Abstract

Simulations of plasma dynamics in a fast capillary discharge are presented. The temporal dependence of the plasma column’s resistance validates the one-dimensional model that was used in the numerical simulations. Numerical analysis of the laser absorption determines the pump parameter range for efficient excitation of longitudinally pumped transient collisional x-ray lasers.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. Yu. V. Afanas’ev and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Formation of a population inversion of transitions in steady-state and transient plasmas,” Quantum Electron. 19, 1606–1612 (1989).
  2. P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. P. Kalachnikov, M. Schnuerer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short-pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2748–2751 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. B. Healy, K. A. Janulewicz, J. A. Plowes, and G. J. Pert, “Transient high gains at 196 Å produced by picosecond pulse heating of a preformed germanium plasma,” Opt. Commun. 132, 442–448 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. A. Janulewicz, S. B. Healy, M. P. Kalachnikov, P. J. Warwick, P. V. Nickles, W. Sandner, and G. J. Pert, “Influence of pump pulse parameters on the collisionally pumped germanium x-ray laser in the transient gain regime,” Opt. Commun. 168, 183–193 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, and J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. B. Healy, J. A. Plowes, G. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, and G. J. Pert, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser considering the effect of prepulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 949–957 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Li, T. Ozaki, T. Kanai, and H. Kuroda, “Proposal of the longitudinally pumped saturated Ni-like Mo x-ray laser at 18.9 nm,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 7093–7102 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. M. Milchberg, C. G. Durfee III, and J. Lynch, “Application of plasma channels to soft x-ray lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 731–737 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Ehrlich, C. Cohen, D. Kaganovich, A. Zigler, R. F. Hubbard, P. Sprangle, and E. Esarey, “Guiding and damping of high-intensity laser pulses in long plasma channels,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2416–2423 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Ehrlich, C. Cohen, A. Zigler, J. Krall, P. Sprangle, and E. Esarey, “Guiding of high-intensity laser pulses in straight and curved plasma channel experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4186–4189 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. M. Hooker, D. J. Spence, and R. A. Smith, “Guiding of high-intensity picosecond laser pulses in a discharge-ablated capillary waveguide,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 90–98 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. V. Korobkin, C. Nam, and S. Suckewer, “Demonstration of soft x-ray lasing to ground-state in Li III,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5206–5209 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Marconi, C. H. Moreno, J. J. Rocca, V. N. Shlyaptsev, and A. L. Osterheld, “Dynamics of a microcapillary discharge plasma using a soft x-ray laser backlighter,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 7209–7218 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. J. Rocca, V. N. Shlyaptsev, F. G. Tomasel, O. D. Cortazar, D. Hartshorn, and J. L. A. Chilla, “Demonstration of a discharge pumped table-top soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2192–2195 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. J. Rocca, “Table-top soft x-ray lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3799–3827 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. A. Janulewicz, J. J. Rocca, F. Bortolotto, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. P. Kalachnikov, W. Sandner, and P. V. Nickles, “Demonstration of a hybrid collisionally pumped soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 033803 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. A. Janulewicz, F. Bortolotto, P. J. Warwick, M. P. Kalachnikov, V. N. Shlyaptsev, W. Sandner, J. J. Rocca, and P. V. Nickles, “Studies of a sulfur capillary discharge irradiated by a ps-laser pulse: a new way towards collisionally pumped table-top x-ray lasers,” in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications III, J. J. Rocca and L. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE 3776, 37–44 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. N. A. Bobrova, S. V. Bulanov, D. Farina, R. Pozzoli, T. L. Razinkova, J. I. Sakai, P. V. Sasorov, and I. V. Sokolov, “MHD simulations of plasma dynamics in pinch discharges in capillary plasmas,” Laser Part. Beams 18, 623–638 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. A. McCorkle, “The high-power sliding-spark capillary discharge in vacuum: variations and applications,” Appl. Phys. A 26, 261–270 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. J. Pert, “Inverse bremsstrahlung in strong radiation fields at low temperatures,” Phys. Rev. E 51, 4778–4789 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  21. N. A. Bobrova and P. V. Sasorov, “MHD equations for a fully ionized plasma of complex composition,” Sov. J. Plasma Phys. 19, 409–421 (1993).
  22. K. A. Janulewicz, M. J. Grout, and G. J. Pert, “Electron residual energy of optical-field-ionized plasmas driven by subpicosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 29, 901–914 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (1)

K. A. Janulewicz, J. J. Rocca, F. Bortolotto, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. P. Kalachnikov, W. Sandner, and P. V. Nickles, “Demonstration of a hybrid collisionally pumped soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 033803 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

M. Marconi, C. H. Moreno, J. J. Rocca, V. N. Shlyaptsev, and A. L. Osterheld, “Dynamics of a microcapillary discharge plasma using a soft x-ray laser backlighter,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 7209–7218 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Hooker, D. J. Spence, and R. A. Smith, “Guiding of high-intensity picosecond laser pulses in a discharge-ablated capillary waveguide,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 90–98 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Bobrova, S. V. Bulanov, D. Farina, R. Pozzoli, T. L. Razinkova, J. I. Sakai, P. V. Sasorov, and I. V. Sokolov, “MHD simulations of plasma dynamics in pinch discharges in capillary plasmas,” Laser Part. Beams 18, 623–638 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

J. J. Rocca, “Table-top soft x-ray lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3799–3827 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Janulewicz, F. Bortolotto, P. J. Warwick, M. P. Kalachnikov, V. N. Shlyaptsev, W. Sandner, J. J. Rocca, and P. V. Nickles, “Studies of a sulfur capillary discharge irradiated by a ps-laser pulse: a new way towards collisionally pumped table-top x-ray lasers,” in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications III, J. J. Rocca and L. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE 3776, 37–44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Janulewicz, S. B. Healy, M. P. Kalachnikov, P. J. Warwick, P. V. Nickles, W. Sandner, and G. J. Pert, “Influence of pump pulse parameters on the collisionally pumped germanium x-ray laser in the transient gain regime,” Opt. Commun. 168, 183–193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

R. Li, T. Ozaki, T. Kanai, and H. Kuroda, “Proposal of the longitudinally pumped saturated Ni-like Mo x-ray laser at 18.9 nm,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 7093–7102 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ehrlich, C. Cohen, D. Kaganovich, A. Zigler, R. F. Hubbard, P. Sprangle, and E. Esarey, “Guiding and damping of high-intensity laser pulses in long plasma channels,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2416–2423 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. P. Kalachnikov, M. Schnuerer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short-pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2748–2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (4)

S. B. Healy, K. A. Janulewicz, J. A. Plowes, and G. J. Pert, “Transient high gains at 196 Å produced by picosecond pulse heating of a preformed germanium plasma,” Opt. Commun. 132, 442–448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ehrlich, C. Cohen, A. Zigler, J. Krall, P. Sprangle, and E. Esarey, “Guiding of high-intensity laser pulses in straight and curved plasma channel experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4186–4189 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Korobkin, C. Nam, and S. Suckewer, “Demonstration of soft x-ray lasing to ground-state in Li III,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5206–5209 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Janulewicz, M. J. Grout, and G. J. Pert, “Electron residual energy of optical-field-ionized plasmas driven by subpicosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 29, 901–914 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

G. J. Pert, “Inverse bremsstrahlung in strong radiation fields at low temperatures,” Phys. Rev. E 51, 4778–4789 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Milchberg, C. G. Durfee III, and J. Lynch, “Application of plasma channels to soft x-ray lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 731–737 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Healy, J. A. Plowes, G. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, and G. J. Pert, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser considering the effect of prepulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 949–957 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. J. Rocca, V. N. Shlyaptsev, F. G. Tomasel, O. D. Cortazar, D. Hartshorn, and J. L. A. Chilla, “Demonstration of a discharge pumped table-top soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2192–2195 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, and J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Bobrova and P. V. Sasorov, “MHD equations for a fully ionized plasma of complex composition,” Sov. J. Plasma Phys. 19, 409–421 (1993).

1989 (1)

Yu. V. Afanas’ev and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Formation of a population inversion of transitions in steady-state and transient plasmas,” Quantum Electron. 19, 1606–1612 (1989).

1981 (1)

R. A. McCorkle, “The high-power sliding-spark capillary discharge in vacuum: variations and applications,” Appl. Phys. A 26, 261–270 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Afanas’ev, Yu. V.

Yu. V. Afanas’ev and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Formation of a population inversion of transitions in steady-state and transient plasmas,” Quantum Electron. 19, 1606–1612 (1989).

Bobrova, N. A.

N. A. Bobrova, S. V. Bulanov, D. Farina, R. Pozzoli, T. L. Razinkova, J. I. Sakai, P. V. Sasorov, and I. V. Sokolov, “MHD simulations of plasma dynamics in pinch discharges in capillary plasmas,” Laser Part. Beams 18, 623–638 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Bobrova and P. V. Sasorov, “MHD equations for a fully ionized plasma of complex composition,” Sov. J. Plasma Phys. 19, 409–421 (1993).

Bortolotto, F.

K. A. Janulewicz, J. J. Rocca, F. Bortolotto, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. P. Kalachnikov, W. Sandner, and P. V. Nickles, “Demonstration of a hybrid collisionally pumped soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 033803 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Janulewicz, F. Bortolotto, P. J. Warwick, M. P. Kalachnikov, V. N. Shlyaptsev, W. Sandner, J. J. Rocca, and P. V. Nickles, “Studies of a sulfur capillary discharge irradiated by a ps-laser pulse: a new way towards collisionally pumped table-top x-ray lasers,” in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications III, J. J. Rocca and L. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE 3776, 37–44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bulanov, S. V.

N. A. Bobrova, S. V. Bulanov, D. Farina, R. Pozzoli, T. L. Razinkova, J. I. Sakai, P. V. Sasorov, and I. V. Sokolov, “MHD simulations of plasma dynamics in pinch discharges in capillary plasmas,” Laser Part. Beams 18, 623–638 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cairns, G.

S. B. Healy, J. A. Plowes, G. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, and G. J. Pert, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser considering the effect of prepulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 949–957 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chilla, J. L. A.

J. J. Rocca, V. N. Shlyaptsev, F. G. Tomasel, O. D. Cortazar, D. Hartshorn, and J. L. A. Chilla, “Demonstration of a discharge pumped table-top soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2192–2195 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, C.

Y. Ehrlich, C. Cohen, D. Kaganovich, A. Zigler, R. F. Hubbard, P. Sprangle, and E. Esarey, “Guiding and damping of high-intensity laser pulses in long plasma channels,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2416–2423 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ehrlich, C. Cohen, A. Zigler, J. Krall, P. Sprangle, and E. Esarey, “Guiding of high-intensity laser pulses in straight and curved plasma channel experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4186–4189 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cortazar, O. D.

J. J. Rocca, V. N. Shlyaptsev, F. G. Tomasel, O. D. Cortazar, D. Hartshorn, and J. L. A. Chilla, “Demonstration of a discharge pumped table-top soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2192–2195 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Da Silva, L. B.

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, and J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durfee III, C. G.

Ehrlich, Y.

Y. Ehrlich, C. Cohen, D. Kaganovich, A. Zigler, R. F. Hubbard, P. Sprangle, and E. Esarey, “Guiding and damping of high-intensity laser pulses in long plasma channels,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2416–2423 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ehrlich, C. Cohen, A. Zigler, J. Krall, P. Sprangle, and E. Esarey, “Guiding of high-intensity laser pulses in straight and curved plasma channel experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4186–4189 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esarey, E.

Y. Ehrlich, C. Cohen, D. Kaganovich, A. Zigler, R. F. Hubbard, P. Sprangle, and E. Esarey, “Guiding and damping of high-intensity laser pulses in long plasma channels,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2416–2423 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ehrlich, C. Cohen, A. Zigler, J. Krall, P. Sprangle, and E. Esarey, “Guiding of high-intensity laser pulses in straight and curved plasma channel experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4186–4189 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farina, D.

N. A. Bobrova, S. V. Bulanov, D. Farina, R. Pozzoli, T. L. Razinkova, J. I. Sakai, P. V. Sasorov, and I. V. Sokolov, “MHD simulations of plasma dynamics in pinch discharges in capillary plasmas,” Laser Part. Beams 18, 623–638 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grout, M. J.

K. A. Janulewicz, M. J. Grout, and G. J. Pert, “Electron residual energy of optical-field-ionized plasmas driven by subpicosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 29, 901–914 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hartshorn, D.

J. J. Rocca, V. N. Shlyaptsev, F. G. Tomasel, O. D. Cortazar, D. Hartshorn, and J. L. A. Chilla, “Demonstration of a discharge pumped table-top soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2192–2195 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Healy, S. B.

K. A. Janulewicz, S. B. Healy, M. P. Kalachnikov, P. J. Warwick, P. V. Nickles, W. Sandner, and G. J. Pert, “Influence of pump pulse parameters on the collisionally pumped germanium x-ray laser in the transient gain regime,” Opt. Commun. 168, 183–193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Healy, K. A. Janulewicz, J. A. Plowes, and G. J. Pert, “Transient high gains at 196 Å produced by picosecond pulse heating of a preformed germanium plasma,” Opt. Commun. 132, 442–448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Healy, J. A. Plowes, G. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, and G. J. Pert, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser considering the effect of prepulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 949–957 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hooker, S. M.

Hubbard, R. F.

Janulewicz, K. A.

K. A. Janulewicz, J. J. Rocca, F. Bortolotto, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. P. Kalachnikov, W. Sandner, and P. V. Nickles, “Demonstration of a hybrid collisionally pumped soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 033803 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Janulewicz, S. B. Healy, M. P. Kalachnikov, P. J. Warwick, P. V. Nickles, W. Sandner, and G. J. Pert, “Influence of pump pulse parameters on the collisionally pumped germanium x-ray laser in the transient gain regime,” Opt. Commun. 168, 183–193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Janulewicz, F. Bortolotto, P. J. Warwick, M. P. Kalachnikov, V. N. Shlyaptsev, W. Sandner, J. J. Rocca, and P. V. Nickles, “Studies of a sulfur capillary discharge irradiated by a ps-laser pulse: a new way towards collisionally pumped table-top x-ray lasers,” in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications III, J. J. Rocca and L. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE 3776, 37–44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Janulewicz, M. J. Grout, and G. J. Pert, “Electron residual energy of optical-field-ionized plasmas driven by subpicosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 29, 901–914 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Healy, K. A. Janulewicz, J. A. Plowes, and G. J. Pert, “Transient high gains at 196 Å produced by picosecond pulse heating of a preformed germanium plasma,” Opt. Commun. 132, 442–448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kaganovich, D.

Kalachnikov, M. P.

K. A. Janulewicz, J. J. Rocca, F. Bortolotto, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. P. Kalachnikov, W. Sandner, and P. V. Nickles, “Demonstration of a hybrid collisionally pumped soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 033803 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Janulewicz, S. B. Healy, M. P. Kalachnikov, P. J. Warwick, P. V. Nickles, W. Sandner, and G. J. Pert, “Influence of pump pulse parameters on the collisionally pumped germanium x-ray laser in the transient gain regime,” Opt. Commun. 168, 183–193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Janulewicz, F. Bortolotto, P. J. Warwick, M. P. Kalachnikov, V. N. Shlyaptsev, W. Sandner, J. J. Rocca, and P. V. Nickles, “Studies of a sulfur capillary discharge irradiated by a ps-laser pulse: a new way towards collisionally pumped table-top x-ray lasers,” in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications III, J. J. Rocca and L. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE 3776, 37–44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. P. Kalachnikov, M. Schnuerer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short-pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2748–2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kanai, T.

R. Li, T. Ozaki, T. Kanai, and H. Kuroda, “Proposal of the longitudinally pumped saturated Ni-like Mo x-ray laser at 18.9 nm,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 7093–7102 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Korobkin, D. V.

D. V. Korobkin, C. Nam, and S. Suckewer, “Demonstration of soft x-ray lasing to ground-state in Li III,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5206–5209 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krall, J.

Y. Ehrlich, C. Cohen, A. Zigler, J. Krall, P. Sprangle, and E. Esarey, “Guiding of high-intensity laser pulses in straight and curved plasma channel experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4186–4189 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuroda, H.

R. Li, T. Ozaki, T. Kanai, and H. Kuroda, “Proposal of the longitudinally pumped saturated Ni-like Mo x-ray laser at 18.9 nm,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 7093–7102 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, C. L. S.

S. B. Healy, J. A. Plowes, G. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, and G. J. Pert, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser considering the effect of prepulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 949–957 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Li, R.

R. Li, T. Ozaki, T. Kanai, and H. Kuroda, “Proposal of the longitudinally pumped saturated Ni-like Mo x-ray laser at 18.9 nm,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 7093–7102 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lynch, J.

MacGowan, B. J.

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, and J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marconi, M.

M. Marconi, C. H. Moreno, J. J. Rocca, V. N. Shlyaptsev, and A. L. Osterheld, “Dynamics of a microcapillary discharge plasma using a soft x-ray laser backlighter,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 7209–7218 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McCorkle, R. A.

R. A. McCorkle, “The high-power sliding-spark capillary discharge in vacuum: variations and applications,” Appl. Phys. A 26, 261–270 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Milchberg, H. M.

Moreno, C. H.

M. Marconi, C. H. Moreno, J. J. Rocca, V. N. Shlyaptsev, and A. L. Osterheld, “Dynamics of a microcapillary discharge plasma using a soft x-ray laser backlighter,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 7209–7218 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, J. C.

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, and J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nam, C.

D. V. Korobkin, C. Nam, and S. Suckewer, “Demonstration of soft x-ray lasing to ground-state in Li III,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5206–5209 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nickles, P. V.

K. A. Janulewicz, J. J. Rocca, F. Bortolotto, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. P. Kalachnikov, W. Sandner, and P. V. Nickles, “Demonstration of a hybrid collisionally pumped soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 033803 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Janulewicz, F. Bortolotto, P. J. Warwick, M. P. Kalachnikov, V. N. Shlyaptsev, W. Sandner, J. J. Rocca, and P. V. Nickles, “Studies of a sulfur capillary discharge irradiated by a ps-laser pulse: a new way towards collisionally pumped table-top x-ray lasers,” in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications III, J. J. Rocca and L. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE 3776, 37–44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Janulewicz, S. B. Healy, M. P. Kalachnikov, P. J. Warwick, P. V. Nickles, W. Sandner, and G. J. Pert, “Influence of pump pulse parameters on the collisionally pumped germanium x-ray laser in the transient gain regime,” Opt. Commun. 168, 183–193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. P. Kalachnikov, M. Schnuerer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short-pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2748–2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nilsen, J.

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, and J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osterheld, A. L.

M. Marconi, C. H. Moreno, J. J. Rocca, V. N. Shlyaptsev, and A. L. Osterheld, “Dynamics of a microcapillary discharge plasma using a soft x-ray laser backlighter,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 7209–7218 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, T.

R. Li, T. Ozaki, T. Kanai, and H. Kuroda, “Proposal of the longitudinally pumped saturated Ni-like Mo x-ray laser at 18.9 nm,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 7093–7102 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pert, G. J.

K. A. Janulewicz, S. B. Healy, M. P. Kalachnikov, P. J. Warwick, P. V. Nickles, W. Sandner, and G. J. Pert, “Influence of pump pulse parameters on the collisionally pumped germanium x-ray laser in the transient gain regime,” Opt. Commun. 168, 183–193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Healy, K. A. Janulewicz, J. A. Plowes, and G. J. Pert, “Transient high gains at 196 Å produced by picosecond pulse heating of a preformed germanium plasma,” Opt. Commun. 132, 442–448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Janulewicz, M. J. Grout, and G. J. Pert, “Electron residual energy of optical-field-ionized plasmas driven by subpicosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 29, 901–914 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Pert, “Inverse bremsstrahlung in strong radiation fields at low temperatures,” Phys. Rev. E 51, 4778–4789 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Healy, J. A. Plowes, G. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, and G. J. Pert, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser considering the effect of prepulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 949–957 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Plowes, J. A.

S. B. Healy, K. A. Janulewicz, J. A. Plowes, and G. J. Pert, “Transient high gains at 196 Å produced by picosecond pulse heating of a preformed germanium plasma,” Opt. Commun. 132, 442–448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Healy, J. A. Plowes, G. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, and G. J. Pert, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser considering the effect of prepulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 949–957 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pozzoli, R.

N. A. Bobrova, S. V. Bulanov, D. Farina, R. Pozzoli, T. L. Razinkova, J. I. Sakai, P. V. Sasorov, and I. V. Sokolov, “MHD simulations of plasma dynamics in pinch discharges in capillary plasmas,” Laser Part. Beams 18, 623–638 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Razinkova, T. L.

N. A. Bobrova, S. V. Bulanov, D. Farina, R. Pozzoli, T. L. Razinkova, J. I. Sakai, P. V. Sasorov, and I. V. Sokolov, “MHD simulations of plasma dynamics in pinch discharges in capillary plasmas,” Laser Part. Beams 18, 623–638 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rocca, J. J.

K. A. Janulewicz, J. J. Rocca, F. Bortolotto, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. P. Kalachnikov, W. Sandner, and P. V. Nickles, “Demonstration of a hybrid collisionally pumped soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 033803 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Marconi, C. H. Moreno, J. J. Rocca, V. N. Shlyaptsev, and A. L. Osterheld, “Dynamics of a microcapillary discharge plasma using a soft x-ray laser backlighter,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 7209–7218 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Rocca, “Table-top soft x-ray lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3799–3827 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Janulewicz, F. Bortolotto, P. J. Warwick, M. P. Kalachnikov, V. N. Shlyaptsev, W. Sandner, J. J. Rocca, and P. V. Nickles, “Studies of a sulfur capillary discharge irradiated by a ps-laser pulse: a new way towards collisionally pumped table-top x-ray lasers,” in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications III, J. J. Rocca and L. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE 3776, 37–44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Rocca, V. N. Shlyaptsev, F. G. Tomasel, O. D. Cortazar, D. Hartshorn, and J. L. A. Chilla, “Demonstration of a discharge pumped table-top soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2192–2195 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakai, J. I.

N. A. Bobrova, S. V. Bulanov, D. Farina, R. Pozzoli, T. L. Razinkova, J. I. Sakai, P. V. Sasorov, and I. V. Sokolov, “MHD simulations of plasma dynamics in pinch discharges in capillary plasmas,” Laser Part. Beams 18, 623–638 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sandner, W.

K. A. Janulewicz, J. J. Rocca, F. Bortolotto, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. P. Kalachnikov, W. Sandner, and P. V. Nickles, “Demonstration of a hybrid collisionally pumped soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 033803 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Janulewicz, S. B. Healy, M. P. Kalachnikov, P. J. Warwick, P. V. Nickles, W. Sandner, and G. J. Pert, “Influence of pump pulse parameters on the collisionally pumped germanium x-ray laser in the transient gain regime,” Opt. Commun. 168, 183–193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Janulewicz, F. Bortolotto, P. J. Warwick, M. P. Kalachnikov, V. N. Shlyaptsev, W. Sandner, J. J. Rocca, and P. V. Nickles, “Studies of a sulfur capillary discharge irradiated by a ps-laser pulse: a new way towards collisionally pumped table-top x-ray lasers,” in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications III, J. J. Rocca and L. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE 3776, 37–44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. P. Kalachnikov, M. Schnuerer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short-pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2748–2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sasorov, P. V.

N. A. Bobrova, S. V. Bulanov, D. Farina, R. Pozzoli, T. L. Razinkova, J. I. Sakai, P. V. Sasorov, and I. V. Sokolov, “MHD simulations of plasma dynamics in pinch discharges in capillary plasmas,” Laser Part. Beams 18, 623–638 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Bobrova and P. V. Sasorov, “MHD equations for a fully ionized plasma of complex composition,” Sov. J. Plasma Phys. 19, 409–421 (1993).

Schnuerer, M.

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. P. Kalachnikov, M. Schnuerer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short-pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2748–2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shlyaptsev, V. N.

K. A. Janulewicz, J. J. Rocca, F. Bortolotto, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. P. Kalachnikov, W. Sandner, and P. V. Nickles, “Demonstration of a hybrid collisionally pumped soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 033803 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Marconi, C. H. Moreno, J. J. Rocca, V. N. Shlyaptsev, and A. L. Osterheld, “Dynamics of a microcapillary discharge plasma using a soft x-ray laser backlighter,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 7209–7218 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Janulewicz, F. Bortolotto, P. J. Warwick, M. P. Kalachnikov, V. N. Shlyaptsev, W. Sandner, J. J. Rocca, and P. V. Nickles, “Studies of a sulfur capillary discharge irradiated by a ps-laser pulse: a new way towards collisionally pumped table-top x-ray lasers,” in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications III, J. J. Rocca and L. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE 3776, 37–44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. P. Kalachnikov, M. Schnuerer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short-pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2748–2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Rocca, V. N. Shlyaptsev, F. G. Tomasel, O. D. Cortazar, D. Hartshorn, and J. L. A. Chilla, “Demonstration of a discharge pumped table-top soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2192–2195 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu. V. Afanas’ev and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Formation of a population inversion of transitions in steady-state and transient plasmas,” Quantum Electron. 19, 1606–1612 (1989).

Smith, R. A.

Sokolov, I. V.

N. A. Bobrova, S. V. Bulanov, D. Farina, R. Pozzoli, T. L. Razinkova, J. I. Sakai, P. V. Sasorov, and I. V. Sokolov, “MHD simulations of plasma dynamics in pinch discharges in capillary plasmas,” Laser Part. Beams 18, 623–638 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Spence, D. J.

Sprangle, P.

Y. Ehrlich, C. Cohen, D. Kaganovich, A. Zigler, R. F. Hubbard, P. Sprangle, and E. Esarey, “Guiding and damping of high-intensity laser pulses in long plasma channels,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2416–2423 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ehrlich, C. Cohen, A. Zigler, J. Krall, P. Sprangle, and E. Esarey, “Guiding of high-intensity laser pulses in straight and curved plasma channel experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4186–4189 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suckewer, S.

D. V. Korobkin, C. Nam, and S. Suckewer, “Demonstration of soft x-ray lasing to ground-state in Li III,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5206–5209 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomasel, F. G.

J. J. Rocca, V. N. Shlyaptsev, F. G. Tomasel, O. D. Cortazar, D. Hartshorn, and J. L. A. Chilla, “Demonstration of a discharge pumped table-top soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2192–2195 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warwick, P. J.

K. A. Janulewicz, S. B. Healy, M. P. Kalachnikov, P. J. Warwick, P. V. Nickles, W. Sandner, and G. J. Pert, “Influence of pump pulse parameters on the collisionally pumped germanium x-ray laser in the transient gain regime,” Opt. Commun. 168, 183–193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Janulewicz, F. Bortolotto, P. J. Warwick, M. P. Kalachnikov, V. N. Shlyaptsev, W. Sandner, J. J. Rocca, and P. V. Nickles, “Studies of a sulfur capillary discharge irradiated by a ps-laser pulse: a new way towards collisionally pumped table-top x-ray lasers,” in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications III, J. J. Rocca and L. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE 3776, 37–44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Will, I.

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. P. Kalachnikov, M. Schnuerer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short-pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2748–2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zigler, A.

Y. Ehrlich, C. Cohen, D. Kaganovich, A. Zigler, R. F. Hubbard, P. Sprangle, and E. Esarey, “Guiding and damping of high-intensity laser pulses in long plasma channels,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2416–2423 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ehrlich, C. Cohen, A. Zigler, J. Krall, P. Sprangle, and E. Esarey, “Guiding of high-intensity laser pulses in straight and curved plasma channel experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4186–4189 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

R. A. McCorkle, “The high-power sliding-spark capillary discharge in vacuum: variations and applications,” Appl. Phys. A 26, 261–270 (1981).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. B. Healy, J. A. Plowes, G. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, and G. J. Pert, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser considering the effect of prepulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 949–957 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. Phys. B (1)

K. A. Janulewicz, M. J. Grout, and G. J. Pert, “Electron residual energy of optical-field-ionized plasmas driven by subpicosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 29, 901–914 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Laser Part. Beams (1)

N. A. Bobrova, S. V. Bulanov, D. Farina, R. Pozzoli, T. L. Razinkova, J. I. Sakai, P. V. Sasorov, and I. V. Sokolov, “MHD simulations of plasma dynamics in pinch discharges in capillary plasmas,” Laser Part. Beams 18, 623–638 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

S. B. Healy, K. A. Janulewicz, J. A. Plowes, and G. J. Pert, “Transient high gains at 196 Å produced by picosecond pulse heating of a preformed germanium plasma,” Opt. Commun. 132, 442–448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Janulewicz, S. B. Healy, M. P. Kalachnikov, P. J. Warwick, P. V. Nickles, W. Sandner, and G. J. Pert, “Influence of pump pulse parameters on the collisionally pumped germanium x-ray laser in the transient gain regime,” Opt. Commun. 168, 183–193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, and J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Janulewicz, J. J. Rocca, F. Bortolotto, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. P. Kalachnikov, W. Sandner, and P. V. Nickles, “Demonstration of a hybrid collisionally pumped soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 033803 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (3)

G. J. Pert, “Inverse bremsstrahlung in strong radiation fields at low temperatures,” Phys. Rev. E 51, 4778–4789 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Marconi, C. H. Moreno, J. J. Rocca, V. N. Shlyaptsev, and A. L. Osterheld, “Dynamics of a microcapillary discharge plasma using a soft x-ray laser backlighter,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 7209–7218 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Li, T. Ozaki, T. Kanai, and H. Kuroda, “Proposal of the longitudinally pumped saturated Ni-like Mo x-ray laser at 18.9 nm,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 7093–7102 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

Y. Ehrlich, C. Cohen, A. Zigler, J. Krall, P. Sprangle, and E. Esarey, “Guiding of high-intensity laser pulses in straight and curved plasma channel experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4186–4189 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. P. Kalachnikov, M. Schnuerer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short-pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2748–2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Rocca, V. N. Shlyaptsev, F. G. Tomasel, O. D. Cortazar, D. Hartshorn, and J. L. A. Chilla, “Demonstration of a discharge pumped table-top soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2192–2195 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Korobkin, C. Nam, and S. Suckewer, “Demonstration of soft x-ray lasing to ground-state in Li III,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5206–5209 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

K. A. Janulewicz, F. Bortolotto, P. J. Warwick, M. P. Kalachnikov, V. N. Shlyaptsev, W. Sandner, J. J. Rocca, and P. V. Nickles, “Studies of a sulfur capillary discharge irradiated by a ps-laser pulse: a new way towards collisionally pumped table-top x-ray lasers,” in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications III, J. J. Rocca and L. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE 3776, 37–44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electron. (1)

Yu. V. Afanas’ev and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Formation of a population inversion of transitions in steady-state and transient plasmas,” Quantum Electron. 19, 1606–1612 (1989).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. J. Rocca, “Table-top soft x-ray lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3799–3827 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Plasma Phys. (1)

N. A. Bobrova and P. V. Sasorov, “MHD equations for a fully ionized plasma of complex composition,” Sov. J. Plasma Phys. 19, 409–421 (1993).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Time history of the discharge circuit’s resistance for a sulfur capillary of 20-mm length.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Radial electron density distributions in the capillaries with diameters of 0.5 and 1.0 mm at the optimal moments for lasing.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured radial profile of the discharge emission in the visible spectral range 29 ns after the current’s peak.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Movement of the ablated plasma mass elements within the radius–time (rt) coordinates.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Axial distribution of electron energy as a function of the pump intensity. The laser pulse is characterized by its intensity: Z*=6 is the initial and final ionization stage; i.e., no ionization has been included. The pulse length is 1 ps. (b) Axial distribution of the electron energy for a mixture of ion species. Initial ionization stage Z* was 4.7, and the quoted values correspond to the final ionization stages. The curve denoted Z*=5.5 corresponds to the constant ionization stage during heating.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Axial distribution of electron energy as a function of propagation length. All three pump Gaussian pulses are characterized by the same FWHM=250 fs and different rise times: 250 fs (dotted curve), 350 fs (dashed curve), and 500 fs (solid curve). The dotted–dashed curve shows axial energy depletion of the pump laser pulse.

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