Abstract

We report recent investigations of optical field ionization soft-x-ray lasers. We generated the amplifying medium by focusing a circularly polarized 760-mJ, 30-fs 10-Hz Ti:sapphire laser system into a gas cell a few millimeters long filled with xenon or krypton gas. A gain of 67 cm-1 on the 4d95p4d95d transition at 41.8 nm in Pd-like xenon and a gain–length product of 15 have been inferred at saturation. This source delivers 5×109 photons per pulse. More recently we demonstrated lasing at 32.8 nm in Ni-like krypton. The influence of the pumping energy and the laser polarization on the lasing output as well as on the far-field pattern of the x-ray laser beam are reported and discussed.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, Ch. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Schnürer, Z. Cheng, M. Hentschel, G. Tempea, P. Kálmán, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Absorption-limited generation of coherent ultrashort soft-x-ray pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 722–725 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. Kazamias, F. Weihe, D. Douillet, C. Valentin, T. Planchon, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, F. Augé, D. Hulin, and Ph. Bal-cou, “High order harmonic generation optimization with an apertured laser beam,” Euro. Phys. J. (to be published).
  23. F. Dorchies, J. R. Marquès, B. Cros, G. Matthieussent, C. Courtois, T. Vélikoroussov, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, S. Rebibo, G. Hamoniaux, and F. Amiranoff, “Monomode guiding of 1016 W/cm2 laser pulses over 100 Rayleigh lengths in hollow capillary dielectric tubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4655–4658 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. Kaganovich, A. Ting, C. I. Moore, A. Zigler, H. R. Burris, Y. Ehrlich, R. Hubbard, and P. Sprangle, “High efficiency guiding of terawatt subpicosecond laser pulses in a capillary discharge plasma channel,” Phys. Rev. E 59, R4769–R4772 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Pittman, S. Ferré, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, J. P. Chambaret, and G. Chériaux, “Design and characterization of a near diffraction limited femtosecond 100 TW–10 Hz high intensity laser system,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 529–535 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

G. J. Pert, “The calculation of the electron distribution function following tunnelling ionisation using a Fokker–Planck method,” J. Phys. B 34, 881–908 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Sebban, R. Haroutunian, Ph. Balcou, G. Grillon, A. Rousse, S. Kazamias, T. Marin, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, M. Pittman, J. P. Chambaret, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, and J. F. Wyart, “Saturated amplification of a collisionally pumped optical field ionization soft x-ray laser at 41.8 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3004–3007 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (4)

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, Ch. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnürer, Z. Cheng, M. Hentschel, G. Tempea, P. Kálmán, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Absorption-limited generation of coherent ultrashort soft-x-ray pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 722–725 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Dorchies, J. R. Marquès, B. Cros, G. Matthieussent, C. Courtois, T. Vélikoroussov, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, S. Rebibo, G. Hamoniaux, and F. Amiranoff, “Monomode guiding of 1016 W/cm2 laser pulses over 100 Rayleigh lengths in hollow capillary dielectric tubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4655–4658 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Kaganovich, A. Ting, C. I. Moore, A. Zigler, H. R. Burris, Y. Ehrlich, R. Hubbard, and P. Sprangle, “High efficiency guiding of terawatt subpicosecond laser pulses in a capillary discharge plasma channel,” Phys. Rev. E 59, R4769–R4772 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. Egbert, D. M. Simanovskii, B. N. Chichkov, and B. Wellegehausen, “Optically field-ionized He plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 6761–6772 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

D. V. Korobkin, C. H. Nam, S. Suckewer, and A. Goltsov, “Demonstration of soft x-ray lasing to ground state in Li III,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5206–5209 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Decker, D. C. Eder, and R. A. London, “Ionization-induced refraction in recombination x-ray lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 414–419 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

Y. Nagata, K. Midorikawa, S. Kubodera, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, K. Toyoda, and Y. Kato, “Production of an extremely cold plasma by optical-field-induced ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 1415–1418 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Fill, S. Borgström, J. Larsson, T. Starczewski, C. G. Wahlström, and S. Svanberg, “XUV spectra of optical-field-ionized plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 51, 6016–6027 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Lemoff, C. L. Gordon III, C. P. J. Barty, and S. E. Harris, “Demonstration of a 10-Hz femtosecond-pulse-driven XUV laser at 41.8 nm in Xe IX,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1574–1577 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1993 (2)

S. C. Rae, “Ionisation induced defocusing of intense laser pulses in high-pressure gases,” Opt. Commun. 97, 25–28 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nagata, K. Midorikawa, S. Kubodera, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Totada, “Soft-x-ray amplification of the Lyman alpha transition by optical-field-induced ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3774–3777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

G. J. Pert, “Models of collisional-radiative recombination,” J. Phys. B 23, 619–650 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and F. Brunel, “Above threshold ionization in the long-wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1259–1262 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agostini, P.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, Ch. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Amiranoff, F.

F. Dorchies, J. R. Marquès, B. Cros, G. Matthieussent, C. Courtois, T. Vélikoroussov, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, S. Rebibo, G. Hamoniaux, and F. Amiranoff, “Monomode guiding of 1016 W/cm2 laser pulses over 100 Rayleigh lengths in hollow capillary dielectric tubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4655–4658 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Antonetti, A.

S. Sebban, R. Haroutunian, Ph. Balcou, G. Grillon, A. Rousse, S. Kazamias, T. Marin, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, M. Pittman, J. P. Chambaret, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, and J. F. Wyart, “Saturated amplification of a collisionally pumped optical field ionization soft x-ray laser at 41.8 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3004–3007 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Audebert, P.

F. Dorchies, J. R. Marquès, B. Cros, G. Matthieussent, C. Courtois, T. Vélikoroussov, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, S. Rebibo, G. Hamoniaux, and F. Amiranoff, “Monomode guiding of 1016 W/cm2 laser pulses over 100 Rayleigh lengths in hollow capillary dielectric tubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4655–4658 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Balcou, Ph.

S. Sebban, R. Haroutunian, Ph. Balcou, G. Grillon, A. Rousse, S. Kazamias, T. Marin, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, M. Pittman, J. P. Chambaret, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, and J. F. Wyart, “Saturated amplification of a collisionally pumped optical field ionization soft x-ray laser at 41.8 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3004–3007 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barty, C. P. J.

B. E. Lemoff, C. L. Gordon III, C. P. J. Barty, and S. E. Harris, “Demonstration of a 10-Hz femtosecond-pulse-driven XUV laser at 41.8 nm in Xe IX,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1574–1577 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Lemoff, C. P. J. Barty, and S. E. Harris, “Femtosecond-pulse-driven, electron excited XUV lasers in eight-times ionized noble gas,” Opt. Lett. 19, 569–571 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borgström, S.

E. Fill, S. Borgström, J. Larsson, T. Starczewski, C. G. Wahlström, and S. Svanberg, “XUV spectra of optical-field-ionized plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 51, 6016–6027 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, T.

M. Schnürer, Z. Cheng, M. Hentschel, G. Tempea, P. Kálmán, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Absorption-limited generation of coherent ultrashort soft-x-ray pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 722–725 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Breger, P.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, Ch. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brunel, F.

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and F. Brunel, “Above threshold ionization in the long-wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1259–1262 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burnett, N. H.

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and F. Brunel, “Above threshold ionization in the long-wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1259–1262 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burris, H. R.

D. Kaganovich, A. Ting, C. I. Moore, A. Zigler, H. R. Burris, Y. Ehrlich, R. Hubbard, and P. Sprangle, “High efficiency guiding of terawatt subpicosecond laser pulses in a capillary discharge plasma channel,” Phys. Rev. E 59, R4769–R4772 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carillon, A.

S. Sebban, R. Haroutunian, Ph. Balcou, G. Grillon, A. Rousse, S. Kazamias, T. Marin, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, M. Pittman, J. P. Chambaret, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, and J. F. Wyart, “Saturated amplification of a collisionally pumped optical field ionization soft x-ray laser at 41.8 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3004–3007 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chambaret, J. P.

M. Pittman, S. Ferré, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, J. P. Chambaret, and G. Chériaux, “Design and characterization of a near diffraction limited femtosecond 100 TW–10 Hz high intensity laser system,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 529–535 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Sebban, R. Haroutunian, Ph. Balcou, G. Grillon, A. Rousse, S. Kazamias, T. Marin, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, M. Pittman, J. P. Chambaret, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, and J. F. Wyart, “Saturated amplification of a collisionally pumped optical field ionization soft x-ray laser at 41.8 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3004–3007 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Z.

M. Schnürer, Z. Cheng, M. Hentschel, G. Tempea, P. Kálmán, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Absorption-limited generation of coherent ultrashort soft-x-ray pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 722–725 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chériaux, G.

M. Pittman, S. Ferré, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, J. P. Chambaret, and G. Chériaux, “Design and characterization of a near diffraction limited femtosecond 100 TW–10 Hz high intensity laser system,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 529–535 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chichkov, B. N.

A. Egbert, D. M. Simanovskii, B. N. Chichkov, and B. Wellegehausen, “Optically field-ionized He plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 6761–6772 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Constant, E.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, Ch. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and F. Brunel, “Above threshold ionization in the long-wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1259–1262 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Courtois, C.

F. Dorchies, J. R. Marquès, B. Cros, G. Matthieussent, C. Courtois, T. Vélikoroussov, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, S. Rebibo, G. Hamoniaux, and F. Amiranoff, “Monomode guiding of 1016 W/cm2 laser pulses over 100 Rayleigh lengths in hollow capillary dielectric tubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4655–4658 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cros, B.

F. Dorchies, J. R. Marquès, B. Cros, G. Matthieussent, C. Courtois, T. Vélikoroussov, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, S. Rebibo, G. Hamoniaux, and F. Amiranoff, “Monomode guiding of 1016 W/cm2 laser pulses over 100 Rayleigh lengths in hollow capillary dielectric tubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4655–4658 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Decker, C.

C. Decker, D. C. Eder, and R. A. London, “Ionization-induced refraction in recombination x-ray lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 414–419 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dorchies, F.

F. Dorchies, J. R. Marquès, B. Cros, G. Matthieussent, C. Courtois, T. Vélikoroussov, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, S. Rebibo, G. Hamoniaux, and F. Amiranoff, “Monomode guiding of 1016 W/cm2 laser pulses over 100 Rayleigh lengths in hollow capillary dielectric tubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4655–4658 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dorrer, Ch.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, Ch. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eder, D. C.

C. Decker, D. C. Eder, and R. A. London, “Ionization-induced refraction in recombination x-ray lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 414–419 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Egbert, A.

A. Egbert, D. M. Simanovskii, B. N. Chichkov, and B. Wellegehausen, “Optically field-ionized He plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 6761–6772 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ehrlich, Y.

D. Kaganovich, A. Ting, C. I. Moore, A. Zigler, H. R. Burris, Y. Ehrlich, R. Hubbard, and P. Sprangle, “High efficiency guiding of terawatt subpicosecond laser pulses in a capillary discharge plasma channel,” Phys. Rev. E 59, R4769–R4772 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Epp, P. T.

Ferré, S.

M. Pittman, S. Ferré, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, J. P. Chambaret, and G. Chériaux, “Design and characterization of a near diffraction limited femtosecond 100 TW–10 Hz high intensity laser system,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 529–535 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fill, E.

E. Fill, S. Borgström, J. Larsson, T. Starczewski, C. G. Wahlström, and S. Svanberg, “XUV spectra of optical-field-ionized plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 51, 6016–6027 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Garzella, D.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, Ch. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Geindre, J. P.

F. Dorchies, J. R. Marquès, B. Cros, G. Matthieussent, C. Courtois, T. Vélikoroussov, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, S. Rebibo, G. Hamoniaux, and F. Amiranoff, “Monomode guiding of 1016 W/cm2 laser pulses over 100 Rayleigh lengths in hollow capillary dielectric tubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4655–4658 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goltsov, A.

D. V. Korobkin, C. H. Nam, S. Suckewer, and A. Goltsov, “Demonstration of soft x-ray lasing to ground state in Li III,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5206–5209 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon III, C. L.

B. E. Lemoff, C. L. Gordon III, C. P. J. Barty, and S. E. Harris, “Demonstration of a 10-Hz femtosecond-pulse-driven XUV laser at 41.8 nm in Xe IX,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1574–1577 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grillon, G.

S. Sebban, R. Haroutunian, Ph. Balcou, G. Grillon, A. Rousse, S. Kazamias, T. Marin, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, M. Pittman, J. P. Chambaret, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, and J. F. Wyart, “Saturated amplification of a collisionally pumped optical field ionization soft x-ray laser at 41.8 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3004–3007 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamoniaux, G.

F. Dorchies, J. R. Marquès, B. Cros, G. Matthieussent, C. Courtois, T. Vélikoroussov, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, S. Rebibo, G. Hamoniaux, and F. Amiranoff, “Monomode guiding of 1016 W/cm2 laser pulses over 100 Rayleigh lengths in hollow capillary dielectric tubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4655–4658 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Haroutunian, R.

S. Sebban, R. Haroutunian, Ph. Balcou, G. Grillon, A. Rousse, S. Kazamias, T. Marin, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, M. Pittman, J. P. Chambaret, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, and J. F. Wyart, “Saturated amplification of a collisionally pumped optical field ionization soft x-ray laser at 41.8 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3004–3007 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, S. E.

B. E. Lemoff, C. L. Gordon III, C. P. J. Barty, and S. E. Harris, “Demonstration of a 10-Hz femtosecond-pulse-driven XUV laser at 41.8 nm in Xe IX,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1574–1577 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Lemoff, C. P. J. Barty, and S. E. Harris, “Femtosecond-pulse-driven, electron excited XUV lasers in eight-times ionized noble gas,” Opt. Lett. 19, 569–571 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

M. Schnürer, Z. Cheng, M. Hentschel, G. Tempea, P. Kálmán, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Absorption-limited generation of coherent ultrashort soft-x-ray pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 722–725 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hooker, S. M.

Hubbard, R.

D. Kaganovich, A. Ting, C. I. Moore, A. Zigler, H. R. Burris, Y. Ehrlich, R. Hubbard, and P. Sprangle, “High efficiency guiding of terawatt subpicosecond laser pulses in a capillary discharge plasma channel,” Phys. Rev. E 59, R4769–R4772 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hulin, D.

S. Sebban, R. Haroutunian, Ph. Balcou, G. Grillon, A. Rousse, S. Kazamias, T. Marin, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, M. Pittman, J. P. Chambaret, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, and J. F. Wyart, “Saturated amplification of a collisionally pumped optical field ionization soft x-ray laser at 41.8 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3004–3007 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaeglé, P.

S. Sebban, R. Haroutunian, Ph. Balcou, G. Grillon, A. Rousse, S. Kazamias, T. Marin, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, M. Pittman, J. P. Chambaret, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, and J. F. Wyart, “Saturated amplification of a collisionally pumped optical field ionization soft x-ray laser at 41.8 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3004–3007 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jamelot, G.

S. Sebban, R. Haroutunian, Ph. Balcou, G. Grillon, A. Rousse, S. Kazamias, T. Marin, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, M. Pittman, J. P. Chambaret, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, and J. F. Wyart, “Saturated amplification of a collisionally pumped optical field ionization soft x-ray laser at 41.8 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3004–3007 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaganovich, D.

D. Kaganovich, A. Ting, C. I. Moore, A. Zigler, H. R. Burris, Y. Ehrlich, R. Hubbard, and P. Sprangle, “High efficiency guiding of terawatt subpicosecond laser pulses in a capillary discharge plasma channel,” Phys. Rev. E 59, R4769–R4772 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kálmán, P.

M. Schnürer, Z. Cheng, M. Hentschel, G. Tempea, P. Kálmán, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Absorption-limited generation of coherent ultrashort soft-x-ray pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 722–725 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kato, Y.

Y. Nagata, K. Midorikawa, S. Kubodera, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, K. Toyoda, and Y. Kato, “Production of an extremely cold plasma by optical-field-induced ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 1415–1418 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kazamias, S.

S. Sebban, R. Haroutunian, Ph. Balcou, G. Grillon, A. Rousse, S. Kazamias, T. Marin, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, M. Pittman, J. P. Chambaret, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, and J. F. Wyart, “Saturated amplification of a collisionally pumped optical field ionization soft x-ray laser at 41.8 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3004–3007 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klisnick, A.

S. Sebban, R. Haroutunian, Ph. Balcou, G. Grillon, A. Rousse, S. Kazamias, T. Marin, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, M. Pittman, J. P. Chambaret, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, and J. F. Wyart, “Saturated amplification of a collisionally pumped optical field ionization soft x-ray laser at 41.8 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3004–3007 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korobkin, D. V.

D. V. Korobkin, C. H. Nam, S. Suckewer, and A. Goltsov, “Demonstration of soft x-ray lasing to ground state in Li III,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5206–5209 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

M. Schnürer, Z. Cheng, M. Hentschel, G. Tempea, P. Kálmán, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Absorption-limited generation of coherent ultrashort soft-x-ray pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 722–725 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kubodera, S.

Y. Nagata, K. Midorikawa, S. Kubodera, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, K. Toyoda, and Y. Kato, “Production of an extremely cold plasma by optical-field-induced ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 1415–1418 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nagata, K. Midorikawa, S. Kubodera, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Totada, “Soft-x-ray amplification of the Lyman alpha transition by optical-field-induced ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3774–3777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larsson, J.

E. Fill, S. Borgström, J. Larsson, T. Starczewski, C. G. Wahlström, and S. Svanberg, “XUV spectra of optical-field-ionized plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 51, 6016–6027 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Le Blanc, C.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, Ch. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lemoff, B. E.

B. E. Lemoff, C. L. Gordon III, C. P. J. Barty, and S. E. Harris, “Demonstration of a 10-Hz femtosecond-pulse-driven XUV laser at 41.8 nm in Xe IX,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1574–1577 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Lemoff, C. P. J. Barty, and S. E. Harris, “Femtosecond-pulse-driven, electron excited XUV lasers in eight-times ionized noble gas,” Opt. Lett. 19, 569–571 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

London, R. A.

C. Decker, D. C. Eder, and R. A. London, “Ionization-induced refraction in recombination x-ray lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 414–419 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Marin, T.

S. Sebban, R. Haroutunian, Ph. Balcou, G. Grillon, A. Rousse, S. Kazamias, T. Marin, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, M. Pittman, J. P. Chambaret, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, and J. F. Wyart, “Saturated amplification of a collisionally pumped optical field ionization soft x-ray laser at 41.8 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3004–3007 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marquès, J. R.

F. Dorchies, J. R. Marquès, B. Cros, G. Matthieussent, C. Courtois, T. Vélikoroussov, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, S. Rebibo, G. Hamoniaux, and F. Amiranoff, “Monomode guiding of 1016 W/cm2 laser pulses over 100 Rayleigh lengths in hollow capillary dielectric tubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4655–4658 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Matthieussent, G.

F. Dorchies, J. R. Marquès, B. Cros, G. Matthieussent, C. Courtois, T. Vélikoroussov, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, S. Rebibo, G. Hamoniaux, and F. Amiranoff, “Monomode guiding of 1016 W/cm2 laser pulses over 100 Rayleigh lengths in hollow capillary dielectric tubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4655–4658 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mével, E.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, Ch. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Midorikawa, K.

Y. Nagata, K. Midorikawa, S. Kubodera, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, K. Toyoda, and Y. Kato, “Production of an extremely cold plasma by optical-field-induced ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 1415–1418 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nagata, K. Midorikawa, S. Kubodera, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Totada, “Soft-x-ray amplification of the Lyman alpha transition by optical-field-induced ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3774–3777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, C. I.

D. Kaganovich, A. Ting, C. I. Moore, A. Zigler, H. R. Burris, Y. Ehrlich, R. Hubbard, and P. Sprangle, “High efficiency guiding of terawatt subpicosecond laser pulses in a capillary discharge plasma channel,” Phys. Rev. E 59, R4769–R4772 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nagata, Y.

Y. Nagata, K. Midorikawa, S. Kubodera, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, K. Toyoda, and Y. Kato, “Production of an extremely cold plasma by optical-field-induced ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 1415–1418 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nagata, K. Midorikawa, S. Kubodera, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Totada, “Soft-x-ray amplification of the Lyman alpha transition by optical-field-induced ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3774–3777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nam, C. H.

D. V. Korobkin, C. H. Nam, S. Suckewer, and A. Goltsov, “Demonstration of soft x-ray lasing to ground state in Li III,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5206–5209 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Notebaert, L.

M. Pittman, S. Ferré, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, J. P. Chambaret, and G. Chériaux, “Design and characterization of a near diffraction limited femtosecond 100 TW–10 Hz high intensity laser system,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 529–535 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Sebban, R. Haroutunian, Ph. Balcou, G. Grillon, A. Rousse, S. Kazamias, T. Marin, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, M. Pittman, J. P. Chambaret, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, and J. F. Wyart, “Saturated amplification of a collisionally pumped optical field ionization soft x-ray laser at 41.8 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3004–3007 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Obara, M.

Y. Nagata, K. Midorikawa, S. Kubodera, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, K. Toyoda, and Y. Kato, “Production of an extremely cold plasma by optical-field-induced ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 1415–1418 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nagata, K. Midorikawa, S. Kubodera, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Totada, “Soft-x-ray amplification of the Lyman alpha transition by optical-field-induced ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3774–3777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pert, G. J.

G. J. Pert, “The calculation of the electron distribution function following tunnelling ionisation using a Fokker–Planck method,” J. Phys. B 34, 881–908 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Pert, “Models of collisional-radiative recombination,” J. Phys. B 23, 619–650 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pittman, M.

M. Pittman, S. Ferré, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, J. P. Chambaret, and G. Chériaux, “Design and characterization of a near diffraction limited femtosecond 100 TW–10 Hz high intensity laser system,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 529–535 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Sebban, R. Haroutunian, Ph. Balcou, G. Grillon, A. Rousse, S. Kazamias, T. Marin, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, M. Pittman, J. P. Chambaret, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, and J. F. Wyart, “Saturated amplification of a collisionally pumped optical field ionization soft x-ray laser at 41.8 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3004–3007 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rae, S. C.

S. C. Rae, “Ionisation induced defocusing of intense laser pulses in high-pressure gases,” Opt. Commun. 97, 25–28 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rebibo, S.

F. Dorchies, J. R. Marquès, B. Cros, G. Matthieussent, C. Courtois, T. Vélikoroussov, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, S. Rebibo, G. Hamoniaux, and F. Amiranoff, “Monomode guiding of 1016 W/cm2 laser pulses over 100 Rayleigh lengths in hollow capillary dielectric tubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4655–4658 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ros, D.

S. Sebban, R. Haroutunian, Ph. Balcou, G. Grillon, A. Rousse, S. Kazamias, T. Marin, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, M. Pittman, J. P. Chambaret, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, and J. F. Wyart, “Saturated amplification of a collisionally pumped optical field ionization soft x-ray laser at 41.8 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3004–3007 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rousse, A.

S. Sebban, R. Haroutunian, Ph. Balcou, G. Grillon, A. Rousse, S. Kazamias, T. Marin, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, M. Pittman, J. P. Chambaret, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, and J. F. Wyart, “Saturated amplification of a collisionally pumped optical field ionization soft x-ray laser at 41.8 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3004–3007 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rousseau, J. P.

M. Pittman, S. Ferré, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, J. P. Chambaret, and G. Chériaux, “Design and characterization of a near diffraction limited femtosecond 100 TW–10 Hz high intensity laser system,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 529–535 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Sebban, R. Haroutunian, Ph. Balcou, G. Grillon, A. Rousse, S. Kazamias, T. Marin, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, M. Pittman, J. P. Chambaret, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, and J. F. Wyart, “Saturated amplification of a collisionally pumped optical field ionization soft x-ray laser at 41.8 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3004–3007 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salin, F.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, Ch. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schnürer, M.

M. Schnürer, Z. Cheng, M. Hentschel, G. Tempea, P. Kálmán, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Absorption-limited generation of coherent ultrashort soft-x-ray pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 722–725 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sebban, S.

S. Sebban, R. Haroutunian, Ph. Balcou, G. Grillon, A. Rousse, S. Kazamias, T. Marin, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, M. Pittman, J. P. Chambaret, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, and J. F. Wyart, “Saturated amplification of a collisionally pumped optical field ionization soft x-ray laser at 41.8 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3004–3007 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simanovskii, D. M.

A. Egbert, D. M. Simanovskii, B. N. Chichkov, and B. Wellegehausen, “Optically field-ionized He plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 6761–6772 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sprangle, P.

D. Kaganovich, A. Ting, C. I. Moore, A. Zigler, H. R. Burris, Y. Ehrlich, R. Hubbard, and P. Sprangle, “High efficiency guiding of terawatt subpicosecond laser pulses in a capillary discharge plasma channel,” Phys. Rev. E 59, R4769–R4772 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Starczewski, T.

E. Fill, S. Borgström, J. Larsson, T. Starczewski, C. G. Wahlström, and S. Svanberg, “XUV spectra of optical-field-ionized plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 51, 6016–6027 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Suckewer, S.

D. V. Korobkin, C. H. Nam, S. Suckewer, and A. Goltsov, “Demonstration of soft x-ray lasing to ground state in Li III,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5206–5209 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svanberg, S.

E. Fill, S. Borgström, J. Larsson, T. Starczewski, C. G. Wahlström, and S. Svanberg, “XUV spectra of optical-field-ionized plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 51, 6016–6027 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tashiro, H.

Y. Nagata, K. Midorikawa, S. Kubodera, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, K. Toyoda, and Y. Kato, “Production of an extremely cold plasma by optical-field-induced ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 1415–1418 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nagata, K. Midorikawa, S. Kubodera, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Totada, “Soft-x-ray amplification of the Lyman alpha transition by optical-field-induced ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3774–3777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tempea, G.

M. Schnürer, Z. Cheng, M. Hentschel, G. Tempea, P. Kálmán, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Absorption-limited generation of coherent ultrashort soft-x-ray pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 722–725 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ting, A.

D. Kaganovich, A. Ting, C. I. Moore, A. Zigler, H. R. Burris, Y. Ehrlich, R. Hubbard, and P. Sprangle, “High efficiency guiding of terawatt subpicosecond laser pulses in a capillary discharge plasma channel,” Phys. Rev. E 59, R4769–R4772 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Totada, K.

Y. Nagata, K. Midorikawa, S. Kubodera, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Totada, “Soft-x-ray amplification of the Lyman alpha transition by optical-field-induced ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3774–3777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toyoda, K.

Y. Nagata, K. Midorikawa, S. Kubodera, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, K. Toyoda, and Y. Kato, “Production of an extremely cold plasma by optical-field-induced ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 1415–1418 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vélikoroussov, T.

F. Dorchies, J. R. Marquès, B. Cros, G. Matthieussent, C. Courtois, T. Vélikoroussov, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, S. Rebibo, G. Hamoniaux, and F. Amiranoff, “Monomode guiding of 1016 W/cm2 laser pulses over 100 Rayleigh lengths in hollow capillary dielectric tubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4655–4658 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wahlström, C. G.

E. Fill, S. Borgström, J. Larsson, T. Starczewski, C. G. Wahlström, and S. Svanberg, “XUV spectra of optical-field-ionized plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 51, 6016–6027 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wellegehausen, B.

A. Egbert, D. M. Simanovskii, B. N. Chichkov, and B. Wellegehausen, “Optically field-ionized He plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 6761–6772 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wyart, J. F.

S. Sebban, R. Haroutunian, Ph. Balcou, G. Grillon, A. Rousse, S. Kazamias, T. Marin, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, M. Pittman, J. P. Chambaret, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, and J. F. Wyart, “Saturated amplification of a collisionally pumped optical field ionization soft x-ray laser at 41.8 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3004–3007 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, G. Y.

Zigler, A.

D. Kaganovich, A. Ting, C. I. Moore, A. Zigler, H. R. Burris, Y. Ehrlich, R. Hubbard, and P. Sprangle, “High efficiency guiding of terawatt subpicosecond laser pulses in a capillary discharge plasma channel,” Phys. Rev. E 59, R4769–R4772 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Pittman, S. Ferré, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, J. P. Chambaret, and G. Chériaux, “Design and characterization of a near diffraction limited femtosecond 100 TW–10 Hz high intensity laser system,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 529–535 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. B (2)

G. J. Pert, “The calculation of the electron distribution function following tunnelling ionisation using a Fokker–Planck method,” J. Phys. B 34, 881–908 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Pert, “Models of collisional-radiative recombination,” J. Phys. B 23, 619–650 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. C. Rae, “Ionisation induced defocusing of intense laser pulses in high-pressure gases,” Opt. Commun. 97, 25–28 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Plasmas (1)

C. Decker, D. C. Eder, and R. A. London, “Ionization-induced refraction in recombination x-ray lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 414–419 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

Y. Nagata, K. Midorikawa, S. Kubodera, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, K. Toyoda, and Y. Kato, “Production of an extremely cold plasma by optical-field-induced ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 1415–1418 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E (3)

A. Egbert, D. M. Simanovskii, B. N. Chichkov, and B. Wellegehausen, “Optically field-ionized He plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 6761–6772 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Fill, S. Borgström, J. Larsson, T. Starczewski, C. G. Wahlström, and S. Svanberg, “XUV spectra of optical-field-ionized plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 51, 6016–6027 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Kaganovich, A. Ting, C. I. Moore, A. Zigler, H. R. Burris, Y. Ehrlich, R. Hubbard, and P. Sprangle, “High efficiency guiding of terawatt subpicosecond laser pulses in a capillary discharge plasma channel,” Phys. Rev. E 59, R4769–R4772 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (8)

F. Dorchies, J. R. Marquès, B. Cros, G. Matthieussent, C. Courtois, T. Vélikoroussov, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, S. Rebibo, G. Hamoniaux, and F. Amiranoff, “Monomode guiding of 1016 W/cm2 laser pulses over 100 Rayleigh lengths in hollow capillary dielectric tubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4655–4658 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, Ch. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnürer, Z. Cheng, M. Hentschel, G. Tempea, P. Kálmán, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Absorption-limited generation of coherent ultrashort soft-x-ray pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 722–725 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Lemoff, C. L. Gordon III, C. P. J. Barty, and S. E. Harris, “Demonstration of a 10-Hz femtosecond-pulse-driven XUV laser at 41.8 nm in Xe IX,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1574–1577 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sebban, R. Haroutunian, Ph. Balcou, G. Grillon, A. Rousse, S. Kazamias, T. Marin, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, M. Pittman, J. P. Chambaret, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, and J. F. Wyart, “Saturated amplification of a collisionally pumped optical field ionization soft x-ray laser at 41.8 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3004–3007 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and F. Brunel, “Above threshold ionization in the long-wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1259–1262 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nagata, K. Midorikawa, S. Kubodera, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Totada, “Soft-x-ray amplification of the Lyman alpha transition by optical-field-induced ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3774–3777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Korobkin, C. H. Nam, S. Suckewer, and A. Goltsov, “Demonstration of soft x-ray lasing to ground state in Li III,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5206–5209 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

P. B. Corkum and N. H. Burnett, “Multiphoton ionization for the production of x-ray laser plasmas,” in Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation, R. W. Falcone and J. Kirtz, eds., Vol. 2 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 225–232.

S. Sebban, T. Mocek, D. Ros, L. M. Upcraft, Ph. Balcou, R. Haroutunian, G. Grillon, B. Rus, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, G. Jamelot, C. Valentin, A. Rousse, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, M. Pittman, and D. Hulin, “Demonstration of a Ni-like Kr optical-field-ionization collisional soft x-ray laser at 32.8 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. (to be published).

L. M. Upcraft, “Modelling collisionally pumped x-ray lasers in optical field ionised noble gases,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of York, York, UK, 2002).

S. Kazamias, F. Weihe, D. Douillet, C. Valentin, T. Planchon, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, F. Augé, D. Hulin, and Ph. Bal-cou, “High order harmonic generation optimization with an apertured laser beam,” Euro. Phys. J. (to be published).

R. D. Cowan, The Theory of Atomic Structure and Spectra (U. California Press, Berkeley, Calif., 1981).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calculations of the plasma state for xenon and krypton for the conditions indicated. Contour lines denote regions of subsequent stages of ionization. The shaded region in each figure is that of the eight-times-ionized lasing stage.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated electron energy distributions (Distrb. fn.) for xenon and krypton by OFI at the end of a 30-fs pulse. Heavier curves, those that result from OFI, IB, and collisional relaxation effects. Lighter curves, equivalent thermal Maxwell–Boltzmann distributions of the same mean energy, 350 eV for xenon and 720 eV for krypton.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated temporal evolution of the gain coefficient for the xenon (15 Torr) and the krypton (20 Torr) lasers at an axial position in the center of the region of the lasant ions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic description of the experimental setup.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Time-integrated spectra of the xenon and krypton plasmas.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Normalized output intensities of the 41.8- and 32.8-nm lasing lines shown as functions of gas pressure.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Lasing output of the 32.8- and 41.8-nm lasers as a function of driving laser energy.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

5d5p xenon x-ray laser signal as a function of driving laser intensity for several laser energies scaled from 120 to 760 mJ.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Output intensities of (a) the 41.8- and (b) the 32.8-nm lasing lines shown as a function of gas cell length.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Far-field pattern for the Xe laser at three gas pressures: (a) 5, (b) 10, and (c) 15 Torr.

Equations (2)

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I(z+dz)=I(z)exp(gdz)+J0[exp(gdz)-1]g,
g(z)=G01+I(z)/Isat,

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