Abstract

We apply the frequency-domain interferometry technique in the extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) range using high-order harmonics. The technique is first used to study the influence of ionization of the generating gas on the harmonic emission. We report a thorough study of the fringe contrast as a function of the generating parameters: gas pressure, laser intensity and focus position, harmonic order, delay, and relative intensity of the two laser pulses. We show that two phase-locked time-delayed harmonic pulses can be produced under optimal conditions. However, a strong distortion of the fringe pattern (low contrast and large asymmetry) can be induced by the deleterious effects of the medium ionization, i.e., depletion of the emitters, laser defocusing, and loss of mutual coherence that is due to free-electron dispersion. XUV frequency-domain interferometry is then applied to the measurement of the electron density of a plasma created by optical field-induced ionization of a high-pressure helium jet by use of an intense short-pulse laser. The measured temporal evolution of the electron density shows that the resolution of our experimental setup was of the order of 200 fs, which, to our knowledge, provides the first XUV interferometry measurement on a femtosecond time scale.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  33. M. Bellini, S. Cavalieri, C. Corsi, and M. Materazzi, “Phase-locked, time-delayed harmonic pulses for high spectral resolution in the extreme ultraviolet,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1010–1012 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  34. D. Descamps, C. Lyngå, J. Norin, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdji, P. Salières, M. Bellini, and T. W. Hänsch, “Extreme ultraviolet interferometry measurements with high-order harmonics,” Opt. Lett. 25, 135–137 (2000).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  40. J. R. Marquès, F. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, P. Chessa, and P. Mora, “Laser wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162–1177 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  41. P. Salières, Ph. Antoine, A. de Bohan, and M. Lewenstein, “Temporal and spectral tailoring of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5544–5547 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  42. Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, I. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Temporal phase control of soft-x-ray harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R30–R33 (1998).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2002 (1)

J.-F. Hergott, M. Kovacev, H. Merdji, C. Hubert, Y. Mairesse, E. Jean, P. Breger, P. Agostini, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Extreme-ultraviolet high-order harmonic pulses in the microjoule range,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 021801-1–021801-4 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (6)

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. B. Milosevic, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292, 902–905 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Bauer, C. Lei, K. Read, R. Tobey, J. Gland, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Direct observation of surface chemistry using ultrafast soft-x-ray pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 025501-1–025501-4 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, A. M. Mulhisen, E. R. Grant, X. Yang, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast time-resolved soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of dissociating Br2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 193002 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Bellini, S. Cavalieri, C. Corsi, and M. Materazzi, “Phase-locked, time-delayed harmonic pulses for high spectral resolution in the extreme ultraviolet,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1010–1012 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (6)

D. Descamps, C. Lyngå, J. Norin, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdji, P. Salières, M. Bellini, and T. W. Hänsch, “Extreme ultraviolet interferometry measurements with high-order harmonics,” Opt. Lett. 25, 135–137 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. L. Sorensen, O. Björneholm, I. Hjelte, T. Kihlgren, G. Öhrwall, S. Sundin, S. Svensson, S. Buil, D. Descamps, A. L’Huillier, J. Norin, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Femtosecond pump–probe photoelectron spectroscopy of predissociative Rydberg states in acetylene,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 8038–8042 (2000).
[Crossref]

F. Quéré, S. Guizard, Ph. Martin, G. Petite, H. Merdji, B. Carré, J-F. Hergott, and L. Le Déroff, “Hot-electron relaxation in quartz using high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 9883–9886 (2000).
[Crossref]

E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. Le Blanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, “Ponderomotive streaking of the ionization potential as a method for measuring pulse durations in the XUV domain with fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801-1–043802-4 (2000).
[Crossref]

L. Le Déroff, P. Salières, B. Carré, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, “Measurement of the degree of spatial coherence of high-order harmonics using a Fresnel-mirror interferometer,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 043802-1–043802-9 (2000).

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545–591 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (6)

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, Ph. Antoine, and M. Lewenstein, “Study of the spatial and temporal cohererence of high-order harmonics,” Adv. At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 41, 83–142 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. Joyeux, F. Polack, and D. Phalippou, “An interferometric determination of the refractive part of optical constants for carbon and silver across x-ray absorption edges,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2921–2926 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Gisselbrecht, D. Descamps, C. Lynga, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, and M. Meyer, “Absolute photoionization cross sections of excited He states in the near-threshold region,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4607–4610 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. J. Rocca, C. H. Moreno, M. C. Marconi, and K. Kanizay, “Soft-x-ray laser interferometry of a plasma with a tabletop laser and a Lloyd’s mirror,” Opt. Lett. 24, 420–422 (1999).
[Crossref]

F. Albert, Ph. Zeitoun, P. Jaeglé, D. Joyeux, M. Boussoukaya, A. Carillon, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, D. Phalippou, D. Ros, and A. Zeitoun-Fakiris, “Metal-surface mapping by means of soft-x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 11089–11094 (1999).
[Crossref]

P. Salières, L. Le Déroff, T. Auguste, P. Monot, P. d’Oliveira, D. Campo, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdji, and B. Carré, “Frequency-domain interferometry in the XUV with high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5483–5486 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (8)

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5-keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236–3239 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Bouhal, P. Salières, P. Breger, P. Agostini, G. Hamoniaux, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Antonetti, R. Constantinescu, and H. G. Muller, “Temporal dependence of high-order harmonics in the presence of strong ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 389–399 (1998).
[Crossref]

L. Le Déroff, P. Salières, and B. Carré, “Beam-quality measurement of a focused high-order harmonic beam,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1544–1546 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297–300 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. R. Marquès, F. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, P. Chessa, and P. Mora, “Laser wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162–1177 (1998).
[Crossref]

P. Salières, Ph. Antoine, A. de Bohan, and M. Lewenstein, “Temporal and spectral tailoring of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5544–5547 (1998).
[Crossref]

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, I. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Temporal phase control of soft-x-ray harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R30–R33 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. B. Gaarde, Ph. Antoine, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Macroscopic studies of short-pulse high-order harmonic generation using the time-dependent Schrödinger equation,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4553–4560 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (3)

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of coherent soft x-rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967–2970 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
[Crossref]

R. Zerne, C. Altucci, M. Bellini, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. Lyngå, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Phase-locked high-order harmonic sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1006–1009 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (5)

S. Guizard, P. Martin, G. Petite, P. D’Oliveira, and P. Meynadier, “Time-resolved study of laser-induced colour centres in SiO2,” J. Phys. C 8, 1281–1290 (1996).

C. W. Siders, S. P. Leblanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, “Laser wakefield excitation and measurement by femtosecond longitudinal interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570–3573 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Theobald, R. Hässner, C. Wülker, and R. Sauerbrey, “Temporally resolved measurement of electron densities (>1023 cm-3) with high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 298–301 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ditmire, E. T. Gumbrell, R. A. Smith, J. W. G. Tisch, D. D. Meyerhofer, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Spatial coherence measurement of soft x-ray radiation produced by high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4756–4759 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, A. H. Chin, and C. V. Shank, “Observation of laser assisted photoelectric effect and femtosecond high order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2468–2471 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (3)

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776–3779 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Larsson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, and S. Svanberg, “Two-colour time-resolved spectroscopy of helium using high-order harmonics,” J. Phys. B 28, L53–L58 (1995).
[Crossref]

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Electron density measurements of high density plasmas using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

1993 (1)

R. Haight and D. R. Peale, “Antibonding state on the Ge(111):As surface: spectroscopy and dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3979–3982 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

B. Colombeau, T. Dohnalik, and C. Froehly, “Temporal analog of Young experiment,” Acta Phys. Pol. A 78, 85–93 (1990).

Agostini, P.

J.-F. Hergott, M. Kovacev, H. Merdji, C. Hubert, Y. Mairesse, E. Jean, P. Breger, P. Agostini, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Extreme-ultraviolet high-order harmonic pulses in the microjoule range,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 021801-1–021801-4 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. Le Blanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, “Ponderomotive streaking of the ionization potential as a method for measuring pulse durations in the XUV domain with fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801-1–043802-4 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Bouhal, P. Salières, P. Breger, P. Agostini, G. Hamoniaux, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Antonetti, R. Constantinescu, and H. G. Muller, “Temporal dependence of high-order harmonics in the presence of strong ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 389–399 (1998).
[Crossref]

Albert, F.

F. Albert, Ph. Zeitoun, P. Jaeglé, D. Joyeux, M. Boussoukaya, A. Carillon, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, D. Phalippou, D. Ros, and A. Zeitoun-Fakiris, “Metal-surface mapping by means of soft-x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 11089–11094 (1999).
[Crossref]

Altucci, C.

R. Zerne, C. Altucci, M. Bellini, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. Lyngå, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Phase-locked high-order harmonic sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1006–1009 (1997).
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P. Salières, Ph. Antoine, A. de Bohan, and M. Lewenstein, “Temporal and spectral tailoring of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5544–5547 (1998).
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M. B. Gaarde, Ph. Antoine, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Macroscopic studies of short-pulse high-order harmonic generation using the time-dependent Schrödinger equation,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4553–4560 (1998).
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J. R. Marquès, F. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, P. Chessa, and P. Mora, “Laser wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162–1177 (1998).
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A. Bouhal, P. Salières, P. Breger, P. Agostini, G. Hamoniaux, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Antonetti, R. Constantinescu, and H. G. Muller, “Temporal dependence of high-order harmonics in the presence of strong ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 389–399 (1998).
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J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, A. Rousse, F. Falliès, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Dos Santos, G. Hamoniaux, and A. Antonetti, “Frequency-domain interferometer for measuring the phase and amplitude of a femtosecond pulse probing a laser-produced plasma,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1997–1999 (1994).
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J. R. Marquès, F. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, P. Chessa, and P. Mora, “Laser wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162–1177 (1998).
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J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, A. Rousse, F. Falliès, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Dos Santos, G. Hamoniaux, and A. Antonetti, “Frequency-domain interferometer for measuring the phase and amplitude of a femtosecond pulse probing a laser-produced plasma,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1997–1999 (1994).
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P. Salières, L. Le Déroff, T. Auguste, P. Monot, P. d’Oliveira, D. Campo, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdji, and B. Carré, “Frequency-domain interferometry in the XUV with high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5483–5486 (1999).
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C. W. Siders, S. P. Leblanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, “Laser wakefield excitation and measurement by femtosecond longitudinal interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570–3573 (1996).
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P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
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L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Electron density measurements of high density plasmas using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
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M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297–300 (1998).
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R. Zerne, C. Altucci, M. Bellini, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. Lyngå, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Phase-locked high-order harmonic sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1006–1009 (1997).
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A. Bouhal, P. Salières, P. Breger, P. Agostini, G. Hamoniaux, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Antonetti, R. Constantinescu, and H. G. Muller, “Temporal dependence of high-order harmonics in the presence of strong ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 389–399 (1998).
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T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545–591 (2000).
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M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5-keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236–3239 (1998).
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Breger, P.

J.-F. Hergott, M. Kovacev, H. Merdji, C. Hubert, Y. Mairesse, E. Jean, P. Breger, P. Agostini, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Extreme-ultraviolet high-order harmonic pulses in the microjoule range,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 021801-1–021801-4 (2002).
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P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
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E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. Le Blanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, “Ponderomotive streaking of the ionization potential as a method for measuring pulse durations in the XUV domain with fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801-1–043802-4 (2000).
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A. Bouhal, P. Salières, P. Breger, P. Agostini, G. Hamoniaux, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Antonetti, R. Constantinescu, and H. G. Muller, “Temporal dependence of high-order harmonics in the presence of strong ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 389–399 (1998).
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Budil, K. S.

P. Salières, T. Ditmire, K. S. Budil, M. D. Perry, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatial profiles of high-order harmonics generated by a femtosecond Cr:LISAF laser,” J. Phys. B 27, L217–L222 (1994).
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Buil, S.

S. L. Sorensen, O. Björneholm, I. Hjelte, T. Kihlgren, G. Öhrwall, S. Sundin, S. Svensson, S. Buil, D. Descamps, A. L’Huillier, J. Norin, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Femtosecond pump–probe photoelectron spectroscopy of predissociative Rydberg states in acetylene,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 8038–8042 (2000).
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Burnett, N. H.

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5-keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236–3239 (1998).
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Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
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Campo, D.

P. Salières, L. Le Déroff, T. Auguste, P. Monot, P. d’Oliveira, D. Campo, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdji, and B. Carré, “Frequency-domain interferometry in the XUV with high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5483–5486 (1999).
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Carillon, A.

F. Albert, Ph. Zeitoun, P. Jaeglé, D. Joyeux, M. Boussoukaya, A. Carillon, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, D. Phalippou, D. Ros, and A. Zeitoun-Fakiris, “Metal-surface mapping by means of soft-x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 11089–11094 (1999).
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Carré, B.

J.-F. Hergott, M. Kovacev, H. Merdji, C. Hubert, Y. Mairesse, E. Jean, P. Breger, P. Agostini, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Extreme-ultraviolet high-order harmonic pulses in the microjoule range,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 021801-1–021801-4 (2002).
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P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. B. Milosevic, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292, 902–905 (2001).
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L. Le Déroff, P. Salières, B. Carré, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, “Measurement of the degree of spatial coherence of high-order harmonics using a Fresnel-mirror interferometer,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 043802-1–043802-9 (2000).

F. Quéré, S. Guizard, Ph. Martin, G. Petite, H. Merdji, B. Carré, J-F. Hergott, and L. Le Déroff, “Hot-electron relaxation in quartz using high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 9883–9886 (2000).
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P. Salières, L. Le Déroff, T. Auguste, P. Monot, P. d’Oliveira, D. Campo, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdji, and B. Carré, “Frequency-domain interferometry in the XUV with high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5483–5486 (1999).
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L. Le Déroff, P. Salières, and B. Carré, “Beam-quality measurement of a focused high-order harmonic beam,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1544–1546 (1998).
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L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Electron density measurements of high density plasmas using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
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Cavalieri, S.

Celliers, P.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Electron density measurements of high density plasmas using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
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Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of coherent soft x-rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967–2970 (1997).
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M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5-keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236–3239 (1998).
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E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. Le Blanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, “Ponderomotive streaking of the ionization potential as a method for measuring pulse durations in the XUV domain with fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801-1–043802-4 (2000).
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Cheriaux, G.

E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. Le Blanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, “Ponderomotive streaking of the ionization potential as a method for measuring pulse durations in the XUV domain with fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801-1–043802-4 (2000).
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J. R. Marquès, F. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, P. Chessa, and P. Mora, “Laser wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162–1177 (1998).
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L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Electron density measurements of high density plasmas using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
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B. Colombeau, T. Dohnalik, and C. Froehly, “Temporal analog of Young experiment,” Acta Phys. Pol. A 78, 85–93 (1990).

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A. Bouhal, P. Salières, P. Breger, P. Agostini, G. Hamoniaux, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Antonetti, R. Constantinescu, and H. G. Muller, “Temporal dependence of high-order harmonics in the presence of strong ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 389–399 (1998).
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Corkum, P.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
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Corsi, C.

d’Oliveira, P.

P. Salières, L. Le Déroff, T. Auguste, P. Monot, P. d’Oliveira, D. Campo, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdji, and B. Carré, “Frequency-domain interferometry in the XUV with high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5483–5486 (1999).
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S. Guizard, P. Martin, G. Petite, P. D’Oliveira, and P. Meynadier, “Time-resolved study of laser-induced colour centres in SiO2,” J. Phys. C 8, 1281–1290 (1996).

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L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Electron density measurements of high density plasmas using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Bohan, A.

P. Salières, Ph. Antoine, A. de Bohan, and M. Lewenstein, “Temporal and spectral tailoring of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5544–5547 (1998).
[Crossref]

Descamps, D.

D. Descamps, C. Lyngå, J. Norin, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdji, P. Salières, M. Bellini, and T. W. Hänsch, “Extreme ultraviolet interferometry measurements with high-order harmonics,” Opt. Lett. 25, 135–137 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. L. Sorensen, O. Björneholm, I. Hjelte, T. Kihlgren, G. Öhrwall, S. Sundin, S. Svensson, S. Buil, D. Descamps, A. L’Huillier, J. Norin, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Femtosecond pump–probe photoelectron spectroscopy of predissociative Rydberg states in acetylene,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 8038–8042 (2000).
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M. Gisselbrecht, D. Descamps, C. Lynga, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, and M. Meyer, “Absolute photoionization cross sections of excited He states in the near-threshold region,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4607–4610 (1999).
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T. Ditmire, E. T. Gumbrell, R. A. Smith, J. W. G. Tisch, D. D. Meyerhofer, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Spatial coherence measurement of soft x-ray radiation produced by high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4756–4759 (1996).
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P. Salières, T. Ditmire, K. S. Budil, M. D. Perry, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatial profiles of high-order harmonics generated by a femtosecond Cr:LISAF laser,” J. Phys. B 27, L217–L222 (1994).
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Dohnalik, T.

B. Colombeau, T. Dohnalik, and C. Froehly, “Temporal analog of Young experiment,” Acta Phys. Pol. A 78, 85–93 (1990).

Dorchies, F.

J. R. Marquès, F. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, P. Chessa, and P. Mora, “Laser wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162–1177 (1998).
[Crossref]

Dos Santos, A.

Downer, M. C.

C. W. Siders, S. P. Leblanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, “Laser wakefield excitation and measurement by femtosecond longitudinal interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570–3573 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drescher, M.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Falliès, F.

Ferencz, K.

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5-keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236–3239 (1998).
[Crossref]

Fisher, D.

C. W. Siders, S. P. Leblanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, “Laser wakefield excitation and measurement by femtosecond longitudinal interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570–3573 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Froehly, C.

B. Colombeau, T. Dohnalik, and C. Froehly, “Temporal analog of Young experiment,” Acta Phys. Pol. A 78, 85–93 (1990).

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M. B. Gaarde, Ph. Antoine, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Macroscopic studies of short-pulse high-order harmonic generation using the time-dependent Schrödinger equation,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4553–4560 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297–300 (1998).
[Crossref]

R. Zerne, C. Altucci, M. Bellini, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. Lyngå, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Phase-locked high-order harmonic sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1006–1009 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gauthier, J. C.

J. R. Marquès, F. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, P. Chessa, and P. Mora, “Laser wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162–1177 (1998).
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J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, A. Rousse, F. Falliès, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Dos Santos, G. Hamoniaux, and A. Antonetti, “Frequency-domain interferometer for measuring the phase and amplitude of a femtosecond pulse probing a laser-produced plasma,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1997–1999 (1994).
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Geindre, J. P.

J. R. Marquès, F. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, P. Chessa, and P. Mora, “Laser wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162–1177 (1998).
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M. Gisselbrecht, D. Descamps, C. Lynga, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, and M. Meyer, “Absolute photoionization cross sections of excited He states in the near-threshold region,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4607–4610 (1999).
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Gland, J.

M. Bauer, C. Lei, K. Read, R. Tobey, J. Gland, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Direct observation of surface chemistry using ultrafast soft-x-ray pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 025501-1–025501-4 (2001).
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L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, A. M. Mulhisen, E. R. Grant, X. Yang, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast time-resolved soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of dissociating Br2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 193002 (2001).
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Grasbon, F.

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. B. Milosevic, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292, 902–905 (2001).
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Guizard, S.

F. Quéré, S. Guizard, Ph. Martin, G. Petite, H. Merdji, B. Carré, J-F. Hergott, and L. Le Déroff, “Hot-electron relaxation in quartz using high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 9883–9886 (2000).
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T. Ditmire, E. T. Gumbrell, R. A. Smith, J. W. G. Tisch, D. D. Meyerhofer, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Spatial coherence measurement of soft x-ray radiation produced by high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4756–4759 (1996).
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J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, A. Rousse, F. Falliès, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Dos Santos, G. Hamoniaux, and A. Antonetti, “Frequency-domain interferometer for measuring the phase and amplitude of a femtosecond pulse probing a laser-produced plasma,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1997–1999 (1994).
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Hänsch, T. W.

D. Descamps, C. Lyngå, J. Norin, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdji, P. Salières, M. Bellini, and T. W. Hänsch, “Extreme ultraviolet interferometry measurements with high-order harmonics,” Opt. Lett. 25, 135–137 (2000).
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M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297–300 (1998).
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R. Zerne, C. Altucci, M. Bellini, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. Lyngå, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Phase-locked high-order harmonic sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1006–1009 (1997).
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Hässner, R.

W. Theobald, R. Hässner, C. Wülker, and R. Sauerbrey, “Temporally resolved measurement of electron densities (>1023 cm-3) with high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 298–301 (1996).
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Heinzmann, U.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
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Hentschel, M.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
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Hergott, J.-F.

J.-F. Hergott, M. Kovacev, H. Merdji, C. Hubert, Y. Mairesse, E. Jean, P. Breger, P. Agostini, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Extreme-ultraviolet high-order harmonic pulses in the microjoule range,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 021801-1–021801-4 (2002).
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D. Descamps, C. Lyngå, J. Norin, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdji, P. Salières, M. Bellini, and T. W. Hänsch, “Extreme ultraviolet interferometry measurements with high-order harmonics,” Opt. Lett. 25, 135–137 (2000).
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P. Salières, L. Le Déroff, T. Auguste, P. Monot, P. d’Oliveira, D. Campo, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdji, and B. Carré, “Frequency-domain interferometry in the XUV with high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5483–5486 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hergott, J-F.

F. Quéré, S. Guizard, Ph. Martin, G. Petite, H. Merdji, B. Carré, J-F. Hergott, and L. Le Déroff, “Hot-electron relaxation in quartz using high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 9883–9886 (2000).
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Hjelte, I.

S. L. Sorensen, O. Björneholm, I. Hjelte, T. Kihlgren, G. Öhrwall, S. Sundin, S. Svensson, S. Buil, D. Descamps, A. L’Huillier, J. Norin, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Femtosecond pump–probe photoelectron spectroscopy of predissociative Rydberg states in acetylene,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 8038–8042 (2000).
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Hubert, C.

J.-F. Hergott, M. Kovacev, H. Merdji, C. Hubert, Y. Mairesse, E. Jean, P. Breger, P. Agostini, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Extreme-ultraviolet high-order harmonic pulses in the microjoule range,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 021801-1–021801-4 (2002).
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Hubert, S.

F. Albert, Ph. Zeitoun, P. Jaeglé, D. Joyeux, M. Boussoukaya, A. Carillon, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, D. Phalippou, D. Ros, and A. Zeitoun-Fakiris, “Metal-surface mapping by means of soft-x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 11089–11094 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hutchinson, M. H. R.

T. Ditmire, E. T. Gumbrell, R. A. Smith, J. W. G. Tisch, D. D. Meyerhofer, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Spatial coherence measurement of soft x-ray radiation produced by high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4756–4759 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jaeglé, P.

F. Albert, Ph. Zeitoun, P. Jaeglé, D. Joyeux, M. Boussoukaya, A. Carillon, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, D. Phalippou, D. Ros, and A. Zeitoun-Fakiris, “Metal-surface mapping by means of soft-x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 11089–11094 (1999).
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Jamelot, G.

F. Albert, Ph. Zeitoun, P. Jaeglé, D. Joyeux, M. Boussoukaya, A. Carillon, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, D. Phalippou, D. Ros, and A. Zeitoun-Fakiris, “Metal-surface mapping by means of soft-x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 11089–11094 (1999).
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Jean, E.

J.-F. Hergott, M. Kovacev, H. Merdji, C. Hubert, Y. Mairesse, E. Jean, P. Breger, P. Agostini, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Extreme-ultraviolet high-order harmonic pulses in the microjoule range,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 021801-1–021801-4 (2002).
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Joyeux, D.

L. Le Déroff, P. Salières, B. Carré, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, “Measurement of the degree of spatial coherence of high-order harmonics using a Fresnel-mirror interferometer,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 043802-1–043802-9 (2000).

D. Joyeux, F. Polack, and D. Phalippou, “An interferometric determination of the refractive part of optical constants for carbon and silver across x-ray absorption edges,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2921–2926 (1999).
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F. Albert, Ph. Zeitoun, P. Jaeglé, D. Joyeux, M. Boussoukaya, A. Carillon, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, D. Phalippou, D. Ros, and A. Zeitoun-Fakiris, “Metal-surface mapping by means of soft-x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 11089–11094 (1999).
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Kan, C.

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5-keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236–3239 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kanizay, K.

Kapteyn, H. C.

M. Bauer, C. Lei, K. Read, R. Tobey, J. Gland, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Direct observation of surface chemistry using ultrafast soft-x-ray pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 025501-1–025501-4 (2001).
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Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, I. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Temporal phase control of soft-x-ray harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R30–R33 (1998).
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Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of coherent soft x-rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967–2970 (1997).
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Kienberger, R.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kihlgren, T.

S. L. Sorensen, O. Björneholm, I. Hjelte, T. Kihlgren, G. Öhrwall, S. Sundin, S. Svensson, S. Buil, D. Descamps, A. L’Huillier, J. Norin, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Femtosecond pump–probe photoelectron spectroscopy of predissociative Rydberg states in acetylene,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 8038–8042 (2000).
[Crossref]

Klisnick, A.

F. Albert, Ph. Zeitoun, P. Jaeglé, D. Joyeux, M. Boussoukaya, A. Carillon, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, D. Phalippou, D. Ros, and A. Zeitoun-Fakiris, “Metal-surface mapping by means of soft-x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 11089–11094 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, T.

Kopold, R.

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. B. Milosevic, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292, 902–905 (2001).
[Crossref]

Koppitsch, R.

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5-keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236–3239 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kovacev, M.

J.-F. Hergott, M. Kovacev, H. Merdji, C. Hubert, Y. Mairesse, E. Jean, P. Breger, P. Agostini, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Extreme-ultraviolet high-order harmonic pulses in the microjoule range,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 021801-1–021801-4 (2002).
[Crossref]

Krausz, F.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
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T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545–591 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5-keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236–3239 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kulander, K. C.

M. B. Gaarde, Ph. Antoine, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Macroscopic studies of short-pulse high-order harmonic generation using the time-dependent Schrödinger equation,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4553–4560 (1998).
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L’Huillier, A.

D. Descamps, C. Lyngå, J. Norin, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdji, P. Salières, M. Bellini, and T. W. Hänsch, “Extreme ultraviolet interferometry measurements with high-order harmonics,” Opt. Lett. 25, 135–137 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. L. Sorensen, O. Björneholm, I. Hjelte, T. Kihlgren, G. Öhrwall, S. Sundin, S. Svensson, S. Buil, D. Descamps, A. L’Huillier, J. Norin, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Femtosecond pump–probe photoelectron spectroscopy of predissociative Rydberg states in acetylene,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 8038–8042 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Gisselbrecht, D. Descamps, C. Lynga, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, and M. Meyer, “Absolute photoionization cross sections of excited He states in the near-threshold region,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4607–4610 (1999).
[Crossref]

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, Ph. Antoine, and M. Lewenstein, “Study of the spatial and temporal cohererence of high-order harmonics,” Adv. At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 41, 83–142 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297–300 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. B. Gaarde, Ph. Antoine, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Macroscopic studies of short-pulse high-order harmonic generation using the time-dependent Schrödinger equation,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4553–4560 (1998).
[Crossref]

R. Zerne, C. Altucci, M. Bellini, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. Lyngå, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Phase-locked high-order harmonic sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1006–1009 (1997).
[Crossref]

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776–3779 (1995).
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J. Larsson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, and S. Svanberg, “Two-colour time-resolved spectroscopy of helium using high-order harmonics,” J. Phys. B 28, L53–L58 (1995).
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P. Salières, T. Ditmire, K. S. Budil, M. D. Perry, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatial profiles of high-order harmonics generated by a femtosecond Cr:LISAF laser,” J. Phys. B 27, L217–L222 (1994).
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Larsson, J.

J. Larsson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, and S. Svanberg, “Two-colour time-resolved spectroscopy of helium using high-order harmonics,” J. Phys. B 28, L53–L58 (1995).
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Le Blanc, C.

E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. Le Blanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, “Ponderomotive streaking of the ionization potential as a method for measuring pulse durations in the XUV domain with fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801-1–043802-4 (2000).
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Le Déroff, L.

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. B. Milosevic, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292, 902–905 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. Le Déroff, P. Salières, B. Carré, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, “Measurement of the degree of spatial coherence of high-order harmonics using a Fresnel-mirror interferometer,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 043802-1–043802-9 (2000).

F. Quéré, S. Guizard, Ph. Martin, G. Petite, H. Merdji, B. Carré, J-F. Hergott, and L. Le Déroff, “Hot-electron relaxation in quartz using high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 9883–9886 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Salières, L. Le Déroff, T. Auguste, P. Monot, P. d’Oliveira, D. Campo, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdji, and B. Carré, “Frequency-domain interferometry in the XUV with high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5483–5486 (1999).
[Crossref]

L. Le Déroff, P. Salières, and B. Carré, “Beam-quality measurement of a focused high-order harmonic beam,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1544–1546 (1998).
[Crossref]

Leblanc, S. P.

C. W. Siders, S. P. Leblanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, “Laser wakefield excitation and measurement by femtosecond longitudinal interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570–3573 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lei, C.

M. Bauer, C. Lei, K. Read, R. Tobey, J. Gland, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Direct observation of surface chemistry using ultrafast soft-x-ray pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 025501-1–025501-4 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lenzner, M.

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
[Crossref]

Leone, S. R.

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, A. M. Mulhisen, E. R. Grant, X. Yang, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast time-resolved soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of dissociating Br2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 193002 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lewenstein, M.

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. B. Milosevic, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292, 902–905 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, Ph. Antoine, and M. Lewenstein, “Study of the spatial and temporal cohererence of high-order harmonics,” Adv. At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 41, 83–142 (1999).
[Crossref]

P. Salières, Ph. Antoine, A. de Bohan, and M. Lewenstein, “Temporal and spectral tailoring of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5544–5547 (1998).
[Crossref]

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776–3779 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Libby, S.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Electron density measurements of high density plasmas using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
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London, R. A.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Electron density measurements of high density plasmas using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lynga, C.

M. Gisselbrecht, D. Descamps, C. Lynga, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, and M. Meyer, “Absolute photoionization cross sections of excited He states in the near-threshold region,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4607–4610 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lyngå, C.

D. Descamps, C. Lyngå, J. Norin, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdji, P. Salières, M. Bellini, and T. W. Hänsch, “Extreme ultraviolet interferometry measurements with high-order harmonics,” Opt. Lett. 25, 135–137 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297–300 (1998).
[Crossref]

R. Zerne, C. Altucci, M. Bellini, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. Lyngå, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Phase-locked high-order harmonic sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1006–1009 (1997).
[Crossref]

Mairesse, Y.

J.-F. Hergott, M. Kovacev, H. Merdji, C. Hubert, Y. Mairesse, E. Jean, P. Breger, P. Agostini, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Extreme-ultraviolet high-order harmonic pulses in the microjoule range,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 021801-1–021801-4 (2002).
[Crossref]

Marconi, M. C.

Marquès, J. R.

J. R. Marquès, F. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, P. Chessa, and P. Mora, “Laser wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162–1177 (1998).
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S. Guizard, P. Martin, G. Petite, P. D’Oliveira, and P. Meynadier, “Time-resolved study of laser-induced colour centres in SiO2,” J. Phys. C 8, 1281–1290 (1996).

Martin, Ph.

F. Quéré, S. Guizard, Ph. Martin, G. Petite, H. Merdji, B. Carré, J-F. Hergott, and L. Le Déroff, “Hot-electron relaxation in quartz using high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 9883–9886 (2000).
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Materazzi, M.

Matthews, D. L.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Electron density measurements of high density plasmas using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
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J.-F. Hergott, M. Kovacev, H. Merdji, C. Hubert, Y. Mairesse, E. Jean, P. Breger, P. Agostini, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Extreme-ultraviolet high-order harmonic pulses in the microjoule range,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 021801-1–021801-4 (2002).
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F. Quéré, S. Guizard, Ph. Martin, G. Petite, H. Merdji, B. Carré, J-F. Hergott, and L. Le Déroff, “Hot-electron relaxation in quartz using high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 9883–9886 (2000).
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D. Descamps, C. Lyngå, J. Norin, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdji, P. Salières, M. Bellini, and T. W. Hänsch, “Extreme ultraviolet interferometry measurements with high-order harmonics,” Opt. Lett. 25, 135–137 (2000).
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P. Salières, L. Le Déroff, T. Auguste, P. Monot, P. d’Oliveira, D. Campo, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdji, and B. Carré, “Frequency-domain interferometry in the XUV with high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5483–5486 (1999).
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J. Larsson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, and S. Svanberg, “Two-colour time-resolved spectroscopy of helium using high-order harmonics,” J. Phys. B 28, L53–L58 (1995).
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S. Guizard, P. Martin, G. Petite, P. D’Oliveira, and P. Meynadier, “Time-resolved study of laser-induced colour centres in SiO2,” J. Phys. C 8, 1281–1290 (1996).

Milosevic, D. B.

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. B. Milosevic, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292, 902–905 (2001).
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M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
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P. Salières, L. Le Déroff, T. Auguste, P. Monot, P. d’Oliveira, D. Campo, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdji, and B. Carré, “Frequency-domain interferometry in the XUV with high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5483–5486 (1999).
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J. R. Marquès, F. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, P. Chessa, and P. Mora, “Laser wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162–1177 (1998).
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Moreno, J. C.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Electron density measurements of high density plasmas using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
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L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Electron density measurements of high density plasmas using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
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Mullot, G.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
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E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. Le Blanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, “Ponderomotive streaking of the ionization potential as a method for measuring pulse durations in the XUV domain with fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801-1–043802-4 (2000).
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M. Bauer, C. Lei, K. Read, R. Tobey, J. Gland, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Direct observation of surface chemistry using ultrafast soft-x-ray pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 025501-1–025501-4 (2001).
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Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, I. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Temporal phase control of soft-x-ray harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R30–R33 (1998).
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Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of coherent soft x-rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967–2970 (1997).
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A. Bouhal, P. Salières, P. Breger, P. Agostini, G. Hamoniaux, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Antonetti, R. Constantinescu, and H. G. Muller, “Temporal dependence of high-order harmonics in the presence of strong ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 389–399 (1998).
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Nugent-Glandorf, L.

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, A. M. Mulhisen, E. R. Grant, X. Yang, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast time-resolved soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of dissociating Br2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 193002 (2001).
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P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
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E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. Le Blanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, “Ponderomotive streaking of the ionization potential as a method for measuring pulse durations in the XUV domain with fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801-1–043802-4 (2000).
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Paulus, G. G.

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. B. Milosevic, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292, 902–905 (2001).
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Perry, M. D.

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Petite, G.

F. Quéré, S. Guizard, Ph. Martin, G. Petite, H. Merdji, B. Carré, J-F. Hergott, and L. Le Déroff, “Hot-electron relaxation in quartz using high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 9883–9886 (2000).
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S. Guizard, P. Martin, G. Petite, P. D’Oliveira, and P. Meynadier, “Time-resolved study of laser-induced colour centres in SiO2,” J. Phys. C 8, 1281–1290 (1996).

Phalippou, D.

L. Le Déroff, P. Salières, B. Carré, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, “Measurement of the degree of spatial coherence of high-order harmonics using a Fresnel-mirror interferometer,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 043802-1–043802-9 (2000).

D. Joyeux, F. Polack, and D. Phalippou, “An interferometric determination of the refractive part of optical constants for carbon and silver across x-ray absorption edges,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2921–2926 (1999).
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F. Albert, Ph. Zeitoun, P. Jaeglé, D. Joyeux, M. Boussoukaya, A. Carillon, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, D. Phalippou, D. Ros, and A. Zeitoun-Fakiris, “Metal-surface mapping by means of soft-x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 11089–11094 (1999).
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Polack, F.

D. Joyeux, F. Polack, and D. Phalippou, “An interferometric determination of the refractive part of optical constants for carbon and silver across x-ray absorption edges,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2921–2926 (1999).
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Quéré, F.

F. Quéré, S. Guizard, Ph. Martin, G. Petite, H. Merdji, B. Carré, J-F. Hergott, and L. Le Déroff, “Hot-electron relaxation in quartz using high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 9883–9886 (2000).
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Read, K.

M. Bauer, C. Lei, K. Read, R. Tobey, J. Gland, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Direct observation of surface chemistry using ultrafast soft-x-ray pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 025501-1–025501-4 (2001).
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Reider, G. A.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
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Ress, D.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Electron density measurements of high density plasmas using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
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Rocca, J. J.

Ros, D.

F. Albert, Ph. Zeitoun, P. Jaeglé, D. Joyeux, M. Boussoukaya, A. Carillon, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, D. Phalippou, D. Ros, and A. Zeitoun-Fakiris, “Metal-surface mapping by means of soft-x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 11089–11094 (1999).
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Rousse, A.

Rundquist, A.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, I. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Temporal phase control of soft-x-ray harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R30–R33 (1998).
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Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of coherent soft x-rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967–2970 (1997).
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Salières, P.

J.-F. Hergott, M. Kovacev, H. Merdji, C. Hubert, Y. Mairesse, E. Jean, P. Breger, P. Agostini, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Extreme-ultraviolet high-order harmonic pulses in the microjoule range,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 021801-1–021801-4 (2002).
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P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. B. Milosevic, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292, 902–905 (2001).
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L. Le Déroff, P. Salières, B. Carré, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, “Measurement of the degree of spatial coherence of high-order harmonics using a Fresnel-mirror interferometer,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 043802-1–043802-9 (2000).

D. Descamps, C. Lyngå, J. Norin, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdji, P. Salières, M. Bellini, and T. W. Hänsch, “Extreme ultraviolet interferometry measurements with high-order harmonics,” Opt. Lett. 25, 135–137 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Salières, L. Le Déroff, T. Auguste, P. Monot, P. d’Oliveira, D. Campo, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdji, and B. Carré, “Frequency-domain interferometry in the XUV with high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5483–5486 (1999).
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P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, Ph. Antoine, and M. Lewenstein, “Study of the spatial and temporal cohererence of high-order harmonics,” Adv. At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 41, 83–142 (1999).
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A. Bouhal, P. Salières, P. Breger, P. Agostini, G. Hamoniaux, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Antonetti, R. Constantinescu, and H. G. Muller, “Temporal dependence of high-order harmonics in the presence of strong ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 389–399 (1998).
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L. Le Déroff, P. Salières, and B. Carré, “Beam-quality measurement of a focused high-order harmonic beam,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1544–1546 (1998).
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P. Salières, Ph. Antoine, A. de Bohan, and M. Lewenstein, “Temporal and spectral tailoring of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5544–5547 (1998).
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P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776–3779 (1995).
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P. Salières, T. Ditmire, K. S. Budil, M. D. Perry, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatial profiles of high-order harmonics generated by a femtosecond Cr:LISAF laser,” J. Phys. B 27, L217–L222 (1994).
[Crossref]

Samuels, D. A.

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, A. M. Mulhisen, E. R. Grant, X. Yang, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast time-resolved soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of dissociating Br2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 193002 (2001).
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Sanpera, A.

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. B. Milosevic, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292, 902–905 (2001).
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Sartania, S.

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
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W. Theobald, R. Hässner, C. Wülker, and R. Sauerbrey, “Temporally resolved measurement of electron densities (>1023 cm-3) with high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 298–301 (1996).
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L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, A. M. Mulhisen, E. R. Grant, X. Yang, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast time-resolved soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of dissociating Br2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 193002 (2001).
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Schnürer, M.

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5-keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236–3239 (1998).
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Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
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T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, A. H. Chin, and C. V. Shank, “Observation of laser assisted photoelectric effect and femtosecond high order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2468–2471 (1996).
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C. W. Siders, S. P. Leblanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, “Laser wakefield excitation and measurement by femtosecond longitudinal interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570–3573 (1996).
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T. Ditmire, E. T. Gumbrell, R. A. Smith, J. W. G. Tisch, D. D. Meyerhofer, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Spatial coherence measurement of soft x-ray radiation produced by high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4756–4759 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sorensen, S. L.

S. L. Sorensen, O. Björneholm, I. Hjelte, T. Kihlgren, G. Öhrwall, S. Sundin, S. Svensson, S. Buil, D. Descamps, A. L’Huillier, J. Norin, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Femtosecond pump–probe photoelectron spectroscopy of predissociative Rydberg states in acetylene,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 8038–8042 (2000).
[Crossref]

Spielmann, Ch.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
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M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5-keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236–3239 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
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Stepanov, A.

C. W. Siders, S. P. Leblanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, “Laser wakefield excitation and measurement by femtosecond longitudinal interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570–3573 (1996).
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M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5-keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236–3239 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sundin, S.

S. L. Sorensen, O. Björneholm, I. Hjelte, T. Kihlgren, G. Öhrwall, S. Sundin, S. Svensson, S. Buil, D. Descamps, A. L’Huillier, J. Norin, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Femtosecond pump–probe photoelectron spectroscopy of predissociative Rydberg states in acetylene,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 8038–8042 (2000).
[Crossref]

Svanberg, S.

J. Larsson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, and S. Svanberg, “Two-colour time-resolved spectroscopy of helium using high-order harmonics,” J. Phys. B 28, L53–L58 (1995).
[Crossref]

Svensson, S.

S. L. Sorensen, O. Björneholm, I. Hjelte, T. Kihlgren, G. Öhrwall, S. Sundin, S. Svensson, S. Buil, D. Descamps, A. L’Huillier, J. Norin, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Femtosecond pump–probe photoelectron spectroscopy of predissociative Rydberg states in acetylene,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 8038–8042 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tajima, T.

C. W. Siders, S. P. Leblanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, “Laser wakefield excitation and measurement by femtosecond longitudinal interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570–3573 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Terasaki, A.

Theobald, W.

W. Theobald, R. Hässner, C. Wülker, and R. Sauerbrey, “Temporally resolved measurement of electron densities (>1023 cm-3) with high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 298–301 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tisch, J. W. G.

T. Ditmire, E. T. Gumbrell, R. A. Smith, J. W. G. Tisch, D. D. Meyerhofer, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Spatial coherence measurement of soft x-ray radiation produced by high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4756–4759 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tobey, R.

M. Bauer, C. Lei, K. Read, R. Tobey, J. Gland, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Direct observation of surface chemistry using ultrafast soft-x-ray pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 025501-1–025501-4 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tokunaga, E.

Toma, E. S.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. Le Blanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, “Ponderomotive streaking of the ionization potential as a method for measuring pulse durations in the XUV domain with fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801-1–043802-4 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tozzi, A.

M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297–300 (1998).
[Crossref]

Trebes, J. E.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Electron density measurements of high density plasmas using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wahlström, C.-G.

D. Descamps, C. Lyngå, J. Norin, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdji, P. Salières, M. Bellini, and T. W. Hänsch, “Extreme ultraviolet interferometry measurements with high-order harmonics,” Opt. Lett. 25, 135–137 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. L. Sorensen, O. Björneholm, I. Hjelte, T. Kihlgren, G. Öhrwall, S. Sundin, S. Svensson, S. Buil, D. Descamps, A. L’Huillier, J. Norin, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Femtosecond pump–probe photoelectron spectroscopy of predissociative Rydberg states in acetylene,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 8038–8042 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Gisselbrecht, D. Descamps, C. Lynga, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, and M. Meyer, “Absolute photoionization cross sections of excited He states in the near-threshold region,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4607–4610 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297–300 (1998).
[Crossref]

R. Zerne, C. Altucci, M. Bellini, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. Lyngå, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Phase-locked high-order harmonic sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1006–1009 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Larsson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, and S. Svanberg, “Two-colour time-resolved spectroscopy of helium using high-order harmonics,” J. Phys. B 28, L53–L58 (1995).
[Crossref]

Walther, H.

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. B. Milosevic, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292, 902–905 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wan, A. S.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Electron density measurements of high density plasmas using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, I. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Temporal phase control of soft-x-ray harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R30–R33 (1998).
[Crossref]

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of coherent soft x-rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967–2970 (1997).
[Crossref]

Weber, F.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Electron density measurements of high density plasmas using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wobrauschek, P.

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5-keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236–3239 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wülker, C.

W. Theobald, R. Hässner, C. Wülker, and R. Sauerbrey, “Temporally resolved measurement of electron densities (>1023 cm-3) with high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 298–301 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, X.

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, A. M. Mulhisen, E. R. Grant, X. Yang, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast time-resolved soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of dissociating Br2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 193002 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zeitoun, Ph.

F. Albert, Ph. Zeitoun, P. Jaeglé, D. Joyeux, M. Boussoukaya, A. Carillon, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, D. Phalippou, D. Ros, and A. Zeitoun-Fakiris, “Metal-surface mapping by means of soft-x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 11089–11094 (1999).
[Crossref]

Zeitoun-Fakiris, A.

F. Albert, Ph. Zeitoun, P. Jaeglé, D. Joyeux, M. Boussoukaya, A. Carillon, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, D. Phalippou, D. Ros, and A. Zeitoun-Fakiris, “Metal-surface mapping by means of soft-x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 11089–11094 (1999).
[Crossref]

Zerne, R.

R. Zerne, C. Altucci, M. Bellini, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. Lyngå, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Phase-locked high-order harmonic sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1006–1009 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Larsson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, and S. Svanberg, “Two-colour time-resolved spectroscopy of helium using high-order harmonics,” J. Phys. B 28, L53–L58 (1995).
[Crossref]

Acta Phys. Pol. A (1)

B. Colombeau, T. Dohnalik, and C. Froehly, “Temporal analog of Young experiment,” Acta Phys. Pol. A 78, 85–93 (1990).

Adv. At., Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, Ph. Antoine, and M. Lewenstein, “Study of the spatial and temporal cohererence of high-order harmonics,” Adv. At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 41, 83–142 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

S. L. Sorensen, O. Björneholm, I. Hjelte, T. Kihlgren, G. Öhrwall, S. Sundin, S. Svensson, S. Buil, D. Descamps, A. L’Huillier, J. Norin, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Femtosecond pump–probe photoelectron spectroscopy of predissociative Rydberg states in acetylene,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 8038–8042 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. B (2)

J. Larsson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, and S. Svanberg, “Two-colour time-resolved spectroscopy of helium using high-order harmonics,” J. Phys. B 28, L53–L58 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. Salières, T. Ditmire, K. S. Budil, M. D. Perry, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatial profiles of high-order harmonics generated by a femtosecond Cr:LISAF laser,” J. Phys. B 27, L217–L222 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. C (1)

S. Guizard, P. Martin, G. Petite, P. D’Oliveira, and P. Meynadier, “Time-resolved study of laser-induced colour centres in SiO2,” J. Phys. C 8, 1281–1290 (1996).

Nature (1)

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Plasmas (1)

J. R. Marquès, F. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, P. Chessa, and P. Mora, “Laser wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162–1177 (1998).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (6)

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, I. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Temporal phase control of soft-x-ray harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R30–R33 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. B. Gaarde, Ph. Antoine, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Macroscopic studies of short-pulse high-order harmonic generation using the time-dependent Schrödinger equation,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4553–4560 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Bouhal, P. Salières, P. Breger, P. Agostini, G. Hamoniaux, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Antonetti, R. Constantinescu, and H. G. Muller, “Temporal dependence of high-order harmonics in the presence of strong ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 389–399 (1998).
[Crossref]

E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. Le Blanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, “Ponderomotive streaking of the ionization potential as a method for measuring pulse durations in the XUV domain with fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801-1–043802-4 (2000).
[Crossref]

J.-F. Hergott, M. Kovacev, H. Merdji, C. Hubert, Y. Mairesse, E. Jean, P. Breger, P. Agostini, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Extreme-ultraviolet high-order harmonic pulses in the microjoule range,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 021801-1–021801-4 (2002).
[Crossref]

L. Le Déroff, P. Salières, B. Carré, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, “Measurement of the degree of spatial coherence of high-order harmonics using a Fresnel-mirror interferometer,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 043802-1–043802-9 (2000).

Phys. Rev. B (2)

F. Quéré, S. Guizard, Ph. Martin, G. Petite, H. Merdji, B. Carré, J-F. Hergott, and L. Le Déroff, “Hot-electron relaxation in quartz using high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 9883–9886 (2000).
[Crossref]

F. Albert, Ph. Zeitoun, P. Jaeglé, D. Joyeux, M. Boussoukaya, A. Carillon, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, D. Phalippou, D. Ros, and A. Zeitoun-Fakiris, “Metal-surface mapping by means of soft-x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 11089–11094 (1999).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (16)

R. Zerne, C. Altucci, M. Bellini, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. Lyngå, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Phase-locked high-order harmonic sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1006–1009 (1997).
[Crossref]

P. Salières, L. Le Déroff, T. Auguste, P. Monot, P. d’Oliveira, D. Campo, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdji, and B. Carré, “Frequency-domain interferometry in the XUV with high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5483–5486 (1999).
[Crossref]

W. Theobald, R. Hässner, C. Wülker, and R. Sauerbrey, “Temporally resolved measurement of electron densities (>1023 cm-3) with high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 298–301 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Gisselbrecht, D. Descamps, C. Lynga, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, and M. Meyer, “Absolute photoionization cross sections of excited He states in the near-threshold region,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4607–4610 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Bauer, C. Lei, K. Read, R. Tobey, J. Gland, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Direct observation of surface chemistry using ultrafast soft-x-ray pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 025501-1–025501-4 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, A. M. Mulhisen, E. R. Grant, X. Yang, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast time-resolved soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of dissociating Br2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 193002 (2001).
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R. Haight and D. R. Peale, “Antibonding state on the Ge(111):As surface: spectroscopy and dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3979–3982 (1993).
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M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5-keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236–3239 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. Ditmire, E. T. Gumbrell, R. A. Smith, J. W. G. Tisch, D. D. Meyerhofer, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Spatial coherence measurement of soft x-ray radiation produced by high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4756–4759 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of coherent soft x-rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967–2970 (1997).
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T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, A. H. Chin, and C. V. Shank, “Observation of laser assisted photoelectric effect and femtosecond high order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2468–2471 (1996).
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P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776–3779 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297–300 (1998).
[Crossref]

P. Salières, Ph. Antoine, A. de Bohan, and M. Lewenstein, “Temporal and spectral tailoring of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5544–5547 (1998).
[Crossref]

C. W. Siders, S. P. Leblanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, “Laser wakefield excitation and measurement by femtosecond longitudinal interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570–3573 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Electron density measurements of high density plasmas using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545–591 (2000).
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Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

D. Joyeux, F. Polack, and D. Phalippou, “An interferometric determination of the refractive part of optical constants for carbon and silver across x-ray absorption edges,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2921–2926 (1999).
[Crossref]

Science (3)

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
[Crossref]

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. B. Milosevic, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292, 902–905 (2001).
[Crossref]

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental spectra of (H11) generated by a single 60-fs laser pulse (dashed curve) and by two 60-fs pulses (solid curve) focused at 2×1014 W/cm2 in an argon gas jet (120-fs delay, 600-Torr, backing pressure, 3-cm jet/focus position).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental spectra of (a) H11, (b) H15, (c) H19, (d) H23, all generated by two laser pulses delayed by 120 fs and focused at 2×1014 W/cm2 (600-Torr, backing pressure, 0 jet/focus position).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fringe period as a function of time delay τ between two laser pulses. The circles represent the experimental points, and the solid curve represents a 1/τ fit.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental spectra of H15 generated at intensities of (a) 2×1014, (b) 3.5×1014, (c) 5×1014 W/cm2 (120-fs delay, 600-Torr, backing pressure, 1-cm jet/focus position).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variation of the fringe pattern of H15 with the jet/focus positions of z=3 cm (solid curve) and z=0 (dashed curve).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Evolution of the fringe pattern of H19 with backing pressures of 150 Torr (dashed curve) and 600 Torr (solid curve) (5×1014-W/cm2 intensity, 1-cm, jet/focus position, 120-fs time delay).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Fringe patterns obtained for H15 at two angles of the birefringent plate: 40° (solid curve) and 50° (dashed curve) (600-Torr, backing pressure, 1-cm, jet/focus position, 120-fs time delay).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Fringe patterns obtained for H11 at two angles of the birefringent plate: 45° (dashed curve) and 49° (solid curve) (600-Torr, backing pressure, 1-cm, jet/focus position, 450-fs time delay).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Fringe patterns obtained for H11 at two angles of a half-wave plate introduced before the polarizer. Between the two cases, the relative phase of the two harmonic pulses differs by kπ with k odd (450-fs time delay).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Simulation of the fringe pattern of H15 generated in argon. (a) Harmonic double pulse temporal profile with τ=400 fs (solid curve) and temporal evolution of the ionization front (dashed curve). (b) Spectral fringe pattern without (solid curve) and with (dashed curve) temporal evolution of the electron density.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Experimental setup for the application of XUV FDI to the diagnostic of a helium plasma.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Measurement of the spot size of H11 at the focus of the toroidal mirror by use of the knife-edge technique.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Variation of (a) the spatially integrated fringe pattern and (b) the average fringe shift (filled circles) with delay Δt between the ionizing pump and the H11 probe pulses. The dashed curve in (b) was calculated from a simple model (see text). (c) Space-averaged electron density deduced from (b) as a function of time (filled circles). The solid curve represents the results of three-point averaging.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ω(t)=-φqNLt=qω1+e22mc0ω2z0zNe(z, t)tdz+ηqILt.
δλΔλ (Δt)=φ2(Δt+τ/2)-φ1(Δt-τ/2)2π.
φ1,2(t)2π=[n(t)-1]Lλ-N¯e(t)L2λNc,
N¯e(Δt+τ/2)=N¯e(Δt-τ/2)-2λNcLδλΔλ (Δt).
φi(x, Δtτ/2)=-πλNc0LNe(t-Z/v)dz,
φi(x, Δtτ/2)=-πλNc0LNezv (1-cos θ)-xvsin θ+Δtτ/2dz.

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