Abstract

We demonstrate a new, stable, kilohertz femtosecond laser plasma source of hard-x-ray continuum and Kα emission that uses a microscopic liquid jet target that is continuous and debris free. Plasmas produced by ultrashort (50-fs) intense laser pulses from a fine (10–30-μm diameter) liquid Ga jet emit bright 9.3- and 10.3-keV Kα and Kβ lines superimposed on a multikilovolt bremmstrahlung continuum. Kilohertz femtosecond x-ray sources will find many applications in time-resolved x-ray diffraction and microscopy studies. As high-intensity lasers become more compact and operate at increasingly high repetition-rates, they require a target configuration that is both repeatable from shot to shot and debris free. Our target provides a pristine, unperturbed filament surface at rates >100 kHz. A number of liquid metal targets are considered. We show the hard-x-ray spectrum described above. The source was generated by a 50-fs-duration, 1-kHz, 2-W, high-intensity Ti:sapphire laser. Using the same technology, we also generate forward-going sub-mega-electron-volt (sub-MeV) protons from a 10-μm liquid water target at 1-kHz repetition rates. Kilohertz sources of high-energy ions will find many applications in time-resolved particle interaction studies and will lead to efficient generation of short-lived isotopes for use in nuclear medicine and other applications. The protons were detected with CR-39 track detectors in both the forward and the backward directions up to energies of ∼500 keV. As the intensity of compact high-repetition-rate lasers sources increases, we can expect improvements in the energy, conversion efficiency, and directionality to occur. The effect of these developments is discussed. As compact, high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser technology reaches focused intensities of 1019 W/cm2, many new applications of high-repetition-rate hard-x-ray and MeV ion sources will become practical.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  17. Amptek Inc., Bedford, Mass.; the signal from the XR-100CR detector was amplified with a PX2CR and recorded with a MCA8000A.

2002 (1)

2001 (4)

D. von der Linde, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, Ch. Blome, C. Dietrich, P. Zhou, A. Tarasevitch, A. Cavallieri, C. W. Siders, C. P. J. Barty, J. Squier, K. Wilson, I. Uschmann, and E. Förster, “Generation and application of ultrashort x-ray pulses,” Laser Part. Beams 19, 15–22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, and J. C. Gauthier, “Femtosecond x-ray crystallography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 73, 17–31 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Murakami, Y. Kitagawa, Y. Sentoku, M. Mori, R. Kodama, K. A. Tanaka, K. Mima, and T. Yamanaka, “Observation of proton rear emission and possible gigagauss scale magnetic fields from ultra-intense laser illuminated plastic target,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 4138–4143 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Zepf, E. L. Clark, K. Krushelnick, F. N. Beg, C. Escoda, A. E. Dangor, M. I. K. Santala, M. Tatarakis, I. F. Watts, P. A. Norreys, R. J. Clarke, J. R. Davies, M. A. Sinclair, R. D. Edwards, T. J. Goldsack, I. Spencer, and K. W. D. Ledingham, “Fast particle generation and energy transport in laser–solid interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 2323–2330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (5)

V. Bagnoud and F. Salin, “Amplifying laser pulses to the terawatt level at a 1-kilohertz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 70(Suppl), S165–S170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Maksimchuk, S. Gu, K. Flippo, and D. Umstadter, “Forward ion acceleration in thin films driven by a high-intensity laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4108–4111 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. L. Clark, K. Krushelnick, M. Zepf, F. N. Beg, M. Tatarakis, A. Machacek, M. I. K. Santala, I. Watts, P. A. Norreys, and A. E. Dangor, “Energetic heavy-ion and proton generation from ultraintense laser-plasma interactions with solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1654–1657 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Hatchett, C. G. Brown, T. E. Cowan, E. A. Henry, J. S. Johnson, M. H. Key, J. A. Koch, A. B. Langdon, B. F. Lasinski, R. W. Lee, A. J. Mackinnon, D. M. Pennington, M. D. Perry, T. W. Phillips, M. Roth, T. C. Sangster, M. S. Singh, R. A. Snavely, M. A. Stoyer, S. C. Wilks, and K. Yasuike, “Electron, photon, and ion beams from the relativistic interaction of petawatt laser pulses with solid targets,” Phys. Plasmas 7, 2076–2082 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Albert, H. Wang, D. Liu, Z. Chang, and G. Mourou, “Generation of relativistic intensity pulses at a kilohertz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1125–1127 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

M. Richardson, D. Torres, C. DePriest, F. Jin, and G. Shimkaveg, “Mass-limited, debris-free laser-plasma EUV source,” Opt. Commun. 145, 109–112 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Berglund, L. Rymell, H. M. Hertz, and T. Wilhein, “Cryogenic liquid-jet target for debris-free laser-plasma soft x-ray generation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2361–2364 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

Albert, O.

Bagnoud, V.

V. Bagnoud and F. Salin, “Amplifying laser pulses to the terawatt level at a 1-kilohertz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 70(Suppl), S165–S170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Barty, C. P. J.

D. von der Linde, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, Ch. Blome, C. Dietrich, P. Zhou, A. Tarasevitch, A. Cavallieri, C. W. Siders, C. P. J. Barty, J. Squier, K. Wilson, I. Uschmann, and E. Förster, “Generation and application of ultrashort x-ray pulses,” Laser Part. Beams 19, 15–22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Beg, F. N.

M. Zepf, E. L. Clark, K. Krushelnick, F. N. Beg, C. Escoda, A. E. Dangor, M. I. K. Santala, M. Tatarakis, I. F. Watts, P. A. Norreys, R. J. Clarke, J. R. Davies, M. A. Sinclair, R. D. Edwards, T. J. Goldsack, I. Spencer, and K. W. D. Ledingham, “Fast particle generation and energy transport in laser–solid interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 2323–2330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Clark, K. Krushelnick, M. Zepf, F. N. Beg, M. Tatarakis, A. Machacek, M. I. K. Santala, I. Watts, P. A. Norreys, and A. E. Dangor, “Energetic heavy-ion and proton generation from ultraintense laser-plasma interactions with solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1654–1657 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berglund, M.

M. Berglund, L. Rymell, H. M. Hertz, and T. Wilhein, “Cryogenic liquid-jet target for debris-free laser-plasma soft x-ray generation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2361–2364 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Blome, Ch.

D. von der Linde, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, Ch. Blome, C. Dietrich, P. Zhou, A. Tarasevitch, A. Cavallieri, C. W. Siders, C. P. J. Barty, J. Squier, K. Wilson, I. Uschmann, and E. Förster, “Generation and application of ultrashort x-ray pulses,” Laser Part. Beams 19, 15–22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bouvier, M.

Brown, C. G.

S. P. Hatchett, C. G. Brown, T. E. Cowan, E. A. Henry, J. S. Johnson, M. H. Key, J. A. Koch, A. B. Langdon, B. F. Lasinski, R. W. Lee, A. J. Mackinnon, D. M. Pennington, M. D. Perry, T. W. Phillips, M. Roth, T. C. Sangster, M. S. Singh, R. A. Snavely, M. A. Stoyer, S. C. Wilks, and K. Yasuike, “Electron, photon, and ion beams from the relativistic interaction of petawatt laser pulses with solid targets,” Phys. Plasmas 7, 2076–2082 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cavallieri, A.

D. von der Linde, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, Ch. Blome, C. Dietrich, P. Zhou, A. Tarasevitch, A. Cavallieri, C. W. Siders, C. P. J. Barty, J. Squier, K. Wilson, I. Uschmann, and E. Förster, “Generation and application of ultrashort x-ray pulses,” Laser Part. Beams 19, 15–22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Z.

Clark, E. L.

M. Zepf, E. L. Clark, K. Krushelnick, F. N. Beg, C. Escoda, A. E. Dangor, M. I. K. Santala, M. Tatarakis, I. F. Watts, P. A. Norreys, R. J. Clarke, J. R. Davies, M. A. Sinclair, R. D. Edwards, T. J. Goldsack, I. Spencer, and K. W. D. Ledingham, “Fast particle generation and energy transport in laser–solid interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 2323–2330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Clark, K. Krushelnick, M. Zepf, F. N. Beg, M. Tatarakis, A. Machacek, M. I. K. Santala, I. Watts, P. A. Norreys, and A. E. Dangor, “Energetic heavy-ion and proton generation from ultraintense laser-plasma interactions with solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1654–1657 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clarke, R. J.

M. Zepf, E. L. Clark, K. Krushelnick, F. N. Beg, C. Escoda, A. E. Dangor, M. I. K. Santala, M. Tatarakis, I. F. Watts, P. A. Norreys, R. J. Clarke, J. R. Davies, M. A. Sinclair, R. D. Edwards, T. J. Goldsack, I. Spencer, and K. W. D. Ledingham, “Fast particle generation and energy transport in laser–solid interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 2323–2330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cowan, T. E.

S. P. Hatchett, C. G. Brown, T. E. Cowan, E. A. Henry, J. S. Johnson, M. H. Key, J. A. Koch, A. B. Langdon, B. F. Lasinski, R. W. Lee, A. J. Mackinnon, D. M. Pennington, M. D. Perry, T. W. Phillips, M. Roth, T. C. Sangster, M. S. Singh, R. A. Snavely, M. A. Stoyer, S. C. Wilks, and K. Yasuike, “Electron, photon, and ion beams from the relativistic interaction of petawatt laser pulses with solid targets,” Phys. Plasmas 7, 2076–2082 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dangor, A. E.

M. Zepf, E. L. Clark, K. Krushelnick, F. N. Beg, C. Escoda, A. E. Dangor, M. I. K. Santala, M. Tatarakis, I. F. Watts, P. A. Norreys, R. J. Clarke, J. R. Davies, M. A. Sinclair, R. D. Edwards, T. J. Goldsack, I. Spencer, and K. W. D. Ledingham, “Fast particle generation and energy transport in laser–solid interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 2323–2330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Clark, K. Krushelnick, M. Zepf, F. N. Beg, M. Tatarakis, A. Machacek, M. I. K. Santala, I. Watts, P. A. Norreys, and A. E. Dangor, “Energetic heavy-ion and proton generation from ultraintense laser-plasma interactions with solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1654–1657 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davies, J. R.

M. Zepf, E. L. Clark, K. Krushelnick, F. N. Beg, C. Escoda, A. E. Dangor, M. I. K. Santala, M. Tatarakis, I. F. Watts, P. A. Norreys, R. J. Clarke, J. R. Davies, M. A. Sinclair, R. D. Edwards, T. J. Goldsack, I. Spencer, and K. W. D. Ledingham, “Fast particle generation and energy transport in laser–solid interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 2323–2330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

DePriest, C.

M. Richardson, D. Torres, C. DePriest, F. Jin, and G. Shimkaveg, “Mass-limited, debris-free laser-plasma EUV source,” Opt. Commun. 145, 109–112 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dietrich, C.

D. von der Linde, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, Ch. Blome, C. Dietrich, P. Zhou, A. Tarasevitch, A. Cavallieri, C. W. Siders, C. P. J. Barty, J. Squier, K. Wilson, I. Uschmann, and E. Förster, “Generation and application of ultrashort x-ray pulses,” Laser Part. Beams 19, 15–22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, R. D.

M. Zepf, E. L. Clark, K. Krushelnick, F. N. Beg, C. Escoda, A. E. Dangor, M. I. K. Santala, M. Tatarakis, I. F. Watts, P. A. Norreys, R. J. Clarke, J. R. Davies, M. A. Sinclair, R. D. Edwards, T. J. Goldsack, I. Spencer, and K. W. D. Ledingham, “Fast particle generation and energy transport in laser–solid interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 2323–2330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Elsaesser, T.

Escoda, C.

M. Zepf, E. L. Clark, K. Krushelnick, F. N. Beg, C. Escoda, A. E. Dangor, M. I. K. Santala, M. Tatarakis, I. F. Watts, P. A. Norreys, R. J. Clarke, J. R. Davies, M. A. Sinclair, R. D. Edwards, T. J. Goldsack, I. Spencer, and K. W. D. Ledingham, “Fast particle generation and energy transport in laser–solid interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 2323–2330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Faubel, M.

Flippo, K.

A. Maksimchuk, S. Gu, K. Flippo, and D. Umstadter, “Forward ion acceleration in thin films driven by a high-intensity laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4108–4111 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Förster, E.

D. von der Linde, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, Ch. Blome, C. Dietrich, P. Zhou, A. Tarasevitch, A. Cavallieri, C. W. Siders, C. P. J. Barty, J. Squier, K. Wilson, I. Uschmann, and E. Förster, “Generation and application of ultrashort x-ray pulses,” Laser Part. Beams 19, 15–22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, J. C.

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, and J. C. Gauthier, “Femtosecond x-ray crystallography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 73, 17–31 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Goldsack, T. J.

M. Zepf, E. L. Clark, K. Krushelnick, F. N. Beg, C. Escoda, A. E. Dangor, M. I. K. Santala, M. Tatarakis, I. F. Watts, P. A. Norreys, R. J. Clarke, J. R. Davies, M. A. Sinclair, R. D. Edwards, T. J. Goldsack, I. Spencer, and K. W. D. Ledingham, “Fast particle generation and energy transport in laser–solid interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 2323–2330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gu, S.

A. Maksimchuk, S. Gu, K. Flippo, and D. Umstadter, “Forward ion acceleration in thin films driven by a high-intensity laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4108–4111 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hatchett, S. P.

S. P. Hatchett, C. G. Brown, T. E. Cowan, E. A. Henry, J. S. Johnson, M. H. Key, J. A. Koch, A. B. Langdon, B. F. Lasinski, R. W. Lee, A. J. Mackinnon, D. M. Pennington, M. D. Perry, T. W. Phillips, M. Roth, T. C. Sangster, M. S. Singh, R. A. Snavely, M. A. Stoyer, S. C. Wilks, and K. Yasuike, “Electron, photon, and ion beams from the relativistic interaction of petawatt laser pulses with solid targets,” Phys. Plasmas 7, 2076–2082 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Henry, E. A.

S. P. Hatchett, C. G. Brown, T. E. Cowan, E. A. Henry, J. S. Johnson, M. H. Key, J. A. Koch, A. B. Langdon, B. F. Lasinski, R. W. Lee, A. J. Mackinnon, D. M. Pennington, M. D. Perry, T. W. Phillips, M. Roth, T. C. Sangster, M. S. Singh, R. A. Snavely, M. A. Stoyer, S. C. Wilks, and K. Yasuike, “Electron, photon, and ion beams from the relativistic interaction of petawatt laser pulses with solid targets,” Phys. Plasmas 7, 2076–2082 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hertz, H. M.

M. Berglund, L. Rymell, H. M. Hertz, and T. Wilhein, “Cryogenic liquid-jet target for debris-free laser-plasma soft x-ray generation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2361–2364 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jin, F.

M. Richardson, D. Torres, C. DePriest, F. Jin, and G. Shimkaveg, “Mass-limited, debris-free laser-plasma EUV source,” Opt. Commun. 145, 109–112 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, J. S.

S. P. Hatchett, C. G. Brown, T. E. Cowan, E. A. Henry, J. S. Johnson, M. H. Key, J. A. Koch, A. B. Langdon, B. F. Lasinski, R. W. Lee, A. J. Mackinnon, D. M. Pennington, M. D. Perry, T. W. Phillips, M. Roth, T. C. Sangster, M. S. Singh, R. A. Snavely, M. A. Stoyer, S. C. Wilks, and K. Yasuike, “Electron, photon, and ion beams from the relativistic interaction of petawatt laser pulses with solid targets,” Phys. Plasmas 7, 2076–2082 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Key, M. H.

S. P. Hatchett, C. G. Brown, T. E. Cowan, E. A. Henry, J. S. Johnson, M. H. Key, J. A. Koch, A. B. Langdon, B. F. Lasinski, R. W. Lee, A. J. Mackinnon, D. M. Pennington, M. D. Perry, T. W. Phillips, M. Roth, T. C. Sangster, M. S. Singh, R. A. Snavely, M. A. Stoyer, S. C. Wilks, and K. Yasuike, “Electron, photon, and ion beams from the relativistic interaction of petawatt laser pulses with solid targets,” Phys. Plasmas 7, 2076–2082 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kitagawa, Y.

Y. Murakami, Y. Kitagawa, Y. Sentoku, M. Mori, R. Kodama, K. A. Tanaka, K. Mima, and T. Yamanaka, “Observation of proton rear emission and possible gigagauss scale magnetic fields from ultra-intense laser illuminated plastic target,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 4138–4143 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koch, J. A.

S. P. Hatchett, C. G. Brown, T. E. Cowan, E. A. Henry, J. S. Johnson, M. H. Key, J. A. Koch, A. B. Langdon, B. F. Lasinski, R. W. Lee, A. J. Mackinnon, D. M. Pennington, M. D. Perry, T. W. Phillips, M. Roth, T. C. Sangster, M. S. Singh, R. A. Snavely, M. A. Stoyer, S. C. Wilks, and K. Yasuike, “Electron, photon, and ion beams from the relativistic interaction of petawatt laser pulses with solid targets,” Phys. Plasmas 7, 2076–2082 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kodama, R.

Y. Murakami, Y. Kitagawa, Y. Sentoku, M. Mori, R. Kodama, K. A. Tanaka, K. Mima, and T. Yamanaka, “Observation of proton rear emission and possible gigagauss scale magnetic fields from ultra-intense laser illuminated plastic target,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 4138–4143 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Korn, G.

Krushelnick, K.

M. Zepf, E. L. Clark, K. Krushelnick, F. N. Beg, C. Escoda, A. E. Dangor, M. I. K. Santala, M. Tatarakis, I. F. Watts, P. A. Norreys, R. J. Clarke, J. R. Davies, M. A. Sinclair, R. D. Edwards, T. J. Goldsack, I. Spencer, and K. W. D. Ledingham, “Fast particle generation and energy transport in laser–solid interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 2323–2330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Clark, K. Krushelnick, M. Zepf, F. N. Beg, M. Tatarakis, A. Machacek, M. I. K. Santala, I. Watts, P. A. Norreys, and A. E. Dangor, “Energetic heavy-ion and proton generation from ultraintense laser-plasma interactions with solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1654–1657 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langdon, A. B.

S. P. Hatchett, C. G. Brown, T. E. Cowan, E. A. Henry, J. S. Johnson, M. H. Key, J. A. Koch, A. B. Langdon, B. F. Lasinski, R. W. Lee, A. J. Mackinnon, D. M. Pennington, M. D. Perry, T. W. Phillips, M. Roth, T. C. Sangster, M. S. Singh, R. A. Snavely, M. A. Stoyer, S. C. Wilks, and K. Yasuike, “Electron, photon, and ion beams from the relativistic interaction of petawatt laser pulses with solid targets,” Phys. Plasmas 7, 2076–2082 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lasinski, B. F.

S. P. Hatchett, C. G. Brown, T. E. Cowan, E. A. Henry, J. S. Johnson, M. H. Key, J. A. Koch, A. B. Langdon, B. F. Lasinski, R. W. Lee, A. J. Mackinnon, D. M. Pennington, M. D. Perry, T. W. Phillips, M. Roth, T. C. Sangster, M. S. Singh, R. A. Snavely, M. A. Stoyer, S. C. Wilks, and K. Yasuike, “Electron, photon, and ion beams from the relativistic interaction of petawatt laser pulses with solid targets,” Phys. Plasmas 7, 2076–2082 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ledingham, K. W. D.

M. Zepf, E. L. Clark, K. Krushelnick, F. N. Beg, C. Escoda, A. E. Dangor, M. I. K. Santala, M. Tatarakis, I. F. Watts, P. A. Norreys, R. J. Clarke, J. R. Davies, M. A. Sinclair, R. D. Edwards, T. J. Goldsack, I. Spencer, and K. W. D. Ledingham, “Fast particle generation and energy transport in laser–solid interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 2323–2330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, R. W.

S. P. Hatchett, C. G. Brown, T. E. Cowan, E. A. Henry, J. S. Johnson, M. H. Key, J. A. Koch, A. B. Langdon, B. F. Lasinski, R. W. Lee, A. J. Mackinnon, D. M. Pennington, M. D. Perry, T. W. Phillips, M. Roth, T. C. Sangster, M. S. Singh, R. A. Snavely, M. A. Stoyer, S. C. Wilks, and K. Yasuike, “Electron, photon, and ion beams from the relativistic interaction of petawatt laser pulses with solid targets,” Phys. Plasmas 7, 2076–2082 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, D.

Machacek, A.

E. L. Clark, K. Krushelnick, M. Zepf, F. N. Beg, M. Tatarakis, A. Machacek, M. I. K. Santala, I. Watts, P. A. Norreys, and A. E. Dangor, “Energetic heavy-ion and proton generation from ultraintense laser-plasma interactions with solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1654–1657 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mackinnon, A. J.

S. P. Hatchett, C. G. Brown, T. E. Cowan, E. A. Henry, J. S. Johnson, M. H. Key, J. A. Koch, A. B. Langdon, B. F. Lasinski, R. W. Lee, A. J. Mackinnon, D. M. Pennington, M. D. Perry, T. W. Phillips, M. Roth, T. C. Sangster, M. S. Singh, R. A. Snavely, M. A. Stoyer, S. C. Wilks, and K. Yasuike, “Electron, photon, and ion beams from the relativistic interaction of petawatt laser pulses with solid targets,” Phys. Plasmas 7, 2076–2082 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maksimchuk, A.

A. Maksimchuk, S. Gu, K. Flippo, and D. Umstadter, “Forward ion acceleration in thin films driven by a high-intensity laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4108–4111 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mima, K.

Y. Murakami, Y. Kitagawa, Y. Sentoku, M. Mori, R. Kodama, K. A. Tanaka, K. Mima, and T. Yamanaka, “Observation of proton rear emission and possible gigagauss scale magnetic fields from ultra-intense laser illuminated plastic target,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 4138–4143 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mori, M.

Y. Murakami, Y. Kitagawa, Y. Sentoku, M. Mori, R. Kodama, K. A. Tanaka, K. Mima, and T. Yamanaka, “Observation of proton rear emission and possible gigagauss scale magnetic fields from ultra-intense laser illuminated plastic target,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 4138–4143 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

Murakami, Y.

Y. Murakami, Y. Kitagawa, Y. Sentoku, M. Mori, R. Kodama, K. A. Tanaka, K. Mima, and T. Yamanaka, “Observation of proton rear emission and possible gigagauss scale magnetic fields from ultra-intense laser illuminated plastic target,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 4138–4143 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Norreys, P. A.

M. Zepf, E. L. Clark, K. Krushelnick, F. N. Beg, C. Escoda, A. E. Dangor, M. I. K. Santala, M. Tatarakis, I. F. Watts, P. A. Norreys, R. J. Clarke, J. R. Davies, M. A. Sinclair, R. D. Edwards, T. J. Goldsack, I. Spencer, and K. W. D. Ledingham, “Fast particle generation and energy transport in laser–solid interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 2323–2330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Clark, K. Krushelnick, M. Zepf, F. N. Beg, M. Tatarakis, A. Machacek, M. I. K. Santala, I. Watts, P. A. Norreys, and A. E. Dangor, “Energetic heavy-ion and proton generation from ultraintense laser-plasma interactions with solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1654–1657 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pennington, D. M.

S. P. Hatchett, C. G. Brown, T. E. Cowan, E. A. Henry, J. S. Johnson, M. H. Key, J. A. Koch, A. B. Langdon, B. F. Lasinski, R. W. Lee, A. J. Mackinnon, D. M. Pennington, M. D. Perry, T. W. Phillips, M. Roth, T. C. Sangster, M. S. Singh, R. A. Snavely, M. A. Stoyer, S. C. Wilks, and K. Yasuike, “Electron, photon, and ion beams from the relativistic interaction of petawatt laser pulses with solid targets,” Phys. Plasmas 7, 2076–2082 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. D.

S. P. Hatchett, C. G. Brown, T. E. Cowan, E. A. Henry, J. S. Johnson, M. H. Key, J. A. Koch, A. B. Langdon, B. F. Lasinski, R. W. Lee, A. J. Mackinnon, D. M. Pennington, M. D. Perry, T. W. Phillips, M. Roth, T. C. Sangster, M. S. Singh, R. A. Snavely, M. A. Stoyer, S. C. Wilks, and K. Yasuike, “Electron, photon, and ion beams from the relativistic interaction of petawatt laser pulses with solid targets,” Phys. Plasmas 7, 2076–2082 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, T. W.

S. P. Hatchett, C. G. Brown, T. E. Cowan, E. A. Henry, J. S. Johnson, M. H. Key, J. A. Koch, A. B. Langdon, B. F. Lasinski, R. W. Lee, A. J. Mackinnon, D. M. Pennington, M. D. Perry, T. W. Phillips, M. Roth, T. C. Sangster, M. S. Singh, R. A. Snavely, M. A. Stoyer, S. C. Wilks, and K. Yasuike, “Electron, photon, and ion beams from the relativistic interaction of petawatt laser pulses with solid targets,” Phys. Plasmas 7, 2076–2082 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, M.

G. Korn, A. Thoss, H. Stiel, U. Voigt, M. Richardson, T. Elsaesser, and M. Faubel, “Ultrashort 1-kHz laser plasma hard x-ray source,” Opt. Lett. 27, 866–868 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Richardson, D. Torres, C. DePriest, F. Jin, and G. Shimkaveg, “Mass-limited, debris-free laser-plasma EUV source,” Opt. Commun. 145, 109–112 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rischel, C.

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, and J. C. Gauthier, “Femtosecond x-ray crystallography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 73, 17–31 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Roth, M.

S. P. Hatchett, C. G. Brown, T. E. Cowan, E. A. Henry, J. S. Johnson, M. H. Key, J. A. Koch, A. B. Langdon, B. F. Lasinski, R. W. Lee, A. J. Mackinnon, D. M. Pennington, M. D. Perry, T. W. Phillips, M. Roth, T. C. Sangster, M. S. Singh, R. A. Snavely, M. A. Stoyer, S. C. Wilks, and K. Yasuike, “Electron, photon, and ion beams from the relativistic interaction of petawatt laser pulses with solid targets,” Phys. Plasmas 7, 2076–2082 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rousse, A.

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, and J. C. Gauthier, “Femtosecond x-ray crystallography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 73, 17–31 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rymell, L.

M. Berglund, L. Rymell, H. M. Hertz, and T. Wilhein, “Cryogenic liquid-jet target for debris-free laser-plasma soft x-ray generation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2361–2364 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Salin, F.

V. Bagnoud and F. Salin, “Amplifying laser pulses to the terawatt level at a 1-kilohertz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 70(Suppl), S165–S170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sangster, T. C.

S. P. Hatchett, C. G. Brown, T. E. Cowan, E. A. Henry, J. S. Johnson, M. H. Key, J. A. Koch, A. B. Langdon, B. F. Lasinski, R. W. Lee, A. J. Mackinnon, D. M. Pennington, M. D. Perry, T. W. Phillips, M. Roth, T. C. Sangster, M. S. Singh, R. A. Snavely, M. A. Stoyer, S. C. Wilks, and K. Yasuike, “Electron, photon, and ion beams from the relativistic interaction of petawatt laser pulses with solid targets,” Phys. Plasmas 7, 2076–2082 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Santala, M. I. K.

M. Zepf, E. L. Clark, K. Krushelnick, F. N. Beg, C. Escoda, A. E. Dangor, M. I. K. Santala, M. Tatarakis, I. F. Watts, P. A. Norreys, R. J. Clarke, J. R. Davies, M. A. Sinclair, R. D. Edwards, T. J. Goldsack, I. Spencer, and K. W. D. Ledingham, “Fast particle generation and energy transport in laser–solid interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 2323–2330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Clark, K. Krushelnick, M. Zepf, F. N. Beg, M. Tatarakis, A. Machacek, M. I. K. Santala, I. Watts, P. A. Norreys, and A. E. Dangor, “Energetic heavy-ion and proton generation from ultraintense laser-plasma interactions with solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1654–1657 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sentoku, Y.

Y. Murakami, Y. Kitagawa, Y. Sentoku, M. Mori, R. Kodama, K. A. Tanaka, K. Mima, and T. Yamanaka, “Observation of proton rear emission and possible gigagauss scale magnetic fields from ultra-intense laser illuminated plastic target,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 4138–4143 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shimkaveg, G.

M. Richardson, D. Torres, C. DePriest, F. Jin, and G. Shimkaveg, “Mass-limited, debris-free laser-plasma EUV source,” Opt. Commun. 145, 109–112 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Siders, C. W.

D. von der Linde, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, Ch. Blome, C. Dietrich, P. Zhou, A. Tarasevitch, A. Cavallieri, C. W. Siders, C. P. J. Barty, J. Squier, K. Wilson, I. Uschmann, and E. Förster, “Generation and application of ultrashort x-ray pulses,” Laser Part. Beams 19, 15–22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sinclair, M. A.

M. Zepf, E. L. Clark, K. Krushelnick, F. N. Beg, C. Escoda, A. E. Dangor, M. I. K. Santala, M. Tatarakis, I. F. Watts, P. A. Norreys, R. J. Clarke, J. R. Davies, M. A. Sinclair, R. D. Edwards, T. J. Goldsack, I. Spencer, and K. W. D. Ledingham, “Fast particle generation and energy transport in laser–solid interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 2323–2330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Singh, M. S.

S. P. Hatchett, C. G. Brown, T. E. Cowan, E. A. Henry, J. S. Johnson, M. H. Key, J. A. Koch, A. B. Langdon, B. F. Lasinski, R. W. Lee, A. J. Mackinnon, D. M. Pennington, M. D. Perry, T. W. Phillips, M. Roth, T. C. Sangster, M. S. Singh, R. A. Snavely, M. A. Stoyer, S. C. Wilks, and K. Yasuike, “Electron, photon, and ion beams from the relativistic interaction of petawatt laser pulses with solid targets,” Phys. Plasmas 7, 2076–2082 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Snavely, R. A.

S. P. Hatchett, C. G. Brown, T. E. Cowan, E. A. Henry, J. S. Johnson, M. H. Key, J. A. Koch, A. B. Langdon, B. F. Lasinski, R. W. Lee, A. J. Mackinnon, D. M. Pennington, M. D. Perry, T. W. Phillips, M. Roth, T. C. Sangster, M. S. Singh, R. A. Snavely, M. A. Stoyer, S. C. Wilks, and K. Yasuike, “Electron, photon, and ion beams from the relativistic interaction of petawatt laser pulses with solid targets,” Phys. Plasmas 7, 2076–2082 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sokolowski-Tinten, K.

D. von der Linde, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, Ch. Blome, C. Dietrich, P. Zhou, A. Tarasevitch, A. Cavallieri, C. W. Siders, C. P. J. Barty, J. Squier, K. Wilson, I. Uschmann, and E. Förster, “Generation and application of ultrashort x-ray pulses,” Laser Part. Beams 19, 15–22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Spencer, I.

M. Zepf, E. L. Clark, K. Krushelnick, F. N. Beg, C. Escoda, A. E. Dangor, M. I. K. Santala, M. Tatarakis, I. F. Watts, P. A. Norreys, R. J. Clarke, J. R. Davies, M. A. Sinclair, R. D. Edwards, T. J. Goldsack, I. Spencer, and K. W. D. Ledingham, “Fast particle generation and energy transport in laser–solid interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 2323–2330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J.

D. von der Linde, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, Ch. Blome, C. Dietrich, P. Zhou, A. Tarasevitch, A. Cavallieri, C. W. Siders, C. P. J. Barty, J. Squier, K. Wilson, I. Uschmann, and E. Förster, “Generation and application of ultrashort x-ray pulses,” Laser Part. Beams 19, 15–22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Squier, G. Korn, G. Mourou, G. Vaillancourt, and M. Bouvier, “Amplification of femtosecond pulses at 10-kHz repetition rates in Ti:Al2O3,” Opt. Lett. 18, 625–627 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stiel, H.

Stoyer, M. A.

S. P. Hatchett, C. G. Brown, T. E. Cowan, E. A. Henry, J. S. Johnson, M. H. Key, J. A. Koch, A. B. Langdon, B. F. Lasinski, R. W. Lee, A. J. Mackinnon, D. M. Pennington, M. D. Perry, T. W. Phillips, M. Roth, T. C. Sangster, M. S. Singh, R. A. Snavely, M. A. Stoyer, S. C. Wilks, and K. Yasuike, “Electron, photon, and ion beams from the relativistic interaction of petawatt laser pulses with solid targets,” Phys. Plasmas 7, 2076–2082 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K. A.

Y. Murakami, Y. Kitagawa, Y. Sentoku, M. Mori, R. Kodama, K. A. Tanaka, K. Mima, and T. Yamanaka, “Observation of proton rear emission and possible gigagauss scale magnetic fields from ultra-intense laser illuminated plastic target,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 4138–4143 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tarasevitch, A.

D. von der Linde, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, Ch. Blome, C. Dietrich, P. Zhou, A. Tarasevitch, A. Cavallieri, C. W. Siders, C. P. J. Barty, J. Squier, K. Wilson, I. Uschmann, and E. Förster, “Generation and application of ultrashort x-ray pulses,” Laser Part. Beams 19, 15–22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tatarakis, M.

M. Zepf, E. L. Clark, K. Krushelnick, F. N. Beg, C. Escoda, A. E. Dangor, M. I. K. Santala, M. Tatarakis, I. F. Watts, P. A. Norreys, R. J. Clarke, J. R. Davies, M. A. Sinclair, R. D. Edwards, T. J. Goldsack, I. Spencer, and K. W. D. Ledingham, “Fast particle generation and energy transport in laser–solid interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 2323–2330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Clark, K. Krushelnick, M. Zepf, F. N. Beg, M. Tatarakis, A. Machacek, M. I. K. Santala, I. Watts, P. A. Norreys, and A. E. Dangor, “Energetic heavy-ion and proton generation from ultraintense laser-plasma interactions with solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1654–1657 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thoss, A.

Torres, D.

M. Richardson, D. Torres, C. DePriest, F. Jin, and G. Shimkaveg, “Mass-limited, debris-free laser-plasma EUV source,” Opt. Commun. 145, 109–112 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Umstadter, D.

A. Maksimchuk, S. Gu, K. Flippo, and D. Umstadter, “Forward ion acceleration in thin films driven by a high-intensity laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4108–4111 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uschmann, I.

D. von der Linde, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, Ch. Blome, C. Dietrich, P. Zhou, A. Tarasevitch, A. Cavallieri, C. W. Siders, C. P. J. Barty, J. Squier, K. Wilson, I. Uschmann, and E. Förster, “Generation and application of ultrashort x-ray pulses,” Laser Part. Beams 19, 15–22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vaillancourt, G.

Voigt, U.

von der Linde, D.

D. von der Linde, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, Ch. Blome, C. Dietrich, P. Zhou, A. Tarasevitch, A. Cavallieri, C. W. Siders, C. P. J. Barty, J. Squier, K. Wilson, I. Uschmann, and E. Förster, “Generation and application of ultrashort x-ray pulses,” Laser Part. Beams 19, 15–22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

Watts, I.

E. L. Clark, K. Krushelnick, M. Zepf, F. N. Beg, M. Tatarakis, A. Machacek, M. I. K. Santala, I. Watts, P. A. Norreys, and A. E. Dangor, “Energetic heavy-ion and proton generation from ultraintense laser-plasma interactions with solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1654–1657 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watts, I. F.

M. Zepf, E. L. Clark, K. Krushelnick, F. N. Beg, C. Escoda, A. E. Dangor, M. I. K. Santala, M. Tatarakis, I. F. Watts, P. A. Norreys, R. J. Clarke, J. R. Davies, M. A. Sinclair, R. D. Edwards, T. J. Goldsack, I. Spencer, and K. W. D. Ledingham, “Fast particle generation and energy transport in laser–solid interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 2323–2330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wilhein, T.

M. Berglund, L. Rymell, H. M. Hertz, and T. Wilhein, “Cryogenic liquid-jet target for debris-free laser-plasma soft x-ray generation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2361–2364 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wilks, S. C.

S. P. Hatchett, C. G. Brown, T. E. Cowan, E. A. Henry, J. S. Johnson, M. H. Key, J. A. Koch, A. B. Langdon, B. F. Lasinski, R. W. Lee, A. J. Mackinnon, D. M. Pennington, M. D. Perry, T. W. Phillips, M. Roth, T. C. Sangster, M. S. Singh, R. A. Snavely, M. A. Stoyer, S. C. Wilks, and K. Yasuike, “Electron, photon, and ion beams from the relativistic interaction of petawatt laser pulses with solid targets,” Phys. Plasmas 7, 2076–2082 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, K.

D. von der Linde, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, Ch. Blome, C. Dietrich, P. Zhou, A. Tarasevitch, A. Cavallieri, C. W. Siders, C. P. J. Barty, J. Squier, K. Wilson, I. Uschmann, and E. Förster, “Generation and application of ultrashort x-ray pulses,” Laser Part. Beams 19, 15–22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yamanaka, T.

Y. Murakami, Y. Kitagawa, Y. Sentoku, M. Mori, R. Kodama, K. A. Tanaka, K. Mima, and T. Yamanaka, “Observation of proton rear emission and possible gigagauss scale magnetic fields from ultra-intense laser illuminated plastic target,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 4138–4143 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yasuike, K.

S. P. Hatchett, C. G. Brown, T. E. Cowan, E. A. Henry, J. S. Johnson, M. H. Key, J. A. Koch, A. B. Langdon, B. F. Lasinski, R. W. Lee, A. J. Mackinnon, D. M. Pennington, M. D. Perry, T. W. Phillips, M. Roth, T. C. Sangster, M. S. Singh, R. A. Snavely, M. A. Stoyer, S. C. Wilks, and K. Yasuike, “Electron, photon, and ion beams from the relativistic interaction of petawatt laser pulses with solid targets,” Phys. Plasmas 7, 2076–2082 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zepf, M.

M. Zepf, E. L. Clark, K. Krushelnick, F. N. Beg, C. Escoda, A. E. Dangor, M. I. K. Santala, M. Tatarakis, I. F. Watts, P. A. Norreys, R. J. Clarke, J. R. Davies, M. A. Sinclair, R. D. Edwards, T. J. Goldsack, I. Spencer, and K. W. D. Ledingham, “Fast particle generation and energy transport in laser–solid interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 2323–2330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Clark, K. Krushelnick, M. Zepf, F. N. Beg, M. Tatarakis, A. Machacek, M. I. K. Santala, I. Watts, P. A. Norreys, and A. E. Dangor, “Energetic heavy-ion and proton generation from ultraintense laser-plasma interactions with solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1654–1657 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, P.

D. von der Linde, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, Ch. Blome, C. Dietrich, P. Zhou, A. Tarasevitch, A. Cavallieri, C. W. Siders, C. P. J. Barty, J. Squier, K. Wilson, I. Uschmann, and E. Förster, “Generation and application of ultrashort x-ray pulses,” Laser Part. Beams 19, 15–22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

V. Bagnoud and F. Salin, “Amplifying laser pulses to the terawatt level at a 1-kilohertz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 70(Suppl), S165–S170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Laser Part. Beams (1)

D. von der Linde, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, Ch. Blome, C. Dietrich, P. Zhou, A. Tarasevitch, A. Cavallieri, C. W. Siders, C. P. J. Barty, J. Squier, K. Wilson, I. Uschmann, and E. Förster, “Generation and application of ultrashort x-ray pulses,” Laser Part. Beams 19, 15–22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Richardson, D. Torres, C. DePriest, F. Jin, and G. Shimkaveg, “Mass-limited, debris-free laser-plasma EUV source,” Opt. Commun. 145, 109–112 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Plasmas (3)

S. P. Hatchett, C. G. Brown, T. E. Cowan, E. A. Henry, J. S. Johnson, M. H. Key, J. A. Koch, A. B. Langdon, B. F. Lasinski, R. W. Lee, A. J. Mackinnon, D. M. Pennington, M. D. Perry, T. W. Phillips, M. Roth, T. C. Sangster, M. S. Singh, R. A. Snavely, M. A. Stoyer, S. C. Wilks, and K. Yasuike, “Electron, photon, and ion beams from the relativistic interaction of petawatt laser pulses with solid targets,” Phys. Plasmas 7, 2076–2082 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Murakami, Y. Kitagawa, Y. Sentoku, M. Mori, R. Kodama, K. A. Tanaka, K. Mima, and T. Yamanaka, “Observation of proton rear emission and possible gigagauss scale magnetic fields from ultra-intense laser illuminated plastic target,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 4138–4143 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Zepf, E. L. Clark, K. Krushelnick, F. N. Beg, C. Escoda, A. E. Dangor, M. I. K. Santala, M. Tatarakis, I. F. Watts, P. A. Norreys, R. J. Clarke, J. R. Davies, M. A. Sinclair, R. D. Edwards, T. J. Goldsack, I. Spencer, and K. W. D. Ledingham, “Fast particle generation and energy transport in laser–solid interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 2323–2330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

A. Maksimchuk, S. Gu, K. Flippo, and D. Umstadter, “Forward ion acceleration in thin films driven by a high-intensity laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4108–4111 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. L. Clark, K. Krushelnick, M. Zepf, F. N. Beg, M. Tatarakis, A. Machacek, M. I. K. Santala, I. Watts, P. A. Norreys, and A. E. Dangor, “Energetic heavy-ion and proton generation from ultraintense laser-plasma interactions with solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1654–1657 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, and J. C. Gauthier, “Femtosecond x-ray crystallography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 73, 17–31 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

M. Berglund, L. Rymell, H. M. Hertz, and T. Wilhein, “Cryogenic liquid-jet target for debris-free laser-plasma soft x-ray generation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2361–2364 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

G. Korn, A. Thoss, M. Faubel, H. Stiel, U. Voigt, M. Richardson, and T. Elsaesser, “kHz femtosecond laser plasma x-ray source,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 56 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 113–114.

A. Thoss, “Radiation emission and particle acceleration from a liquid jet target using a 1-kHz ultrafast laser system,” Ph.D. dissertation (Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 2003).

M. Faubel, “Photoelectron spectroscopy at liquid surfaces,” in Photoionization and Photodetachment, C. Y. Ng, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 2000), pp. 634–690.

Amptek Inc., Bedford, Mass.; the signal from the XR-100CR detector was amplified with a PX2CR and recorded with a MCA8000A.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement of the liquid Ga jet laser plasma source.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral emission of femtosecond laser plasma from a Ga jet target.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup for the detection of protons.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Horizontal angular distribution of proton tracks on CR 39 detection plate counted up to the center of a circular distribution. Exposure time was 10 s (104 shots).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Proton energy distribution counted on CR 39 with no Mylar, 1 layer, and 2 layers of 2 μm Mylar.

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