Abstract

Recent high-temporal-resolution nickellike x-ray laser experiments have yielded important insights into the output characteristics of picosecond-pumped x-ray lasers. However, current experimental observations do not fully explain the plasma dynamics, which is critical to gain generation within the x-ray laser medium. A numerical study of the nickellike silver x-ray laser has therefore been undertaken to complement our experimental results in an attempt to further our understanding of the processes at work in yielding the observed x-ray laser output. High gain coefficients existing with picosecond lifetimes are predicted, which is consistent with the short x-ray laser durations experimentally observed. The late onset of the continuum emission relative to the temporal peak of the x-ray laser output is explained as a sign of high electron density evolution near the target surface.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2002 (1)

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, R. Schott, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

A. Bar-Shalom, M. Klapisch, and J. Oreg, “HULLAC, an integrated computer package for atomic processes in plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 71, 169–188 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. E. King, G. J. Pert, S. P. McCabe, P. A. Simms, A. G. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Pestehe, F. Strati, D. Neely, and R. Allott, “Saturated x-ray lasers at 196 and 73 Å pumped by a picosecond traveling-wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 053810 (2001).
[Crossref]

F. Strati and G. J. Tallents, “Analytical modeling of group-velocity effects in saturated soft-X-ray lasers pumped with a picosecond traveling-wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013807 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (5)

R. Tommasini and E. Fill, “Excitation velocity and group velocity mismatch in amplified spontaneous emission lasers: a discussion on the transient gain X-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 034701 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Nilsen, Y. Li, and J. Dunn, “Modeling picosecond-laser-driven neonlike titanium x-ray laser experiments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1084–1092 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Sebban, H. Daido, N. Sakaya, Y. Kato, K. Murai, H. Tang, Y. Gu, G. Huang, S. Wang, A. Klisnick, P. Zeitoun, F. Koike, and H. Takenaka, “Full characterization of a high-gain saturated x-ray laser at 13.9 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 043810 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, J.-L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, and J.-F. Wyart, “Two color transient pumping in Ni-like silver at 13.9 and 16.1 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 043808 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Klisnick, P. Zeitoun, D. Ros, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. Mac Phee, R. M. N. O’Rourcke, R. Keenan, P. V. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalachnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, A. Migus, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, and J. P. Zou, “Transient pumping of Ni-like Ag X-ray laser with a sub-ps pump pulse in a traveling-wave irradiation geometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1093–1097 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. Zhang, G. Eker, S. McCabe, G. J. Pert, and E. Wolfrum, “Saturation behavior of two x-ray lasing transitions in Ni-like Dy,” Phys. Rev. A 59, R47–R50 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnürer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778–4783 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Lin, G. J. Tallents, A. Demir, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “Optimization of double drive pulse pumping in Ne-like Ge x-ray lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 1863–1868 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (3)

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnürer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748–2751 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[Crossref]

B. Rus, A. Carillon, P. Dhez, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, M. Nantel, and P. Zeitoun, “Efficient, high-brightness soft-x-ray laser at 21.2 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3858–3873 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

S. B. Healy, K. A. Janulewicz, J. A. Plowes, and G. J. Pert, “Transient high gains at 196 Å produced by picosecond pulse heating of a preformed germanium plasma,” Opt. Commun. 132, 442–448 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

S. B. Healy, A. Djaoui, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, and S. J. Rose, “A comparison of time-dependent ionization models for laser-produced plasmas,” J. Phys. B 28, 1381–1391 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. B. Healy, G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, and J. A. Plowes, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally-pumped laser considering the effect of prepulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 949–956 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, M. T. M. Lightbody, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, A. E. Kingston, E. Robertson, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser,” J. Phys. B 27, 341–366 (1994).
[Crossref]

K. G. Whitney, A. Dasgupta, and P. E. Pulsifer, “Transient ultrahigh gains as a diagnostic in short-pulse heated selenium plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 50, 468–473 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, and J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Maxon, K. G. Estabrook, M. K. Prasad, A. L. Osterheld, R. A. London, and D. C. Eder, “High gain x-ray lasers at the water window,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2285–2288 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

J. H. Scofield and B. J. MacGowan, “Energies of nickel-like 4d to 4p laser lines,” Phys. Scr. 46, 361–364 (1992).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neonlike titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6966 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

Y. V. Afanasiev and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Formation of a population inversion of transitions in Ne-like ions in steady-state and transient plasmas,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1606–1612 (1989) [Kvant. Elektron (Moscow) 16, 2499–2509 (1989)].
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

G. J. Pert, “The hybrid model and its application for studying free expansion,” J. Fluid Mech. 131, 401–426 (1983).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

L. B. Golden, R. E. H. Clark, S. J. Goett, and D. H. Sampson, “Scaled collision strengths for hydrogenic ions,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. 45, 603–612 (1981).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

W. L van Wyngaarden, K. Bhadra, and R. J. W. Henry, “Excitation of helium-like ions by electron impact,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 1409–1417 (1979).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

I. P. Grant, “Relativistic calculation of atomic structures,” Adv. Phys. 19, 747–811 (1970).
[Crossref]

Afanasiev, Y. V.

Y. V. Afanasiev and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Formation of a population inversion of transitions in Ne-like ions in steady-state and transient plasmas,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1606–1612 (1989) [Kvant. Elektron (Moscow) 16, 2499–2509 (1989)].
[Crossref]

Allott, R.

R. E. King, G. J. Pert, S. P. McCabe, P. A. Simms, A. G. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Pestehe, F. Strati, D. Neely, and R. Allott, “Saturated x-ray lasers at 196 and 73 Å pumped by a picosecond traveling-wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 053810 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, A. G. MacPhee, B. Moore, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. Dobosz, J. Peschete, F. Strati, J. S. Wark, E. Zolfrum, G. J. Pert, S. P. MacCabe, P. A. Simms, R. Allott, J. Collier, C. N. Danson, A. Djaoui, and D. Neely, “Progress with saturated soft X-ray lasers pumped by the Vulcan laser,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE3776, 292–301 (1999).
[Crossref]

Barbee, T. W.

J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. Filevich, J. J. G. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, H. Fiedorowicz, and A. Bartnik, “Recent x-ray laser experiments on the COMET facility,” in Soft X-rays and Applications IV, E. E. Fill and J. J. Rocca, eds., Proc. SPIE4505, 62–72 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bar-Shalom, A.

A. Bar-Shalom, M. Klapisch, and J. Oreg, “HULLAC, an integrated computer package for atomic processes in plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 71, 169–188 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bartnik, A.

J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. Filevich, J. J. G. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, H. Fiedorowicz, and A. Bartnik, “Recent x-ray laser experiments on the COMET facility,” in Soft X-rays and Applications IV, E. E. Fill and J. J. Rocca, eds., Proc. SPIE4505, 62–72 (2001).
[Crossref]

Behjat, A.

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnürer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778–4783 (1998).
[Crossref]

Benredjem, D.

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J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, J.-L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, and J.-F. Wyart, “Two color transient pumping in Ni-like silver at 13.9 and 16.1 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 043808 (2000).
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J. L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, L. Bonnet, S. Jacquemot, A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, F. Dorchies, and J. C. Chanteloup, “Transient collisional x-ray laser experiments on P102 laser at CEA-LV,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications III, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds.,. Proc. SPIE3776, 24–36 (1999).
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J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, G. Jamelot, P. Fourcade, J.-L. Miquel, S. Jacquemot, N. Blanchot, and J. F. Wyart, “Characterization of a transient Ni-like X-ray laser generated by two-color irradiation,” Proc. of the Seventh International Conf. on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France11, 35–38 (2001).
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T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neonlike titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6966 (1990).
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J. L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, L. Bonnet, S. Jacquemot, A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, F. Dorchies, and J. C. Chanteloup, “Transient collisional x-ray laser experiments on P102 laser at CEA-LV,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications III, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds.,. Proc. SPIE3776, 24–36 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bortolotto, F.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, R. Schott, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
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J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, R. Clarke, J. Collier, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, and F. Bortolotto, “Temporal resolution of a transient pumping x-ray laser,” Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France11, 43–46 (2001).
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C. Y. Côté, J. C. Kieffer, P. Gallant, J. C. Rebuffie, C. Goulmy, A. Maksimchuk, G. Mourou, D. Kaplan, and M. Bouvier, “Development of a subpicosecond large-dynamic-range x-ray streak camera,” 22nd International Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics, D. L. Paisley, ed., Proc. SPIE2869, 956–961 (1997).
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D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
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Carillon, A.

Ceglio, N. M.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
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T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neonlike titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6966 (1990).
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Chanteloup, J. C.

J. L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, L. Bonnet, S. Jacquemot, A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, F. Dorchies, and J. C. Chanteloup, “Transient collisional x-ray laser experiments on P102 laser at CEA-LV,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications III, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds.,. Proc. SPIE3776, 24–36 (1999).
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Chanteloup, J.-C.

Chenais-Popovics, C.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, R. Schott, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
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J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, R. Clarke, J. Collier, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, and F. Bortolotto, “Temporal resolution of a transient pumping x-ray laser,” Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France11, 43–46 (2001).
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L. B. Golden, R. E. H. Clark, S. J. Goett, and D. H. Sampson, “Scaled collision strengths for hydrogenic ions,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. 45, 603–612 (1981).
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Clarke, R.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, R. Schott, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
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J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, R. Clarke, J. Collier, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, and F. Bortolotto, “Temporal resolution of a transient pumping x-ray laser,” Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France11, 43–46 (2001).
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Collier, J.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, R. Schott, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
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J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, R. Clarke, J. Collier, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, and F. Bortolotto, “Temporal resolution of a transient pumping x-ray laser,” Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France11, 43–46 (2001).
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C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, A. G. MacPhee, B. Moore, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. Dobosz, J. Peschete, F. Strati, J. S. Wark, E. Zolfrum, G. J. Pert, S. P. MacCabe, P. A. Simms, R. Allott, J. Collier, C. N. Danson, A. Djaoui, and D. Neely, “Progress with saturated soft X-ray lasers pumped by the Vulcan laser,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE3776, 292–301 (1999).
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T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neonlike titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6966 (1990).
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C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, A. G. MacPhee, B. Moore, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. Dobosz, J. Peschete, F. Strati, J. S. Wark, E. Zolfrum, G. J. Pert, S. P. MacCabe, P. A. Simms, R. Allott, J. Collier, C. N. Danson, A. Djaoui, and D. Neely, “Progress with saturated soft X-ray lasers pumped by the Vulcan laser,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE3776, 292–301 (1999).
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J. Y. Lin, G. J. Tallents, A. Demir, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “Optimization of double drive pulse pumping in Ne-like Ge x-ray lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 1863–1868 (1998).
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B. Rus, A. Carillon, P. Dhez, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, M. Nantel, and P. Zeitoun, “Efficient, high-brightness soft-x-ray laser at 21.2 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3858–3873 (1997).
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C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, A. G. MacPhee, B. Moore, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. Dobosz, J. Peschete, F. Strati, J. S. Wark, E. Zolfrum, G. J. Pert, S. P. MacCabe, P. A. Simms, R. Allott, J. Collier, C. N. Danson, A. Djaoui, and D. Neely, “Progress with saturated soft X-ray lasers pumped by the Vulcan laser,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE3776, 292–301 (1999).
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Dobosz, S.

C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, A. G. MacPhee, B. Moore, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. Dobosz, J. Peschete, F. Strati, J. S. Wark, E. Zolfrum, G. J. Pert, S. P. MacCabe, P. A. Simms, R. Allott, J. Collier, C. N. Danson, A. Djaoui, and D. Neely, “Progress with saturated soft X-ray lasers pumped by the Vulcan laser,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE3776, 292–301 (1999).
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J. L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, L. Bonnet, S. Jacquemot, A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, F. Dorchies, and J. C. Chanteloup, “Transient collisional x-ray laser experiments on P102 laser at CEA-LV,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications III, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds.,. Proc. SPIE3776, 24–36 (1999).
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J. Nilsen and J. Dunn, “Modeling of short-pulse-driven nickel-like X-ray lasers and recent experiments,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications IV, E. E. Fill and J. J. Rocca, eds., Proc. SPIE4505, 100–106 (2001).
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D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
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S. Maxon, K. G. Estabrook, M. K. Prasad, A. L. Osterheld, R. A. London, and D. C. Eder, “High gain x-ray lasers at the water window,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2285–2288 (1993).
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J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. Filevich, J. J. G. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, H. Fiedorowicz, and A. Bartnik, “Recent x-ray laser experiments on the COMET facility,” in Soft X-rays and Applications IV, E. E. Fill and J. J. Rocca, eds., Proc. SPIE4505, 62–72 (2001).
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T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neonlike titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6966 (1990).
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J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, G. Jamelot, P. Fourcade, J.-L. Miquel, S. Jacquemot, N. Blanchot, and J. F. Wyart, “Characterization of a transient Ni-like X-ray laser generated by two-color irradiation,” Proc. of the Seventh International Conf. on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France11, 35–38 (2001).
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Hagelstein, P. L.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
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Hatcher, C. W.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hawryluk, A. M.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hazi, A. U.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
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Healy, S. B.

J. Y. Lin, G. J. Tallents, A. Demir, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “Optimization of double drive pulse pumping in Ne-like Ge x-ray lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 1863–1868 (1998).
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S. B. Healy, K. A. Janulewicz, J. A. Plowes, and G. J. Pert, “Transient high gains at 196 Å produced by picosecond pulse heating of a preformed germanium plasma,” Opt. Commun. 132, 442–448 (1996).
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S. B. Healy, G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, and J. A. Plowes, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally-pumped laser considering the effect of prepulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 949–956 (1995).
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S. B. Healy, A. Djaoui, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, and S. J. Rose, “A comparison of time-dependent ionization models for laser-produced plasmas,” J. Phys. B 28, 1381–1391 (1995).
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P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, M. T. M. Lightbody, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, A. E. Kingston, E. Robertson, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser,” J. Phys. B 27, 341–366 (1994).
[Crossref]

Henry, R. J. W.

W. L van Wyngaarden, K. Bhadra, and R. J. W. Henry, “Excitation of helium-like ions by electron impact,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 1409–1417 (1979).
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Holden, P. B.

S. B. Healy, A. Djaoui, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, and S. J. Rose, “A comparison of time-dependent ionization models for laser-produced plasmas,” J. Phys. B 28, 1381–1391 (1995).
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P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, M. T. M. Lightbody, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, A. E. Kingston, E. Robertson, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser,” J. Phys. B 27, 341–366 (1994).
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Huang, G.

S. Sebban, H. Daido, N. Sakaya, Y. Kato, K. Murai, H. Tang, Y. Gu, G. Huang, S. Wang, A. Klisnick, P. Zeitoun, F. Koike, and H. Takenaka, “Full characterization of a high-gain saturated x-ray laser at 13.9 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 043810 (2000).
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Hubert, S.

Hunter, J. R.

J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. Filevich, J. J. G. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, H. Fiedorowicz, and A. Bartnik, “Recent x-ray laser experiments on the COMET facility,” in Soft X-rays and Applications IV, E. E. Fill and J. J. Rocca, eds., Proc. SPIE4505, 62–72 (2001).
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Jacquemot, S.

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, G. Jamelot, P. Fourcade, J.-L. Miquel, S. Jacquemot, N. Blanchot, and J. F. Wyart, “Characterization of a transient Ni-like X-ray laser generated by two-color irradiation,” Proc. of the Seventh International Conf. on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France11, 35–38 (2001).
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J. L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, L. Bonnet, S. Jacquemot, A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, F. Dorchies, and J. C. Chanteloup, “Transient collisional x-ray laser experiments on P102 laser at CEA-LV,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications III, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds.,. Proc. SPIE3776, 24–36 (1999).
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Jaeglé, P.

B. Rus, A. Carillon, P. Dhez, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, M. Nantel, and P. Zeitoun, “Efficient, high-brightness soft-x-ray laser at 21.2 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3858–3873 (1997).
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Jamelot, G.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, R. Schott, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, J.-L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, and J.-F. Wyart, “Two color transient pumping in Ni-like silver at 13.9 and 16.1 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 043808 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Klisnick, P. Zeitoun, D. Ros, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. Mac Phee, R. M. N. O’Rourcke, R. Keenan, P. V. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalachnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, A. Migus, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, and J. P. Zou, “Transient pumping of Ni-like Ag X-ray laser with a sub-ps pump pulse in a traveling-wave irradiation geometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1093–1097 (2000).
[Crossref]

B. Rus, A. Carillon, P. Dhez, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, M. Nantel, and P. Zeitoun, “Efficient, high-brightness soft-x-ray laser at 21.2 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3858–3873 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, R. Clarke, J. Collier, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, and F. Bortolotto, “Temporal resolution of a transient pumping x-ray laser,” Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France11, 43–46 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, L. Bonnet, S. Jacquemot, A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, F. Dorchies, and J. C. Chanteloup, “Transient collisional x-ray laser experiments on P102 laser at CEA-LV,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications III, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds.,. Proc. SPIE3776, 24–36 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, G. Jamelot, P. Fourcade, J.-L. Miquel, S. Jacquemot, N. Blanchot, and J. F. Wyart, “Characterization of a transient Ni-like X-ray laser generated by two-color irradiation,” Proc. of the Seventh International Conf. on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France11, 35–38 (2001).
[Crossref]

Janulewicz, K.

A. Klisnick, P. Zeitoun, D. Ros, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. Mac Phee, R. M. N. O’Rourcke, R. Keenan, P. V. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalachnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, A. Migus, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, and J. P. Zou, “Transient pumping of Ni-like Ag X-ray laser with a sub-ps pump pulse in a traveling-wave irradiation geometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1093–1097 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, R. Clarke, J. Collier, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, and F. Bortolotto, “Temporal resolution of a transient pumping x-ray laser,” Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France11, 43–46 (2001).
[Crossref]

Janulewicz, K. A.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, R. Schott, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. B. Healy, K. A. Janulewicz, J. A. Plowes, and G. J. Pert, “Transient high gains at 196 Å produced by picosecond pulse heating of a preformed germanium plasma,” Opt. Commun. 132, 442–448 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kalachnikov, M.

Kalachnikov, M. P.

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnürer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778–4783 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kaplan, D.

C. Y. Côté, J. C. Kieffer, P. Gallant, J. C. Rebuffie, C. Goulmy, A. Maksimchuk, G. Mourou, D. Kaplan, and M. Bouvier, “Development of a subpicosecond large-dynamic-range x-ray streak camera,” 22nd International Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics, D. L. Paisley, ed., Proc. SPIE2869, 956–961 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kato, Y.

S. Sebban, H. Daido, N. Sakaya, Y. Kato, K. Murai, H. Tang, Y. Gu, G. Huang, S. Wang, A. Klisnick, P. Zeitoun, F. Koike, and H. Takenaka, “Full characterization of a high-gain saturated x-ray laser at 13.9 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 043810 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kauffman, R. L.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keenan, R.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, R. Schott, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. E. King, G. J. Pert, S. P. McCabe, P. A. Simms, A. G. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Pestehe, F. Strati, D. Neely, and R. Allott, “Saturated x-ray lasers at 196 and 73 Å pumped by a picosecond traveling-wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 053810 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Klisnick, P. Zeitoun, D. Ros, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. Mac Phee, R. M. N. O’Rourcke, R. Keenan, P. V. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalachnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, A. Migus, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, and J. P. Zou, “Transient pumping of Ni-like Ag X-ray laser with a sub-ps pump pulse in a traveling-wave irradiation geometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1093–1097 (2000).
[Crossref]

C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, A. G. MacPhee, B. Moore, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. Dobosz, J. Peschete, F. Strati, J. S. Wark, E. Zolfrum, G. J. Pert, S. P. MacCabe, P. A. Simms, R. Allott, J. Collier, C. N. Danson, A. Djaoui, and D. Neely, “Progress with saturated soft X-ray lasers pumped by the Vulcan laser,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE3776, 292–301 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, R. Clarke, J. Collier, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, and F. Bortolotto, “Temporal resolution of a transient pumping x-ray laser,” Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France11, 43–46 (2001).
[Crossref]

Key, M. H.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kieffer, J. C.

C. Y. Côté, J. C. Kieffer, P. Gallant, J. C. Rebuffie, C. Goulmy, A. Maksimchuk, G. Mourou, D. Kaplan, and M. Bouvier, “Development of a subpicosecond large-dynamic-range x-ray streak camera,” 22nd International Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics, D. L. Paisley, ed., Proc. SPIE2869, 956–961 (1997).
[Crossref]

King, R. E.

R. E. King, G. J. Pert, S. P. McCabe, P. A. Simms, A. G. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Pestehe, F. Strati, D. Neely, and R. Allott, “Saturated x-ray lasers at 196 and 73 Å pumped by a picosecond traveling-wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 053810 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kingston, A. E.

P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, M. T. M. Lightbody, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, A. E. Kingston, E. Robertson, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser,” J. Phys. B 27, 341–366 (1994).
[Crossref]

Klapisch, M.

A. Bar-Shalom, M. Klapisch, and J. Oreg, “HULLAC, an integrated computer package for atomic processes in plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 71, 169–188 (2001).
[Crossref]

Klisnick, A.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, R. Schott, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Sebban, H. Daido, N. Sakaya, Y. Kato, K. Murai, H. Tang, Y. Gu, G. Huang, S. Wang, A. Klisnick, P. Zeitoun, F. Koike, and H. Takenaka, “Full characterization of a high-gain saturated x-ray laser at 13.9 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 043810 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Klisnick, P. Zeitoun, D. Ros, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. Mac Phee, R. M. N. O’Rourcke, R. Keenan, P. V. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalachnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, A. Migus, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, and J. P. Zou, “Transient pumping of Ni-like Ag X-ray laser with a sub-ps pump pulse in a traveling-wave irradiation geometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1093–1097 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, J.-L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, and J.-F. Wyart, “Two color transient pumping in Ni-like silver at 13.9 and 16.1 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 043808 (2000).
[Crossref]

B. Rus, A. Carillon, P. Dhez, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, M. Nantel, and P. Zeitoun, “Efficient, high-brightness soft-x-ray laser at 21.2 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3858–3873 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, R. Clarke, J. Collier, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, and F. Bortolotto, “Temporal resolution of a transient pumping x-ray laser,” Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France11, 43–46 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, L. Bonnet, S. Jacquemot, A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, F. Dorchies, and J. C. Chanteloup, “Transient collisional x-ray laser experiments on P102 laser at CEA-LV,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications III, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds.,. Proc. SPIE3776, 24–36 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, G. Jamelot, P. Fourcade, J.-L. Miquel, S. Jacquemot, N. Blanchot, and J. F. Wyart, “Characterization of a transient Ni-like X-ray laser generated by two-color irradiation,” Proc. of the Seventh International Conf. on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France11, 35–38 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. Benredjem, J. Kuba, R. Smith, G. J. Pert, A. Klisnick, and C. Möller, “Modeling of Ni-like silver XRL: treatment of saturation and refraction,” Eighth International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, Aspen, May 27–31, 2002 (invited paper—to be published also in proceedings).

Koike, F.

S. Sebban, H. Daido, N. Sakaya, Y. Kato, K. Murai, H. Tang, Y. Gu, G. Huang, S. Wang, A. Klisnick, P. Zeitoun, F. Koike, and H. Takenaka, “Full characterization of a high-gain saturated x-ray laser at 13.9 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 043810 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kuba, J.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, R. Schott, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, J.-L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, and J.-F. Wyart, “Two color transient pumping in Ni-like silver at 13.9 and 16.1 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 043808 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, G. Jamelot, P. Fourcade, J.-L. Miquel, S. Jacquemot, N. Blanchot, and J. F. Wyart, “Characterization of a transient Ni-like X-ray laser generated by two-color irradiation,” Proc. of the Seventh International Conf. on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France11, 35–38 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, L. Bonnet, S. Jacquemot, A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, F. Dorchies, and J. C. Chanteloup, “Transient collisional x-ray laser experiments on P102 laser at CEA-LV,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications III, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds.,. Proc. SPIE3776, 24–36 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. Benredjem, J. Kuba, R. Smith, G. J. Pert, A. Klisnick, and C. Möller, “Modeling of Ni-like silver XRL: treatment of saturation and refraction,” Eighth International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, Aspen, May 27–31, 2002 (invited paper—to be published also in proceedings).

J. Kuba, “Experimental and theoretical study of x-ray lasers pumped by an ultra-short laser pulse: transient pumping of Ni-like Ag ions,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université Paris XI, France, and Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic, 2001).

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, R. Clarke, J. Collier, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, and F. Bortolotto, “Temporal resolution of a transient pumping x-ray laser,” Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France11, 43–46 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lewis, C. L. S.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, R. Schott, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. E. King, G. J. Pert, S. P. McCabe, P. A. Simms, A. G. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Pestehe, F. Strati, D. Neely, and R. Allott, “Saturated x-ray lasers at 196 and 73 Å pumped by a picosecond traveling-wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 053810 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Klisnick, P. Zeitoun, D. Ros, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. Mac Phee, R. M. N. O’Rourcke, R. Keenan, P. V. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalachnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, A. Migus, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, and J. P. Zou, “Transient pumping of Ni-like Ag X-ray laser with a sub-ps pump pulse in a traveling-wave irradiation geometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1093–1097 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnürer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778–4783 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. B. Healy, G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, and J. A. Plowes, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally-pumped laser considering the effect of prepulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 949–956 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, M. T. M. Lightbody, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, A. E. Kingston, E. Robertson, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser,” J. Phys. B 27, 341–366 (1994).
[Crossref]

C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, A. G. MacPhee, B. Moore, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. Dobosz, J. Peschete, F. Strati, J. S. Wark, E. Zolfrum, G. J. Pert, S. P. MacCabe, P. A. Simms, R. Allott, J. Collier, C. N. Danson, A. Djaoui, and D. Neely, “Progress with saturated soft X-ray lasers pumped by the Vulcan laser,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE3776, 292–301 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, R. Clarke, J. Collier, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, and F. Bortolotto, “Temporal resolution of a transient pumping x-ray laser,” Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France11, 43–46 (2001).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

J. Nilsen, Y. Li, and J. Dunn, “Modeling picosecond-laser-driven neonlike titanium x-ray laser experiments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1084–1092 (2000).
[Crossref]

E. E. Fill, Y. Li, G. Pretzler, D. Schlögl, J. Steingruber, and J. Nilsen, “Investigation of lasing on the J=0–1 line of neon-like ions using the prepulse technique,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications, J. J. Rocca and P. L. Hagelstein, eds., Proc. SPIE2520, 134–144 (1995).
[Crossref]

Lightbody, M. T. M.

P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, M. T. M. Lightbody, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, A. E. Kingston, E. Robertson, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser,” J. Phys. B 27, 341–366 (1994).
[Crossref]

Lin, J.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lin, J. Y.

J. Y. Lin, G. J. Tallents, A. Demir, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “Optimization of double drive pulse pumping in Ne-like Ge x-ray lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 1863–1868 (1998).
[Crossref]

London, R. A.

S. Maxon, K. G. Estabrook, M. K. Prasad, A. L. Osterheld, R. A. London, and D. C. Eder, “High gain x-ray lasers at the water window,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2285–2288 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mac Phee, A. G.

MacCabe, S. P.

C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, A. G. MacPhee, B. Moore, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. Dobosz, J. Peschete, F. Strati, J. S. Wark, E. Zolfrum, G. J. Pert, S. P. MacCabe, P. A. Simms, R. Allott, J. Collier, C. N. Danson, A. Djaoui, and D. Neely, “Progress with saturated soft X-ray lasers pumped by the Vulcan laser,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE3776, 292–301 (1999).
[Crossref]

MacGowan, B. J.

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, and J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Scofield and B. J. MacGowan, “Energies of nickel-like 4d to 4p laser lines,” Phys. Scr. 46, 361–364 (1992).
[Crossref]

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neonlike titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6966 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

MacPhee, A. G.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, R. Schott, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. E. King, G. J. Pert, S. P. McCabe, P. A. Simms, A. G. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Pestehe, F. Strati, D. Neely, and R. Allott, “Saturated x-ray lasers at 196 and 73 Å pumped by a picosecond traveling-wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 053810 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, R. Clarke, J. Collier, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, and F. Bortolotto, “Temporal resolution of a transient pumping x-ray laser,” Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France11, 43–46 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, A. G. MacPhee, B. Moore, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. Dobosz, J. Peschete, F. Strati, J. S. Wark, E. Zolfrum, G. J. Pert, S. P. MacCabe, P. A. Simms, R. Allott, J. Collier, C. N. Danson, A. Djaoui, and D. Neely, “Progress with saturated soft X-ray lasers pumped by the Vulcan laser,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE3776, 292–301 (1999).
[Crossref]

Maksimchuk, A.

C. Y. Côté, J. C. Kieffer, P. Gallant, J. C. Rebuffie, C. Goulmy, A. Maksimchuk, G. Mourou, D. Kaplan, and M. Bouvier, “Development of a subpicosecond large-dynamic-range x-ray streak camera,” 22nd International Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics, D. L. Paisley, ed., Proc. SPIE2869, 956–961 (1997).
[Crossref]

Marconi, M. C.

J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. Filevich, J. J. G. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, H. Fiedorowicz, and A. Bartnik, “Recent x-ray laser experiments on the COMET facility,” in Soft X-rays and Applications IV, E. E. Fill and J. J. Rocca, eds., Proc. SPIE4505, 62–72 (2001).
[Crossref]

Matthews, D. L.

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neonlike titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6966 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maxon, S.

S. Maxon, K. G. Estabrook, M. K. Prasad, A. L. Osterheld, R. A. London, and D. C. Eder, “High gain x-ray lasers at the water window,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2285–2288 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McCabe, S.

R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. Zhang, G. Eker, S. McCabe, G. J. Pert, and E. Wolfrum, “Saturation behavior of two x-ray lasing transitions in Ni-like Dy,” Phys. Rev. A 59, R47–R50 (1999).
[Crossref]

McCabe, S. P.

R. E. King, G. J. Pert, S. P. McCabe, P. A. Simms, A. G. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Pestehe, F. Strati, D. Neely, and R. Allott, “Saturated x-ray lasers at 196 and 73 Å pumped by a picosecond traveling-wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 053810 (2001).
[Crossref]

Medecki, H.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Migus, A.

Miquel, J. L.

J. L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, L. Bonnet, S. Jacquemot, A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, F. Dorchies, and J. C. Chanteloup, “Transient collisional x-ray laser experiments on P102 laser at CEA-LV,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications III, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds.,. Proc. SPIE3776, 24–36 (1999).
[Crossref]

Miquel, J.-L.

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, J.-L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, and J.-F. Wyart, “Two color transient pumping in Ni-like silver at 13.9 and 16.1 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 043808 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, G. Jamelot, P. Fourcade, J.-L. Miquel, S. Jacquemot, N. Blanchot, and J. F. Wyart, “Characterization of a transient Ni-like X-ray laser generated by two-color irradiation,” Proc. of the Seventh International Conf. on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France11, 35–38 (2001).
[Crossref]

Möller, C.

D. Benredjem, J. Kuba, R. Smith, G. J. Pert, A. Klisnick, and C. Möller, “Modeling of Ni-like silver XRL: treatment of saturation and refraction,” Eighth International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, Aspen, May 27–31, 2002 (invited paper—to be published also in proceedings).

Moore, B.

C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, A. G. MacPhee, B. Moore, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. Dobosz, J. Peschete, F. Strati, J. S. Wark, E. Zolfrum, G. J. Pert, S. P. MacCabe, P. A. Simms, R. Allott, J. Collier, C. N. Danson, A. Djaoui, and D. Neely, “Progress with saturated soft X-ray lasers pumped by the Vulcan laser,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE3776, 292–301 (1999).
[Crossref]

Moreno, J. C.

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, and J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mourou, G.

C. Y. Côté, J. C. Kieffer, P. Gallant, J. C. Rebuffie, C. Goulmy, A. Maksimchuk, G. Mourou, D. Kaplan, and M. Bouvier, “Development of a subpicosecond large-dynamic-range x-ray streak camera,” 22nd International Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics, D. L. Paisley, ed., Proc. SPIE2869, 956–961 (1997).
[Crossref]

Murai, K.

S. Sebban, H. Daido, N. Sakaya, Y. Kato, K. Murai, H. Tang, Y. Gu, G. Huang, S. Wang, A. Klisnick, P. Zeitoun, F. Koike, and H. Takenaka, “Full characterization of a high-gain saturated x-ray laser at 13.9 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 043810 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nantel, M.

B. Rus, A. Carillon, P. Dhez, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, M. Nantel, and P. Zeitoun, “Efficient, high-brightness soft-x-ray laser at 21.2 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3858–3873 (1997).
[Crossref]

Neely, D.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, R. Schott, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. E. King, G. J. Pert, S. P. McCabe, P. A. Simms, A. G. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Pestehe, F. Strati, D. Neely, and R. Allott, “Saturated x-ray lasers at 196 and 73 Å pumped by a picosecond traveling-wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 053810 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnürer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778–4783 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[Crossref]

P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, M. T. M. Lightbody, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, A. E. Kingston, E. Robertson, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser,” J. Phys. B 27, 341–366 (1994).
[Crossref]

C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, A. G. MacPhee, B. Moore, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. Dobosz, J. Peschete, F. Strati, J. S. Wark, E. Zolfrum, G. J. Pert, S. P. MacCabe, P. A. Simms, R. Allott, J. Collier, C. N. Danson, A. Djaoui, and D. Neely, “Progress with saturated soft X-ray lasers pumped by the Vulcan laser,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE3776, 292–301 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, R. Clarke, J. Collier, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, and F. Bortolotto, “Temporal resolution of a transient pumping x-ray laser,” Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France11, 43–46 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nickles, P.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, R. Schott, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, R. Clarke, J. Collier, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, and F. Bortolotto, “Temporal resolution of a transient pumping x-ray laser,” Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France11, 43–46 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nickles, P. V.

A. Klisnick, P. Zeitoun, D. Ros, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. Mac Phee, R. M. N. O’Rourcke, R. Keenan, P. V. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalachnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, A. Migus, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, and J. P. Zou, “Transient pumping of Ni-like Ag X-ray laser with a sub-ps pump pulse in a traveling-wave irradiation geometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1093–1097 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnürer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778–4783 (1998).
[Crossref]

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnürer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748–2751 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nilsen, J.

J. Nilsen, Y. Li, and J. Dunn, “Modeling picosecond-laser-driven neonlike titanium x-ray laser experiments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1084–1092 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, and J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neonlike titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6966 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. E. Fill, Y. Li, G. Pretzler, D. Schlögl, J. Steingruber, and J. Nilsen, “Investigation of lasing on the J=0–1 line of neon-like ions using the prepulse technique,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications, J. J. Rocca and P. L. Hagelstein, eds., Proc. SPIE2520, 134–144 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. Filevich, J. J. G. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, H. Fiedorowicz, and A. Bartnik, “Recent x-ray laser experiments on the COMET facility,” in Soft X-rays and Applications IV, E. E. Fill and J. J. Rocca, eds., Proc. SPIE4505, 62–72 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Nilsen and J. Dunn, “Modeling of short-pulse-driven nickel-like X-ray lasers and recent experiments,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications IV, E. E. Fill and J. J. Rocca, eds., Proc. SPIE4505, 100–106 (2001).
[Crossref]

O’Rourcke, R. M. N.

O’Rourke, R. M. N.

R. E. King, G. J. Pert, S. P. McCabe, P. A. Simms, A. G. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Pestehe, F. Strati, D. Neely, and R. Allott, “Saturated x-ray lasers at 196 and 73 Å pumped by a picosecond traveling-wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 053810 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, A. G. MacPhee, B. Moore, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. Dobosz, J. Peschete, F. Strati, J. S. Wark, E. Zolfrum, G. J. Pert, S. P. MacCabe, P. A. Simms, R. Allott, J. Collier, C. N. Danson, A. Djaoui, and D. Neely, “Progress with saturated soft X-ray lasers pumped by the Vulcan laser,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE3776, 292–301 (1999).
[Crossref]

Oreg, J.

A. Bar-Shalom, M. Klapisch, and J. Oreg, “HULLAC, an integrated computer package for atomic processes in plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 71, 169–188 (2001).
[Crossref]

Osterheld, A. L.

S. Maxon, K. G. Estabrook, M. K. Prasad, A. L. Osterheld, R. A. London, and D. C. Eder, “High gain x-ray lasers at the water window,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2285–2288 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pert, G. J.

R. E. King, G. J. Pert, S. P. McCabe, P. A. Simms, A. G. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Pestehe, F. Strati, D. Neely, and R. Allott, “Saturated x-ray lasers at 196 and 73 Å pumped by a picosecond traveling-wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 053810 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. Zhang, G. Eker, S. McCabe, G. J. Pert, and E. Wolfrum, “Saturation behavior of two x-ray lasing transitions in Ni-like Dy,” Phys. Rev. A 59, R47–R50 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Lin, G. J. Tallents, A. Demir, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “Optimization of double drive pulse pumping in Ne-like Ge x-ray lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 1863–1868 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. B. Healy, K. A. Janulewicz, J. A. Plowes, and G. J. Pert, “Transient high gains at 196 Å produced by picosecond pulse heating of a preformed germanium plasma,” Opt. Commun. 132, 442–448 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. B. Healy, G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, and J. A. Plowes, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally-pumped laser considering the effect of prepulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 949–956 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. B. Healy, A. Djaoui, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, and S. J. Rose, “A comparison of time-dependent ionization models for laser-produced plasmas,” J. Phys. B 28, 1381–1391 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, M. T. M. Lightbody, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, A. E. Kingston, E. Robertson, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser,” J. Phys. B 27, 341–366 (1994).
[Crossref]

G. J. Pert, “The hybrid model and its application for studying free expansion,” J. Fluid Mech. 131, 401–426 (1983).
[Crossref]

C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, A. G. MacPhee, B. Moore, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. Dobosz, J. Peschete, F. Strati, J. S. Wark, E. Zolfrum, G. J. Pert, S. P. MacCabe, P. A. Simms, R. Allott, J. Collier, C. N. Danson, A. Djaoui, and D. Neely, “Progress with saturated soft X-ray lasers pumped by the Vulcan laser,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE3776, 292–301 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. Benredjem, J. Kuba, R. Smith, G. J. Pert, A. Klisnick, and C. Möller, “Modeling of Ni-like silver XRL: treatment of saturation and refraction,” Eighth International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, Aspen, May 27–31, 2002 (invited paper—to be published also in proceedings).

Peschete, J.

C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, A. G. MacPhee, B. Moore, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. Dobosz, J. Peschete, F. Strati, J. S. Wark, E. Zolfrum, G. J. Pert, S. P. MacCabe, P. A. Simms, R. Allott, J. Collier, C. N. Danson, A. Djaoui, and D. Neely, “Progress with saturated soft X-ray lasers pumped by the Vulcan laser,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE3776, 292–301 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pestehe, S. J.

R. E. King, G. J. Pert, S. P. McCabe, P. A. Simms, A. G. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Pestehe, F. Strati, D. Neely, and R. Allott, “Saturated x-ray lasers at 196 and 73 Å pumped by a picosecond traveling-wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 053810 (2001).
[Crossref]

Pleasance, L. D.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Plowes, J. A.

S. B. Healy, K. A. Janulewicz, J. A. Plowes, and G. J. Pert, “Transient high gains at 196 Å produced by picosecond pulse heating of a preformed germanium plasma,” Opt. Commun. 132, 442–448 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. B. Healy, G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, and J. A. Plowes, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally-pumped laser considering the effect of prepulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 949–956 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, M. T. M. Lightbody, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, A. E. Kingston, E. Robertson, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser,” J. Phys. B 27, 341–366 (1994).
[Crossref]

Prasad, M. K.

S. Maxon, K. G. Estabrook, M. K. Prasad, A. L. Osterheld, R. A. London, and D. C. Eder, “High gain x-ray lasers at the water window,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2285–2288 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pretzler, G.

E. E. Fill, Y. Li, G. Pretzler, D. Schlögl, J. Steingruber, and J. Nilsen, “Investigation of lasing on the J=0–1 line of neon-like ions using the prepulse technique,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications, J. J. Rocca and P. L. Hagelstein, eds., Proc. SPIE2520, 134–144 (1995).
[Crossref]

Pulsifer, P. E.

K. G. Whitney, A. Dasgupta, and P. E. Pulsifer, “Transient ultrahigh gains as a diagnostic in short-pulse heated selenium plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 50, 468–473 (1994).
[Crossref]

Rambach, G.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rebuffie, J. C.

C. Y. Côté, J. C. Kieffer, P. Gallant, J. C. Rebuffie, C. Goulmy, A. Maksimchuk, G. Mourou, D. Kaplan, and M. Bouvier, “Development of a subpicosecond large-dynamic-range x-ray streak camera,” 22nd International Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics, D. L. Paisley, ed., Proc. SPIE2869, 956–961 (1997).
[Crossref]

Robertson, E.

P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, M. T. M. Lightbody, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, A. E. Kingston, E. Robertson, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser,” J. Phys. B 27, 341–366 (1994).
[Crossref]

Rocca, J. J. G.

J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. Filevich, J. J. G. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, H. Fiedorowicz, and A. Bartnik, “Recent x-ray laser experiments on the COMET facility,” in Soft X-rays and Applications IV, E. E. Fill and J. J. Rocca, eds., Proc. SPIE4505, 62–72 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ros, D.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, R. Schott, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Klisnick, P. Zeitoun, D. Ros, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. Mac Phee, R. M. N. O’Rourcke, R. Keenan, P. V. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalachnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, A. Migus, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, and J. P. Zou, “Transient pumping of Ni-like Ag X-ray laser with a sub-ps pump pulse in a traveling-wave irradiation geometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1093–1097 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, J.-L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, and J.-F. Wyart, “Two color transient pumping in Ni-like silver at 13.9 and 16.1 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 043808 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, L. Bonnet, S. Jacquemot, A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, F. Dorchies, and J. C. Chanteloup, “Transient collisional x-ray laser experiments on P102 laser at CEA-LV,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications III, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds.,. Proc. SPIE3776, 24–36 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, G. Jamelot, P. Fourcade, J.-L. Miquel, S. Jacquemot, N. Blanchot, and J. F. Wyart, “Characterization of a transient Ni-like X-ray laser generated by two-color irradiation,” Proc. of the Seventh International Conf. on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France11, 35–38 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, R. Clarke, J. Collier, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, and F. Bortolotto, “Temporal resolution of a transient pumping x-ray laser,” Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France11, 43–46 (2001).
[Crossref]

Rose, S. J.

S. B. Healy, A. Djaoui, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, and S. J. Rose, “A comparison of time-dependent ionization models for laser-produced plasmas,” J. Phys. B 28, 1381–1391 (1995).
[Crossref]

Rosen, M. D.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rus, B.

B. Rus, A. Carillon, P. Dhez, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, M. Nantel, and P. Zeitoun, “Efficient, high-brightness soft-x-ray laser at 21.2 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3858–3873 (1997).
[Crossref]

Russotto, M.

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neonlike titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6966 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakaya, N.

S. Sebban, H. Daido, N. Sakaya, Y. Kato, K. Murai, H. Tang, Y. Gu, G. Huang, S. Wang, A. Klisnick, P. Zeitoun, F. Koike, and H. Takenaka, “Full characterization of a high-gain saturated x-ray laser at 13.9 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 043810 (2000).
[Crossref]

Salmon, E.

Sampson, D. H.

L. B. Golden, R. E. H. Clark, S. J. Goett, and D. H. Sampson, “Scaled collision strengths for hydrogenic ions,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. 45, 603–612 (1981).
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Sandner, W.

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnürer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778–4783 (1998).
[Crossref]

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnürer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748–2751 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sauteret, C.

Schlögl, D.

E. E. Fill, Y. Li, G. Pretzler, D. Schlögl, J. Steingruber, and J. Nilsen, “Investigation of lasing on the J=0–1 line of neon-like ions using the prepulse technique,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications, J. J. Rocca and P. L. Hagelstein, eds., Proc. SPIE2520, 134–144 (1995).
[Crossref]

Schnürer, M.

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnürer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778–4783 (1998).
[Crossref]

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnürer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748–2751 (1997).
[Crossref]

Schott, R.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, R. Schott, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[Crossref]

Scofield, J. H.

J. H. Scofield and B. J. MacGowan, “Energies of nickel-like 4d to 4p laser lines,” Phys. Scr. 46, 361–364 (1992).
[Crossref]

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neonlike titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6966 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sebban, S.

S. Sebban, H. Daido, N. Sakaya, Y. Kato, K. Murai, H. Tang, Y. Gu, G. Huang, S. Wang, A. Klisnick, P. Zeitoun, F. Koike, and H. Takenaka, “Full characterization of a high-gain saturated x-ray laser at 13.9 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 043810 (2000).
[Crossref]

Shimkaveg, G.

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neonlike titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6966 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shlyaptsev, V. N.

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnürer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778–4783 (1998).
[Crossref]

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnürer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748–2751 (1997).
[Crossref]

Y. V. Afanasiev and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Formation of a population inversion of transitions in Ne-like ions in steady-state and transient plasmas,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1606–1612 (1989) [Kvant. Elektron (Moscow) 16, 2499–2509 (1989)].
[Crossref]

J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. Filevich, J. J. G. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, H. Fiedorowicz, and A. Bartnik, “Recent x-ray laser experiments on the COMET facility,” in Soft X-rays and Applications IV, E. E. Fill and J. J. Rocca, eds., Proc. SPIE4505, 62–72 (2001).
[Crossref]

Simms, P. A.

R. E. King, G. J. Pert, S. P. McCabe, P. A. Simms, A. G. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Pestehe, F. Strati, D. Neely, and R. Allott, “Saturated x-ray lasers at 196 and 73 Å pumped by a picosecond traveling-wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 053810 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, A. G. MacPhee, B. Moore, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. Dobosz, J. Peschete, F. Strati, J. S. Wark, E. Zolfrum, G. J. Pert, S. P. MacCabe, P. A. Simms, R. Allott, J. Collier, C. N. Danson, A. Djaoui, and D. Neely, “Progress with saturated soft X-ray lasers pumped by the Vulcan laser,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE3776, 292–301 (1999).
[Crossref]

Smith, R.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, R. Schott, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. Zhang, G. Eker, S. McCabe, G. J. Pert, and E. Wolfrum, “Saturation behavior of two x-ray lasing transitions in Ni-like Dy,” Phys. Rev. A 59, R47–R50 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, R. Clarke, J. Collier, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, and F. Bortolotto, “Temporal resolution of a transient pumping x-ray laser,” Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France11, 43–46 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. Benredjem, J. Kuba, R. Smith, G. J. Pert, A. Klisnick, and C. Möller, “Modeling of Ni-like silver XRL: treatment of saturation and refraction,” Eighth International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, Aspen, May 27–31, 2002 (invited paper—to be published also in proceedings).

Smith, R. F.

J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. Filevich, J. J. G. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, H. Fiedorowicz, and A. Bartnik, “Recent x-ray laser experiments on the COMET facility,” in Soft X-rays and Applications IV, E. E. Fill and J. J. Rocca, eds., Proc. SPIE4505, 62–72 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sobelman, I. I.

I. I. Sobelman, Atomic Spectra and Radiative Transitions, 2nd ed. (Springer Verlag, New York, 1993).

Spitzer, L.

L. Spitzer, Physics of Fully Ionized Gases (Interscience, New York, 1962).

Steingruber, J.

E. E. Fill, Y. Li, G. Pretzler, D. Schlögl, J. Steingruber, and J. Nilsen, “Investigation of lasing on the J=0–1 line of neon-like ions using the prepulse technique,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications, J. J. Rocca and P. L. Hagelstein, eds., Proc. SPIE2520, 134–144 (1995).
[Crossref]

Stone, G.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strati, F.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, R. Schott, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. E. King, G. J. Pert, S. P. McCabe, P. A. Simms, A. G. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Pestehe, F. Strati, D. Neely, and R. Allott, “Saturated x-ray lasers at 196 and 73 Å pumped by a picosecond traveling-wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 053810 (2001).
[Crossref]

F. Strati and G. J. Tallents, “Analytical modeling of group-velocity effects in saturated soft-X-ray lasers pumped with a picosecond traveling-wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013807 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, A. G. MacPhee, B. Moore, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. Dobosz, J. Peschete, F. Strati, J. S. Wark, E. Zolfrum, G. J. Pert, S. P. MacCabe, P. A. Simms, R. Allott, J. Collier, C. N. Danson, A. Djaoui, and D. Neely, “Progress with saturated soft X-ray lasers pumped by the Vulcan laser,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE3776, 292–301 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, R. Clarke, J. Collier, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, and F. Bortolotto, “Temporal resolution of a transient pumping x-ray laser,” Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France11, 43–46 (2001).
[Crossref]

Takenaka, H.

S. Sebban, H. Daido, N. Sakaya, Y. Kato, K. Murai, H. Tang, Y. Gu, G. Huang, S. Wang, A. Klisnick, P. Zeitoun, F. Koike, and H. Takenaka, “Full characterization of a high-gain saturated x-ray laser at 13.9 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 043810 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tallents, G. J.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, R. Schott, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[Crossref]

F. Strati and G. J. Tallents, “Analytical modeling of group-velocity effects in saturated soft-X-ray lasers pumped with a picosecond traveling-wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013807 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. E. King, G. J. Pert, S. P. McCabe, P. A. Simms, A. G. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Pestehe, F. Strati, D. Neely, and R. Allott, “Saturated x-ray lasers at 196 and 73 Å pumped by a picosecond traveling-wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 053810 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. Zhang, G. Eker, S. McCabe, G. J. Pert, and E. Wolfrum, “Saturation behavior of two x-ray lasing transitions in Ni-like Dy,” Phys. Rev. A 59, R47–R50 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnürer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778–4783 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Lin, G. J. Tallents, A. Demir, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “Optimization of double drive pulse pumping in Ne-like Ge x-ray lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 1863–1868 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, R. Clarke, J. Collier, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, and F. Bortolotto, “Temporal resolution of a transient pumping x-ray laser,” Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France11, 43–46 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, A. G. MacPhee, B. Moore, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. Dobosz, J. Peschete, F. Strati, J. S. Wark, E. Zolfrum, G. J. Pert, S. P. MacCabe, P. A. Simms, R. Allott, J. Collier, C. N. Danson, A. Djaoui, and D. Neely, “Progress with saturated soft X-ray lasers pumped by the Vulcan laser,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE3776, 292–301 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tang, H.

S. Sebban, H. Daido, N. Sakaya, Y. Kato, K. Murai, H. Tang, Y. Gu, G. Huang, S. Wang, A. Klisnick, P. Zeitoun, F. Koike, and H. Takenaka, “Full characterization of a high-gain saturated x-ray laser at 13.9 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 043810 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tommasini, R.

R. Tommasini and E. Fill, “Excitation velocity and group velocity mismatch in amplified spontaneous emission lasers: a discussion on the transient gain X-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 034701 (2000).
[Crossref]

Topping, S. J.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, R. Schott, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, R. Clarke, J. Collier, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, and F. Bortolotto, “Temporal resolution of a transient pumping x-ray laser,” Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France11, 43–46 (2001).
[Crossref]

Trebes, J. E.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Wyngaarden, W. L

W. L van Wyngaarden, K. Bhadra, and R. J. W. Henry, “Excitation of helium-like ions by electron impact,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 1409–1417 (1979).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

S. Sebban, H. Daido, N. Sakaya, Y. Kato, K. Murai, H. Tang, Y. Gu, G. Huang, S. Wang, A. Klisnick, P. Zeitoun, F. Koike, and H. Takenaka, “Full characterization of a high-gain saturated x-ray laser at 13.9 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 043810 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wark, J. S.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[Crossref]

C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, A. G. MacPhee, B. Moore, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. Dobosz, J. Peschete, F. Strati, J. S. Wark, E. Zolfrum, G. J. Pert, S. P. MacCabe, P. A. Simms, R. Allott, J. Collier, C. N. Danson, A. Djaoui, and D. Neely, “Progress with saturated soft X-ray lasers pumped by the Vulcan laser,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE3776, 292–301 (1999).
[Crossref]

Warwick, J.

Warwick, P. J.

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnürer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778–4783 (1998).
[Crossref]

Weaver, T. A.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Whitney, K. G.

K. G. Whitney, A. Dasgupta, and P. E. Pulsifer, “Transient ultrahigh gains as a diagnostic in short-pulse heated selenium plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 50, 468–473 (1994).
[Crossref]

Whitten, B. L.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Will, I.

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnürer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748–2751 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wolfrum, E.

R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. Zhang, G. Eker, S. McCabe, G. J. Pert, and E. Wolfrum, “Saturation behavior of two x-ray lasing transitions in Ni-like Dy,” Phys. Rev. A 59, R47–R50 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnürer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778–4783 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wyart, J. F.

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, G. Jamelot, P. Fourcade, J.-L. Miquel, S. Jacquemot, N. Blanchot, and J. F. Wyart, “Characterization of a transient Ni-like X-ray laser generated by two-color irradiation,” Proc. of the Seventh International Conf. on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France11, 35–38 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wyart, J.-F.

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, J.-L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, and J.-F. Wyart, “Two color transient pumping in Ni-like silver at 13.9 and 16.1 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 043808 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yaakobi, B.

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neonlike titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6966 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeitoun, P.

S. Sebban, H. Daido, N. Sakaya, Y. Kato, K. Murai, H. Tang, Y. Gu, G. Huang, S. Wang, A. Klisnick, P. Zeitoun, F. Koike, and H. Takenaka, “Full characterization of a high-gain saturated x-ray laser at 13.9 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 043810 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Klisnick, P. Zeitoun, D. Ros, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. Mac Phee, R. M. N. O’Rourcke, R. Keenan, P. V. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalachnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, A. Migus, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, and J. P. Zou, “Transient pumping of Ni-like Ag X-ray laser with a sub-ps pump pulse in a traveling-wave irradiation geometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1093–1097 (2000).
[Crossref]

B. Rus, A. Carillon, P. Dhez, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, M. Nantel, and P. Zeitoun, “Efficient, high-brightness soft-x-ray laser at 21.2 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3858–3873 (1997).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. Zhang, G. Eker, S. McCabe, G. J. Pert, and E. Wolfrum, “Saturation behavior of two x-ray lasing transitions in Ni-like Dy,” Phys. Rev. A 59, R47–R50 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnürer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778–4783 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[Crossref]

Zolfrum, E.

C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, A. G. MacPhee, B. Moore, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. Dobosz, J. Peschete, F. Strati, J. S. Wark, E. Zolfrum, G. J. Pert, S. P. MacCabe, P. A. Simms, R. Allott, J. Collier, C. N. Danson, A. Djaoui, and D. Neely, “Progress with saturated soft X-ray lasers pumped by the Vulcan laser,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE3776, 292–301 (1999).
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Zou, J. P.

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J. Y. Lin, G. J. Tallents, A. Demir, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “Optimization of double drive pulse pumping in Ne-like Ge x-ray lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 1863–1868 (1998).
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S. B. Healy, K. A. Janulewicz, J. A. Plowes, and G. J. Pert, “Transient high gains at 196 Å produced by picosecond pulse heating of a preformed germanium plasma,” Opt. Commun. 132, 442–448 (1996).
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Phys. Rev. A (12)

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnürer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778–4783 (1998).
[Crossref]

B. Rus, A. Carillon, P. Dhez, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, M. Nantel, and P. Zeitoun, “Efficient, high-brightness soft-x-ray laser at 21.2 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3858–3873 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neonlike titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6966 (1990).
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R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. Zhang, G. Eker, S. McCabe, G. J. Pert, and E. Wolfrum, “Saturation behavior of two x-ray lasing transitions in Ni-like Dy,” Phys. Rev. A 59, R47–R50 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. Sebban, H. Daido, N. Sakaya, Y. Kato, K. Murai, H. Tang, Y. Gu, G. Huang, S. Wang, A. Klisnick, P. Zeitoun, F. Koike, and H. Takenaka, “Full characterization of a high-gain saturated x-ray laser at 13.9 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 043810 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, R. Schott, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, J.-L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, and J.-F. Wyart, “Two color transient pumping in Ni-like silver at 13.9 and 16.1 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 043808 (2000).
[Crossref]

W. L van Wyngaarden, K. Bhadra, and R. J. W. Henry, “Excitation of helium-like ions by electron impact,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 1409–1417 (1979).
[Crossref]

R. Tommasini and E. Fill, “Excitation velocity and group velocity mismatch in amplified spontaneous emission lasers: a discussion on the transient gain X-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 034701 (2000).
[Crossref]

F. Strati and G. J. Tallents, “Analytical modeling of group-velocity effects in saturated soft-X-ray lasers pumped with a picosecond traveling-wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013807 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. E. King, G. J. Pert, S. P. McCabe, P. A. Simms, A. G. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Pestehe, F. Strati, D. Neely, and R. Allott, “Saturated x-ray lasers at 196 and 73 Å pumped by a picosecond traveling-wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 053810 (2001).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnürer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748–2751 (1997).
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J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
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[Crossref]

C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, A. G. MacPhee, B. Moore, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. Dobosz, J. Peschete, F. Strati, J. S. Wark, E. Zolfrum, G. J. Pert, S. P. MacCabe, P. A. Simms, R. Allott, J. Collier, C. N. Danson, A. Djaoui, and D. Neely, “Progress with saturated soft X-ray lasers pumped by the Vulcan laser,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE3776, 292–301 (1999).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

J. L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, L. Bonnet, S. Jacquemot, A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, F. Dorchies, and J. C. Chanteloup, “Transient collisional x-ray laser experiments on P102 laser at CEA-LV,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications III, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds.,. Proc. SPIE3776, 24–36 (1999).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Local gain on the 4d 1S01P1 4p lasing transition as a function of time and distance away from target surface. The peak of the 1.3-ps FWHM CPA pump pulse occurs at 0.65 ps. The maximum gain zone is very restricted both in time and space. The plot depicts the gain contour lines of 50 cm-1, 100 cm-1 and further consecutive steps of 100 cm-1.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temporal evolution of the free electron density as a function of time and distance away from the target surface. High gain peak predicted in Fig. 1 is shown to reside ∼15 μm from the target where steep density gradients and the associated refractive effects would prohibit extensive sampling by the x-ray laser beam.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Heating of the supercritical densities to temperatures as high as 1.8 keV is predicted during the main heating pulse. These greater-than-1-keV temperatures coexist spatially and temporally with the gain spike shown in Fig. 1. The temperature gradients are similar to those observed for the gain, with quick dissipation from a small intense region into a larger more uniform plateau with temperatures below 500 eV.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temporally resolved average ionization within each of the 98 Lagrangian cells expanding away from the target surface.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The ratios of nickellike, copperlike, cobaltlike ion stages (i.e., 19-, 18-, and 20-times-ionized silver ions) at 7 μm from the target as calculated by the EHYBRID code at optimum conditions defined during the RAL 2000 experiment. The temporal peak of the gain appears clearly before the maximum of nickellike ions.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Maximum bremsstrahlung emission appears clearly after the peak of the gain (Fig. 1)—as observed during the RAL experiment 16,17—driven by a high electron density in the later times after the gain peak. Bremsstrahlung emission (in arbitrary units corresponding to the energy per unit volume and unit time in a small wavelength interval at ∼13.9 nm) developed in each space-time cell as it was calculated from the EHYBRID results.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Bremsstrahlung emission energy in a small wavelength interval at ∼13.9 nm integrated over horizontal angle at the exit from the plasma as calculated for the RAL 2000 experimental conditions.

Equations (1)

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Q(ω)dωZ2neniTe-1/2exp(-ω/kTe)dω,

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