkov, A. Sasaki, T. Utsumi, I. Fukumoto, T. Tajima, F. Saito, Y. Hironaka, K. G. Nakamura, K. Kondo, and M. Yoshida, “Prepulse effects on the interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with high-Z solids,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 7232–7240 (2000).
[Crossref]

G. Kulcsar, D. Al Mawlawi, F. W. Budnik, P. R. Herman, M. Moskovits, L. Zhao, and R. S. Marjoribanks, “Intense picosecond x-ray pulses from laser plasmas by use of nanostructured ‘velvet’ targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5149–5152 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Bagnoud and F. Salin, “Amplifying laser pulses to the terawatt level at a 1-kilohertz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S165–S170 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (10)

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, I. Uschmann, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, E. Forster, J. L. Martin, and A. Antonetti, “KeV x-ray source toward 100 fs time-resolved x-ray applications,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 691–697 (1999).

C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, T. Guo, A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, F. Ráksi, J. Squier, B. Walker, K. R. Wilson, and C. P. J. Barty, “Picosecond-milliangstrom lattice dynamics measured by ultrafast x-ray diffraction,” Nature 398, 310–312 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, I. Uschmann, E. Forster, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, and A. Antonetti, “Subpicosecond x-ray diffraction study of laser-induced disorder dynamics above the damage threshold of organic solids,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 32, 977–981 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. W. Siders, A. Cavalleri, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, C. Toth, T. Guo, M. Kammler, M. H. von Hoegen, K. R. Wilson, D. von der Linde, and C. P. J. Barty, “Detection of nonthermal melting by ultrafast x-ray diffraction,” Science 286, 1340–1342 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Rousse, “Subpicosecond-scale atomic dynamics: state of the art,” J. Phys. IV: Proc. 9, 57–61 (1999).

T. Nishikawa, H. Nakano, and N. Uesugi, “Enhancement of soft x-ray emission from femtosecond laser-produced plasma with a rectangular groove target,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 539-542 (1999).

Y. Hironaka, Y. Fujimoto, K. G. Nakamura, and K. Kondo, “Enhancement of hard x-ray emission from a copper target by multiple shots of femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1645–1647 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. Nakano, P. X. Lu, T. Nishikawa, and N. Uesugi, “Prepulse effects on x-ray emission in keV and sub-keV ranges from Al plasma produced by femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulses,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 535–538 (1999).

T. Nishikawa, H. Nakano, N. Uesugi, M. Nakao, and H. Masuda, “Greatly enhanced soft x-ray generation from femtosecond-laser-produced plasma by using a nanohole-alumina target,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 4079–4081 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. D. Perry, J. A. Sefcik, T. Cowan, S. Hatchett, A. Hunt, M. Moran, D. Pennington, R. Snavely, and S. C. Wilks, “Hard x-ray production from high intensity laser solid interactions (invited),” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 265–269 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (8)

C. Y. Cote, J. C. Kieffer, Z. Jiang, A. Ikhlef, and H. Pepin, “keV x-ray emission produced by a sub-picosecond laser interacting with a controlled preformed plasma,” J. Phys. B 31, L883–L889 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. B. Savel’ev, V. G. Babaev, M. S. Dzhidzhoev, V. M. Gordienko, M. A. Joukov, A. A. Shashkov, V. Y. Timoshenko, and R. V. Volkov, “Femtosecond plasma in solid targets with reduced thermal conduction: x-ray production and second harmonic generation,” Laser Phys. 8, 637–641 (1998).

M. Nantel, J. Itatani, A. C. Tien, J. Faure, D. Kaplan, M. Bouvier, T. Buma, P. Van Rompay, J. Nees, P. P. Pronko, D. Umstadter, and G. A. Mourou, “Temporal contrast in Ti:sapphire lasers: characterization and control,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4, 449–458 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. Nishikawa, H. Nakano, N. Uesugi, and T. Serikawa, “Porous layer effects on soft x-ray radiation emitted from a plasma generated by 130-fs laser pulses irradiating a porous silicon target,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 567–570 (1998).
[Crossref]

R. V. Volkov, V. M. Gordienko, M. S. Dzhidzhoev, B. V. Kamenev, P. K. Kashkarov, Y. V. Ponomarev, A. B. Savel’ev, V. Y. Timoshenko, and A. A. Shashkov, “Generation of hard x-ray radiation by irradiation of porous silicon with ultraintense femtosecond laser pulses,” Quantum Electron. 28, 1–2 (1998).
[Crossref]

Y. Nabekawa, Y. Kuramoto, T. Togashi, T. Sekikawa, and S. Watanabe, “Generation of 0.66-TW pulses at 1 kHz by a Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1384–1386 (1998).
[Crossref]

I. C. G. Durfee, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Design and implementations of a TW-class high-average power laser system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4, 395–406 (1998).
[Crossref]

C. Le Blanc, E. Baubeau, F. Salin, J. A. Squier, C. P. J. Barty, and C. Spielmann, “Toward a terawatt-kilohertz repetition-rate laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4, 407–413 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (5)

C. Rischel, A. Rousse, I. Uschmann, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, E. Forster, J. L. Martin, and A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond time-resolved x-ray diffraction from laser-heated organic films,” Nature 390, 490–492 (1997).
[Crossref]

R. V. Volkov, V. M. Gordienko, M. S. Dzhidzhoev, M. A. Zhukov, P. M. Mikheev, A. B. Savel’ev, and A. A. Shashkov, “Control of the properties and diagnostics of a dense femtosecond plasma formed from modified targets,” Quantum Electron. 27, 1081–1093 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. Nishikawa, H. Nakano, H. Ahn, N. Uesugi, and T. Serikawa, “X-ray generation enhancement from a laser-produced plasma with a porous silicon target,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1653–1655 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. A. Andreev, V. I. Bayanov, A. B. Vankov, A. A. Kozlov, V. M. Komarov, I. V. Kurnin, N. A. Solovev, S. A. Chizhov, and V. E. Yashin, “Emission of x-rays from a plasma formed by a train of picosecond laser pulses,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 24, 79–81 (1997).

S. Bastiani, A. Rousse, J. P. Geinder, P. Audebert, C. Quoix, G. Hamoniaux, A. Antonetti, and J.-C. Gauthier, “Experi-mental study of the interaction of subpicosecond laser pulses with solid targets of varying initial scale lengths,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 7179–7185 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (8)

P. V. Nickles, M. Schnuerer, M. P. Kalachnikov, and T. Schlegel, “X-ray emission from short-pulse laser plasmas,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 229–239 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. Gratz, C. Tillman, I. Mercer, and S. Svanberg, “X-ray generation for medical applications from a laser-produced plasma,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 96-8, 443–447 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Steingruber, S. Borgstrom, T. Starczewski, and U. Litzen, “Prepulse dependence of x-ray emission from plasmas created by IR femtosecond laser pulses on solids,” J. Phys. B 29, L75–L81 (1996).
[Crossref]

P. Gibbon and E. Forster, “Short-pulse laser-plasma interactions,” Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 38, 769–793 (1996).
[Crossref]

F. Raksi, K. R. Wilson, Z. M. Jiang, A. Ikhlef, C. Y. Cote, and J. C. Kieffer, “Ultrafast x-ray absorption probing of a chemical reaction,” J. Chem. Phys. 104, 6066–6079 (1996).
[Crossref]

R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Volfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zolotorev, K. J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond x-ray pulses at 0.4 Å generated by 90° Thomson scattering: a tool for probing the structural dynamics of materials,” Science 274, 236–238 (1996).
[Crossref]

V. Srajer, T. Tsu-yi, T. Ursby, C. Pradervand, R. Zhong, S.-I. Adachi, W. Schildkamp, D. Bourgeois, M. Wulff, and K. Moffat, “Photolysis of the carbon monoxide complex of myoglobin: nanosecond time-resolved crystallography,” Science 274, 1726–1729 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Chen, I. V. Tomov, and P. M. Rentzepis, “Time resolved heat propagation in gold crystals by means of picosecond x-ray diffraction,” J. Chem. Phys. 104, 10001–10007 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (3)

I. V. Tomov, P. Chen, and P. M. Rentzepis, “Picosecond time-resolved x-ray-diffraction during laser-pulse heating of an Au(111) crystal,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 28, 358–362 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. C. Gauthier, “Short-pulse laser interaction with solid targets,” Laser Interact. Matter,  140, 1–7 (1995).

W. Theobald, C. Wulker, S. Szatmari, F. P. Schafer, and J. S. Bakos, “Investigation of the interaction of subpicosecond Krf laser pulses with a preformed carbon plasma,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 593–600 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (3)

A. Rousse, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, F. Fallies, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, “Efficient k-alpha-x-ray source from femtosecond laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 50, 2200–2207 (1994).
[Crossref]

S. P. Gordon, T. Donnelly, A. Sullivan, H. Hamster, and R. W. Falcone, “X-rays from microstructured targets heated by femtosecond lasers,” Opt. Lett. 19, 484–486 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Pressprich, M. A. White, Y. Vekhter, and P. Coppens, “Analysis of a metastable electronic excited state of sodium nitroprusside by x-ray crystallography,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 5233–5238 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (3)

H. He, J. S. Wark, E. Foerster, I. Uschmann, O. Renner, M. Kopecky, and W. Blyth, “Double-crystal high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 26–30 (1993).
[Crossref]

T. Anderson, I. V. Tomov, and M. P. Rentzepis, “A high repetition rate, picosecond hard x-ray system, and its application to time resolved x-ray diffraction,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 869–875 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. C. Kieffer, M. Chaker, J. P. Matte, H. Pepin, C. Y. Cote, Y. Beaudoin, T. W. Johnston, C. Y. Chien, S. Coe, G. Mourou, and O. Peyrusse, “Ultrasfast x-ray sources,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 2676–2681 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

J. D. Kmetec, C. L. Gordon, J. J. Macklin, B. E. Lemoff, G. S. Brown, and S. E. Harris, “MeV x-ray generation with a femtosecond laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1527–1530 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and R. W. Falcone, “Generation of efficient ultrafast laser-plasma x-ray sources,” Phys. Fluids B 3, 2409–2413 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (2)

H. van Wonterghem and P. M. Rentzepis, “Characteristics of a TA photocathode for the generation of picosecond x-ray pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1005–1007 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Wong, E. M. Larson, J. B. Holt, P. A. Waide, B. Rupp, and R. Frahm, “Time-resolved x-ray diffraction study of solid combustion reactions,” Science 249, 1406–1409 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

J. S. Wark, R. R. Whitlock, A. A. Hauer, J. E. Swain, and P. J. Solone, “Subnanosecond x-ray-diffraction from laser-shocked crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 5705–5714 (1989).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

R. Kodama, T. Mochizuki, K. A. Tanaka, and C. Yamanaka, “Enhancement of keV x-ray emission in laser-produced plasmas by a weak prepulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 720–722 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (2)

J. S. Wark, R. R. Whitlock, A. Hauer, J. E. Swain, and P. J. Solone, “Shock launching in silicon studied with use of pulsed x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 9391–9394 (1986).
[Crossref]

J. P. Bergsma, M. H. Colodonato, P. M. Edelsten, K. R. Wilson, and D. R. Fredkin, “Transient x-ray scattering calculated from molecular dynamics,” J. Chem. Phys. 84, 6151–6160 (1986).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

S. Williamson and G. Mourou, “Time-resolved laser-induced phase transformation in aluminum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 2364–2367 (1984).
[Crossref]

1982 (2)

G. Mourou and S. Williamson, “Picosecond electron diffraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 44–45 (1982).
[Crossref]

B. C. Larson, C. W. White, T. S. Noggle, and D. Mills, “Synchrotron x-ray diffraction study of silicon during pulsed-laser annealing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 337–340 (1982).
[Crossref]

Adachi, S.-I.

V. Srajer, T. Tsu-yi, T. Ursby, C. Pradervand, R. Zhong, S.-I. Adachi, W. Schildkamp, D. Bourgeois, M. Wulff, and K. Moffat, “Photolysis of the carbon monoxide complex of myoglobin: nanosecond time-resolved crystallography,” Science 274, 1726–1729 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, H.

T. Nishikawa, H. Nakano, H. Ahn, N. Uesugi, and T. Serikawa, “X-ray generation enhancement from a laser-produced plasma with a porous silicon target,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1653–1655 (1997).
[Crossref]

Al Mawlawi, D.

G. Kulcsar, D. Al Mawlawi, F. W. Budnik, P. R. Herman, M. Moskovits, L. Zhao, and R. S. Marjoribanks, “Intense picosecond x-ray pulses from laser plasmas by use of nanostructured ‘velvet’ targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5149–5152 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Albouy, P. A.

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, I. Uschmann, E. Forster, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, and A. Antonetti, “Subpicosecond x-ray diffraction study of laser-induced disorder dynamics above the damage threshold of organic solids,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 32, 977–981 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, I. Uschmann, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, E. Forster, J. L. Martin, and A. Antonetti, “KeV x-ray source toward 100 fs time-resolved x-ray applications,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 691–697 (1999).

C. Rischel, A. Rousse, I. Uschmann, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, E. Forster, J. L. Martin, and A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond time-resolved x-ray diffraction from laser-heated organic films,” Nature 390, 490–492 (1997).
[Crossref]

Anderson, T.

T. Anderson, I. V. Tomov, and M. P. Rentzepis, “A high repetition rate, picosecond hard x-ray system, and its application to time resolved x-ray diffraction,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 869–875 (1993).
[Crossref]

Andreev, A. A.

A. A. Andreev, V. I. Bayanov, A. B. Vankov, A. A. Kozlov, V. M. Komarov, I. V. Kurnin, N. A. Solovev, S. A. Chizhov, and V. E. Yashin, “Emission of x-rays from a plasma formed by a train of picosecond laser pulses,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 24, 79–81 (1997).

Antonetti, A.

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, I. Uschmann, E. Forster, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, and A. Antonetti, “Subpicosecond x-ray diffraction study of laser-induced disorder dynamics above the damage threshold of organic solids,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 32, 977–981 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, I. Uschmann, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, E. Forster, J. L. Martin, and A. Antonetti, “KeV x-ray source toward 100 fs time-resolved x-ray applications,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 691–697 (1999).

C. Rischel, A. Rousse, I. Uschmann, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, E. Forster, J. L. Martin, and A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond time-resolved x-ray diffraction from laser-heated organic films,” Nature 390, 490–492 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. Bastiani, A. Rousse, J. P. Geinder, P. Audebert, C. Quoix, G. Hamoniaux, A. Antonetti, and J.-C. Gauthier, “Experi-mental study of the interaction of subpicosecond laser pulses with solid targets of varying initial scale lengths,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 7179–7185 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Rousse, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, F. Fallies, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, “Efficient k-alpha-x-ray source from femtosecond laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 50, 2200–2207 (1994).
[Crossref]

Audebert, P.

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, I. Uschmann, E. Forster, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, and A. Antonetti, “Subpicosecond x-ray diffraction study of laser-induced disorder dynamics above the damage threshold of organic solids,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 32, 977–981 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, I. Uschmann, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, E. Forster, J. L. Martin, and A. Antonetti, “KeV x-ray source toward 100 fs time-resolved x-ray applications,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 691–697 (1999).

C. Rischel, A. Rousse, I. Uschmann, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, E. Forster, J. L. Martin, and A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond time-resolved x-ray diffraction from laser-heated organic films,” Nature 390, 490–492 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. Bastiani, A. Rousse, J. P. Geinder, P. Audebert, C. Quoix, G. Hamoniaux, A. Antonetti, and J.-C. Gauthier, “Experi-mental study of the interaction of subpicosecond laser pulses with solid targets of varying initial scale lengths,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 7179–7185 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Rousse, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, F. Fallies, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, “Efficient k-alpha-x-ray source from femtosecond laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 50, 2200–2207 (1994).
[Crossref]

Babaev, V. G.

A. B. Savel’ev, V. G. Babaev, M. S. Dzhidzhoev, V. M. Gordienko, M. A. Joukov, A. A. Shashkov, V. Y. Timoshenko, and R. V. Volkov, “Femtosecond plasma in solid targets with reduced thermal conduction: x-ray production and second harmonic generation,” Laser Phys. 8, 637–641 (1998).

Backus, S.

S. Backus, R. Bartels, S. Thompson, R. Dollinger, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “High-efficiency, single-stage 7-kHz high-average-power ultrafast laser system,” Opt. Lett. 26, 465–467 (2001).
[Crossref]

I. C. G. Durfee, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Design and implementations of a TW-class high-average power laser system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4, 395–406 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bagnoud, V.

V. Bagnoud and F. Salin, “Amplifying laser pulses to the terawatt level at a 1-kilohertz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S165–S170 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bakos, J. S.

W. Theobald, C. Wulker, S. Szatmari, F. P. Schafer, and J. S. Bakos, “Investigation of the interaction of subpicosecond Krf laser pulses with a preformed carbon plasma,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 593–600 (1995).
[Crossref]

Balling, P.

R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Volfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zolotorev, K. J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond x-ray pulses at 0.4 Å generated by 90° Thomson scattering: a tool for probing the structural dynamics of materials,” Science 274, 236–238 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bartels, R.

Barty, C. P. J.

A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, C. Toth, J. A. Squier, C. P. J. Barty, K. R. Wilson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. H. von Hoegen, and D. von der Linde, “Ultrafast x-ray measurement of laser heating in semiconductors: parameters determining the melting threshold,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 193306/1–193306/4 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, T. Guo, A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, F. Ráksi, J. Squier, B. Walker, K. R. Wilson, and C. P. J. Barty, “Picosecond-milliangstrom lattice dynamics measured by ultrafast x-ray diffraction,” Nature 398, 310–312 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. W. Siders, A. Cavalleri, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, C. Toth, T. Guo, M. Kammler, M. H. von Hoegen, K. R. Wilson, D. von der Linde, and C. P. J. Barty, “Detection of nonthermal melting by ultrafast x-ray diffraction,” Science 286, 1340–1342 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Le Blanc, E. Baubeau, F. Salin, J. A. Squier, C. P. J. Barty, and C. Spielmann, “Toward a terawatt-kilohertz repetition-rate laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4, 407–413 (1998).
[Crossref]

C. P. J. Barty, T. Guo, C. Le Blanc, F. Ráksi, C. Rose-Petruck, J. A. Squier, B. Walker, K. R. Wilson, V. V. Yakovlev, and K. Yamakawa, “Sub-20-fs multiterawatt lasers and x-ray applications,” in 5th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, S. Svanberg and G. G. Wahlström, eds. (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1996), p. 282.

C. W. Siders, A. Cavalleri, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, T. Guo, C. Tóth, R. Jimenez, C. Rose-Petruck, D. v. d. Linde, K. R. Wilson, and C. P. J. Barty, “Ultrafast movies of atomic motion with femtosecond laser-based x-rays,” in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications III, L. B. Da Silva and J. J. Rocca, eds., Proc. SPIE3776, 302–311 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bastiani, S.

S. Bastiani, A. Rousse, J. P. Geinder, P. Audebert, C. Quoix, G. Hamoniaux, A. Antonetti, and J.-C. Gauthier, “Experi-mental study of the interaction of subpicosecond laser pulses with solid targets of varying initial scale lengths,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 7179–7185 (1997).
[Crossref]

Baubeau, E.

C. Le Blanc, E. Baubeau, F. Salin, J. A. Squier, C. P. J. Barty, and C. Spielmann, “Toward a terawatt-kilohertz repetition-rate laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4, 407–413 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bayanov, V. I.

A. A. Andreev, V. I. Bayanov, A. B. Vankov, A. A. Kozlov, V. M. Komarov, I. V. Kurnin, N. A. Solovev, S. A. Chizhov, and V. E. Yashin, “Emission of x-rays from a plasma formed by a train of picosecond laser pulses,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 24, 79–81 (1997).

Beaudoin, Y.

J. C. Kieffer, M. Chaker, J. P. Matte, H. Pepin, C. Y. Cote, Y. Beaudoin, T. W. Johnston, C. Y. Chien, S. Coe, G. Mourou, and O. Peyrusse, “Ultrasfast x-ray sources,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 2676–2681 (1993).
[Crossref]

Bergsma, J. P.

J. P. Bergsma, M. H. Colodonato, P. M. Edelsten, K. R. Wilson, and D. R. Fredkin, “Transient x-ray scattering calculated from molecular dynamics,” J. Chem. Phys. 84, 6151–6160 (1986).
[Crossref]

Blyth, W.

H. He, J. S. Wark, E. Foerster, I. Uschmann, O. Renner, M. Kopecky, and W. Blyth, “Double-crystal high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 26–30 (1993).
[Crossref]

Borgstrom, S.

J. Steingruber, S. Borgstrom, T. Starczewski, and U. Litzen, “Prepulse dependence of x-ray emission from plasmas created by IR femtosecond laser pulses on solids,” J. Phys. B 29, L75–L81 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bourgeois, D.

V. Srajer, T. Tsu-yi, T. Ursby, C. Pradervand, R. Zhong, S.-I. Adachi, W. Schildkamp, D. Bourgeois, M. Wulff, and K. Moffat, “Photolysis of the carbon monoxide complex of myoglobin: nanosecond time-resolved crystallography,” Science 274, 1726–1729 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouvier, M.

M. Nantel, J. Itatani, A. C. Tien, J. Faure, D. Kaplan, M. Bouvier, T. Buma, P. Van Rompay, J. Nees, P. P. Pronko, D. Umstadter, and G. A. Mourou, “Temporal contrast in Ti:sapphire lasers: characterization and control,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4, 449–458 (1998).
[Crossref]

Brown, G. S.

J. D. Kmetec, C. L. Gordon, J. J. Macklin, B. E. Lemoff, G. S. Brown, and S. E. Harris, “MeV x-ray generation with a femtosecond laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1527–1530 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Budnik, F. W.

G. Kulcsar, D. Al Mawlawi, F. W. Budnik, P. R. Herman, M. Moskovits, L. Zhao, and R. S. Marjoribanks, “Intense picosecond x-ray pulses from laser plasmas by use of nanostructured ‘velvet’ targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5149–5152 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buma, T.

M. Nantel, J. Itatani, A. C. Tien, J. Faure, D. Kaplan, M. Bouvier, T. Buma, P. Van Rompay, J. Nees, P. P. Pronko, D. Umstadter, and G. A. Mourou, “Temporal contrast in Ti:sapphire lasers: characterization and control,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4, 449–458 (1998).
[Crossref]

Cavalleri, A.

J. C. Kieffer, F. Dorchies, P. Forget, P. Gallant, Z. Jiang, H. Pepin, O. Peyrusse, C. Toth, A. Cavalleri, J. Squier, and K. Wilson, “Femtosecond thermal x-ray pulses from hot solid density plasmas,” Laser Phys. 11, 1201–1204 (2001).

A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, C. Toth, J. A. Squier, C. P. J. Barty, K. R. Wilson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. H. von Hoegen, and D. von der Linde, “Ultrafast x-ray measurement of laser heating in semiconductors: parameters determining the melting threshold,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 193306/1–193306/4 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, T. Guo, A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, F. Ráksi, J. Squier, B. Walker, K. R. Wilson, and C. P. J. Barty, “Picosecond-milliangstrom lattice dynamics measured by ultrafast x-ray diffraction,” Nature 398, 310–312 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. W. Siders, A. Cavalleri, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, C. Toth, T. Guo, M. Kammler, M. H. von Hoegen, K. R. Wilson, D. von der Linde, and C. P. J. Barty, “Detection of nonthermal melting by ultrafast x-ray diffraction,” Science 286, 1340–1342 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. C. Kieffer, M. Chaker, J. P. Matte, H. Pepin, C. Y. Cote, Y. Beaudoin, T. W. Johnston, C. Y. Chien, S. Coe, G. Mourou, and O. Peyrusse, “Ultrasfast x-ray sources,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 2676–2681 (1993).
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J. C. Kieffer, C. Y. Chien, F. Dorchies, P. Forget, P. Gallant, Z. M. Jiang, and H. Pepin, “Ultrafast laser-based thermal x-ray sources,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. IV 1, 297–303 (2000).

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J. P. Bergsma, M. H. Colodonato, P. M. Edelsten, K. R. Wilson, and D. R. Fredkin, “Transient x-ray scattering calculated from molecular dynamics,” J. Chem. Phys. 84, 6151–6160 (1986).
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Falcone, R. W.

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Faure, J.

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J. C. Kieffer, C. Y. Chien, F. Dorchies, P. Forget, P. Gallant, Z. M. Jiang, and H. Pepin, “Ultrafast laser-based thermal x-ray sources,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. IV 1, 297–303 (2000).

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A. Rousse, C. Rischel, I. Uschmann, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, E. Forster, J. L. Martin, and A. Antonetti, “KeV x-ray source toward 100 fs time-resolved x-ray applications,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 691–697 (1999).

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, I. Uschmann, E. Forster, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, and A. Antonetti, “Subpicosecond x-ray diffraction study of laser-induced disorder dynamics above the damage threshold of organic solids,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 32, 977–981 (1999).
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J. Wong, E. M. Larson, J. B. Holt, P. A. Waide, B. Rupp, and R. Frahm, “Time-resolved x-ray diffraction study of solid combustion reactions,” Science 249, 1406–1409 (1990).
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J. P. Bergsma, M. H. Colodonato, P. M. Edelsten, K. R. Wilson, and D. R. Fredkin, “Transient x-ray scattering calculated from molecular dynamics,” J. Chem. Phys. 84, 6151–6160 (1986).
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Y. Hironaka, Y. Fujimoto, K. G. Nakamura, and K. Kondo, “Enhancement of hard x-ray emission from a copper target by multiple shots of femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1645–1647 (1999).
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J. C. Kieffer, F. Dorchies, P. Forget, P. Gallant, Z. Jiang, H. Pepin, O. Peyrusse, C. Toth, A. Cavalleri, J. Squier, and K. Wilson, “Femtosecond thermal x-ray pulses from hot solid density plasmas,” Laser Phys. 11, 1201–1204 (2001).

J. C. Kieffer, C. Y. Chien, F. Dorchies, P. Forget, P. Gallant, Z. M. Jiang, and H. Pepin, “Ultrafast laser-based thermal x-ray sources,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. IV 1, 297–303 (2000).

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A. Rousse, C. Rischel, I. Uschmann, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, E. Forster, J. L. Martin, and A. Antonetti, “KeV x-ray source toward 100 fs time-resolved x-ray applications,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 691–697 (1999).

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, I. Uschmann, E. Forster, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, and A. Antonetti, “Subpicosecond x-ray diffraction study of laser-induced disorder dynamics above the damage threshold of organic solids,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 32, 977–981 (1999).
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C. Rischel, A. Rousse, I. Uschmann, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, E. Forster, J. L. Martin, and A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond time-resolved x-ray diffraction from laser-heated organic films,” Nature 390, 490–492 (1997).
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A. Rousse, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, F. Fallies, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, “Efficient k-alpha-x-ray source from femtosecond laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 50, 2200–2207 (1994).
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S. Bastiani, A. Rousse, J. P. Geinder, P. Audebert, C. Quoix, G. Hamoniaux, A. Antonetti, and J.-C. Gauthier, “Experi-mental study of the interaction of subpicosecond laser pulses with solid targets of varying initial scale lengths,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 7179–7185 (1997).
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S. Bastiani, A. Rousse, J. P. Geinder, P. Audebert, C. Quoix, G. Hamoniaux, A. Antonetti, and J.-C. Gauthier, “Experi-mental study of the interaction of subpicosecond laser pulses with solid targets of varying initial scale lengths,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 7179–7185 (1997).
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A. Rousse, C. Rischel, I. Uschmann, E. Forster, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, and A. Antonetti, “Subpicosecond x-ray diffraction study of laser-induced disorder dynamics above the damage threshold of organic solids,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 32, 977–981 (1999).
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A. Rousse, C. Rischel, I. Uschmann, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, E. Forster, J. L. Martin, and A. Antonetti, “KeV x-ray source toward 100 fs time-resolved x-ray applications,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 691–697 (1999).

C. Rischel, A. Rousse, I. Uschmann, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, E. Forster, J. L. Martin, and A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond time-resolved x-ray diffraction from laser-heated organic films,” Nature 390, 490–492 (1997).
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A. Rousse, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, F. Fallies, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, “Efficient k-alpha-x-ray source from femtosecond laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 50, 2200–2207 (1994).
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Gibbon, P.

P. Gibbon and E. Forster, “Short-pulse laser-plasma interactions,” Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 38, 769–793 (1996).
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R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Volfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zolotorev, K. J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond x-ray pulses at 0.4 Å generated by 90° Thomson scattering: a tool for probing the structural dynamics of materials,” Science 274, 236–238 (1996).
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Gordienko, V. M.

A. B. Savel’ev, V. G. Babaev, M. S. Dzhidzhoev, V. M. Gordienko, M. A. Joukov, A. A. Shashkov, V. Y. Timoshenko, and R. V. Volkov, “Femtosecond plasma in solid targets with reduced thermal conduction: x-ray production and second harmonic generation,” Laser Phys. 8, 637–641 (1998).

R. V. Volkov, V. M. Gordienko, M. S. Dzhidzhoev, B. V. Kamenev, P. K. Kashkarov, Y. V. Ponomarev, A. B. Savel’ev, V. Y. Timoshenko, and A. A. Shashkov, “Generation of hard x-ray radiation by irradiation of porous silicon with ultraintense femtosecond laser pulses,” Quantum Electron. 28, 1–2 (1998).
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R. V. Volkov, V. M. Gordienko, M. S. Dzhidzhoev, M. A. Zhukov, P. M. Mikheev, A. B. Savel’ev, and A. A. Shashkov, “Control of the properties and diagnostics of a dense femtosecond plasma formed from modified targets,” Quantum Electron. 27, 1081–1093 (1997).
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Gordon, C. L.

J. D. Kmetec, C. L. Gordon, J. J. Macklin, B. E. Lemoff, G. S. Brown, and S. E. Harris, “MeV x-ray generation with a femtosecond laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1527–1530 (1992).
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Gordon, S. P.

Gosztola, D. J.

L. X. Chen, W. J. H. Jager, G. Jennings, D. J. Gosztola, A. Munkholm, and J. P. Hessler, “Capturing a photoexcited molecular structure through time-domain x-ray absorption fine structure,” Science 292, 262–264 (2001).
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Grillon, G.

M. Schnurer, R. Nolte, A. Rousse, G. Grillon, G. Cheriaux, M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, and W. Sandner, “Dosimetric measurements of electron and photon yields from solid targets irradiated with 30 fs pulses from a 14 TW laser,” Phys. Rev. E 61, 4394–4401 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Rousse, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, F. Fallies, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, “Efficient k-alpha-x-ray source from femtosecond laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 50, 2200–2207 (1994).
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Guo, T.

C. W. Siders, A. Cavalleri, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, C. Toth, T. Guo, M. Kammler, M. H. von Hoegen, K. R. Wilson, D. von der Linde, and C. P. J. Barty, “Detection of nonthermal melting by ultrafast x-ray diffraction,” Science 286, 1340–1342 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, T. Guo, A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, F. Ráksi, J. Squier, B. Walker, K. R. Wilson, and C. P. J. Barty, “Picosecond-milliangstrom lattice dynamics measured by ultrafast x-ray diffraction,” Nature 398, 310–312 (1999).
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C. P. J. Barty, T. Guo, C. Le Blanc, F. Ráksi, C. Rose-Petruck, J. A. Squier, B. Walker, K. R. Wilson, V. V. Yakovlev, and K. Yamakawa, “Sub-20-fs multiterawatt lasers and x-ray applications,” in 5th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, S. Svanberg and G. G. Wahlström, eds. (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1996), p. 282.

C. W. Siders, A. Cavalleri, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, T. Guo, C. Tóth, R. Jimenez, C. Rose-Petruck, D. v. d. Linde, K. R. Wilson, and C. P. J. Barty, “Ultrafast movies of atomic motion with femtosecond laser-based x-rays,” in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications III, L. B. Da Silva and J. J. Rocca, eds., Proc. SPIE3776, 302–311 (2000).
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Hamoniaux, G.

S. Bastiani, A. Rousse, J. P. Geinder, P. Audebert, C. Quoix, G. Hamoniaux, A. Antonetti, and J.-C. Gauthier, “Experi-mental study of the interaction of subpicosecond laser pulses with solid targets of varying initial scale lengths,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 7179–7185 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hamster, H.

Harris, S. E.

J. D. Kmetec, C. L. Gordon, J. J. Macklin, B. E. Lemoff, G. S. Brown, and S. E. Harris, “MeV x-ray generation with a femtosecond laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1527–1530 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. D. Perry, J. A. Sefcik, T. Cowan, S. Hatchett, A. Hunt, M. Moran, D. Pennington, R. Snavely, and S. C. Wilks, “Hard x-ray production from high intensity laser solid interactions (invited),” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 265–269 (1999).
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J. S. Wark, R. R. Whitlock, A. A. Hauer, J. E. Swain, and P. J. Solone, “Subnanosecond x-ray-diffraction from laser-shocked crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 5705–5714 (1989).
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H. He, J. S. Wark, E. Foerster, I. Uschmann, O. Renner, M. Kopecky, and W. Blyth, “Double-crystal high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 26–30 (1993).
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Herman, P. R.

G. Kulcsar, D. Al Mawlawi, F. W. Budnik, P. R. Herman, M. Moskovits, L. Zhao, and R. S. Marjoribanks, “Intense picosecond x-ray pulses from laser plasmas by use of nanostructured ‘velvet’ targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5149–5152 (2000).
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L. X. Chen, W. J. H. Jager, G. Jennings, D. J. Gosztola, A. Munkholm, and J. P. Hessler, “Capturing a photoexcited molecular structure through time-domain x-ray absorption fine structure,” Science 292, 262–264 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hironaka, Y.

A. Zhidkov, A. Sasaki, T. Utsumi, I. Fukumoto, T. Tajima, F. Saito, Y. Hironaka, K. G. Nakamura, K. Kondo, and M. Yoshida, “Prepulse effects on the interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with high-Z solids,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 7232–7240 (2000).
[Crossref]

Y. Hironaka, Y. Fujimoto, K. G. Nakamura, and K. Kondo, “Enhancement of hard x-ray emission from a copper target by multiple shots of femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1645–1647 (1999).
[Crossref]

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J. Wong, E. M. Larson, J. B. Holt, P. A. Waide, B. Rupp, and R. Frahm, “Time-resolved x-ray diffraction study of solid combustion reactions,” Science 249, 1406–1409 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hunt, A.

M. D. Perry, J. A. Sefcik, T. Cowan, S. Hatchett, A. Hunt, M. Moran, D. Pennington, R. Snavely, and S. C. Wilks, “Hard x-ray production from high intensity laser solid interactions (invited),” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 265–269 (1999).
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Ikhlef, A.

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J. P. Bergsma, M. H. Colodonato, P. M. Edelsten, K. R. Wilson, and D. R. Fredkin, “Transient x-ray scattering calculated from molecular dynamics,” J. Chem. Phys. 84, 6151–6160 (1986).
[Crossref]

C. P. J. Barty, T. Guo, C. Le Blanc, F. Ráksi, C. Rose-Petruck, J. A. Squier, B. Walker, K. R. Wilson, V. V. Yakovlev, and K. Yamakawa, “Sub-20-fs multiterawatt lasers and x-ray applications,” in 5th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, S. Svanberg and G. G. Wahlström, eds. (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1996), p. 282.

F. Ráksi, K. R. Wilson, Z. Jiang, A. Ikhlef, C. Y. Côté, and J.-C. Kieffer, “Ultrafast 2.5 keV x-ray absorption probing of a chemical reaction with 3 ps time resolution,” in Applications of Laser Plasma Radiation II, G. A. Kyrala and M. C. Richardson, eds., Proc. SPIE2523, 306–315 (1995).
[Crossref]

C. W. Siders, A. Cavalleri, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, T. Guo, C. Tóth, R. Jimenez, C. Rose-Petruck, D. v. d. Linde, K. R. Wilson, and C. P. J. Barty, “Ultrafast movies of atomic motion with femtosecond laser-based x-rays,” in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications III, L. B. Da Silva and J. J. Rocca, eds., Proc. SPIE3776, 302–311 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wong, J.

J. Wong, E. M. Larson, J. B. Holt, P. A. Waide, B. Rupp, and R. Frahm, “Time-resolved x-ray diffraction study of solid combustion reactions,” Science 249, 1406–1409 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woolsey, N. C.

J. S. Wark, N. C. Woolsey, and R. R. Whitlock, “Time-resolved x-ray diffraction from shock-compressed solids,” in Time-Resolved Electron and X-Ray Diffraction, P. M. Rentzepis, ed., Proc. SPIE2521, 232–243 (1995).
[Crossref]

Wulff, M.

V. Srajer, T. Tsu-yi, T. Ursby, C. Pradervand, R. Zhong, S.-I. Adachi, W. Schildkamp, D. Bourgeois, M. Wulff, and K. Moffat, “Photolysis of the carbon monoxide complex of myoglobin: nanosecond time-resolved crystallography,” Science 274, 1726–1729 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wulker, C.

W. Theobald, C. Wulker, S. Szatmari, F. P. Schafer, and J. S. Bakos, “Investigation of the interaction of subpicosecond Krf laser pulses with a preformed carbon plasma,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 593–600 (1995).
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Yakovlev, V. V.

C. P. J. Barty, T. Guo, C. Le Blanc, F. Ráksi, C. Rose-Petruck, J. A. Squier, B. Walker, K. R. Wilson, V. V. Yakovlev, and K. Yamakawa, “Sub-20-fs multiterawatt lasers and x-ray applications,” in 5th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, S. Svanberg and G. G. Wahlström, eds. (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1996), p. 282.

Yamakawa, K.

C. P. J. Barty, T. Guo, C. Le Blanc, F. Ráksi, C. Rose-Petruck, J. A. Squier, B. Walker, K. R. Wilson, V. V. Yakovlev, and K. Yamakawa, “Sub-20-fs multiterawatt lasers and x-ray applications,” in 5th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, S. Svanberg and G. G. Wahlström, eds. (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1996), p. 282.

Yamanaka, C.

R. Kodama, T. Mochizuki, K. A. Tanaka, and C. Yamanaka, “Enhancement of keV x-ray emission in laser-produced plasmas by a weak prepulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 720–722 (1987).
[Crossref]

Yashin, V. E.

A. A. Andreev, V. I. Bayanov, A. B. Vankov, A. A. Kozlov, V. M. Komarov, I. V. Kurnin, N. A. Solovev, S. A. Chizhov, and V. E. Yashin, “Emission of x-rays from a plasma formed by a train of picosecond laser pulses,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 24, 79–81 (1997).

Yoshida, M.

A. Zhidkov, A. Sasaki, T. Utsumi, I. Fukumoto, T. Tajima, F. Saito, Y. Hironaka, K. G. Nakamura, K. Kondo, and M. Yoshida, “Prepulse effects on the interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with high-Z solids,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 7232–7240 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L.

G. Kulcsar, D. Al Mawlawi, F. W. Budnik, P. R. Herman, M. Moskovits, L. Zhao, and R. S. Marjoribanks, “Intense picosecond x-ray pulses from laser plasmas by use of nanostructured ‘velvet’ targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5149–5152 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhidkov, A.

A. Zhidkov, A. Sasaki, T. Utsumi, I. Fukumoto, T. Tajima, F. Saito, Y. Hironaka, K. G. Nakamura, K. Kondo, and M. Yoshida, “Prepulse effects on the interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with high-Z solids,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 7232–7240 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zhong, R.

V. Srajer, T. Tsu-yi, T. Ursby, C. Pradervand, R. Zhong, S.-I. Adachi, W. Schildkamp, D. Bourgeois, M. Wulff, and K. Moffat, “Photolysis of the carbon monoxide complex of myoglobin: nanosecond time-resolved crystallography,” Science 274, 1726–1729 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhukov, M. A.

R. V. Volkov, V. M. Gordienko, M. S. Dzhidzhoev, M. A. Zhukov, P. M. Mikheev, A. B. Savel’ev, and A. A. Shashkov, “Control of the properties and diagnostics of a dense femtosecond plasma formed from modified targets,” Quantum Electron. 27, 1081–1093 (1997).
[Crossref]

Zolotorev, M.

R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Volfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zolotorev, K. J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond x-ray pulses at 0.4 Å generated by 90° Thomson scattering: a tool for probing the structural dynamics of materials,” Science 274, 236–238 (1996).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

V. Bagnoud and F. Salin, “Amplifying laser pulses to the terawatt level at a 1-kilohertz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S165–S170 (2000).
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W. Theobald, C. Wulker, S. Szatmari, F. P. Schafer, and J. S. Bakos, “Investigation of the interaction of subpicosecond Krf laser pulses with a preformed carbon plasma,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 593–600 (1995).
[Crossref]

T. Nishikawa, H. Nakano, N. Uesugi, and T. Serikawa, “Porous layer effects on soft x-ray radiation emitted from a plasma generated by 130-fs laser pulses irradiating a porous silicon target,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 567–570 (1998).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

T. Nishikawa, H. Nakano, H. Ahn, N. Uesugi, and T. Serikawa, “X-ray generation enhancement from a laser-produced plasma with a porous silicon target,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1653–1655 (1997).
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Y. Hironaka, Y. Fujimoto, K. G. Nakamura, and K. Kondo, “Enhancement of hard x-ray emission from a copper target by multiple shots of femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1645–1647 (1999).
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T. Nishikawa, H. Nakano, N. Uesugi, M. Nakao, and H. Masuda, “Greatly enhanced soft x-ray generation from femtosecond-laser-produced plasma by using a nanohole-alumina target,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 4079–4081 (1999).
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R. Kodama, T. Mochizuki, K. A. Tanaka, and C. Yamanaka, “Enhancement of keV x-ray emission in laser-produced plasmas by a weak prepulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 720–722 (1987).
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H. van Wonterghem and P. M. Rentzepis, “Characteristics of a TA photocathode for the generation of picosecond x-ray pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1005–1007 (1990).
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Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

M. Gratz, C. Tillman, I. Mercer, and S. Svanberg, “X-ray generation for medical applications from a laser-produced plasma,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 96-8, 443–447 (1996).
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C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. IV (1)

J. C. Kieffer, C. Y. Chien, F. Dorchies, P. Forget, P. Gallant, Z. M. Jiang, and H. Pepin, “Ultrafast laser-based thermal x-ray sources,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. IV 1, 297–303 (2000).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

M. Nantel, J. Itatani, A. C. Tien, J. Faure, D. Kaplan, M. Bouvier, T. Buma, P. Van Rompay, J. Nees, P. P. Pronko, D. Umstadter, and G. A. Mourou, “Temporal contrast in Ti:sapphire lasers: characterization and control,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4, 449–458 (1998).
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I. C. G. Durfee, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Design and implementations of a TW-class high-average power laser system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4, 395–406 (1998).
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C. Le Blanc, E. Baubeau, F. Salin, J. A. Squier, C. P. J. Barty, and C. Spielmann, “Toward a terawatt-kilohertz repetition-rate laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4, 407–413 (1998).
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Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. (3)

T. Nishikawa, H. Nakano, and N. Uesugi, “Enhancement of soft x-ray emission from femtosecond laser-produced plasma with a rectangular groove target,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 539-542 (1999).

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, I. Uschmann, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, E. Forster, J. L. Martin, and A. Antonetti, “KeV x-ray source toward 100 fs time-resolved x-ray applications,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 691–697 (1999).

H. Nakano, P. X. Lu, T. Nishikawa, and N. Uesugi, “Prepulse effects on x-ray emission in keV and sub-keV ranges from Al plasma produced by femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulses,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 535–538 (1999).

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

M. R. Pressprich, M. A. White, Y. Vekhter, and P. Coppens, “Analysis of a metastable electronic excited state of sodium nitroprusside by x-ray crystallography,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 5233–5238 (1994).
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J. Appl. Crystallogr. (2)

I. V. Tomov, P. Chen, and P. M. Rentzepis, “Picosecond time-resolved x-ray-diffraction during laser-pulse heating of an Au(111) crystal,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 28, 358–362 (1995).
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A. Rousse, C. Rischel, I. Uschmann, E. Forster, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, and A. Antonetti, “Subpicosecond x-ray diffraction study of laser-induced disorder dynamics above the damage threshold of organic solids,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 32, 977–981 (1999).
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J. Chem. Phys. (4)

P. Chen, I. V. Tomov, and P. M. Rentzepis, “Time resolved heat propagation in gold crystals by means of picosecond x-ray diffraction,” J. Chem. Phys. 104, 10001–10007 (1996).
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F. Raksi, K. R. Wilson, Z. M. Jiang, A. Ikhlef, C. Y. Cote, and J. C. Kieffer, “Ultrafast x-ray absorption probing of a chemical reaction,” J. Chem. Phys. 104, 6066–6079 (1996).
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T. Anderson, I. V. Tomov, and M. P. Rentzepis, “A high repetition rate, picosecond hard x-ray system, and its application to time resolved x-ray diffraction,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 869–875 (1993).
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J. P. Bergsma, M. H. Colodonato, P. M. Edelsten, K. R. Wilson, and D. R. Fredkin, “Transient x-ray scattering calculated from molecular dynamics,” J. Chem. Phys. 84, 6151–6160 (1986).
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J. Phys. B (2)

C. Y. Cote, J. C. Kieffer, Z. Jiang, A. Ikhlef, and H. Pepin, “keV x-ray emission produced by a sub-picosecond laser interacting with a controlled preformed plasma,” J. Phys. B 31, L883–L889 (1998).
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J. Steingruber, S. Borgstrom, T. Starczewski, and U. Litzen, “Prepulse dependence of x-ray emission from plasmas created by IR femtosecond laser pulses on solids,” J. Phys. B 29, L75–L81 (1996).
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J. Phys. IV: Proc. (1)

A. Rousse, “Subpicosecond-scale atomic dynamics: state of the art,” J. Phys. IV: Proc. 9, 57–61 (1999).

Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) (1)

A. A. Andreev, V. I. Bayanov, A. B. Vankov, A. A. Kozlov, V. M. Komarov, I. V. Kurnin, N. A. Solovev, S. A. Chizhov, and V. E. Yashin, “Emission of x-rays from a plasma formed by a train of picosecond laser pulses,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 24, 79–81 (1997).

Laser Interact. Matter (1)

J. C. Gauthier, “Short-pulse laser interaction with solid targets,” Laser Interact. Matter,  140, 1–7 (1995).

Laser Phys. (2)

J. C. Kieffer, F. Dorchies, P. Forget, P. Gallant, Z. Jiang, H. Pepin, O. Peyrusse, C. Toth, A. Cavalleri, J. Squier, and K. Wilson, “Femtosecond thermal x-ray pulses from hot solid density plasmas,” Laser Phys. 11, 1201–1204 (2001).

A. B. Savel’ev, V. G. Babaev, M. S. Dzhidzhoev, V. M. Gordienko, M. A. Joukov, A. A. Shashkov, V. Y. Timoshenko, and R. V. Volkov, “Femtosecond plasma in solid targets with reduced thermal conduction: x-ray production and second harmonic generation,” Laser Phys. 8, 637–641 (1998).

Nature (2)

C. Rischel, A. Rousse, I. Uschmann, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, E. Forster, J. L. Martin, and A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond time-resolved x-ray diffraction from laser-heated organic films,” Nature 390, 490–492 (1997).
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C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, T. Guo, A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, F. Ráksi, J. Squier, B. Walker, K. R. Wilson, and C. P. J. Barty, “Picosecond-milliangstrom lattice dynamics measured by ultrafast x-ray diffraction,” Nature 398, 310–312 (1999).
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Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. V. Nickles, M. Schnuerer, M. P. Kalachnikov, and T. Schlegel, “X-ray emission from short-pulse laser plasmas,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 229–239 (1996).
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Phys. Fluids B (2)

M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and R. W. Falcone, “Generation of efficient ultrafast laser-plasma x-ray sources,” Phys. Fluids B 3, 2409–2413 (1991).
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J. C. Kieffer, M. Chaker, J. P. Matte, H. Pepin, C. Y. Cote, Y. Beaudoin, T. W. Johnston, C. Y. Chien, S. Coe, G. Mourou, and O. Peyrusse, “Ultrasfast x-ray sources,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 2676–2681 (1993).
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Phys. Rev. B (3)

A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, C. Toth, J. A. Squier, C. P. J. Barty, K. R. Wilson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. H. von Hoegen, and D. von der Linde, “Ultrafast x-ray measurement of laser heating in semiconductors: parameters determining the melting threshold,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 193306/1–193306/4 (2001).
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J. S. Wark, R. R. Whitlock, A. Hauer, J. E. Swain, and P. J. Solone, “Shock launching in silicon studied with use of pulsed x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 9391–9394 (1986).
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J. S. Wark, R. R. Whitlock, A. A. Hauer, J. E. Swain, and P. J. Solone, “Subnanosecond x-ray-diffraction from laser-shocked crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 5705–5714 (1989).
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Phys. Rev. E (4)

A. Zhidkov, A. Sasaki, T. Utsumi, I. Fukumoto, T. Tajima, F. Saito, Y. Hironaka, K. G. Nakamura, K. Kondo, and M. Yoshida, “Prepulse effects on the interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with high-Z solids,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 7232–7240 (2000).
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A. Rousse, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, F. Fallies, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, “Efficient k-alpha-x-ray source from femtosecond laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 50, 2200–2207 (1994).
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S. Bastiani, A. Rousse, J. P. Geinder, P. Audebert, C. Quoix, G. Hamoniaux, A. Antonetti, and J.-C. Gauthier, “Experi-mental study of the interaction of subpicosecond laser pulses with solid targets of varying initial scale lengths,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 7179–7185 (1997).
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M. Schnurer, R. Nolte, A. Rousse, G. Grillon, G. Cheriaux, M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, and W. Sandner, “Dosimetric measurements of electron and photon yields from solid targets irradiated with 30 fs pulses from a 14 TW laser,” Phys. Rev. E 61, 4394–4401 (2000).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

G. Kulcsar, D. Al Mawlawi, F. W. Budnik, P. R. Herman, M. Moskovits, L. Zhao, and R. S. Marjoribanks, “Intense picosecond x-ray pulses from laser plasmas by use of nanostructured ‘velvet’ targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5149–5152 (2000).
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B. C. Larson, C. W. White, T. S. Noggle, and D. Mills, “Synchrotron x-ray diffraction study of silicon during pulsed-laser annealing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 337–340 (1982).
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S. Williamson and G. Mourou, “Time-resolved laser-induced phase transformation in aluminum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 2364–2367 (1984).
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J. D. Kmetec, C. L. Gordon, J. J. Macklin, B. E. Lemoff, G. S. Brown, and S. E. Harris, “MeV x-ray generation with a femtosecond laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1527–1530 (1992).
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Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion (1)

P. Gibbon and E. Forster, “Short-pulse laser-plasma interactions,” Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 38, 769–793 (1996).
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Quantum Electron. (2)

R. V. Volkov, V. M. Gordienko, M. S. Dzhidzhoev, B. V. Kamenev, P. K. Kashkarov, Y. V. Ponomarev, A. B. Savel’ev, V. Y. Timoshenko, and A. A. Shashkov, “Generation of hard x-ray radiation by irradiation of porous silicon with ultraintense femtosecond laser pulses,” Quantum Electron. 28, 1–2 (1998).
[Crossref]

R. V. Volkov, V. M. Gordienko, M. S. Dzhidzhoev, M. A. Zhukov, P. M. Mikheev, A. B. Savel’ev, and A. A. Shashkov, “Control of the properties and diagnostics of a dense femtosecond plasma formed from modified targets,” Quantum Electron. 27, 1081–1093 (1997).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

M. D. Perry, J. A. Sefcik, T. Cowan, S. Hatchett, A. Hunt, M. Moran, D. Pennington, R. Snavely, and S. C. Wilks, “Hard x-ray production from high intensity laser solid interactions (invited),” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 265–269 (1999).
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H. He, J. S. Wark, E. Foerster, I. Uschmann, O. Renner, M. Kopecky, and W. Blyth, “Double-crystal high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 26–30 (1993).
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Science (5)

J. Wong, E. M. Larson, J. B. Holt, P. A. Waide, B. Rupp, and R. Frahm, “Time-resolved x-ray diffraction study of solid combustion reactions,” Science 249, 1406–1409 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. X. Chen, W. J. H. Jager, G. Jennings, D. J. Gosztola, A. Munkholm, and J. P. Hessler, “Capturing a photoexcited molecular structure through time-domain x-ray absorption fine structure,” Science 292, 262–264 (2001).
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R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Volfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zolotorev, K. J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond x-ray pulses at 0.4 Å generated by 90° Thomson scattering: a tool for probing the structural dynamics of materials,” Science 274, 236–238 (1996).
[Crossref]

V. Srajer, T. Tsu-yi, T. Ursby, C. Pradervand, R. Zhong, S.-I. Adachi, W. Schildkamp, D. Bourgeois, M. Wulff, and K. Moffat, “Photolysis of the carbon monoxide complex of myoglobin: nanosecond time-resolved crystallography,” Science 274, 1726–1729 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Siders, A. Cavalleri, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, C. Toth, T. Guo, M. Kammler, M. H. von Hoegen, K. R. Wilson, D. von der Linde, and C. P. J. Barty, “Detection of nonthermal melting by ultrafast x-ray diffraction,” Science 286, 1340–1342 (1999).
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Other (9)

F. Ráksi, K. R. Wilson, Z. Jiang, A. Ikhlef, C. Y. Côté, and J.-C. Kieffer, “Ultrafast 2.5 keV x-ray absorption probing of a chemical reaction with 3 ps time resolution,” in Applications of Laser Plasma Radiation II, G. A. Kyrala and M. C. Richardson, eds., Proc. SPIE2523, 306–315 (1995).
[Crossref]

Y. Jiang, W. Li, T. Lee, G. Ketwaroo, and C. Rose-Petruck, “Ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy: observing the equilibrium structure and structural dynamics of solvated molecules,” in Applications of X-Rays Generated from Lasers and Other Bright Sources, J. J. Gauthier and G. A. Kyrala, eds., Proc. SPIE4504, 42–48 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. P. J. Barty, T. Guo, C. Le Blanc, F. Ráksi, C. Rose-Petruck, J. A. Squier, B. Walker, K. R. Wilson, V. V. Yakovlev, and K. Yamakawa, “Sub-20-fs multiterawatt lasers and x-ray applications,” in 5th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, S. Svanberg and G. G. Wahlström, eds. (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1996), p. 282.

S. H. Lin, C. H. Chao, H. Ma, and P. M. Rentzepis, “Theory of ultrafast time resolved x-ray diffraction and applications to vaporization kinetics of finite systems,” in Time-Resolved Electron and X-Ray Diffraction, P. M. Rentzepis, ed., Proc. SPIE2521, 258–268 (1995).
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B. C. Larson and J. Z. Tischler, “Time-resolved materials science opportunities using synchrotron x-ray sources,” in Time-Resolved Electron and X-Ray Diffraction, P. M. Rentzepis, ed., Proc. SPIE2521, 208–219 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. S. Wark, N. C. Woolsey, and R. R. Whitlock, “Time-resolved x-ray diffraction from shock-compressed solids,” in Time-Resolved Electron and X-Ray Diffraction, P. M. Rentzepis, ed., Proc. SPIE2521, 232–243 (1995).
[Crossref]

C. W. Siders, A. Cavalleri, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, T. Guo, C. Tóth, R. Jimenez, C. Rose-Petruck, D. v. d. Linde, K. R. Wilson, and C. P. J. Barty, “Ultrafast movies of atomic motion with femtosecond laser-based x-rays,” in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications III, L. B. Da Silva and J. J. Rocca, eds., Proc. SPIE3776, 302–311 (2000).
[Crossref]

W. Li, “EXAFS measurements of Fe(CO)5 in organic solvents and other x-ray applications,” master’s thesis (Brown University, Providence, R.I., 2002).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

X-ray emission spectrum (thicker solid curve) and its 95% confidence interval (thinner solid curves) measured from a solid-copper target in a helium atmosphere at 1 bar. The spectrum is corrected for the detection efficiency of the x-ray CCD camera as well as for the absorption of all materials in the x-ray beam’s path. The copper fluorescence lines are measured with a spectral resolution of 170 eV. For orientation, the positions of the iron and the chlorine K absorption edges are shown. The continuum radiation at the iron edge is comparable to the flux in the Cu Kα line. An upgrade from the current f10 to an f1 focusing optics is expected to increase the x-ray flux by ∼3 orders of magnitude.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Design of the laser system. The beam path in the expander is vertically folded twice. For clarity, some mode-matching lenses are not shown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Laser spectrum at various locations in the laser system. The transmission through the saturable absorber is spectrally well balanced, indicating that the saturable absorber improves the contrast equally well over the entire pulse spectrum.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Prepulse–main-pulse contrast (left-hand bar of each pair) and ASE intensity–main pulse intensity contrast (right-hand bar) at various locations in the laser system. All ASE contrast values are normalized to a main pulse length of 40 fs, irrespective of the fact that the main pulse is temporarily expanded in the CPA section of the laser system.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

X-ray emission spectrum measured from a liquid-mercury target in a helium atmosphere at standard conditions. The spectrum is corrected for the detection efficiency of the x-ray CCD camera and the absorption of all materials in the x-ray beam’s path. For orientation, the positions of the iron and the chlorine K absorption edges are shown. No line emission is visible in the entire spectral range.

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