Abstract

At the Compact Multipulse Terawatt laser facility we produced saturated output on the Ni-like Pd x-ray laser line at 14.7 nm, using a 2-J, 600-ps prepulse followed 700 ps later by a 6-J, 6-ps drive pulse to illuminate a 1.25-cm-long Pd slab target. We used the LASNEX code to calculate the hydrodynamic evolution of the plasma and provide the temperatures and densities to the CRETIN code, which then made the kinetics calculations to determine the gain. Experimental measurements of the two-dimensional near-field and far-field images are presented, and these are compared with the simulations.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, and J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. C. Moreno, J. Nilsen, and L. B. da Silva, “Traveling wave excitation and amplification of neon-like germanium 3p–3s transitions,” Opt. Commun. 110, 585–589 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnuerer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748–2751 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Nilsen, Y. L. Li, and J. Dunn, “Modeling picosecond-laser-driven neonlike titanium x-ray laser experiments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1084–1092 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnürer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778–4783 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Tommasini, F. Löwenthal, and J. E. Balmer, “Saturation in a Ni-like Pd soft-x-ray laser at 14.7 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1577–1581 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Dunn, Y. Li, A. L. Osterheld, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Gain saturation regime for laser-driven tabletop, transient Ni-like ion x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4834–4837 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. L. Li, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, T. W. Barbee, Jr., A. L. Osterheld, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Saturated tabletop x-ray laser system at 19 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1098–1101 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheld, Y. L. Li, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Demonstration of transient gain x-ray lasers near 20 nm for nickellike yttrium, zirconium, niobium, and molybdenum,” Opt. Lett. 24, 101–103 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. L. Li, J. Nilsen, J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, A. Ryabtsev, and S. Churilov, “Wavelengths of the Ni-like 4d 1S0→ 4p 1P1 x-ray laser line,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R2668–2671 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. B. Zimmerman and W. L. Kruer, “Numerical simulation of laser-initiated fusion,” Comments Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 2, 51–61 (1975).
  12. H. A. Scott, “Cretin—a radiative transfer capability for laboratory plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 71, 689–701 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Nilsen, J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, and Y. L. Li, “Lasing on the self photopumped nickellike 4f 1P1→4d 1P1 x-ray transition,” Phys. Rev. A 60, R2677–2680 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, J. L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, and J. F. Wyart, “Two-color transient pumping in Ni-like silver at 13.9 and 16.1 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 043808 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2001

H. A. Scott, “Cretin—a radiative transfer capability for laboratory plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 71, 689–701 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, J. L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, and J. F. Wyart, “Two-color transient pumping in Ni-like silver at 13.9 and 16.1 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 043808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen, Y. L. Li, and J. Dunn, “Modeling picosecond-laser-driven neonlike titanium x-ray laser experiments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1084–1092 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Dunn, Y. Li, A. L. Osterheld, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Gain saturation regime for laser-driven tabletop, transient Ni-like ion x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4834–4837 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Li, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, T. W. Barbee, Jr., A. L. Osterheld, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Saturated tabletop x-ray laser system at 19 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1098–1101 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheld, Y. L. Li, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Demonstration of transient gain x-ray lasers near 20 nm for nickellike yttrium, zirconium, niobium, and molybdenum,” Opt. Lett. 24, 101–103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen, J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, and Y. L. Li, “Lasing on the self photopumped nickellike 4f 1P1→4d 1P1 x-ray transition,” Phys. Rev. A 60, R2677–2680 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Tommasini, F. Löwenthal, and J. E. Balmer, “Saturation in a Ni-like Pd soft-x-ray laser at 14.7 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1577–1581 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

Y. L. Li, J. Nilsen, J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, A. Ryabtsev, and S. Churilov, “Wavelengths of the Ni-like 4d 1S0→ 4p 1P1 x-ray laser line,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R2668–2671 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnürer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778–4783 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnuerer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748–2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. C. Moreno, J. Nilsen, and L. B. da Silva, “Traveling wave excitation and amplification of neon-like germanium 3p–3s transitions,” Opt. Commun. 110, 585–589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, and J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975

G. B. Zimmerman and W. L. Kruer, “Numerical simulation of laser-initiated fusion,” Comments Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 2, 51–61 (1975).

Balmer, J. E.

R. Tommasini, F. Löwenthal, and J. E. Balmer, “Saturation in a Ni-like Pd soft-x-ray laser at 14.7 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1577–1581 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barbee Jr., T. W.

Behjat, A.

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnürer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778–4783 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Blanchot, N.

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, J. L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, and J. F. Wyart, “Two-color transient pumping in Ni-like silver at 13.9 and 16.1 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 043808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Churilov, S.

Y. L. Li, J. Nilsen, J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, A. Ryabtsev, and S. Churilov, “Wavelengths of the Ni-like 4d 1S0→ 4p 1P1 x-ray laser line,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R2668–2671 (1998).
[CrossRef]

da Silva, L. B.

J. C. Moreno, J. Nilsen, and L. B. da Silva, “Traveling wave excitation and amplification of neon-like germanium 3p–3s transitions,” Opt. Commun. 110, 585–589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, and J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Danson, C.

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnürer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778–4783 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Demir, A.

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnürer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778–4783 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, J.

J. Dunn, Y. Li, A. L. Osterheld, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Gain saturation regime for laser-driven tabletop, transient Ni-like ion x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4834–4837 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nilsen, Y. L. Li, and J. Dunn, “Modeling picosecond-laser-driven neonlike titanium x-ray laser experiments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1084–1092 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Li, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, T. W. Barbee, Jr., A. L. Osterheld, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Saturated tabletop x-ray laser system at 19 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1098–1101 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheld, Y. L. Li, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Demonstration of transient gain x-ray lasers near 20 nm for nickellike yttrium, zirconium, niobium, and molybdenum,” Opt. Lett. 24, 101–103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen, J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, and Y. L. Li, “Lasing on the self photopumped nickellike 4f 1P1→4d 1P1 x-ray transition,” Phys. Rev. A 60, R2677–2680 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Li, J. Nilsen, J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, A. Ryabtsev, and S. Churilov, “Wavelengths of the Ni-like 4d 1S0→ 4p 1P1 x-ray laser line,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R2668–2671 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fourcade, P.

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, J. L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, and J. F. Wyart, “Two-color transient pumping in Ni-like silver at 13.9 and 16.1 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 043808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, J. R.

J. Dunn, Y. Li, A. L. Osterheld, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Gain saturation regime for laser-driven tabletop, transient Ni-like ion x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4834–4837 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jamelot, G.

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, J. L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, and J. F. Wyart, “Two-color transient pumping in Ni-like silver at 13.9 and 16.1 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 043808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kalachnikov, M.

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnuerer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748–2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kalachnikov, M. P.

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnürer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778–4783 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Klisnick, A.

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, J. L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, and J. F. Wyart, “Two-color transient pumping in Ni-like silver at 13.9 and 16.1 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 043808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kruer, W. L.

G. B. Zimmerman and W. L. Kruer, “Numerical simulation of laser-initiated fusion,” Comments Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 2, 51–61 (1975).

Kuba, J.

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, J. L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, and J. F. Wyart, “Two-color transient pumping in Ni-like silver at 13.9 and 16.1 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 043808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, C. L. S.

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnürer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778–4783 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

J. Dunn, Y. Li, A. L. Osterheld, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Gain saturation regime for laser-driven tabletop, transient Ni-like ion x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4834–4837 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y. L.

Löwenthal, F.

R. Tommasini, F. Löwenthal, and J. E. Balmer, “Saturation in a Ni-like Pd soft-x-ray laser at 14.7 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1577–1581 (1999).
[CrossRef]

MacGowan, B. J.

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, and J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miquel, J. L.

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, J. L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, and J. F. Wyart, “Two-color transient pumping in Ni-like silver at 13.9 and 16.1 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 043808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, J. C.

J. C. Moreno, J. Nilsen, and L. B. da Silva, “Traveling wave excitation and amplification of neon-like germanium 3p–3s transitions,” Opt. Commun. 110, 585–589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, and J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neely, D.

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnürer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778–4783 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nickles, P. V.

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnürer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778–4783 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnuerer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748–2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nilsen, J.

J. Nilsen, Y. L. Li, and J. Dunn, “Modeling picosecond-laser-driven neonlike titanium x-ray laser experiments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1084–1092 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Dunn, Y. Li, A. L. Osterheld, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Gain saturation regime for laser-driven tabletop, transient Ni-like ion x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4834–4837 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Li, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, T. W. Barbee, Jr., A. L. Osterheld, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Saturated tabletop x-ray laser system at 19 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1098–1101 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheld, Y. L. Li, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Demonstration of transient gain x-ray lasers near 20 nm for nickellike yttrium, zirconium, niobium, and molybdenum,” Opt. Lett. 24, 101–103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen, J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, and Y. L. Li, “Lasing on the self photopumped nickellike 4f 1P1→4d 1P1 x-ray transition,” Phys. Rev. A 60, R2677–2680 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Li, J. Nilsen, J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, A. Ryabtsev, and S. Churilov, “Wavelengths of the Ni-like 4d 1S0→ 4p 1P1 x-ray laser line,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R2668–2671 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Moreno, J. Nilsen, and L. B. da Silva, “Traveling wave excitation and amplification of neon-like germanium 3p–3s transitions,” Opt. Commun. 110, 585–589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, and J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osterheld, A. L.

J. Dunn, Y. Li, A. L. Osterheld, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Gain saturation regime for laser-driven tabletop, transient Ni-like ion x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4834–4837 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Li, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, T. W. Barbee, Jr., A. L. Osterheld, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Saturated tabletop x-ray laser system at 19 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1098–1101 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheld, Y. L. Li, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Demonstration of transient gain x-ray lasers near 20 nm for nickellike yttrium, zirconium, niobium, and molybdenum,” Opt. Lett. 24, 101–103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen, J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, and Y. L. Li, “Lasing on the self photopumped nickellike 4f 1P1→4d 1P1 x-ray transition,” Phys. Rev. A 60, R2677–2680 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Li, J. Nilsen, J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, A. Ryabtsev, and S. Churilov, “Wavelengths of the Ni-like 4d 1S0→ 4p 1P1 x-ray laser line,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R2668–2671 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ros, D.

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, J. L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, and J. F. Wyart, “Two-color transient pumping in Ni-like silver at 13.9 and 16.1 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 043808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ryabtsev, A.

Y. L. Li, J. Nilsen, J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, A. Ryabtsev, and S. Churilov, “Wavelengths of the Ni-like 4d 1S0→ 4p 1P1 x-ray laser line,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R2668–2671 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sandner, W.

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnürer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778–4783 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnuerer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748–2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schnuerer, M.

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnuerer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748–2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schnürer, M.

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnürer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778–4783 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Scott, H. A.

H. A. Scott, “Cretin—a radiative transfer capability for laboratory plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 71, 689–701 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shlyaptsev, V. N.

Y. L. Li, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, T. W. Barbee, Jr., A. L. Osterheld, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Saturated tabletop x-ray laser system at 19 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1098–1101 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Dunn, Y. Li, A. L. Osterheld, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Gain saturation regime for laser-driven tabletop, transient Ni-like ion x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4834–4837 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheld, Y. L. Li, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Demonstration of transient gain x-ray lasers near 20 nm for nickellike yttrium, zirconium, niobium, and molybdenum,” Opt. Lett. 24, 101–103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnürer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778–4783 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnuerer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748–2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tallents, G. J.

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnürer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778–4783 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tommasini, R.

R. Tommasini, F. Löwenthal, and J. E. Balmer, “Saturation in a Ni-like Pd soft-x-ray laser at 14.7 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1577–1581 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Warwick, P. J.

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnürer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778–4783 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Will, I.

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnuerer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748–2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnürer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778–4783 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnürer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778–4783 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnuerer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748–2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Far-field image of the Ni-like Pd 14.7-nm laser emission measured 130 cm from the end of the 1.25-cm-long Pd laser. The horizontal axis is the plasma expansion direction; the vertical direction is the direction parallel to the target surface.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Near-field spatial image of the Ni-like Pd 14.7-nm laser emission measured at the output aperture of the 1.25-cm-long Pd laser. The target surface is at zero on the horizontal axis, with the plasma expanding to the right. The vertical direction is the direction parallel to the target surface.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spatial and temporal evolution of the gain for the Ni-like Pd laser line at 14.7 nm. Contours represent gains greater than 200, 150, 100, and 50 cm-1, where the darkest contour shows gains greater than 200 cm-1. The short-pulse laser drive peaks at 6 ps on this time scale. The horizontal axis is the plasma expansion direction, with the target surface at 1 μm on this axis.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulation of the near-field laser distribution for the 14.7-nm Ni-like Pd laser line versus distance from the target surface in the plasma expansion direction for a 1.25-cm-long target. The horizontal axis is the plasma expansion direction, with the target surface at 1 μm on this axis. The peak intensity is normalized to unity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simulation of the far-field laser distribution for the 14.7-nm Ni-like Pd laser line versus angle in the plasma expansion direction for a 1.25-cm-long target. The peak intensity is normalized to unity.

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