Abstract

The ionization of neon was studied in strong (10141016 W/cm2) and ultrastrong (10171018 W/cm2) laser fields. Measurements of ionization yields in ultrastrong fields reveal that they are dominated by sequential tunneling ionization of the ion charge states. The rescattering mechanism, identified with the generation of high-order harmonics and multiple electron ionization in strong fields, is modeled for ultrastrong fields and is shown to be reduced by orders of magnitude when compared with strong-field ionization. The results from the model are consistent with the experimental results and indicate that the reduced core size for ions and the Lorentz force in ultrastrong fields combine to reduce rescattering in ultrastrong fields.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2001 (7)

V. Bhardwaj, D. Rayner, D. Villenueve, and P. Corkum, “Quantum interference in double ionization and fragmentation of C6H6 in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253003 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Paul, E. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dammasch, M. Dorr, U. Eichmann, E. Lenz, and W. Sander, “Relativistic laser-field-drift suppression of nonsequential multiple ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 061402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Lafon, J. Chaloupka, B. Sheehy, P. Paul, P. Agostini, K. Kulander, and L. Dimauro, “Electron energy spectra from intense laser double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2762–2765 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Z. H. Yang and B. C. Walker, “0.09-terawatt pulses with a 31% efficient, kilohertz repetition-rate Ti:sapphire regenerative amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 26, 453–455 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Chowdhury, C. P. J. Barty, and B. C. Walker, “‘Nonrelativistic’ ionization of the L-shell states in argon by a ‘relativistic’ 1019 W/cm2 laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 042712 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Bhardwaj, S. Aseyev, M. Mehendale, G. Yudin, D. Villeneuve, D. Rayner, M. Ivanov, and P. Corkum, “Few cycle dynamics of multiphoton double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3522–3525 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laser induced nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3546–3549 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

See, for example, T. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmar, and R. Dorner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Interplay of electron correlation and intense field dynamics in the double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 59, R1742–R1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

B. Sheehy, R. Lafon, M. Widmer, B. Walker, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, and K. C. Kulander, “Single- and multiple-electron dynamics in the strong-field tunneling limit,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 3942–3952 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. McNaught, J. Knauer, and D. Meyerhofer, “Photoelectron initial conditions for tunneling ionization in a linearly polarized laser,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 1399–1411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Larochelle, A. Talebpour, and S. L. Chin, “Non-sequentialmultiple ionization of rare gas atoms in a Ti:sapphire laser field,” J. Phys. B 31, 1201–1214 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, K. Kulander, and L. DiMauro, “Elastic rescattering in the strong field tunneling limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5031–5034 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

See, for example, G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, and H. Walther, “Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization—a classical model,” J. Phys. B 27, L703–L708 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. Schafer, and K. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong-field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

P. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

D. Fittinghoff, P. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

X. Li, A. L’Huillier, M. Ferray, L. Lompre, and G. Mainfray, “Multiple-harmonic generation in rare gases at high laser intensity,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 5751–5761 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968 (1)

W. Lotz, “Electron-impact ionization cross-sections and ionization rate coefficients for atoms and ions from hydrogen to calcium,” Z. Phys. 216, 241–247 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

W. Lotz, “An empirical formula for the electron-impact ionization cross-section,” Z. Phys. 206, 205–211 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

A. M. Perelomov, V. S. Popov, and M. V. Terentev, “Ionization of atoms in an alternating electric field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 23, 924–934 (1966).

Agostini, P.

P. Paul, E. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Lafon, J. Chaloupka, B. Sheehy, P. Paul, P. Agostini, K. Kulander, and L. Dimauro, “Electron energy spectra from intense laser double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2762–2765 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sheehy, R. Lafon, M. Widmer, B. Walker, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, and K. C. Kulander, “Single- and multiple-electron dynamics in the strong-field tunneling limit,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 3942–3952 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. Schafer, and K. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong-field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aseyev, S.

V. Bhardwaj, S. Aseyev, M. Mehendale, G. Yudin, D. Villeneuve, D. Rayner, M. Ivanov, and P. Corkum, “Few cycle dynamics of multiphoton double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3522–3525 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auge, F.

P. Paul, E. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balcou, P.

P. Paul, E. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barty, C. P. J.

E. A. Chowdhury, C. P. J. Barty, and B. C. Walker, “‘Nonrelativistic’ ionization of the L-shell states in argon by a ‘relativistic’ 1019 W/cm2 laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 042712 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Becker, A.

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laser induced nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3546–3549 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Interplay of electron correlation and intense field dynamics in the double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 59, R1742–R1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Becker, W.

See, for example, G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, and H. Walther, “Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization—a classical model,” J. Phys. B 27, L703–L708 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bhardwaj, V.

V. Bhardwaj, S. Aseyev, M. Mehendale, G. Yudin, D. Villeneuve, D. Rayner, M. Ivanov, and P. Corkum, “Few cycle dynamics of multiphoton double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3522–3525 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Bhardwaj, D. Rayner, D. Villenueve, and P. Corkum, “Quantum interference in double ionization and fragmentation of C6H6 in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253003 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bolton, P.

D. Fittinghoff, P. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breger, P.

P. Paul, E. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaloupka, J.

R. Lafon, J. Chaloupka, B. Sheehy, P. Paul, P. Agostini, K. Kulander, and L. Dimauro, “Electron energy spectra from intense laser double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2762–2765 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, B.

D. Fittinghoff, P. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, S. L.

S. Larochelle, A. Talebpour, and S. L. Chin, “Non-sequentialmultiple ionization of rare gas atoms in a Ti:sapphire laser field,” J. Phys. B 31, 1201–1214 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chowdhury, E. A.

E. A. Chowdhury, C. P. J. Barty, and B. C. Walker, “‘Nonrelativistic’ ionization of the L-shell states in argon by a ‘relativistic’ 1019 W/cm2 laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 042712 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P.

V. Bhardwaj, D. Rayner, D. Villenueve, and P. Corkum, “Quantum interference in double ionization and fragmentation of C6H6 in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253003 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Bhardwaj, S. Aseyev, M. Mehendale, G. Yudin, D. Villeneuve, D. Rayner, M. Ivanov, and P. Corkum, “Few cycle dynamics of multiphoton double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3522–3525 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dammasch, M.

M. Dammasch, M. Dorr, U. Eichmann, E. Lenz, and W. Sander, “Relativistic laser-field-drift suppression of nonsequential multiple ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 061402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dimauro, L.

R. Lafon, J. Chaloupka, B. Sheehy, P. Paul, P. Agostini, K. Kulander, and L. Dimauro, “Electron energy spectra from intense laser double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2762–2765 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, K. Kulander, and L. DiMauro, “Elastic rescattering in the strong field tunneling limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5031–5034 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. Schafer, and K. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong-field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DiMauro, L. F.

B. Sheehy, R. Lafon, M. Widmer, B. Walker, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, and K. C. Kulander, “Single- and multiple-electron dynamics in the strong-field tunneling limit,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 3942–3952 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dorn, A.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorner, R.

See, for example, T. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmar, and R. Dorner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorr, M.

M. Dammasch, M. Dorr, U. Eichmann, E. Lenz, and W. Sander, “Relativistic laser-field-drift suppression of nonsequential multiple ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 061402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Eichmann, U.

M. Dammasch, M. Dorr, U. Eichmann, E. Lenz, and W. Sander, “Relativistic laser-field-drift suppression of nonsequential multiple ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 061402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Faisal, F. H. M.

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laser induced nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3546–3549 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Interplay of electron correlation and intense field dynamics in the double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 59, R1742–R1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ferray, M.

X. Li, A. L’Huillier, M. Ferray, L. Lompre, and G. Mainfray, “Multiple-harmonic generation in rare gases at high laser intensity,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 5751–5761 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feuerstein, B.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fittinghoff, D.

D. Fittinghoff, P. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

See, for example, T. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmar, and R. Dorner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, K.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivanov, M.

V. Bhardwaj, S. Aseyev, M. Mehendale, G. Yudin, D. Villeneuve, D. Rayner, M. Ivanov, and P. Corkum, “Few cycle dynamics of multiphoton double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3522–3525 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jagutzki, O.

See, for example, T. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmar, and R. Dorner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knauer, J.

S. McNaught, J. Knauer, and D. Meyerhofer, “Photoelectron initial conditions for tunneling ionization in a linearly polarized laser,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 1399–1411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Korn, G.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulander, K.

R. Lafon, J. Chaloupka, B. Sheehy, P. Paul, P. Agostini, K. Kulander, and L. Dimauro, “Electron energy spectra from intense laser double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2762–2765 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, K. Kulander, and L. DiMauro, “Elastic rescattering in the strong field tunneling limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5031–5034 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. Schafer, and K. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong-field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fittinghoff, P. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulander, K. C.

B. Sheehy, R. Lafon, M. Widmer, B. Walker, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, and K. C. Kulander, “Single- and multiple-electron dynamics in the strong-field tunneling limit,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 3942–3952 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L’Huillier, A.

X. Li, A. L’Huillier, M. Ferray, L. Lompre, and G. Mainfray, “Multiple-harmonic generation in rare gases at high laser intensity,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 5751–5761 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lafon, R.

R. Lafon, J. Chaloupka, B. Sheehy, P. Paul, P. Agostini, K. Kulander, and L. Dimauro, “Electron energy spectra from intense laser double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2762–2765 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sheehy, R. Lafon, M. Widmer, B. Walker, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, and K. C. Kulander, “Single- and multiple-electron dynamics in the strong-field tunneling limit,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 3942–3952 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Larochelle, S.

S. Larochelle, A. Talebpour, and S. L. Chin, “Non-sequentialmultiple ionization of rare gas atoms in a Ti:sapphire laser field,” J. Phys. B 31, 1201–1214 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lenz, E.

M. Dammasch, M. Dorr, U. Eichmann, E. Lenz, and W. Sander, “Relativistic laser-field-drift suppression of nonsequential multiple ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 061402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

X. Li, A. L’Huillier, M. Ferray, L. Lompre, and G. Mainfray, “Multiple-harmonic generation in rare gases at high laser intensity,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 5751–5761 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lompre, L.

X. Li, A. L’Huillier, M. Ferray, L. Lompre, and G. Mainfray, “Multiple-harmonic generation in rare gases at high laser intensity,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 5751–5761 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lotz, W.

W. Lotz, “Electron-impact ionization cross-sections and ionization rate coefficients for atoms and ions from hydrogen to calcium,” Z. Phys. 216, 241–247 (1968).
[CrossRef]

W. Lotz, “An empirical formula for the electron-impact ionization cross-section,” Z. Phys. 206, 205–211 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Mainfray, G.

X. Li, A. L’Huillier, M. Ferray, L. Lompre, and G. Mainfray, “Multiple-harmonic generation in rare gases at high laser intensity,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 5751–5761 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNaught, S.

S. McNaught, J. Knauer, and D. Meyerhofer, “Photoelectron initial conditions for tunneling ionization in a linearly polarized laser,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 1399–1411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mehendale, M.

V. Bhardwaj, S. Aseyev, M. Mehendale, G. Yudin, D. Villeneuve, D. Rayner, M. Ivanov, and P. Corkum, “Few cycle dynamics of multiphoton double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3522–3525 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mergel, V.

See, for example, T. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmar, and R. Dorner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyerhofer, D.

S. McNaught, J. Knauer, and D. Meyerhofer, “Photoelectron initial conditions for tunneling ionization in a linearly polarized laser,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 1399–1411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moshammer, R.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, H.

P. Paul, E. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mullot, G.

P. Paul, E. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicklich, W.

See, for example, G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, and H. Walther, “Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization—a classical model,” J. Phys. B 27, L703–L708 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Paul, P.

P. Paul, E. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Lafon, J. Chaloupka, B. Sheehy, P. Paul, P. Agostini, K. Kulander, and L. Dimauro, “Electron energy spectra from intense laser double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2762–2765 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulus, G.

See, for example, G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, and H. Walther, “Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization—a classical model,” J. Phys. B 27, L703–L708 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Perelomov, A. M.

A. M. Perelomov, V. S. Popov, and M. V. Terentev, “Ionization of atoms in an alternating electric field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 23, 924–934 (1966).

Popov, V. S.

A. M. Perelomov, V. S. Popov, and M. V. Terentev, “Ionization of atoms in an alternating electric field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 23, 924–934 (1966).

Rayner, D.

V. Bhardwaj, S. Aseyev, M. Mehendale, G. Yudin, D. Villeneuve, D. Rayner, M. Ivanov, and P. Corkum, “Few cycle dynamics of multiphoton double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3522–3525 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Bhardwaj, D. Rayner, D. Villenueve, and P. Corkum, “Quantum interference in double ionization and fragmentation of C6H6 in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253003 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rottke, H.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sander, W.

M. Dammasch, M. Dorr, U. Eichmann, E. Lenz, and W. Sander, “Relativistic laser-field-drift suppression of nonsequential multiple ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 061402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sandner, W.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schafer, K.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. Schafer, and K. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong-field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitt, W.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schröter, C. D.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheehy, B.

R. Lafon, J. Chaloupka, B. Sheehy, P. Paul, P. Agostini, K. Kulander, and L. Dimauro, “Electron energy spectra from intense laser double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2762–2765 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sheehy, R. Lafon, M. Widmer, B. Walker, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, and K. C. Kulander, “Single- and multiple-electron dynamics in the strong-field tunneling limit,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 3942–3952 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, K. Kulander, and L. DiMauro, “Elastic rescattering in the strong field tunneling limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5031–5034 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. Schafer, and K. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong-field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spielberger, L.

See, for example, T. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmar, and R. Dorner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Staudte, A.

See, for example, T. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmar, and R. Dorner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Talebpour, A.

S. Larochelle, A. Talebpour, and S. L. Chin, “Non-sequentialmultiple ionization of rare gas atoms in a Ti:sapphire laser field,” J. Phys. B 31, 1201–1214 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Terentev, M. V.

A. M. Perelomov, V. S. Popov, and M. V. Terentev, “Ionization of atoms in an alternating electric field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 23, 924–934 (1966).

Toma, E.

P. Paul, E. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trump, C.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ullrich, J.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Urbasch, G.

See, for example, T. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmar, and R. Dorner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, D.

V. Bhardwaj, S. Aseyev, M. Mehendale, G. Yudin, D. Villeneuve, D. Rayner, M. Ivanov, and P. Corkum, “Few cycle dynamics of multiphoton double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3522–3525 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villenueve, D.

V. Bhardwaj, D. Rayner, D. Villenueve, and P. Corkum, “Quantum interference in double ionization and fragmentation of C6H6 in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253003 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vollmar, M.

See, for example, T. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmar, and R. Dorner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walker, B.

B. Sheehy, R. Lafon, M. Widmer, B. Walker, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, and K. C. Kulander, “Single- and multiple-electron dynamics in the strong-field tunneling limit,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 3942–3952 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, K. Kulander, and L. DiMauro, “Elastic rescattering in the strong field tunneling limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5031–5034 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. Schafer, and K. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong-field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walker, B. C.

E. A. Chowdhury, C. P. J. Barty, and B. C. Walker, “‘Nonrelativistic’ ionization of the L-shell states in argon by a ‘relativistic’ 1019 W/cm2 laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 042712 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Z. H. Yang and B. C. Walker, “0.09-terawatt pulses with a 31% efficient, kilohertz repetition-rate Ti:sapphire regenerative amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 26, 453–455 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Walther, H.

See, for example, G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, and H. Walther, “Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization—a classical model,” J. Phys. B 27, L703–L708 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Weber, T.

See, for example, T. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmar, and R. Dorner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weckenbrock, M.

See, for example, T. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmar, and R. Dorner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Widmer, M.

B. Sheehy, R. Lafon, M. Widmer, B. Walker, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, and K. C. Kulander, “Single- and multiple-electron dynamics in the strong-field tunneling limit,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 3942–3952 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wittmann, M.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, J. Z. H.

Yudin, G.

V. Bhardwaj, S. Aseyev, M. Mehendale, G. Yudin, D. Villeneuve, D. Rayner, M. Ivanov, and P. Corkum, “Few cycle dynamics of multiphoton double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3522–3525 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. B (2)

S. Larochelle, A. Talebpour, and S. L. Chin, “Non-sequentialmultiple ionization of rare gas atoms in a Ti:sapphire laser field,” J. Phys. B 31, 1201–1214 (1998).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, and H. Walther, “Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization—a classical model,” J. Phys. B 27, L703–L708 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

See, for example, T. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmar, and R. Dorner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (6)

E. A. Chowdhury, C. P. J. Barty, and B. C. Walker, “‘Nonrelativistic’ ionization of the L-shell states in argon by a ‘relativistic’ 1019 W/cm2 laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 042712 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Interplay of electron correlation and intense field dynamics in the double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 59, R1742–R1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. McNaught, J. Knauer, and D. Meyerhofer, “Photoelectron initial conditions for tunneling ionization in a linearly polarized laser,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 1399–1411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Dammasch, M. Dorr, U. Eichmann, E. Lenz, and W. Sander, “Relativistic laser-field-drift suppression of nonsequential multiple ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 061402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Sheehy, R. Lafon, M. Widmer, B. Walker, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, and K. C. Kulander, “Single- and multiple-electron dynamics in the strong-field tunneling limit,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 3942–3952 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, A. L’Huillier, M. Ferray, L. Lompre, and G. Mainfray, “Multiple-harmonic generation in rare gases at high laser intensity,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 5751–5761 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (9)

V. Bhardwaj, D. Rayner, D. Villenueve, and P. Corkum, “Quantum interference in double ionization and fragmentation of C6H6 in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253003 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Fittinghoff, P. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. Schafer, and K. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong-field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Lafon, J. Chaloupka, B. Sheehy, P. Paul, P. Agostini, K. Kulander, and L. Dimauro, “Electron energy spectra from intense laser double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2762–2765 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laser induced nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3546–3549 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Bhardwaj, S. Aseyev, M. Mehendale, G. Yudin, D. Villeneuve, D. Rayner, M. Ivanov, and P. Corkum, “Few cycle dynamics of multiphoton double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3522–3525 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, K. Kulander, and L. DiMauro, “Elastic rescattering in the strong field tunneling limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5031–5034 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

P. Paul, E. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

A. M. Perelomov, V. S. Popov, and M. V. Terentev, “Ionization of atoms in an alternating electric field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 23, 924–934 (1966).

Z. Phys. (2)

W. Lotz, “An empirical formula for the electron-impact ionization cross-section,” Z. Phys. 206, 205–211 (1967).
[CrossRef]

W. Lotz, “Electron-impact ionization cross-sections and ionization rate coefficients for atoms and ions from hydrogen to calcium,” Z. Phys. 216, 241–247 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

M. J. Frisch, G. W. Trucks, H. B. Schlegel, G. E. Scuseria, M. A. Robb, J. R. Cheeseman, V. G. Zakrzewski, J. A. Montgomery, Jr., R. E. Stratmann, J. C. Burant, S. Dapprich, J. M. Millam, A. D. Daniels, K. N. Kudin, M. C. Strain, O. Farkas, J. Tomasi, V. Barone, M. Cossi, R. Cammi, B. Mennucci, C. Pomelli, C. Adamo, S. Clifford, J. Ochterski, G. A. Petersson, P. Y. Ayala, Q. Cui, K. Morokuma, D. K. Malick, A. D. Rabuck, K. Raghavachari, J. B. Foresman, J. Cioslowski, J. V. Ortiz, A. G. Baboul, B. B. Stefanov, G. Liu, A. Liashenko, P. Piskorz, I. Komaromi, R. Gomperts, R. L. Martin, D. J. Fox, T. Keith, M. A. Al-Laham, C. Y. Peng, A. Nanayakkara, M. Challacombe, P. M. W. Gill, B. Johnson, W. Chen, M. W. Wong, J. L. Andres, C. Gonzalez, M. Head-Gordon, E. S. Replogle, and J. A. Pople, “Gaussian 98, Revision A.9,” Gaussian, Inc., Pittsburgh, Pa., 1998.

R. W. Brankin, I. Gladwell, and L. F. Shampine, “RKSUITE Release 1.0 Nov 1991,” Numerical Algorithms Group Ltd., Wilkinson House, Jordan Hill Road, Oxford OX2 8DR, U.K.

L. D. Landau, Quantum Mechanics: Non-relativistic Theory (Pergamon, New York 1977), p. 293.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measured intensity dependence of ionization yield for (a) Ne+1 (triangle), Ne+2 (diamond), and Ne+3 (filled circle) and for (b) Ne+5 (triangle), Ne+6 (diamond), Ne+7 (filled circle), and Ne+8 (cross). The calculated tunneling ionization yield curves are also shown for (a) Ne+1 (dotted curve), Ne+2 (dotted–dashed curve), and Ne+3 (solid curve) and for (b) Ne+5 (dotted curve), Ne+6 (dotted–dashed curve), Ne+7 (solid curve), and Ne+8 (dashed curve). S, sequential process; NS, nonsequential.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Classical trajectory of the electron after ionization at the peak of the experimental field (a). Three intensities, 1016 W/cm2, solid curve; 1017 W/cm2, dashed curved; 1018 W/cm2, dotted curve. (b) Width of the continuum electron wave function as a function of time. Two examples are shown, corresponding to the continuum wave function width for the ionization of Ne at the NeNe+1 saturation intensity (solid curve) and for the ionization of Ne+6 at the Ne+6Ne+7 saturation intensity (dashed curve).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized ratios of the ionization yields for Ne+2/Ne+1, solid curve; Ne+3/Ne+2, dashed curve; Ne+7/Ne+6, dotted–dashed curves; Ne+8/Ne+7, dotted curve. The modeled ionization yield includes the tunneling ionization and recollision ionization. Results represented by the bold curve with filled circles include electric and magnetic fields. Results represented by the thin curves with no symbols use only the electric field. The two curves are identical (overlaid) for Ne+2/Ne+1 and Ne+3/Ne+2.

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