Abstract

We investigate the energy scaling of high-order harmonics in Ar, using a loosely focused beam in a phase-matched condition. Adjusting the argon gas density and the pump laser focusing condition produces a total output harmonic energy as high as 0.7 μJ in the spectral region 34.8–25.8 nm (the corresponding orders of the 23rd–31st harmonics); 27th-order harmonic (29.6-nm) energy attained is as high as 0.3 μJ with an almost perfect spatial profile. High efficiency and good spatial quality are achieved simultaneously.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  3. P. Le. Salieres, L. Deroff, T. Auguste, P. Monot, P. d’Oliveira, D. Campo, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdi, and B. Carré, “Frequency-domain interferometry in the XUV with high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5483–5486 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  4. Y. Kobayashi, T. Sekikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, “27-fs extreme-ultraviolet pulse generation by high-order harmonics,” Opt. Lett. 23, 64–66 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  5. D. Descamps, L. Roos, C. Delfin, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlstrom, “Two- and three-photon ionization of rare gases using femtosecond harmonic pulses generated in a gas medium,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 031404(R) ( 2001).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmanns, M. Dreschers, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. A. D. Bandrauk and S. Chelkowski, “Dynamic imaging of nuclear wave functions with ultrashort UV laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 273004 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  8. K. Ishikawa and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent control of extreme UV absorption and photoemission by the simultaneous irradiation of ultrashort extreme UV and laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 031403(R) ( 2002).
    [Crossref]
  9. K. Ishikawa and K. Midorikawa, “Two-photon ionization of He+ as a nonlinear optical effect in the soft x-ray region,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 043405 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  10. T. Ditmire, J. K. Crane, H. Nguyen, L. B. DaSilva, and M. D. Perry, “Energy-yield and conversion-efficiency measurements of high-order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R902–R905 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. M. Nisoli, E. Priori, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, and S. De Silvestri, “High-brightness high-order harmonic generation by truncated Bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 033902 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. P. Salieres, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776–3779 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chabg, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Tamaki, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Phase-matched high-order-harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 4041–4044 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  15. E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, M. Mevel, Ch. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  16. Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Highly efficient, phase-matched high-harmonic generation by a self-guided laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1422–1425 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  17. C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187–2190 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  18. Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Optimization of conversion efficiency and spatial quality of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 063802 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  19. Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, K. Midorikawa, and M. Obara, “Highly coherent soft x-ray generation by macroscopic phase matching of high-order harmonics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L1154–L1156 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  20. J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Calcula-tion of photoemission from atoms subject to intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 4998–5010 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. From United Detector Technologies, Inc.
  22. M. Krumrey, E. Tegeler, R. Goebel, and R. Kohler, “Self-calibration of the same silicon photodiode in the visible and soft x-ray ranges,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 4736–4737 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  23. B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and refraction at E=30–30000 eV, Z=1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–392 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  24. M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).
  25. M. Nurhuda, A. Suda, M. Hatayama, K. Nagasaka, and K. Midorikawa, “Propagation dynamics of femtosecond laser pulses in argon,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 023811 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  26. E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783–1800 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  27. J. Zhang, A. G. MacOhee, J. Nilson, J. Lin, T. W. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, and E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  28. C. D. Macchietto, B. R. Benware, and J. J. Rocca, “Generation of millijoule-level soft-x-ray laser pulses at a 4-Hz repetition rate in a highly saturated tabletop capillary discharge amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1115–1117 (1999).
    [Crossref]

2002 (4)

K. Ishikawa and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent control of extreme UV absorption and photoemission by the simultaneous irradiation of ultrashort extreme UV and laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 031403(R) ( 2002).
[Crossref]

K. Ishikawa and K. Midorikawa, “Two-photon ionization of He+ as a nonlinear optical effect in the soft x-ray region,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 043405 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Nisoli, E. Priori, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, and S. De Silvestri, “High-brightness high-order harmonic generation by truncated Bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 033902 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nurhuda, A. Suda, M. Hatayama, K. Nagasaka, and K. Midorikawa, “Propagation dynamics of femtosecond laser pulses in argon,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 023811 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (4)

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, K. Midorikawa, and M. Obara, “Highly coherent soft x-ray generation by macroscopic phase matching of high-order harmonics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L1154–L1156 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. Descamps, L. Roos, C. Delfin, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlstrom, “Two- and three-photon ionization of rare gases using femtosecond harmonic pulses generated in a gas medium,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 031404(R) ( 2001).
[Crossref]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmanns, M. Dreschers, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Bandrauk and S. Chelkowski, “Dynamic imaging of nuclear wave functions with ultrashort UV laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 273004 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Optimization of conversion efficiency and spatial quality of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 063802 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (6)

Y. Tamaki, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Phase-matched high-order-harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 4041–4044 (1999).
[Crossref]

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, M. Mevel, Ch. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
[Crossref]

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Highly efficient, phase-matched high-harmonic generation by a self-guided laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1422–1425 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187–2190 (1999).
[Crossref]

P. Le. Salieres, L. Deroff, T. Auguste, P. Monot, P. d’Oliveira, D. Campo, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdi, and B. Carré, “Frequency-domain interferometry in the XUV with high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5483–5486 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. D. Macchietto, B. R. Benware, and J. J. Rocca, “Generation of millijoule-level soft-x-ray laser pulses at a 4-Hz repetition rate in a highly saturated tabletop capillary discharge amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1115–1117 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

Y. Kobayashi, T. Sekikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, “27-fs extreme-ultraviolet pulse generation by high-order harmonics,” Opt. Lett. 23, 64–66 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chabg, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

J. Zhang, A. G. MacOhee, J. Nilson, J. Lin, T. W. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, and E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (3)

M. Krumrey, E. Tegeler, R. Goebel, and R. Kohler, “Self-calibration of the same silicon photodiode in the visible and soft x-ray ranges,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 4736–4737 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. Salieres, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776–3779 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ditmire, J. K. Crane, H. Nguyen, L. B. DaSilva, and M. D. Perry, “Energy-yield and conversion-efficiency measurements of high-order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R902–R905 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and refraction at E=30–30000 eV, Z=1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–392 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Calcula-tion of photoemission from atoms subject to intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 4998–5010 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B 21, L31–L35 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

1964 (1)

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783–1800 (1964).
[Crossref]

Agostini, P.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, M. Mevel, Ch. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ammosov, M. V.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

Auguste, T.

P. Le. Salieres, L. Deroff, T. Auguste, P. Monot, P. d’Oliveira, D. Campo, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdi, and B. Carré, “Frequency-domain interferometry in the XUV with high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5483–5486 (1999).
[Crossref]

Backus, S.

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187–2190 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chabg, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bandrauk, A. D.

A. D. Bandrauk and S. Chelkowski, “Dynamic imaging of nuclear wave functions with ultrashort UV laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 273004 (2001).
[Crossref]

Barbee, T. W.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacOhee, J. Nilson, J. Lin, T. W. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, and E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[Crossref]

Benware, B. R.

Boyer, K.

Brabec, T.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmanns, M. Dreschers, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Breger, P.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, M. Mevel, Ch. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
[Crossref]

Campo, D.

P. Le. Salieres, L. Deroff, T. Auguste, P. Monot, P. d’Oliveira, D. Campo, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdi, and B. Carré, “Frequency-domain interferometry in the XUV with high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5483–5486 (1999).
[Crossref]

Carré, B.

P. Le. Salieres, L. Deroff, T. Auguste, P. Monot, P. d’Oliveira, D. Campo, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdi, and B. Carré, “Frequency-domain interferometry in the XUV with high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5483–5486 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cerullo, G.

M. Nisoli, E. Priori, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, and S. De Silvestri, “High-brightness high-order harmonic generation by truncated Bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 033902 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chabg, Z.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chabg, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chelkowski, S.

A. D. Bandrauk and S. Chelkowski, “Dynamic imaging of nuclear wave functions with ultrashort UV laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 273004 (2001).
[Crossref]

Constant, E.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, M. Mevel, Ch. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
[Crossref]

Corkum, P.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmanns, M. Dreschers, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crane, J. K.

T. Ditmire, J. K. Crane, H. Nguyen, L. B. DaSilva, and M. D. Perry, “Energy-yield and conversion-efficiency measurements of high-order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R902–R905 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

d’Oliveira, P.

P. Le. Salieres, L. Deroff, T. Auguste, P. Monot, P. d’Oliveira, D. Campo, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdi, and B. Carré, “Frequency-domain interferometry in the XUV with high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5483–5486 (1999).
[Crossref]

Danson, C.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacOhee, J. Nilson, J. Lin, T. W. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, and E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[Crossref]

DaSilva, L. B.

T. Ditmire, J. K. Crane, H. Nguyen, L. B. DaSilva, and M. D. Perry, “Energy-yield and conversion-efficiency measurements of high-order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R902–R905 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and refraction at E=30–30000 eV, Z=1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–392 (1993).
[Crossref]

De Silvestri, S.

M. Nisoli, E. Priori, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, and S. De Silvestri, “High-brightness high-order harmonic generation by truncated Bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 033902 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delfin, C.

D. Descamps, L. Roos, C. Delfin, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlstrom, “Two- and three-photon ionization of rare gases using femtosecond harmonic pulses generated in a gas medium,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 031404(R) ( 2001).
[Crossref]

Delone, N. B.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

Deroff, L.

P. Le. Salieres, L. Deroff, T. Auguste, P. Monot, P. d’Oliveira, D. Campo, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdi, and B. Carré, “Frequency-domain interferometry in the XUV with high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5483–5486 (1999).
[Crossref]

Descamps, D.

D. Descamps, L. Roos, C. Delfin, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlstrom, “Two- and three-photon ionization of rare gases using femtosecond harmonic pulses generated in a gas medium,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 031404(R) ( 2001).
[Crossref]

Ditmire, T.

T. Ditmire, J. K. Crane, H. Nguyen, L. B. DaSilva, and M. D. Perry, “Energy-yield and conversion-efficiency measurements of high-order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R902–R905 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dorrer, Ch.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, M. Mevel, Ch. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
[Crossref]

Dreschers, M.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmanns, M. Dreschers, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Durfee, C. G.

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187–2190 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chabg, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferray, M.

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B 21, L31–L35 (1988).
[Crossref]

Garzella, D.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, M. Mevel, Ch. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gibson, G.

Goebel, R.

M. Krumrey, E. Tegeler, R. Goebel, and R. Kohler, “Self-calibration of the same silicon photodiode in the visible and soft x-ray ranges,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 4736–4737 (1995).
[Crossref]

Gullikson, E. M.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and refraction at E=30–30000 eV, Z=1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–392 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hatayama, M.

M. Nurhuda, A. Suda, M. Hatayama, K. Nagasaka, and K. Midorikawa, “Propagation dynamics of femtosecond laser pulses in argon,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 023811 (2002).
[Crossref]

Heinzmanns, U.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmanns, M. Dreschers, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and refraction at E=30–30000 eV, Z=1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–392 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hentschel, M.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmanns, M. Dreschers, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hergott, J.-F.

P. Le. Salieres, L. Deroff, T. Auguste, P. Monot, P. d’Oliveira, D. Campo, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdi, and B. Carré, “Frequency-domain interferometry in the XUV with high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5483–5486 (1999).
[Crossref]

Herne, C.

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187–2190 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chabg, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, K.

K. Ishikawa and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent control of extreme UV absorption and photoemission by the simultaneous irradiation of ultrashort extreme UV and laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 031403(R) ( 2002).
[Crossref]

K. Ishikawa and K. Midorikawa, “Two-photon ionization of He+ as a nonlinear optical effect in the soft x-ray region,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 043405 (2002).
[Crossref]

Itatani, J.

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, K. Midorikawa, and M. Obara, “Highly coherent soft x-ray generation by macroscopic phase matching of high-order harmonics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L1154–L1156 (2001).
[Crossref]

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Optimization of conversion efficiency and spatial quality of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 063802 (2000).
[Crossref]

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Highly efficient, phase-matched high-harmonic generation by a self-guided laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1422–1425 (1999).
[Crossref]

Jara, H.

Johann, U.

Kapteyn, H. C.

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187–2190 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chabg, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Key, M. H.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacOhee, J. Nilson, J. Lin, T. W. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, and E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kienberger, R.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmanns, M. Dreschers, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, Y.

Kohler, R.

M. Krumrey, E. Tegeler, R. Goebel, and R. Kohler, “Self-calibration of the same silicon photodiode in the visible and soft x-ray ranges,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 4736–4737 (1995).
[Crossref]

Krainov, V. P.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

Krause, J. L.

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Calcula-tion of photoemission from atoms subject to intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 4998–5010 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmanns, M. Dreschers, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krumrey, M.

M. Krumrey, E. Tegeler, R. Goebel, and R. Kohler, “Self-calibration of the same silicon photodiode in the visible and soft x-ray ranges,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 4736–4737 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kulander, K. C.

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Calcula-tion of photoemission from atoms subject to intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 4998–5010 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L’Huillier, A.

D. Descamps, L. Roos, C. Delfin, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlstrom, “Two- and three-photon ionization of rare gases using femtosecond harmonic pulses generated in a gas medium,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 031404(R) ( 2001).
[Crossref]

P. Salieres, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776–3779 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B 21, L31–L35 (1988).
[Crossref]

Le Blanc, C.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, M. Mevel, Ch. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lewenstein, M.

P. Salieres, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776–3779 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lewis, C. L. S.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacOhee, J. Nilson, J. Lin, T. W. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, and E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[Crossref]

Li, X. F.

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B 21, L31–L35 (1988).
[Crossref]

Lin, J.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacOhee, J. Nilson, J. Lin, T. W. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, and E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lompre, L. A.

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B 21, L31–L35 (1988).
[Crossref]

Luk, T. S.

Macchietto, C. D.

MacOhee, A. G.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacOhee, J. Nilson, J. Lin, T. W. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, and E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[Crossref]

Mainfray, G.

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B 21, L31–L35 (1988).
[Crossref]

Manus, C.

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B 21, L31–L35 (1988).
[Crossref]

Marcatili, E. A. J.

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783–1800 (1964).
[Crossref]

McInstyre, I. A.

McPherson, A.

Merdi, H.

P. Le. Salieres, L. Deroff, T. Auguste, P. Monot, P. d’Oliveira, D. Campo, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdi, and B. Carré, “Frequency-domain interferometry in the XUV with high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5483–5486 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mevel, M.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, M. Mevel, Ch. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
[Crossref]

Midorikawa, K.

K. Ishikawa and K. Midorikawa, “Two-photon ionization of He+ as a nonlinear optical effect in the soft x-ray region,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 043405 (2002).
[Crossref]

K. Ishikawa and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent control of extreme UV absorption and photoemission by the simultaneous irradiation of ultrashort extreme UV and laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 031403(R) ( 2002).
[Crossref]

M. Nurhuda, A. Suda, M. Hatayama, K. Nagasaka, and K. Midorikawa, “Propagation dynamics of femtosecond laser pulses in argon,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 023811 (2002).
[Crossref]

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, K. Midorikawa, and M. Obara, “Highly coherent soft x-ray generation by macroscopic phase matching of high-order harmonics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L1154–L1156 (2001).
[Crossref]

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Optimization of conversion efficiency and spatial quality of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 063802 (2000).
[Crossref]

Y. Tamaki, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Phase-matched high-order-harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 4041–4044 (1999).
[Crossref]

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Highly efficient, phase-matched high-harmonic generation by a self-guided laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1422–1425 (1999).
[Crossref]

Milosevic, N.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmanns, M. Dreschers, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Monot, P.

P. Le. Salieres, L. Deroff, T. Auguste, P. Monot, P. d’Oliveira, D. Campo, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdi, and B. Carré, “Frequency-domain interferometry in the XUV with high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5483–5486 (1999).
[Crossref]

Murnane, M. M.

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187–2190 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chabg, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nabekawa, Y.

Nagasaka, K.

M. Nurhuda, A. Suda, M. Hatayama, K. Nagasaka, and K. Midorikawa, “Propagation dynamics of femtosecond laser pulses in argon,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 023811 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nagata, Y.

Y. Tamaki, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Phase-matched high-order-harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 4041–4044 (1999).
[Crossref]

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Highly efficient, phase-matched high-harmonic generation by a self-guided laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1422–1425 (1999).
[Crossref]

Neely, D.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacOhee, J. Nilson, J. Lin, T. W. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, and E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, H.

T. Ditmire, J. K. Crane, H. Nguyen, L. B. DaSilva, and M. D. Perry, “Energy-yield and conversion-efficiency measurements of high-order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R902–R905 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nilson, J.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacOhee, J. Nilson, J. Lin, T. W. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, and E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nisoli, M.

M. Nisoli, E. Priori, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, and S. De Silvestri, “High-brightness high-order harmonic generation by truncated Bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 033902 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nurhuda, M.

M. Nurhuda, A. Suda, M. Hatayama, K. Nagasaka, and K. Midorikawa, “Propagation dynamics of femtosecond laser pulses in argon,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 023811 (2002).
[Crossref]

O’Rourke, R. M. N.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacOhee, J. Nilson, J. Lin, T. W. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, and E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[Crossref]

Obara, M.

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, K. Midorikawa, and M. Obara, “Highly coherent soft x-ray generation by macroscopic phase matching of high-order harmonics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L1154–L1156 (2001).
[Crossref]

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Optimization of conversion efficiency and spatial quality of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 063802 (2000).
[Crossref]

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Highly efficient, phase-matched high-harmonic generation by a self-guided laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1422–1425 (1999).
[Crossref]

Y. Tamaki, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Phase-matched high-order-harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 4041–4044 (1999).
[Crossref]

Perry, M. D.

T. Ditmire, J. K. Crane, H. Nguyen, L. B. DaSilva, and M. D. Perry, “Energy-yield and conversion-efficiency measurements of high-order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R902–R905 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pert, G. J.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacOhee, J. Nilson, J. Lin, T. W. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, and E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[Crossref]

Priori, E.

M. Nisoli, E. Priori, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, and S. De Silvestri, “High-brightness high-order harmonic generation by truncated Bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 033902 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reider, G. A.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmanns, M. Dreschers, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rhodes, C. K.

Rocca, J. J.

Roos, L.

D. Descamps, L. Roos, C. Delfin, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlstrom, “Two- and three-photon ionization of rare gases using femtosecond harmonic pulses generated in a gas medium,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 031404(R) ( 2001).
[Crossref]

Rundquist, A.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chabg, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rundquist, A. R.

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187–2190 (1999).
[Crossref]

Salieres, P.

P. Salieres, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776–3779 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salieres, P. Le.

P. Le. Salieres, L. Deroff, T. Auguste, P. Monot, P. d’Oliveira, D. Campo, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdi, and B. Carré, “Frequency-domain interferometry in the XUV with high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5483–5486 (1999).
[Crossref]

Salin, F.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, M. Mevel, Ch. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sansone, G.

M. Nisoli, E. Priori, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, and S. De Silvestri, “High-brightness high-order harmonic generation by truncated Bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 033902 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schafer, K. J.

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Calcula-tion of photoemission from atoms subject to intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 4998–5010 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmeltzer, R. A.

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783–1800 (1964).
[Crossref]

Sekikawa, T.

Smith, R.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacOhee, J. Nilson, J. Lin, T. W. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, and E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[Crossref]

Spielmann, Ch.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmanns, M. Dreschers, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stagira, S.

M. Nisoli, E. Priori, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, and S. De Silvestri, “High-brightness high-order harmonic generation by truncated Bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 033902 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suda, A.

M. Nurhuda, A. Suda, M. Hatayama, K. Nagasaka, and K. Midorikawa, “Propagation dynamics of femtosecond laser pulses in argon,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 023811 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tallents, G. J.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacOhee, J. Nilson, J. Lin, T. W. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, and E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tamaki, Y.

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, K. Midorikawa, and M. Obara, “Highly coherent soft x-ray generation by macroscopic phase matching of high-order harmonics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L1154–L1156 (2001).
[Crossref]

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Optimization of conversion efficiency and spatial quality of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 063802 (2000).
[Crossref]

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Highly efficient, phase-matched high-harmonic generation by a self-guided laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1422–1425 (1999).
[Crossref]

Y. Tamaki, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Phase-matched high-order-harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 4041–4044 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tegeler, E.

M. Krumrey, E. Tegeler, R. Goebel, and R. Kohler, “Self-calibration of the same silicon photodiode in the visible and soft x-ray ranges,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 4736–4737 (1995).
[Crossref]

Wahlstrom, C.-G.

D. Descamps, L. Roos, C. Delfin, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlstrom, “Two- and three-photon ionization of rare gases using femtosecond harmonic pulses generated in a gas medium,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 031404(R) ( 2001).
[Crossref]

Wark, J. S.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacOhee, J. Nilson, J. Lin, T. W. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, and E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
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Watanabe, S.

Wolfrum, E.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacOhee, J. Nilson, J. Lin, T. W. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, and E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacOhee, J. Nilson, J. Lin, T. W. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, and E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
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B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and refraction at E=30–30000 eV, Z=1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–392 (1993).
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Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783–1800 (1964).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. B (1)

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B 21, L31–L35 (1988).
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Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, K. Midorikawa, and M. Obara, “Highly coherent soft x-ray generation by macroscopic phase matching of high-order harmonics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L1154–L1156 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmanns, M. Dreschers, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
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Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (8)

M. Nurhuda, A. Suda, M. Hatayama, K. Nagasaka, and K. Midorikawa, “Propagation dynamics of femtosecond laser pulses in argon,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 023811 (2002).
[Crossref]

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Optimization of conversion efficiency and spatial quality of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 063802 (2000).
[Crossref]

D. Descamps, L. Roos, C. Delfin, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlstrom, “Two- and three-photon ionization of rare gases using femtosecond harmonic pulses generated in a gas medium,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 031404(R) ( 2001).
[Crossref]

K. Ishikawa and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent control of extreme UV absorption and photoemission by the simultaneous irradiation of ultrashort extreme UV and laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 031403(R) ( 2002).
[Crossref]

K. Ishikawa and K. Midorikawa, “Two-photon ionization of He+ as a nonlinear optical effect in the soft x-ray region,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 043405 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. Ditmire, J. K. Crane, H. Nguyen, L. B. DaSilva, and M. D. Perry, “Energy-yield and conversion-efficiency measurements of high-order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R902–R905 (1995).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tamaki, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Phase-matched high-order-harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 4041–4044 (1999).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (8)

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, M. Mevel, Ch. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
[Crossref]

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Highly efficient, phase-matched high-harmonic generation by a self-guided laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1422–1425 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187–2190 (1999).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

M. Nisoli, E. Priori, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, and S. De Silvestri, “High-brightness high-order harmonic generation by truncated Bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 033902 (2002).
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[Crossref]

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Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

M. Krumrey, E. Tegeler, R. Goebel, and R. Kohler, “Self-calibration of the same silicon photodiode in the visible and soft x-ray ranges,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 4736–4737 (1995).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chabg, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

Other (1)

From United Detector Technologies, Inc.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Evolution of 27th-harmonic photon number as a function of length of the medium for f=500 mm and f=5000 mm. Dashed and solid curves, the parameters designed for f=500 mm and f=5000 mm, respectively. Arrows indicate the experimental points.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized 1-D spatial distribution of the 27th harmonic. Solid and dotted curves, PAr=1.8 Torr with 10-cm medium length and PAr=20 Torr with 1-cm medium length, respectively. Dashed curves, numerical 1-D spatial distribution of the 27th harmonic for a 10-cm length of the medium.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimentally obtained beam divergence of the 27th harmonic under optimal phase-matched conditions. Solid curve, fitting curve for experimental results.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured 2-D spatial distribution of the 27th harmonic in the optimal f=5000 mm condition.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured harmonic spectral distribution. These profiles were obtained with a spectrometer. Note that the optimized target gas pressure was not changed. Each of these profiles was obtained with a single shot.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Emitted photon number of the harmonics on axis in Ar as a function of length of the medium. Solid curve, calculated photon number for Lcoh15 cm with 1.8-Torr Ar in free space.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimentally obtained energy yield per shot of the 27th harmonic for a 10-cm-long medium with 1.8-Torr Ar gas.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimentally energy yield of the 27th harmonic as a function of the spot area of the pump pulse at the focus.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Solid and dashed curves, evolution of the Gouy phase and the coherence length as a function of the medium’s length, respectively, for f=5000.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Calculated photon number of the 27th harmonic on axis in Ar gas as a function of length of the medium. Solid curve, Lcoh15 cm, with 1.8-Torr Ar in free-space propagation (nonfiber). Dashed curve, Lcoh1000 cm, with 1-Torr Ar in a hollow fiber.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Designed Harmonic Energy Scaling Parameters

Equations (3)

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NqN02Lmed2|d(qω0)|2sin(ΔkLmed/2)(ΔkLmed/2)2,
NqN02|d(qω0)|24(LabsLcoh)2Lcoh2+(2πLabs)21+exp-LmedLabs-2 cosπLmedLcohexp-Lmed2Labs,
Nq|d(qω0)|2z0(N0Lmed)2Sspot(PLmed)2,

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