Abstract

Recent high-temporal-resolution nickellike x-ray laser experiments have yielded important insights into the output characteristics of picosecond-pumped x-ray lasers. However, current experimental observations do not fully explain the plasma dynamics, which is critical to gain generation within the x-ray laser medium. A numerical study of the nickellike silver x-ray laser has therefore been undertaken to complement our experimental results in an attempt to further our understanding of the processes at work in yielding the observed x-ray laser output. High gain coefficients existing with picosecond lifetimes are predicted, which is consistent with the short x-ray laser durations experimentally observed. The late onset of the continuum emission relative to the temporal peak of the x-ray laser output is explained as a sign of high electron density evolution near the target surface.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2002 (1)

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, R. Schott, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (7)

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, R. Clarke, J. Collier, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, and F. Bortolotto, “Temporal resolution of a transient pumping x-ray laser,” Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France 11, 43–46 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen and J. Dunn, “Modeling of short-pulse-driven nickel-like X-ray lasers and recent experiments,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications IV, E. E. Fill and J. J. Rocca, eds., Proc. SPIE 4505, 100–106 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, G. Jamelot, P. Fourcade, J.-L. Miquel, S. Jacquemot, N. Blanchot, and J. F. Wyart, “Characterization of a transient Ni-like X-ray laser generated by two-color irradiation,” Proc. of the Seventh International Conf. on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France 11, 35–38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Bar-Shalom, M. Klapisch, and J. Oreg, “HULLAC, an integrated computer package for atomic processes in plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 71, 169–188 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. E. King, G. J. Pert, S. P. McCabe, P. A. Simms, A. G. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Pestehe, F. Strati, D. Neely, and R. Allott, “Saturated x-ray lasers at 196 and 73 Å pumped by a picosecond traveling-wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 053810 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, Jr., V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. Filevich, J. J. G. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, H. Fiedorowicz, and A. Bartnik, “Recent x-ray laser experiments on the COMET facility,” in Soft X-rays and Applications IV, E. E. Fill and J. J. Rocca, eds., Proc. SPIE 4505, 62–72 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Strati and G. J. Tallents, “Analytical modeling of group-velocity effects in saturated soft-X-ray lasers pumped with a picosecond traveling-wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (5)

R. Tommasini and E. Fill, “Excitation velocity and group velocity mismatch in amplified spontaneous emission lasers: a discussion on the transient gain X-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 034701 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, J.-L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, and J.-F. Wyart, “Two color transient pumping in Ni-like silver at 13.9 and 16.1 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 043808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Klisnick, P. Zeitoun, D. Ros, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. Mac Phee, R. M. N. O’Rourcke, R. Keenan, P. V. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalachnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, A. Migus, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, and J. P. Zou, “Transient pumping of Ni-like Ag X-ray laser with a sub-ps pump pulse in a traveling-wave irradiation geometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1093–1097 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen, Y. Li, and J. Dunn, “Modeling picosecond-laser-driven neonlike titanium x-ray laser experiments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1084–1092 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Sebban, H. Daido, N. Sakaya, Y. Kato, K. Murai, H. Tang, Y. Gu, G. Huang, S. Wang, A. Klisnick, P. Zeitoun, F. Koike, and H. Takenaka, “Full characterization of a high-gain saturated x-ray laser at 13.9 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 043810 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. Zhang, G. Eker, S. McCabe, G. J. Pert, and E. Wolfrum, “Saturation behavior of two x-ray lasing transitions in Ni-like Dy,” Phys. Rev. A 59, R47–R50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, L. Bonnet, S. Jacquemot, A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, F. Dorchies, and J. C. Chanteloup, “Transient collisional x-ray laser experiments on P102 laser at CEA-LV,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications III, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., . Proc. SPIE 3776, 24–36 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, A. G. MacPhee, B. Moore, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. Dobosz, J. Peschete, F. Strati, J. S. Wark, E. Zolfrum, G. J. Pert, S. P. MacCabe, P. A. Simms, R. Allott, J. Collier, C. N. Danson, A. Djaoui, and D. Neely, “Progress with saturated soft X-ray lasers pumped by the Vulcan laser,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE 3776, 292–301 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

J. Y. Lin, G. J. Tallents, A. Demir, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “Optimization of double drive pulse pumping in Ne-like Ge x-ray lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 1863–1868 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnürer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778–4783 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnürer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748–2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Rus, A. Carillon, P. Dhez, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, M. Nantel, and P. Zeitoun, “Efficient, high-brightness soft-x-ray laser at 21.2 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3858–3873 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Co⁁té, J. C. Kieffer, P. Gallant, J. C. Rebuffie, C. Goulmy, A. Maksimchuk, G. Mourou, D. Kaplan, and M. Bouvier, “Development of a subpicosecond large-dynamic-range x-ray streak camera,” 22nd International Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics, D. L. Paisley, ed., Proc. SPIE 2869, 956–961 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. B. Healy, K. A. Janulewicz, J. A. Plowes, and G. J. Pert, “Transient high gains at 196 Å produced by picosecond pulse heating of a preformed germanium plasma,” Opt. Commun. 132, 442–448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

E. E. Fill, Y. Li, G. Pretzler, D. Schlögl, J. Steingruber, and J. Nilsen, “Investigation of lasing on the J=0–1 line of neon-like ions using the prepulse technique,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications, J. J. Rocca and P. L. Hagelstein, eds., Proc. SPIE 2520, 134–144 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Healy, A. Djaoui, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, and S. J. Rose, “A comparison of time-dependent ionization models for laser-produced plasmas,” J. Phys. B 28, 1381–1391 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Healy, G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, and J. A. Plowes, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally-pumped laser considering the effect of prepulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 949–956 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, M. T. M. Lightbody, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, A. E. Kingston, E. Robertson, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser,” J. Phys. B 27, 341–366 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Whitney, A. Dasgupta, and P. E. Pulsifer, “Transient ultrahigh gains as a diagnostic in short-pulse heated selenium plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 50, 468–473 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

S. Maxon, K. G. Estabrook, M. K. Prasad, A. L. Osterheld, R. A. London, and D. C. Eder, “High gain x-ray lasers at the water window,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2285–2288 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, and J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

J. H. Scofield and B. J. MacGowan, “Energies of nickel-like 4d to 4p laser lines,” Phys. Scr. 46, 361–364 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neonlike titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6966 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

Y. V. Afanasiev and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Formation of a population inversion of transitions in Ne-like ions in steady-state and transient plasmas,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1606–1612 (1989) [Kvant. Elektron (Moscow) 16, 2499–2509 (1989)].
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

G. J. Pert, “The hybrid model and its application for studying free expansion,” J. Fluid Mech. 131, 401–426 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

L. B. Golden, R. E. H. Clark, S. J. Goett, and D. H. Sampson, “Scaled collision strengths for hydrogenic ions,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. 45, 603–612 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

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W. L van Wyngaarden, K. Bhadra, and R. J. W. Henry, “Excitation of helium-like ions by electron impact,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 1409–1417 (1979).
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J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, G. Jamelot, P. Fourcade, J.-L. Miquel, S. Jacquemot, N. Blanchot, and J. F. Wyart, “Characterization of a transient Ni-like X-ray laser generated by two-color irradiation,” Proc. of the Seventh International Conf. on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France 11, 35–38 (2001).
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J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, J.-L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, and J.-F. Wyart, “Two color transient pumping in Ni-like silver at 13.9 and 16.1 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 043808 (2000).
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J. L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, L. Bonnet, S. Jacquemot, A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, F. Dorchies, and J. C. Chanteloup, “Transient collisional x-ray laser experiments on P102 laser at CEA-LV,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications III, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., . Proc. SPIE 3776, 24–36 (1999).
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A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, R. Schott, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
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J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, R. Clarke, J. Collier, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, and F. Bortolotto, “Temporal resolution of a transient pumping x-ray laser,” Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France 11, 43–46 (2001).
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Carillon, A.

Ceglio, N. M.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
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J. L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, L. Bonnet, S. Jacquemot, A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, F. Dorchies, and J. C. Chanteloup, “Transient collisional x-ray laser experiments on P102 laser at CEA-LV,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications III, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., . Proc. SPIE 3776, 24–36 (1999).
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J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, R. Clarke, J. Collier, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, and F. Bortolotto, “Temporal resolution of a transient pumping x-ray laser,” Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France 11, 43–46 (2001).
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C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, A. G. MacPhee, B. Moore, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. Dobosz, J. Peschete, F. Strati, J. S. Wark, E. Zolfrum, G. J. Pert, S. P. MacCabe, P. A. Simms, R. Allott, J. Collier, C. N. Danson, A. Djaoui, and D. Neely, “Progress with saturated soft X-ray lasers pumped by the Vulcan laser,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE 3776, 292–301 (1999).
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M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnürer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778–4783 (1998).
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J. L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, L. Bonnet, S. Jacquemot, A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, F. Dorchies, and J. C. Chanteloup, “Transient collisional x-ray laser experiments on P102 laser at CEA-LV,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications III, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., . Proc. SPIE 3776, 24–36 (1999).
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T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neonlike titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6966 (1990).
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J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, G. Jamelot, P. Fourcade, J.-L. Miquel, S. Jacquemot, N. Blanchot, and J. F. Wyart, “Characterization of a transient Ni-like X-ray laser generated by two-color irradiation,” Proc. of the Seventh International Conf. on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France 11, 35–38 (2001).
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J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, G. Jamelot, P. Fourcade, J.-L. Miquel, S. Jacquemot, N. Blanchot, and J. F. Wyart, “Characterization of a transient Ni-like X-ray laser generated by two-color irradiation,” Proc. of the Seventh International Conf. on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France 11, 35–38 (2001).
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A. Klisnick, P. Zeitoun, D. Ros, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. Mac Phee, R. M. N. O’Rourcke, R. Keenan, P. V. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalachnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, A. Migus, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, and J. P. Zou, “Transient pumping of Ni-like Ag X-ray laser with a sub-ps pump pulse in a traveling-wave irradiation geometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1093–1097 (2000).
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J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, J.-L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, and J.-F. Wyart, “Two color transient pumping in Ni-like silver at 13.9 and 16.1 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 043808 (2000).
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J. L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, L. Bonnet, S. Jacquemot, A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, F. Dorchies, and J. C. Chanteloup, “Transient collisional x-ray laser experiments on P102 laser at CEA-LV,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications III, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., . Proc. SPIE 3776, 24–36 (1999).
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B. Rus, A. Carillon, P. Dhez, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, M. Nantel, and P. Zeitoun, “Efficient, high-brightness soft-x-ray laser at 21.2 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3858–3873 (1997).
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J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, R. Clarke, J. Collier, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, and F. Bortolotto, “Temporal resolution of a transient pumping x-ray laser,” Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France 11, 43–46 (2001).
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A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, R. Schott, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
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S. B. Healy, K. A. Janulewicz, J. A. Plowes, and G. J. Pert, “Transient high gains at 196 Å produced by picosecond pulse heating of a preformed germanium plasma,” Opt. Commun. 132, 442–448 (1996).
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Kalachnikov, M. P.

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J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, R. Clarke, J. Collier, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, and F. Bortolotto, “Temporal resolution of a transient pumping x-ray laser,” Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France 11, 43–46 (2001).
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C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, A. G. MacPhee, B. Moore, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. Dobosz, J. Peschete, F. Strati, J. S. Wark, E. Zolfrum, G. J. Pert, S. P. MacCabe, P. A. Simms, R. Allott, J. Collier, C. N. Danson, A. Djaoui, and D. Neely, “Progress with saturated soft X-ray lasers pumped by the Vulcan laser,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE 3776, 292–301 (1999).
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C. Y. Co⁁té, J. C. Kieffer, P. Gallant, J. C. Rebuffie, C. Goulmy, A. Maksimchuk, G. Mourou, D. Kaplan, and M. Bouvier, “Development of a subpicosecond large-dynamic-range x-ray streak camera,” 22nd International Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics, D. L. Paisley, ed., Proc. SPIE 2869, 956–961 (1997).
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P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, M. T. M. Lightbody, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, A. E. Kingston, E. Robertson, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser,” J. Phys. B 27, 341–366 (1994).
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J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, R. Clarke, J. Collier, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, and F. Bortolotto, “Temporal resolution of a transient pumping x-ray laser,” Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France 11, 43–46 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, G. Jamelot, P. Fourcade, J.-L. Miquel, S. Jacquemot, N. Blanchot, and J. F. Wyart, “Characterization of a transient Ni-like X-ray laser generated by two-color irradiation,” Proc. of the Seventh International Conf. on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France 11, 35–38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Klisnick, P. Zeitoun, D. Ros, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. Mac Phee, R. M. N. O’Rourcke, R. Keenan, P. V. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalachnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, A. Migus, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, and J. P. Zou, “Transient pumping of Ni-like Ag X-ray laser with a sub-ps pump pulse in a traveling-wave irradiation geometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1093–1097 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, J.-L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, and J.-F. Wyart, “Two color transient pumping in Ni-like silver at 13.9 and 16.1 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 043808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Sebban, H. Daido, N. Sakaya, Y. Kato, K. Murai, H. Tang, Y. Gu, G. Huang, S. Wang, A. Klisnick, P. Zeitoun, F. Koike, and H. Takenaka, “Full characterization of a high-gain saturated x-ray laser at 13.9 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 043810 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, L. Bonnet, S. Jacquemot, A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, F. Dorchies, and J. C. Chanteloup, “Transient collisional x-ray laser experiments on P102 laser at CEA-LV,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications III, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., . Proc. SPIE 3776, 24–36 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Rus, A. Carillon, P. Dhez, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, M. Nantel, and P. Zeitoun, “Efficient, high-brightness soft-x-ray laser at 21.2 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3858–3873 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koike, F.

S. Sebban, H. Daido, N. Sakaya, Y. Kato, K. Murai, H. Tang, Y. Gu, G. Huang, S. Wang, A. Klisnick, P. Zeitoun, F. Koike, and H. Takenaka, “Full characterization of a high-gain saturated x-ray laser at 13.9 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 043810 (2000).
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A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, R. Schott, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, R. Clarke, J. Collier, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, and F. Bortolotto, “Temporal resolution of a transient pumping x-ray laser,” Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France 11, 43–46 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, G. Jamelot, P. Fourcade, J.-L. Miquel, S. Jacquemot, N. Blanchot, and J. F. Wyart, “Characterization of a transient Ni-like X-ray laser generated by two-color irradiation,” Proc. of the Seventh International Conf. on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France 11, 35–38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, J.-L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, and J.-F. Wyart, “Two color transient pumping in Ni-like silver at 13.9 and 16.1 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 043808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, L. Bonnet, S. Jacquemot, A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, F. Dorchies, and J. C. Chanteloup, “Transient collisional x-ray laser experiments on P102 laser at CEA-LV,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications III, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., . Proc. SPIE 3776, 24–36 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, C. L. S.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, R. Schott, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, R. Clarke, J. Collier, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, and F. Bortolotto, “Temporal resolution of a transient pumping x-ray laser,” Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France 11, 43–46 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. E. King, G. J. Pert, S. P. McCabe, P. A. Simms, A. G. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Pestehe, F. Strati, D. Neely, and R. Allott, “Saturated x-ray lasers at 196 and 73 Å pumped by a picosecond traveling-wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 053810 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Klisnick, P. Zeitoun, D. Ros, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. Mac Phee, R. M. N. O’Rourcke, R. Keenan, P. V. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalachnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, A. Migus, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, and J. P. Zou, “Transient pumping of Ni-like Ag X-ray laser with a sub-ps pump pulse in a traveling-wave irradiation geometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1093–1097 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, A. G. MacPhee, B. Moore, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. Dobosz, J. Peschete, F. Strati, J. S. Wark, E. Zolfrum, G. J. Pert, S. P. MacCabe, P. A. Simms, R. Allott, J. Collier, C. N. Danson, A. Djaoui, and D. Neely, “Progress with saturated soft X-ray lasers pumped by the Vulcan laser,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE 3776, 292–301 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnürer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778–4783 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Healy, G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, and J. A. Plowes, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally-pumped laser considering the effect of prepulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 949–956 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, M. T. M. Lightbody, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, A. E. Kingston, E. Robertson, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser,” J. Phys. B 27, 341–366 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

J. Nilsen, Y. Li, and J. Dunn, “Modeling picosecond-laser-driven neonlike titanium x-ray laser experiments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1084–1092 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Fill, Y. Li, G. Pretzler, D. Schlögl, J. Steingruber, and J. Nilsen, “Investigation of lasing on the J=0–1 line of neon-like ions using the prepulse technique,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications, J. J. Rocca and P. L. Hagelstein, eds., Proc. SPIE 2520, 134–144 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lightbody, M. T. M.

P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, M. T. M. Lightbody, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, A. E. Kingston, E. Robertson, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser,” J. Phys. B 27, 341–366 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

J. Y. Lin, G. J. Tallents, A. Demir, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “Optimization of double drive pulse pumping in Ne-like Ge x-ray lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 1863–1868 (1998).
[CrossRef]

London, R. A.

S. Maxon, K. G. Estabrook, M. K. Prasad, A. L. Osterheld, R. A. London, and D. C. Eder, “High gain x-ray lasers at the water window,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2285–2288 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mac Phee, A. G.

MacCabe, S. P.

C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, A. G. MacPhee, B. Moore, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. Dobosz, J. Peschete, F. Strati, J. S. Wark, E. Zolfrum, G. J. Pert, S. P. MacCabe, P. A. Simms, R. Allott, J. Collier, C. N. Danson, A. Djaoui, and D. Neely, “Progress with saturated soft X-ray lasers pumped by the Vulcan laser,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE 3776, 292–301 (1999).
[CrossRef]

MacGowan, B. J.

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, and J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Scofield and B. J. MacGowan, “Energies of nickel-like 4d to 4p laser lines,” Phys. Scr. 46, 361–364 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neonlike titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6966 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacPhee, A. G.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, R. Schott, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, R. Clarke, J. Collier, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, and F. Bortolotto, “Temporal resolution of a transient pumping x-ray laser,” Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France 11, 43–46 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. E. King, G. J. Pert, S. P. McCabe, P. A. Simms, A. G. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Pestehe, F. Strati, D. Neely, and R. Allott, “Saturated x-ray lasers at 196 and 73 Å pumped by a picosecond traveling-wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 053810 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, A. G. MacPhee, B. Moore, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. Dobosz, J. Peschete, F. Strati, J. S. Wark, E. Zolfrum, G. J. Pert, S. P. MacCabe, P. A. Simms, R. Allott, J. Collier, C. N. Danson, A. Djaoui, and D. Neely, “Progress with saturated soft X-ray lasers pumped by the Vulcan laser,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE 3776, 292–301 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Maksimchuk, A.

C. Y. Co⁁té, J. C. Kieffer, P. Gallant, J. C. Rebuffie, C. Goulmy, A. Maksimchuk, G. Mourou, D. Kaplan, and M. Bouvier, “Development of a subpicosecond large-dynamic-range x-ray streak camera,” 22nd International Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics, D. L. Paisley, ed., Proc. SPIE 2869, 956–961 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Marconi, M. C.

J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, Jr., V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. Filevich, J. J. G. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, H. Fiedorowicz, and A. Bartnik, “Recent x-ray laser experiments on the COMET facility,” in Soft X-rays and Applications IV, E. E. Fill and J. J. Rocca, eds., Proc. SPIE 4505, 62–72 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Matthews, D. L.

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neonlike titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6966 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maxon, S.

S. Maxon, K. G. Estabrook, M. K. Prasad, A. L. Osterheld, R. A. London, and D. C. Eder, “High gain x-ray lasers at the water window,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2285–2288 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCabe, S.

R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. Zhang, G. Eker, S. McCabe, G. J. Pert, and E. Wolfrum, “Saturation behavior of two x-ray lasing transitions in Ni-like Dy,” Phys. Rev. A 59, R47–R50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McCabe, S. P.

R. E. King, G. J. Pert, S. P. McCabe, P. A. Simms, A. G. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Pestehe, F. Strati, D. Neely, and R. Allott, “Saturated x-ray lasers at 196 and 73 Å pumped by a picosecond traveling-wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 053810 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Medecki, H.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Migus, A.

Miquel, J. L.

J. L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, L. Bonnet, S. Jacquemot, A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, F. Dorchies, and J. C. Chanteloup, “Transient collisional x-ray laser experiments on P102 laser at CEA-LV,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications III, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., . Proc. SPIE 3776, 24–36 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miquel, J.-L.

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, G. Jamelot, P. Fourcade, J.-L. Miquel, S. Jacquemot, N. Blanchot, and J. F. Wyart, “Characterization of a transient Ni-like X-ray laser generated by two-color irradiation,” Proc. of the Seventh International Conf. on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France 11, 35–38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, J.-L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, and J.-F. Wyart, “Two color transient pumping in Ni-like silver at 13.9 and 16.1 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 043808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moore, B.

C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, A. G. MacPhee, B. Moore, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. Dobosz, J. Peschete, F. Strati, J. S. Wark, E. Zolfrum, G. J. Pert, S. P. MacCabe, P. A. Simms, R. Allott, J. Collier, C. N. Danson, A. Djaoui, and D. Neely, “Progress with saturated soft X-ray lasers pumped by the Vulcan laser,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE 3776, 292–301 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, J. C.

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, and J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mourou, G.

C. Y. Co⁁té, J. C. Kieffer, P. Gallant, J. C. Rebuffie, C. Goulmy, A. Maksimchuk, G. Mourou, D. Kaplan, and M. Bouvier, “Development of a subpicosecond large-dynamic-range x-ray streak camera,” 22nd International Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics, D. L. Paisley, ed., Proc. SPIE 2869, 956–961 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Murai, K.

S. Sebban, H. Daido, N. Sakaya, Y. Kato, K. Murai, H. Tang, Y. Gu, G. Huang, S. Wang, A. Klisnick, P. Zeitoun, F. Koike, and H. Takenaka, “Full characterization of a high-gain saturated x-ray laser at 13.9 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 043810 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nantel, M.

B. Rus, A. Carillon, P. Dhez, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, M. Nantel, and P. Zeitoun, “Efficient, high-brightness soft-x-ray laser at 21.2 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3858–3873 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Neely, D.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, R. Schott, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, R. Clarke, J. Collier, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, and F. Bortolotto, “Temporal resolution of a transient pumping x-ray laser,” Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France 11, 43–46 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. E. King, G. J. Pert, S. P. McCabe, P. A. Simms, A. G. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Pestehe, F. Strati, D. Neely, and R. Allott, “Saturated x-ray lasers at 196 and 73 Å pumped by a picosecond traveling-wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 053810 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, A. G. MacPhee, B. Moore, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. Dobosz, J. Peschete, F. Strati, J. S. Wark, E. Zolfrum, G. J. Pert, S. P. MacCabe, P. A. Simms, R. Allott, J. Collier, C. N. Danson, A. Djaoui, and D. Neely, “Progress with saturated soft X-ray lasers pumped by the Vulcan laser,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE 3776, 292–301 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnürer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778–4783 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, M. T. M. Lightbody, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, A. E. Kingston, E. Robertson, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser,” J. Phys. B 27, 341–366 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nickles, P.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, R. Schott, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, R. Clarke, J. Collier, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, and F. Bortolotto, “Temporal resolution of a transient pumping x-ray laser,” Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France 11, 43–46 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nickles, P. V.

A. Klisnick, P. Zeitoun, D. Ros, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. Mac Phee, R. M. N. O’Rourcke, R. Keenan, P. V. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalachnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, A. Migus, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, and J. P. Zou, “Transient pumping of Ni-like Ag X-ray laser with a sub-ps pump pulse in a traveling-wave irradiation geometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1093–1097 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnürer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778–4783 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnürer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748–2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nilsen, J.

J. Nilsen and J. Dunn, “Modeling of short-pulse-driven nickel-like X-ray lasers and recent experiments,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications IV, E. E. Fill and J. J. Rocca, eds., Proc. SPIE 4505, 100–106 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, Jr., V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. Filevich, J. J. G. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, H. Fiedorowicz, and A. Bartnik, “Recent x-ray laser experiments on the COMET facility,” in Soft X-rays and Applications IV, E. E. Fill and J. J. Rocca, eds., Proc. SPIE 4505, 62–72 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen, Y. Li, and J. Dunn, “Modeling picosecond-laser-driven neonlike titanium x-ray laser experiments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1084–1092 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Fill, Y. Li, G. Pretzler, D. Schlögl, J. Steingruber, and J. Nilsen, “Investigation of lasing on the J=0–1 line of neon-like ions using the prepulse technique,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications, J. J. Rocca and P. L. Hagelstein, eds., Proc. SPIE 2520, 134–144 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neonlike titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6966 (1990).
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O’Rourcke, R. M. N.

O’Rourke, R. M. N.

R. E. King, G. J. Pert, S. P. McCabe, P. A. Simms, A. G. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Pestehe, F. Strati, D. Neely, and R. Allott, “Saturated x-ray lasers at 196 and 73 Å pumped by a picosecond traveling-wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 053810 (2001).
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C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, A. G. MacPhee, B. Moore, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. Dobosz, J. Peschete, F. Strati, J. S. Wark, E. Zolfrum, G. J. Pert, S. P. MacCabe, P. A. Simms, R. Allott, J. Collier, C. N. Danson, A. Djaoui, and D. Neely, “Progress with saturated soft X-ray lasers pumped by the Vulcan laser,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE 3776, 292–301 (1999).
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R. E. King, G. J. Pert, S. P. McCabe, P. A. Simms, A. G. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Pestehe, F. Strati, D. Neely, and R. Allott, “Saturated x-ray lasers at 196 and 73 Å pumped by a picosecond traveling-wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 053810 (2001).
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C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, A. G. MacPhee, B. Moore, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. Dobosz, J. Peschete, F. Strati, J. S. Wark, E. Zolfrum, G. J. Pert, S. P. MacCabe, P. A. Simms, R. Allott, J. Collier, C. N. Danson, A. Djaoui, and D. Neely, “Progress with saturated soft X-ray lasers pumped by the Vulcan laser,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE 3776, 292–301 (1999).
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R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. Zhang, G. Eker, S. McCabe, G. J. Pert, and E. Wolfrum, “Saturation behavior of two x-ray lasing transitions in Ni-like Dy,” Phys. Rev. A 59, R47–R50 (1999).
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J. Y. Lin, G. J. Tallents, A. Demir, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “Optimization of double drive pulse pumping in Ne-like Ge x-ray lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 1863–1868 (1998).
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J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
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S. B. Healy, K. A. Janulewicz, J. A. Plowes, and G. J. Pert, “Transient high gains at 196 Å produced by picosecond pulse heating of a preformed germanium plasma,” Opt. Commun. 132, 442–448 (1996).
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S. B. Healy, G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, and J. A. Plowes, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally-pumped laser considering the effect of prepulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 949–956 (1995).
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S. B. Healy, A. Djaoui, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, and S. J. Rose, “A comparison of time-dependent ionization models for laser-produced plasmas,” J. Phys. B 28, 1381–1391 (1995).
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P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, M. T. M. Lightbody, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, A. E. Kingston, E. Robertson, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser,” J. Phys. B 27, 341–366 (1994).
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G. J. Pert, “The hybrid model and its application for studying free expansion,” J. Fluid Mech. 131, 401–426 (1983).
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C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, A. G. MacPhee, B. Moore, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. Dobosz, J. Peschete, F. Strati, J. S. Wark, E. Zolfrum, G. J. Pert, S. P. MacCabe, P. A. Simms, R. Allott, J. Collier, C. N. Danson, A. Djaoui, and D. Neely, “Progress with saturated soft X-ray lasers pumped by the Vulcan laser,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE 3776, 292–301 (1999).
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Pestehe, S. J.

R. E. King, G. J. Pert, S. P. McCabe, P. A. Simms, A. G. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Pestehe, F. Strati, D. Neely, and R. Allott, “Saturated x-ray lasers at 196 and 73 Å pumped by a picosecond traveling-wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 053810 (2001).
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Pleasance, L. D.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
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Plowes, J. A.

S. B. Healy, K. A. Janulewicz, J. A. Plowes, and G. J. Pert, “Transient high gains at 196 Å produced by picosecond pulse heating of a preformed germanium plasma,” Opt. Commun. 132, 442–448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Healy, G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, and J. A. Plowes, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally-pumped laser considering the effect of prepulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 949–956 (1995).
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P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, M. T. M. Lightbody, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, A. E. Kingston, E. Robertson, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser,” J. Phys. B 27, 341–366 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, M. K.

S. Maxon, K. G. Estabrook, M. K. Prasad, A. L. Osterheld, R. A. London, and D. C. Eder, “High gain x-ray lasers at the water window,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2285–2288 (1993).
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Pretzler, G.

E. E. Fill, Y. Li, G. Pretzler, D. Schlögl, J. Steingruber, and J. Nilsen, “Investigation of lasing on the J=0–1 line of neon-like ions using the prepulse technique,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications, J. J. Rocca and P. L. Hagelstein, eds., Proc. SPIE 2520, 134–144 (1995).
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K. G. Whitney, A. Dasgupta, and P. E. Pulsifer, “Transient ultrahigh gains as a diagnostic in short-pulse heated selenium plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 50, 468–473 (1994).
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D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
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Rebuffie, J. C.

C. Y. Co⁁té, J. C. Kieffer, P. Gallant, J. C. Rebuffie, C. Goulmy, A. Maksimchuk, G. Mourou, D. Kaplan, and M. Bouvier, “Development of a subpicosecond large-dynamic-range x-ray streak camera,” 22nd International Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics, D. L. Paisley, ed., Proc. SPIE 2869, 956–961 (1997).
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Robertson, E.

P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, M. T. M. Lightbody, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, A. E. Kingston, E. Robertson, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser,” J. Phys. B 27, 341–366 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rocca, J. J. G.

J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, Jr., V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. Filevich, J. J. G. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, H. Fiedorowicz, and A. Bartnik, “Recent x-ray laser experiments on the COMET facility,” in Soft X-rays and Applications IV, E. E. Fill and J. J. Rocca, eds., Proc. SPIE 4505, 62–72 (2001).
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Ros, D.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, R. Schott, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
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J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, R. Clarke, J. Collier, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, and F. Bortolotto, “Temporal resolution of a transient pumping x-ray laser,” Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France 11, 43–46 (2001).
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J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, G. Jamelot, P. Fourcade, J.-L. Miquel, S. Jacquemot, N. Blanchot, and J. F. Wyart, “Characterization of a transient Ni-like X-ray laser generated by two-color irradiation,” Proc. of the Seventh International Conf. on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France 11, 35–38 (2001).
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J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, J.-L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, and J.-F. Wyart, “Two color transient pumping in Ni-like silver at 13.9 and 16.1 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 043808 (2000).
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A. Klisnick, P. Zeitoun, D. Ros, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. Mac Phee, R. M. N. O’Rourcke, R. Keenan, P. V. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalachnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, A. Migus, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, and J. P. Zou, “Transient pumping of Ni-like Ag X-ray laser with a sub-ps pump pulse in a traveling-wave irradiation geometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1093–1097 (2000).
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J. L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, L. Bonnet, S. Jacquemot, A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, F. Dorchies, and J. C. Chanteloup, “Transient collisional x-ray laser experiments on P102 laser at CEA-LV,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications III, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., . Proc. SPIE 3776, 24–36 (1999).
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Rose, S. J.

S. B. Healy, A. Djaoui, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, and S. J. Rose, “A comparison of time-dependent ionization models for laser-produced plasmas,” J. Phys. B 28, 1381–1391 (1995).
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Rosen, M. D.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
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T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neonlike titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6966 (1990).
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S. Sebban, H. Daido, N. Sakaya, Y. Kato, K. Murai, H. Tang, Y. Gu, G. Huang, S. Wang, A. Klisnick, P. Zeitoun, F. Koike, and H. Takenaka, “Full characterization of a high-gain saturated x-ray laser at 13.9 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 043810 (2000).
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Salmon, E.

Sampson, D. H.

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P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnürer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748–2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sauteret, C.

Schlögl, D.

E. E. Fill, Y. Li, G. Pretzler, D. Schlögl, J. Steingruber, and J. Nilsen, “Investigation of lasing on the J=0–1 line of neon-like ions using the prepulse technique,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications, J. J. Rocca and P. L. Hagelstein, eds., Proc. SPIE 2520, 134–144 (1995).
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Schnürer, M.

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnürer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778–4783 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnürer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748–2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schott, R.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, R. Schott, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
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Scofield, J. H.

J. H. Scofield and B. J. MacGowan, “Energies of nickel-like 4d to 4p laser lines,” Phys. Scr. 46, 361–364 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neonlike titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6966 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sebban, S.

S. Sebban, H. Daido, N. Sakaya, Y. Kato, K. Murai, H. Tang, Y. Gu, G. Huang, S. Wang, A. Klisnick, P. Zeitoun, F. Koike, and H. Takenaka, “Full characterization of a high-gain saturated x-ray laser at 13.9 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 043810 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shimkaveg, G.

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neonlike titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6966 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shlyaptsev, V. N.

J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, Jr., V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. Filevich, J. J. G. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, H. Fiedorowicz, and A. Bartnik, “Recent x-ray laser experiments on the COMET facility,” in Soft X-rays and Applications IV, E. E. Fill and J. J. Rocca, eds., Proc. SPIE 4505, 62–72 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnürer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778–4783 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnürer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748–2751 (1997).
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Y. V. Afanasiev and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Formation of a population inversion of transitions in Ne-like ions in steady-state and transient plasmas,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1606–1612 (1989) [Kvant. Elektron (Moscow) 16, 2499–2509 (1989)].
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Simms, P. A.

R. E. King, G. J. Pert, S. P. McCabe, P. A. Simms, A. G. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Pestehe, F. Strati, D. Neely, and R. Allott, “Saturated x-ray lasers at 196 and 73 Å pumped by a picosecond traveling-wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 053810 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, A. G. MacPhee, B. Moore, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. Dobosz, J. Peschete, F. Strati, J. S. Wark, E. Zolfrum, G. J. Pert, S. P. MacCabe, P. A. Simms, R. Allott, J. Collier, C. N. Danson, A. Djaoui, and D. Neely, “Progress with saturated soft X-ray lasers pumped by the Vulcan laser,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE 3776, 292–301 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, R. Schott, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, R. Clarke, J. Collier, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, and F. Bortolotto, “Temporal resolution of a transient pumping x-ray laser,” Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France 11, 43–46 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. Zhang, G. Eker, S. McCabe, G. J. Pert, and E. Wolfrum, “Saturation behavior of two x-ray lasing transitions in Ni-like Dy,” Phys. Rev. A 59, R47–R50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. F.

J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, Jr., V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. Filevich, J. J. G. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, H. Fiedorowicz, and A. Bartnik, “Recent x-ray laser experiments on the COMET facility,” in Soft X-rays and Applications IV, E. E. Fill and J. J. Rocca, eds., Proc. SPIE 4505, 62–72 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Steingruber, J.

E. E. Fill, Y. Li, G. Pretzler, D. Schlögl, J. Steingruber, and J. Nilsen, “Investigation of lasing on the J=0–1 line of neon-like ions using the prepulse technique,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications, J. J. Rocca and P. L. Hagelstein, eds., Proc. SPIE 2520, 134–144 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stone, G.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strati, F.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, R. Schott, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, R. Clarke, J. Collier, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, and F. Bortolotto, “Temporal resolution of a transient pumping x-ray laser,” Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France 11, 43–46 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. E. King, G. J. Pert, S. P. McCabe, P. A. Simms, A. G. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Pestehe, F. Strati, D. Neely, and R. Allott, “Saturated x-ray lasers at 196 and 73 Å pumped by a picosecond traveling-wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 053810 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Strati and G. J. Tallents, “Analytical modeling of group-velocity effects in saturated soft-X-ray lasers pumped with a picosecond traveling-wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, A. G. MacPhee, B. Moore, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. Dobosz, J. Peschete, F. Strati, J. S. Wark, E. Zolfrum, G. J. Pert, S. P. MacCabe, P. A. Simms, R. Allott, J. Collier, C. N. Danson, A. Djaoui, and D. Neely, “Progress with saturated soft X-ray lasers pumped by the Vulcan laser,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE 3776, 292–301 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Takenaka, H.

S. Sebban, H. Daido, N. Sakaya, Y. Kato, K. Murai, H. Tang, Y. Gu, G. Huang, S. Wang, A. Klisnick, P. Zeitoun, F. Koike, and H. Takenaka, “Full characterization of a high-gain saturated x-ray laser at 13.9 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 043810 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tallents, G. J.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, R. Schott, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, R. Clarke, J. Collier, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, and F. Bortolotto, “Temporal resolution of a transient pumping x-ray laser,” Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France 11, 43–46 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. E. King, G. J. Pert, S. P. McCabe, P. A. Simms, A. G. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Pestehe, F. Strati, D. Neely, and R. Allott, “Saturated x-ray lasers at 196 and 73 Å pumped by a picosecond traveling-wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 053810 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Strati and G. J. Tallents, “Analytical modeling of group-velocity effects in saturated soft-X-ray lasers pumped with a picosecond traveling-wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, A. G. MacPhee, B. Moore, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. Dobosz, J. Peschete, F. Strati, J. S. Wark, E. Zolfrum, G. J. Pert, S. P. MacCabe, P. A. Simms, R. Allott, J. Collier, C. N. Danson, A. Djaoui, and D. Neely, “Progress with saturated soft X-ray lasers pumped by the Vulcan laser,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE 3776, 292–301 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. Zhang, G. Eker, S. McCabe, G. J. Pert, and E. Wolfrum, “Saturation behavior of two x-ray lasing transitions in Ni-like Dy,” Phys. Rev. A 59, R47–R50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnürer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778–4783 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Lin, G. J. Tallents, A. Demir, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “Optimization of double drive pulse pumping in Ne-like Ge x-ray lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 1863–1868 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tang, H.

S. Sebban, H. Daido, N. Sakaya, Y. Kato, K. Murai, H. Tang, Y. Gu, G. Huang, S. Wang, A. Klisnick, P. Zeitoun, F. Koike, and H. Takenaka, “Full characterization of a high-gain saturated x-ray laser at 13.9 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 043810 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tommasini, R.

R. Tommasini and E. Fill, “Excitation velocity and group velocity mismatch in amplified spontaneous emission lasers: a discussion on the transient gain X-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 034701 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Topping, S. J.

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, R. Schott, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, R. Clarke, J. Collier, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, and F. Bortolotto, “Temporal resolution of a transient pumping x-ray laser,” Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France 11, 43–46 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Trebes, J. E.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Wyngaarden, W. L

W. L van Wyngaarden, K. Bhadra, and R. J. W. Henry, “Excitation of helium-like ions by electron impact,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 1409–1417 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

S. Sebban, H. Daido, N. Sakaya, Y. Kato, K. Murai, H. Tang, Y. Gu, G. Huang, S. Wang, A. Klisnick, P. Zeitoun, F. Koike, and H. Takenaka, “Full characterization of a high-gain saturated x-ray laser at 13.9 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 043810 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wark, J. S.

C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, A. G. MacPhee, B. Moore, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. Dobosz, J. Peschete, F. Strati, J. S. Wark, E. Zolfrum, G. J. Pert, S. P. MacCabe, P. A. Simms, R. Allott, J. Collier, C. N. Danson, A. Djaoui, and D. Neely, “Progress with saturated soft X-ray lasers pumped by the Vulcan laser,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE 3776, 292–301 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Warwick, J.

Warwick, P. J.

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnürer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778–4783 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weaver, T. A.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitney, K. G.

K. G. Whitney, A. Dasgupta, and P. E. Pulsifer, “Transient ultrahigh gains as a diagnostic in short-pulse heated selenium plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 50, 468–473 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Whitten, B. L.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Will, I.

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnürer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748–2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wolfrum, E.

R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. Zhang, G. Eker, S. McCabe, G. J. Pert, and E. Wolfrum, “Saturation behavior of two x-ray lasing transitions in Ni-like Dy,” Phys. Rev. A 59, R47–R50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnürer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778–4783 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wyart, J. F.

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, G. Jamelot, P. Fourcade, J.-L. Miquel, S. Jacquemot, N. Blanchot, and J. F. Wyart, “Characterization of a transient Ni-like X-ray laser generated by two-color irradiation,” Proc. of the Seventh International Conf. on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France 11, 35–38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wyart, J.-F.

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, J.-L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, and J.-F. Wyart, “Two color transient pumping in Ni-like silver at 13.9 and 16.1 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 043808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yaakobi, B.

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neonlike titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6966 (1990).
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Zeitoun, P.

S. Sebban, H. Daido, N. Sakaya, Y. Kato, K. Murai, H. Tang, Y. Gu, G. Huang, S. Wang, A. Klisnick, P. Zeitoun, F. Koike, and H. Takenaka, “Full characterization of a high-gain saturated x-ray laser at 13.9 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 043810 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Klisnick, P. Zeitoun, D. Ros, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. Mac Phee, R. M. N. O’Rourcke, R. Keenan, P. V. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalachnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, A. Migus, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, and J. P. Zou, “Transient pumping of Ni-like Ag X-ray laser with a sub-ps pump pulse in a traveling-wave irradiation geometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1093–1097 (2000).
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B. Rus, A. Carillon, P. Dhez, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, M. Nantel, and P. Zeitoun, “Efficient, high-brightness soft-x-ray laser at 21.2 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3858–3873 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. Zhang, G. Eker, S. McCabe, G. J. Pert, and E. Wolfrum, “Saturation behavior of two x-ray lasing transitions in Ni-like Dy,” Phys. Rev. A 59, R47–R50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnürer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778–4783 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zolfrum, E.

C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, A. G. MacPhee, B. Moore, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. Dobosz, J. Peschete, F. Strati, J. S. Wark, E. Zolfrum, G. J. Pert, S. P. MacCabe, P. A. Simms, R. Allott, J. Collier, C. N. Danson, A. Djaoui, and D. Neely, “Progress with saturated soft X-ray lasers pumped by the Vulcan laser,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE 3776, 292–301 (1999).
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J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, R. Clarke, J. Collier, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, and F. Bortolotto, “Temporal resolution of a transient pumping x-ray laser,” Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, eds., J. Phys. IV France 11, 43–46 (2001).
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Phys. Rev. A (12)

A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, R. Smith, G. Jamelot, R. Schott, C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Keenan, S. J. Topping, C. L. S. Lewis, F. Strati, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, R. Clarke, J. Collier, A. G. MacPhee, F. Bortolotto, P. Nickles, and K. A. Janulewicz, “Demonstration of a 2-ps transient x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 033810 (2002).
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B. Rus, A. Carillon, P. Dhez, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, M. Nantel, and P. Zeitoun, “Efficient, high-brightness soft-x-ray laser at 21.2 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3858–3873 (1997).
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T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neonlike titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6966 (1990).
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[CrossRef]

S. Sebban, H. Daido, N. Sakaya, Y. Kato, K. Murai, H. Tang, Y. Gu, G. Huang, S. Wang, A. Klisnick, P. Zeitoun, F. Koike, and H. Takenaka, “Full characterization of a high-gain saturated x-ray laser at 13.9 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 043810 (2000).
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J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, J.-L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, and J.-F. Wyart, “Two color transient pumping in Ni-like silver at 13.9 and 16.1 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 043808 (2000).
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M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnürer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778–4783 (1998).
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R. Tommasini and E. Fill, “Excitation velocity and group velocity mismatch in amplified spontaneous emission lasers: a discussion on the transient gain X-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 034701 (2000).
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F. Strati and G. J. Tallents, “Analytical modeling of group-velocity effects in saturated soft-X-ray lasers pumped with a picosecond traveling-wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013807 (2001).
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J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, Jr., V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. Filevich, J. J. G. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, H. Fiedorowicz, and A. Bartnik, “Recent x-ray laser experiments on the COMET facility,” in Soft X-rays and Applications IV, E. E. Fill and J. J. Rocca, eds., Proc. SPIE 4505, 62–72 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Fill, Y. Li, G. Pretzler, D. Schlögl, J. Steingruber, and J. Nilsen, “Investigation of lasing on the J=0–1 line of neon-like ions using the prepulse technique,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications, J. J. Rocca and P. L. Hagelstein, eds., Proc. SPIE 2520, 134–144 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen and J. Dunn, “Modeling of short-pulse-driven nickel-like X-ray lasers and recent experiments,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications IV, E. E. Fill and J. J. Rocca, eds., Proc. SPIE 4505, 100–106 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, L. Bonnet, S. Jacquemot, A. Klisnick, J. Kuba, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, F. Dorchies, and J. C. Chanteloup, “Transient collisional x-ray laser experiments on P102 laser at CEA-LV,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications III, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., . Proc. SPIE 3776, 24–36 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Co⁁té, J. C. Kieffer, P. Gallant, J. C. Rebuffie, C. Goulmy, A. Maksimchuk, G. Mourou, D. Kaplan, and M. Bouvier, “Development of a subpicosecond large-dynamic-range x-ray streak camera,” 22nd International Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics, D. L. Paisley, ed., Proc. SPIE 2869, 956–961 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. L. S. Lewis, R. Keenan, A. G. MacPhee, B. Moore, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Tallents, S. Dobosz, J. Peschete, F. Strati, J. S. Wark, E. Zolfrum, G. J. Pert, S. P. MacCabe, P. A. Simms, R. Allott, J. Collier, C. N. Danson, A. Djaoui, and D. Neely, “Progress with saturated soft X-ray lasers pumped by the Vulcan laser,” in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE 3776, 292–301 (1999).
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Science (1)

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. V. Afanasiev and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Formation of a population inversion of transitions in Ne-like ions in steady-state and transient plasmas,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1606–1612 (1989) [Kvant. Elektron (Moscow) 16, 2499–2509 (1989)].
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Other (6)

Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, G. Jamelot, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, J. Phys. IV 11 (2001).

H. Griem, Plasma Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1964).

L. Spitzer, Physics of Fully Ionized Gases (Interscience, New York, 1962).

J. Kuba, “Experimental and theoretical study of x-ray lasers pumped by an ultra-short laser pulse: transient pumping of Ni-like Ag ions,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université Paris XI, France, and Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic, 2001).

D. Benredjem, J. Kuba, R. Smith, G. J. Pert, A. Klisnick, and C. Möller, “Modeling of Ni-like silver XRL: treatment of saturation and refraction,” Eighth International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, Aspen, Colorado, May 27–31, 2002 (invited paper—to be published also in proceedings).

I. I. Sobelman, Atomic Spectra and Radiative Transitions, 2nd ed. (Springer Verlag, New York, 1993).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Local gain on the 4d 1S01P1 4p lasing transition as a function of time and distance away from target surface. The peak of the 1.3-ps FWHM CPA pump pulse occurs at 0.65 ps. The maximum gain zone is very restricted both in time and space. The plot depicts the gain contour lines of 50 cm-1, 100 cm-1 and further consecutive steps of 100 cm-1.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temporal evolution of the free electron density as a function of time and distance away from the target surface. High gain peak predicted in Fig. 1 is shown to reside ∼15 μm from the target where steep density gradients and the associated refractive effects would prohibit extensive sampling by the x-ray laser beam.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Heating of the supercritical densities to temperatures as high as 1.8 keV is predicted during the main heating pulse. These greater-than-1-keV temperatures coexist spatially and temporally with the gain spike shown in Fig. 1. The temperature gradients are similar to those observed for the gain, with quick dissipation from a small intense region into a larger more uniform plateau with temperatures below 500 eV.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temporally resolved average ionization within each of the 98 Lagrangian cells expanding away from the target surface.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The ratios of nickellike, copperlike, cobaltlike ion stages (i.e., 19-, 18-, and 20-times-ionized silver ions) at 7 μm from the target as calculated by the EHYBRID code at optimum conditions defined during the RAL 2000 experiment. The temporal peak of the gain appears clearly before the maximum of nickellike ions.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Maximum bremsstrahlung emission appears clearly after the peak of the gain (Fig. 1)—as observed during the RAL experiment 16,17—driven by a high electron density in the later times after the gain peak. Bremsstrahlung emission (in arbitrary units corresponding to the energy per unit volume and unit time in a small wavelength interval at ∼13.9 nm) developed in each space-time cell as it was calculated from the EHYBRID results.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Bremsstrahlung emission energy in a small wavelength interval at ∼13.9 nm integrated over horizontal angle at the exit from the plasma as calculated for the RAL 2000 experimental conditions.

Equations (1)

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Q(ω)dωZ2neniTe-1/2exp(-ω/kTe)dω,

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